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Phthalic anhydride

RTECS #: TI3150000

CAS #: 85-44-9


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 148.12 MF: C8H4O3


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1,2 - Benzenedicarboxylic acid anhydride
  2. 1,3 - Dioxophthalan
  3. 1,3 - Isobenzofurandione
  4. 1,3 - Phthalandione
  5. Anhydride phtalique (French)
  6. Anhydrid kyseliny ftalove (Czech)
  7. Anidride ftalica (Italian)
  8. ESEN
  9. Ftaalzuuranhydride (Dutch)
  10. Ftalanhydrid (Czech)
  11. Ftalowy bezwodnik (Polish)
  1. Isobenzofuran, 1,3 - dihydro - 1,3 - dioxo -
  2. NCI - C03601
  3. Phthalandione
  4. Phthalic acid anhydride
  5. Phthalic anhydride (ACGIH:OSHA)
  6. Phthalsaeureanhydrid (German)
  7. RCRA waste number U190
  8. Retarder AK
  9. Retarder PD
  10. Vulkalent B


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
50 mg/24 hour moderate ATDAEI 15(Suppl 1),S68,1996


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
DNA damage rat liver 3 mmol/L EMMUEG 24,181,1994


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3 (45 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
GISAAA 35(1),105,1970
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 203 mg/kg (8-10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities TCMUD8 2,61,1982


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kg N/R 29ZWAE -,410,1968
intratracheal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: >30 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Necrotic changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
TPKVAL 2,59,1961
ocular
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 100 pph Eye: Conjunctiva irritation TPKVAL 4,35,1962
oral
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 800 mg/kg N/R 85JCAE -,322,1986
oral
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 1,000 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach
TPKVAL 2,59,1961
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,500 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 2,59,1961
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,530 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity) ATDAEI 15(Suppl 1),S68,1996
oral
rat
lethal dose : 1,500 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 2,59,1961
rectal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 mg/kg N/R FCTOD7 41,405,2003
skin
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 100 pph Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation TPKVAL 4,35,1962


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 g/m3/5 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response
TOXID9 60,173,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.8 gm/m3/30 day- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Blood: Eosinophilia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TPKVAL 4,35,1962
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.8 gm/m3/0.5 year- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TPKVAL 4,35,1962
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 gm/m3/14 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
TPKVAL 2,59,1961
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 6 gm/kg/42 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Gastritis

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
TPKVAL 2,59,1961
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 10,500 mg/kg/42 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TPKVAL 2,59,1961
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 7,000 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance

Gastrointestinal: Gastritis

Gastrointestinal: Necrotic changes
TPKVAL 2,59,1961
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,000 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TERP2* -,310,2004
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,036 mg/kg/13 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement)
JJATDK 20,221,2000
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response JJATDK 20,221,2000
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Skin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 184,46,2002
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Skin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental) TXCYAC 193,191,2003
unreported route
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 5,000 mg/kg/50 day- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TPKVAL 2,59,1961


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 1 ppm (sen) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BPCT** -,183,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EVHPAZ 4,3,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CMTVAS 10(3),49,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,213,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,213,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 43,36,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 2 ppm (12 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,212,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 2 ppm (12 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 2 ppm (12 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 2 ppm (12 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 2 ppm (12 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 1 ppm (6.1 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 1 ppm (6.2 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.2 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VLE 6 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit- continuous 0.33 ppm (0.2 mg/m3), sen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 1 ppm (6 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 1 ppm (6 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 4 ppm (24 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 1 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 1 ppm (6.1 mg/m3), sen, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 2 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 2 ppm (12 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 2 mg/m3 (vapors and aerosols), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 1 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 2 mg/m3, ceiling concentration 3 mg/m3, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 1 mg/m3,KZG- week 1 mg/m3, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 4 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 12 mg/m3 (sen), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 1 ppm NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 59230;
Number of Industries 128;
Total Number of Facilities 10,056;
Number of Occupations 90;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 134,716
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 59230;
Number of Industries 72;
Total Number of Facilities 5,265;
Number of Occupations 67;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 81,312;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 14,675


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in plasticizers, polyester resins and alkyd resins
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (feed);no evidence:mouse,rat NCITR* NCI-TR-159,1979
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #90


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

29ZWAE "Practical Toxicology of Plastics," Lefaux, R., Cleveland, OH, Chemical Rubber Co., 1968
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
ATDAEI Acute Toxicity Data. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1- 1990-
BPCT** Progress Report from the Environmental Protection Agency to NIOSH on Benzenepolycarboxylates, 1974
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CMTVAS Cahiers de Medecine du Travail. (Association Professionnelle Belge des Medecine du Travail, rue du Bultia, 6280 Gerpinnes, Belgium) V.1- 1963-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NCITR* National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD) No.0-205. For publisher information, see NTPTR*.
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
TCMUD8 Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980-
TERP2*
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TPKVAL Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. (Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1961-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-

Used in plasticizers, polyester resins and alkyd resins

NIOSH PROFILE (ORGANIC ANHYDRIDES), SRC, 2/82

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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