CDC logo, Safer Healthier People  CDC HomeCDC SearchCDC Health Topics A-Z
NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Search NIOSH  |  NIOSH Home  |  NIOSH Topics  |  Site Index  |  Databases and Information Resources  |  NIOSH Products  |  Contact Us






Formic acid

RTECS #: LQ4900000

CAS #: 64-18-6


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 46.03 MF: CH2O2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REVIEWS:
  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Acide formique (French)
  2. Acido formico (Italian)
  3. Ameisensaeure (German)
  4. Aminic acid
  5. Formic acid (ACGIH:OSHA)
  6. Formylic acid
  1. Hydrogen carboxylic acid
  2. Kwas metaniowy (Polish)
  3. Kyselina mravenci (Czech)
  4. Methanoic acid
  5. Mierenzuur (Dutch)
  6. RCRA waste number U123


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
122 mg severe UCDS** 8/5/1968
skin
rabbit
610 mg open irritation test mild UCDS** 8/5/1968


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 10 mmol/L MUREAV 240,195,1990
cytogenetic analysis non-mammalian species other cell types 100 mmol/L CAANAT 56,712,1972
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 70 ppm/3 hour (-enzymatic activation step) AMNTA4 85,119,1951
other mutation test systems non-mammalian species other cell types 100 mmol/L CAANAT 56,712,1972
phage inhibition capacity Escherichia coli 100 mmol/L MDMIAZ 31,11,1979
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 10 mmol/L MUREAV 279,75,1992
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction inhalation
Drosophila melanogaster
1,000 ppm/24 hour THAGA6 39,330,1969
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
1,000 ppm THAGA6 39,330,1969


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 7,300 g/m3/8 hour Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition ARTODN 66,522,1992
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 6,200 mg/m3/15 minute Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
GTPZAB 23(12),49,1979
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 6.2 gm/m3/15 minute N/R ENTOX* -,378,2005
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 15 gm/m3/15 minute Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
GTPZAB 23(12),49,1979
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 15 gm/m3/15 minute N/R ENTOX* -,378,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 940 mg/kg N/R IGIBA5 11,507,1962
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 3 gm/kg N/R HBTXAC 1,146,1955
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 145 mg/kg N/R ZERNAL 9,332,1969
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 239 mg/kg N/R HBTXAC 1,146,1955
oral
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 gm/kg N/R AMIHAB 20,517,1959
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 700 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
GTPZAB 23(12),49,1979
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,076 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* -,378,2005
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,100 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
GTPZAB 23(12),49,1979
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,830 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* -,378,2005
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 2,200 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Hematuria

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis
JTCTDW 32,199,1994
oral
woman
lowest published lethal dose: 2,440 g/kg Vascular: Shock

Blood: Other hemolysis with or without anemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis
AJEMEN 7,286,1989


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6 hour/12 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NIH-92-3342
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 64 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NIH-92-3342
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6 hour/12 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NIH-92-3342
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 64 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
NTPTR* NIH-92-3342
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/16 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria
GTPZAB 19(12),49,1975
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22,680 mg/kg/9 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JPETAB 16,463,1921


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 5 ppm;short term exposure limit 10 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 17,349,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ARTODN 39,299,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AINCM* 7,63,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,378,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,683,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,119,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 5 ppm (9.4 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (19 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 5 ppm (9.5 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (19 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 9 mg/m3 (5 mL/m3), FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VLE 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 9.5 mg/m3 (5 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 9 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 9 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 5 ppm (9.4 mg/m3), APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 9 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 5 ppm (9.4 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 10 ppm (19 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 15 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 1 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 3 ppm (5 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 5 ppm (9 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 5 ppm (9.5 mg/m3);
KZG- week 10 ppm (19 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 5 ppm (9.6 mg/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 5 ppm;
short term exposure limit 10 ppm
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 5 ppm;
short term exposure limit 10 ppm


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO FORMIC ACID-air 10 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 33720;
Number of Industries 59;
Total Number of Facilities 3,537;
Number of Occupations 48;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 34,087
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 33720;
Number of Industries 95;
Total Number of Facilities 6,368;
Number of Occupations 77;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 158,933;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 37,338


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in pharmaceuticals, textile dyeing and finishing and leather tanning
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Formic acid, 2011
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-19, October 2000
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-112


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

AINCM* Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine (Abingdon: Medicine Pub. Co.) V.1- 2000-
AJEMEN American Journal of Emergency Medicine. (WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA) V.1- 1983-
AMIHAB AMA Archives of Industrial Health. (Chicago, IL) V.11-21, 1955-60. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
AMNTA4 American Naturalist. (Univ. of Chicago Press, Journals Div., POB 37005, Chicago, IL 60637) V.1- 1867-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
CAANAT Comptes Rendus de l'Association des Anatomistes. (Nancy, France) V.1-56, 1899-1972. For publisher information, see ANOBAU.
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CHHSA* Chemical Health & Safety (Orlando, FL : Published by Elsevier Inc. for the ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety) V.1- 1994-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HBTXAC "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59
HUTOX*
IGIBA5 Igiena. (Bucharest, Romania) V.5-23, 1956-74(?). For publisher information, see RABIDH.
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
MDMIAZ Medycyna Doswiadczalna i Mikrobiologia. For English translation, see EXMMAV. (Ars Polona, POB 1001, 00-068 Warsaw 1, Poland) V.1- 1949-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
THAGA6 Theoretical & Applied Genetics. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.38- 1968-
UCDS** Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817)
ZERNAL Zeitschrift fuer Ernaehrungswissenschaft. (Dr. Dietrich Steinkopff Verlag, Postfach 111008, D-6100 Darmstadt 11, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1960-

Used in pharmaceuticals, textile dyeing and finishing and leather tanning

NIOSH PROFILE (ACIDS, ORGANIC), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (ACIDS, ORGANIC), SRC, 4/78

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

NIOSH Home |  NIOSH Search  |  Site Index  |  Topic List |  Contact Us