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Strychnine

RTECS #: WL2275000

CAS #: 57-24-9


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 334.45 MF: C21H22N2O2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  3. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  4. REVIEWS:
  5. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  6. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  7. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  8. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Boomer - rid
  2. Certox
  3. Dolco mouse cereal
  4. Gopher bait
  5. Gopher - gitter
  6. Hare - Rid
  7. Kwik - kil
  8. Mole death
  9. Mouse - nots
  10. Mouse - rid
  1. Mouse - tox
  2. Pied piper mouse seed
  3. RCRA waste number P108
  4. Ro - Dex
  5. Sanaseed
  6. Stricnina (Italian)
  7. Strychnin (German)
  8. Strychnidin - 10 - one (9CI)
  9. Strychnine (ACGIH:OSHA)
  10. Strychnos


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
N/R N/R N/R N/R


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 g/kg (5 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth
PSEBAA 100,555,1959
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) NETEEC 27,855,2005


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intramuscular
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 628 g/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
CHHTAT 54,234,1974
intramuscular
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,400 g/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
CHHTAT 54,234,1974
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 980 g/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement
JPETAB 128,176,1960
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity
JOETD7 76,145,2001
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 2 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold FTRPAE 70,244,1999
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,100 g/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold JPETAB 58,239,1936
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 2 mg/kg Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity JOETD7 77,143,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.25 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,157,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold EURNE* 13,257,2003
intravenous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 330 g/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1403,1935
intravenous
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 800 g/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
JPETAB 126,41,1959
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.05 mg/kg Liver: Change in gall bladder structure or function

Liver: Other changes
TOLED5 160,179,2006
intravenous
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 1.31 mg/kg Liver: Change in gall bladder structure or function

Liver: Other changes
TOLED5 160,179,2006
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.41 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* ,706,2005
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 582 g/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
CHHTAT 54,234,1974
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 0.57 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,157,2001
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.42 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold TXCYAC 173,249,2002
intravenous
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 0.58 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold TXCYAC 173,249,2002
intravenous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 g/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
JPETAB 126,41,1959
oral
domestic bird
lowest published lethal dose: 2,500 g/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
oral
wild bird
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 16 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 20,57,1971
oral
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 g/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold RMVEAG 154,137,1978
oral
child
lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
PECAE5 15,264,1999
oral
chicken
lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
oral
duck
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 20,57,1971
oral
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 g/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold RMVEAG 154,137,1978
oral
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 2,100 g/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kg N/R PCOC** -,1073,1966
oral
human
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 30 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* ,104,2005
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kg N/R PEMNDP 9,771,1991
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 5,143 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Coma

Cardiac: Change in rate
JTCTDW 30,269,1992
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2 mg/kg N/R IJEBA6 19,1075,1981
oral
pigeon
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 21 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 20,57,1971
oral
quail
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 23 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 20,57,1971
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,350 g/kg N/R JAPMA8 31,113,1942
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 600 g/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1403,1935
parenteral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,060 g/kg N/R ARZNAD 11,657,1961
subcutaneous
domestic bird
lowest published lethal dose: 1 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 250 g/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Irritability
CHHTAT 54,234,1974
subcutaneous
chicken
lowest published lethal dose: 3 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1403,1935
subcutaneous
duck
lowest published lethal dose: 1 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1403,1935
subcutaneous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 350 g/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1403,1935
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 35 g/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1403,1935
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 3,200 g/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1403,1935
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 474 g/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold APSXAS 7,329,1970
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 mg/kg Behavioral: Anticonvulsant JOETD7 78,73,2001
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold FATOAO 49,22,1986
subcutaneous
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 1 mg/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,200 g/kg N/R RPTOAN 31,260,1968
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold FATOAO 49,13,1986
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 400 g/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >2,000 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,157,2001
unreported route
child
lowest published lethal dose: 0.75 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,158,2001
unreported route
human
lowest published lethal dose: 0.71 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,158,2001
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 1,103 g/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 g/kg N/R IGAYAY 112,861,1980
unreported route
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 1 mg/kg N/R PEMNDP 9,771,1991


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3 DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CLCHAU 19,361,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTCTDW 38,71,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 23,519,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 24,199,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOXIA6 44,405,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMCPT* 2,89,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,104,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,561,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ISMEA* 10,142,2008


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: RED Completed RBREV* -,278,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3 DTLVS* 3,235,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK ceiling concentration 0.15 mg/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.45 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 0.15 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 0.45 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.15 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 0.15 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO STRYCHNINE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 0.15 mg/m3 NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 70060;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 18;
Number of Occupations 1;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 18
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 70060;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 46;
Number of Occupations 2;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 511;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 325


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Strychnine, 5016


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
APSXAS Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica. (Apotekarsocieteten-Farmacevtiska Foereningen, Box 1136, S-111, 81 Stockholm, Sweden) V.1- 1964-
ARZNAD Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. (Editio Cantor Verlag, Postfach 1255, W-7960 Aulendorf, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1951-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CHHTAT Zhonghua Yixue Zazhi. Chinese Medical Journal. (China International Book Trading Corp., POB 2820, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1915- Suspended 1967-72.
CLCHAU Clinical Chemistry (Winston-Salem, NC). (American Assoc. for Clinical Chemistry, 1725 K St., NW, Washington, DC 20006) V.1- 1955-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMCPT* EMC-Toxicologie Pathologie (Elsevier) V.1- 2004-
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EURNE* European Neuropsychopharmacology (Elsevier Science, P.O.Box 7247-7682,Philadelphia,PA 19170 -7682,USA OR Elsevier Science B.V.,P.O.Box 1270,1000 BG Amsterdam,The Netherlands) V.1- Nov.1990-
FATOAO Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow). For English translation, see PHTXA6 and RPTOAN. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.2- 1939-
FDWU** "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
FNSCA6 Forensic Science. (Lausanne, Switzerland) V.1-11, 1972-78. For pub lisher information, see FSINDR.
FTRPAE Fitoterapia. (Inverni della Beffa SpA, via Ripamonti, 99, 20141 Milan, Italy) V.18- 1947-
HBAMAK "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.)
HBPTO* Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Robert Krieger ed, Academic press, 2001
HUTOX*
IGAYAY Igaku No Ayumi. Progress in Medicine. (Ishiyaku Shuppan K.K., 1-7-10, Honkomagom, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan) V.1- 1946-
IJEBA6 Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. (Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, Hillside Rd., New Delhi 110 012, India) V.1- 1963-
ISMEA*
JAPMA8 Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition. (Washington, DC) V.29-49, 1940-60. For publisher information, see JPMSAE.
JOETD7 Journal of Ethnopharmacology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1979-
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
NETEEC Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
PCOC** Pesticide Chemicals Official Compendium, Association of the American Pesticide Control Officials, Inc., 1966. (Topeka, KS)
PECAE5 Pediatric Emergency Care. (Williams & Wilkins, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1985-
PEMNDP Pesticide Manual. (The British Crop Protection Council, 20 Bridport Rd., Thornton Heath CR4 7QG, UK) V.1- 1968-
PSEBAA Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1903/04-
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
RMVEAG Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire. (Masson Pub. USA, Inc., Year Book Medical Pub., 35 E. Wacker Dr., Chicago IL 60601) V.1- 1824-
RPTOAN Russian Pharmacology and Toxicology (English Translation). Translation of FATOAO. (Euromed Pub., 33, Woodlands Rd., Surbiton, Surrey, UK) V.30- 1967-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXIA6 Toxicon. (Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 OBW, UK) V.1- 1962-
TPHSDY Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1979-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-

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   Drug
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Natural Product

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