CDC logo, Safer Healthier People  CDC HomeCDC SearchCDC Health Topics A-Z
NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Search NIOSH  |  NIOSH Home  |  NIOSH Topics  |  Site Index  |  Databases and Information Resources  |  NIOSH Products  |  Contact Us






Nitrogen oxide

RTECS #: QX1350000

CAS #: 10024-97-2


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 44.02 MF: N2O


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REVIEWS:
  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Dinitrogen monoxide
  2. Factitious air
  3. Hyponitrous acid anhydride
  1. Laughing gas
  2. Nitrous oxide
  3. Nitrous oxide (ACGIH:OSHA)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
DNA inhibition inhalation
human
50 pph/24 hour LANCAO 2,339,1978
DNA inhibition inhalation
rat
75,000 ppm/24 hour AACRAT 62,738,1983
micronucleus test inhalation
human
1,000 g/L/18 year- intermittent MUREAV 581,1,2005
other mutation test systems inhalation
rat
50 pph/2 day- continuous TCMUD8 8,107,1988
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction inhalation
Drosophila melanogaster
99 pph/6 minute- continuous ENVRAL 7,286,1974


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 90 pph/24 hour (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) CJPPA3 57,1229,1979
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 95 pph/24 hour (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) CJPPA3 57,1229,1979
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 75 pph/6 hour (14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material) TJADAB 32,26A,1985
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,000 ppm/4 hour (14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NTOTDY 8,189,1986
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 pph/4 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral TJADAB 31,6B,1985
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 pph/8 hour (28 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct ANESAV 44,104,1976
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 pph/24 hour (8-11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
NATUAS 214,146,1967
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6 hour (30 day male) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
ANASAB 38,319,1983
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/8 hour (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
ANESAV 48,11,1978
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 pph/4 hour (14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic DPTHDL 8,43,1985
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 pph (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
VCVN5* -,31,1989
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 43,151,1991
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system TJADAB 43,151,1991


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 47 pph/1 hour Blood: Other changes AANEAB 46,699,2002
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 24 mg/kg/2 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic

Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
BJANAD 35,631,1963
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 pph/5 minute Behavioral: Analgesia JPETAB 306,484,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 60 mg/m3 Liver: Multiple effects VCVN5* -,31,1993
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 60 pph/90 minute Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease PSCHDL 191,233,2007


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 90 mg/m3/24 hour/10 week- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVN5* -,31,1989
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TIHEEC 6,57,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 60 pph/90 minute/4 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance PSCHDL 191,233,2007
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 60 pph/90 minute/5 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
PSCHDL 191,233,2007
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 60 pph/90 minute/5 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance PSCHDL 191,233,2007
inhalation
woman
lowest published toxic concentration: 59 ppm/5 year- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory syndrome diagnostic of central lesion NRTXDN 26,193,2005


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 50 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMSUDL 7,93,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CLPTAT 8,91,1967
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AACRAT 57,328,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
XPHBAO 272,1,1941
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 24,55,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 24,609,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,251,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,661,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,577,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD ASPHYXIANTS/GASES DTLWS* 3,25,1973
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) simple asphyxiant-inert gases and vapors CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) Simple asphyxiant - inert gas and vapor CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 25 ppm (45 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 50 ppm (91 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 50 ppm (90 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 100 ppm, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 180 mg/m3 (100 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 180 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 720 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 152 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 25 ppm (45 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 100 ppm (180 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 100 ppm (180 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 500 ppm (900 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 100 ppm (182 mg/m3),KZG- week 200 ppm (364 mg/m3),DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 100 ppm (183 mg/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO NITROUS OXIDE-air time-weighted average 25 ppm for duration of exposure NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 51118;
Number of Industries 45;
Total Number of Facilities 5,599;
Number of Occupations 36;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 113,333
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 51118;
Number of Industries 25;
Total Number of Facilities 5,145;
Number of Occupations 34;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 112,585;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 74,465


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: V79 cell culture-gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as an anesthetic gas
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Nitrous oxide, 6600
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID166


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

AACRAT Anesthesia and Analgesia (New York). (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.36- 1957-
AANEAB Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (Munksgaard International Pub., POB 2148, DK-1016 Copenhagen K, Denmark) V.1- 1957-
ANASAB Anaesthesia. (Academic Press Inc. Ltd., 24-28 Oval Rd., London NW1 7DX, UK) V.1- 1946-
ANESAV Anesthesiology. (Lippincott/Harper, Journal Fulfillment Dept., 2350 Virginia Ave., Hagerstown, MD 21740) V.1- 1940-
BJANAD British Journal of Anesthesia. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1923-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CJPPA3 Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. (National Research Council of Canada, Publication Sales and Distribution, Ottawa ON K1A OR6, Canada) V.42- 1964-
CLPTAT Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, St. Louis Mo Mosby-Year Book) V.1- 1960-
DPTHDL Developmental Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (S. Karger Pub., Inc., 79 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
DTLWS* "Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Substances in Workroom Air," Supplements. For publisher information, see 85INA8.
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
ENVRAL Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967-
HUTOX*
IMSUDL IARC Monographs, Supplement. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.1- 1979-
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
LANCAO Lancet. (7 Adam St., London WC2N 6AD, UK) V.1- 1823-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NATUAS Nature. (Nature Subscription Dept., POB 1018, Manasguan, NJ 08736) V.1- 1869-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NRTXDN Neurotoxicology. (Intox Press, Inc., POB 34075, Little Rock, AR 72203) V.1- 1979-
NTOTDY Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.3-8, 1981-86. For publisher information, see NETEEC.
PSCHDL Psychopharmacology (Berlin). (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.47- 1976-
TCMUD8 Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980-
TIHEEC Toxicology and Industrial Health. (Princeton Scientific Pub. Co., POB 2155, Princeton, NJ 08540) V.1- 1985-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TPHSDY Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1979-
VCVN5* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989.
XPHBAO U.S. Public Health Service, Public Health Bulletin. (Washington, DC)

Used as an anesthetic gas

NIOSH PROFILE (DIESEL EMISSIONS), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (FIREFIGHTING), FIRL, 4/78

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

NIOSH Home |  NIOSH Search  |  Site Index  |  Topic List |  Contact Us