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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Formamide

RTECS #

LQ0525000

CAS #

75-12-7

Updated

September 201

Molecular Weight

45.05

Molecular Formula

CH3NO

Synonyms

Amid kyseliny mravenci (Czech)
Carbamaldehyde
Formamide (ACGIH)
Formimidic acid
Methanamide
Methanoic acid, amide

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 100 mg severeAJOPAA 29,1363,1946

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisother cell types/non-mammalian species500 mmol/LCAANAT 56,712,1972
other mutation test systemsother cell types/non-mammalian species500 mmol/LCAANAT 56,712,1972

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/rabbit 910 mg/kg (6-18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ARZNAD 30,1557,1980
oral/mouse 200 mg/kg (multigeneration))Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
TOXID9 13,76,1993
oral/rat 1.4 gm/kg (6-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)NTIS** #PB99-139701
oral/rabbit 2.88 gm/kg (6-29D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth
NTIS** #PB2001-104060
oral/rabbit 3.36 gm/kg (6-29D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)NTIS** #PB2001-104060
oral/mouse 6.8 gm/kg (7D male/7D prior to copulation/21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
NTIS** #PB93-109213
oral/mouse 6.8 gm/kg (7D prior to copulation/21D pregnant)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition
NTIS** #PB93-109213
oral/mouse 195 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTIS** #PB93-109213
oral/rat 14.6 gm/kg (91D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductCRTXB2 31,139,2001
oral/mouse 14.6 gm/kg (91D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductCRTXB2 31,139,2001
oral/rabbit 805 mg/kg (6-29D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion
TOSCF2 69,165,2002
oral/rabbit 3220 mg/kg (6-29D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TOSCF2 69,165,2002
oral/rat 2000 mg/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral/rat 2 gm/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
85DJA5 -,95,1971
oral/rat 7980 mg/kg (7-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
85DJA5 -,95,1971
skin/rat 1200 mg/kg (10-11D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal deathTXAPA9 41,35,1977

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 662 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 0.07 gm/m3TPKVAL 11,86,1969
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 11 gm/m3TPKVAL 9,163,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.07 gm/m3/4HBrain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >3900 ppm/6HNTIS** OTS0528421
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1250 mg/kgBlood: Changes in spleen

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Glycolytic
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2450 mg/kgAEPPAE 230,559,1957
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5700 mg/kgTXAPA9 26,596,1973
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 1500 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5.1 gm/kgENTOX* -,377,2005
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5.6 gm/kgENTOX* -,377,2005
ocular/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 10 pphEye: Conjunctiva irritationTPKVAL 9,163,1967
ocular/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 50 pphEye: Conjunctiva irritation

Eye: Corneal damage
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3150 mg/kgGISAAA 39(4),86,1974
oral/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 4800 mg/kgTPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2450 mg/kgTPKVAL 11,86,1969
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3150 mg/kgSpinal Cord: Changes in circulation

Vascular: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral/mouse lethal dose (16 percent kill): 1900 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral/rat lethal dose (16 percent kill): 5100 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Incontinence

Blood: Hemorrhage
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4000 mg/kgTPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5577 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Gastritis

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 5000 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5570 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningTPKVAL 11,86,1969
oral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 7450 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
TPKVAL 9,163,1967
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 17 gm/kgNTIS** OTS0528421
skin/rat Lethal dose: >13500 mg/kgPJPPAA 32,223,1980
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 30 mg/kgHBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): >4 gm/kgAPEPA2 257,296,1967
unreported route/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3150 mg/kgTPKVAL 9,3,1967
unreported route/pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1250 mg/kgTPKVAL 9,3,1967
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3 gm/kgEXPEAM 29,225,1973

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1500 ppm/6H/2W- intermittentBlood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Blood: Changes in platelet count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FAATDF 13,702,1989
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.006 gm/m3/30D- intermittentVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Blood: Luekopenia
TPKVAL 11,86,1969
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.006 gm/m3/122D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Blood: Changes in spleen
TPKVAL 11,86,1969
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.05 mg/m3/30D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
TOVEFN -,30,2010
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.05 mg/m3/60D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOVEFN -,30,2010
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.05 mg/m3/90D- continuousBlood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOVEFN -,30,2010
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 mg/m3/30D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOVEFN -,30,2010
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 805 mg/kg/23D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTOSCF2 69,165,2002
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 2880 mg/kg/24D- intermittentGastrointestinal: Decreased motility or constipationNTIS** #PB2001-104060
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 910 mg/kg/13D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTIS** #PB99-139701
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 840 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)NTIS** #PB99-139701
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3500 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTIS** #PB99-139701
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg/4D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTIS** #PB99-139701
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 910 mg/kg/26W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria
GISAAA 52(3),72,1987
skin/rat lowest published toxic dose: 27 gm/kg/90D- intermittentBlood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTIS** OTS0535890

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 10 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 31,139,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,377,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 286,1,2011

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 10 ppm (18 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 9 ppm (16 mg/m3);KZW 18 ppm (32 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 10 ppm (18 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 10 ppm (18 mg/m3), skin, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (19 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm (37 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 20 ppm (30 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (18 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 10 ppm (15 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 20 ppm (30 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 30 ppm (45 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm (18 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 10 ppm (18 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 10 ppm (19 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAshort term exposure limit 3 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 10 ppm (20 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 15 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 10 ppm (18 mg/m3), skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 16 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 20 ppm (37 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 30 ppm (56 mg/m3), OCT2007

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO FORMAMIDE-air10H time-weighted average 10 ppm (Sk)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 84454; Number of Industries 3; Total Number of Facilities 42; Number of Occupations 5; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2724; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 556
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 84454; Number of Industries 6; Total Number of Facilities 227; Number of Occupations 14; Total Number of Employees Exposed 3195

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; selected, October 2000
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; test completed (peer review), October 2000
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