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Pyrethrum

RTECS #: UR4200000

CAS #: 8003-34-7


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: N/R MF: N/R


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  3. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  4. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  5. REVIEWS:
  6. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  7. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  8. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  9. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Buhach
  2. Chrysanthemum cinerareaefolium
  3. Cinerin I or II
  4. Dalmation insect flowers
  5. Firmotox
  6. Insect powder
  7. Jasmolin I or II
  8. Prentox pyrethrum extract
  9. Pyrenone
  1. Pyrethrin I or II
  2. Pyrethrins
  3. Pyrethrum (ACGIH:OSHA)
  4. Pyrethrum (insecticide)
  5. Pyrethrum powder other than pyrethrins
  6. Pyrocide
  7. Pyronyl
  8. Trieste flowers


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
N/R N/R N/R N/R


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) JTEHD6 10,111,1982


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intracerebral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,500 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,114,2001
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kg Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
PSEBAA 34,135,1936
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 25 mg/kg Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
PSEBAA 34,135,1936
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 333 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,114,2001
intraperitoneal
pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 102 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,114,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 189 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,114,2001
intravenous
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7 mg/kg N/R WRPCA2 3,28,1964
oral
child
lowest published lethal dose: 750 mg/kg N/R CMEP** -,1,1956
oral
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
PSEBAA 34,135,1936
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kg N/R 85GYAV -,142,1971
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 250 mg/kg N/R AMIHAB 14,178,1956
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 370 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Ataxia
EVHPAZ 14,15,1976
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 285 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,114,2001
oral
pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,500 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,114,2001
oral
quail
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HBPTO* 1,114,2001
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kg N/R GUCHAZ 6,442,1973
parenteral
chicken
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,565 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,114,2001
subcutaneous
frog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5.8 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,114,2001
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,350 mg/kg N/R YKYUA6 37,1481,1986
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kg N/R EVHPAZ 14,109,1976
unreported route
domestic bird
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,620 ppm N/R HBPTO* 1,114,2001


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,600 mg/kg/23 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 24,298,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,800 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 72,89,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,050 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
TOXID9 72,89,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,800 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOXID9 72,89,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,954 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Endocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TXAPA9 214,253,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,908 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight TXAPA9 214,253,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 95.2 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Endocrine: Other changes TXAPA9 214,253,2006


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BPCEM* 17,237,2003


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Cancelled RBREV* -,205,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 DTLVS* 3,219,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 5 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 5 mg/m3 (inhalable), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 5 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 5 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, sen, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 5 mg/m3, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 5 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO PYRETHRUM-air 10 hour time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 65070;
Number of Industries 10;
Total Number of Facilities 1,081;
Number of Occupations 7;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 4,375
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 65070;
Number of Industries 7;
Total Number of Facilities 1,031;
Number of Occupations 11;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 11,296;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 1,537


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Pyrethrum, 5008
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-70


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85GYAV "Pflanzenschutz-und Schaedlingsbekaempfungsmittel: Abriss einer Toxikologie und Therapie von Vergiftungen," 2nd ed., Klimmer, O.R., Hattingen, Fed. Rep. Ger., Hundt-Verlag, 1971
AMIHAB AMA Archives of Industrial Health. (Chicago, IL) V.11-21, 1955-60. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
BPCEM* Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (Elsevier Ltd.) V.13- 1999-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CMEP** "Clinical Memoranda on Economic Poisons," U.S. Dept. HEW, Public Health Service, Communicable Disease Center, Atlanta, GA, 1956
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GUCHAZ Guide to the Chemicals Used in Crop Protection. (Information Canada, 171 Slater St., Ottawa, Ont., Canada)
HBPTO* Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Robert Krieger ed, Academic press, 2001
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
PSEBAA Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1903/04-
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
WRPCA2 World Review of Pest Control. (London, UK) V.1-10, 1962-71. Discontinued.
YKYUA6 Yakkyoku. Pharmacy. (Nanzando, 4-1-11, Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan) V.1- 1950-

Used as an ingredient of various insecticides

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Natural Product

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