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Formamide, N,N - dimethyl -

RTECS #: LQ2100000

CAS #: 68-12-2


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 73.11 MF: C3H7NO


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. DMF
  2. DMFA
  3. Dimethyl formamide
  4. Dimethylamid kyseliny mravenci (Czech)
  5. Dimethylformamid (German)
  6. Dimethylformamide
  7. Dimethylformamide (ACGIH:OSHA)
  8. Dimetilformamide (Italian)
  9. Dimetylformamidu (Czech)
  1. Dwumetyloformamid (Polish)
  2. N,N - Dimethyl formamide
  3. N,N - Dimethylformamide
  4. N,N - Dimethylmethanamide
  5. N - Formyldimethylamine
  6. NCI - C60913
  7. NSC 5356
  8. U - 4224


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
100 mg rinse severe DCTODJ 9,147,1986
eye
rabbit
1,00% rinse severe CRTXB2 31,139,2001
skin
human
1,00%/24 hour mild BJIMAG 13,51,1956
skin
woman
0.1% CRTXB2 31,139,2001


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
human
12,300 g/m3/1 year ZHYGAM 31,366,1985
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 100 nmol/L CHPUA4 31,548,1981
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
mouse
40 mol/kg CHPUA4 31,548,1981
dominant lethal test inhalation
rat
10,700 g/m3 TPKVAL 15,21,1979
DNA repair Saccharomyes cerevisiae 300 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,502,1981
host-mediated assay mouse
Salmonella typhimurium
4,250 g/kg CHPUA4 31,548,1981
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 600 g/plate (-enzymatic activation step) PMRSDJ 1,343,1981
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
500 g/kg/24 hour DOYADI 8,27,1987
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
1 mg/kg CRTXB2 31,139,2001
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
3 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent CRTXB2 31,139,2001
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 5 gm/L EMMUEG 11,91,1988
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 25 mg/L PMRSDJ 1,468,1981


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/6 hour (13 week prior to copulation) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle
NTPTR* NIH-93-3345
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 800 ppm/6 hour (13 week prior to copulation) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle
NTPTR* NIH-93-3345
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/6 hour (13 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) NTPTR* NIH-93-3345
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 4 mg/m3/4 hour (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TPKVAL 14,32,1975
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 mg/m3/24 hour (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral TPKVAL 13,75,1973
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 287 ppm/6 hour (0-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
FCTOD7 29,193,1991
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) DCTODJ 15,1,1992
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 4 mg/m3 (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TPKVAL 14,32,1975
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 4 mg/m3 (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TPKVAL 14,32,1975
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3 (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TPKVAL 14,32,1975
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.6 gm/m3 (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TPKVAL 13,75,1973
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 gm/m3 (1-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
TPKVAL 13,75,1973
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10.7 mg/m3 (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death TPKVAL 15,21,1979
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 450 ppm/6 hour (7-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Body wall

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
FCTOD7 29,193,1991
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 450 ppm/8 hour (7-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Gastrointestinal system
NTIS** OTS0535254
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,100 mg/kg (11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
DEGEA3 30,455,1975
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 15,120 mg/kg (1-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
DEGEA3 30,455,1975
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,820 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) FCTOD7 29,193,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,330 L/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NTIS** OTS0521149
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,030 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
FCTOD7 29,193,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 mg/kg (6-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) FAATDF 39,33,1997
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,000 g/kg (6-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system FAATDF 39,33,1997
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 2,600 mg/kg (6-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Body wall

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
ARZNAD 30,1557,1980
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 2,600 mg/kg (6-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) ARZNAD 30,1557,1980
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,600 mg/kg (11-13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death TXAPA9 41,35,1977
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,552 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
FCTOD7 29,193,1991
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
JJATDK 10,333,1990
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 gm/kg (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
JJATDK 10,333,1990
skin
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 5,200 mg/kg (6-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus FCTOD7 29,193,1991


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/75 minute Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Endocrine: Other changes
TPKVAL 15,69,1979
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 130 mg/m3/4 hour Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TPKVAL 15,69,1979
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 10 gm/m3 N/R TPKVAL 4,167,1962
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration : 4 gm/m3/2 hour Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 9.4 gm/m3/2 hour Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration : 12 gm/m3/2 hour Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Eye: Lacrimation

Eye: Change in extra- ocular muscles
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration : 17 gm/m3/2 hour Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 2 gm/m3/2 hour Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 9.4 gm/m3 Blood: Changes in spleen TPKVAL 11,86,1969
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 5,000 ppm/6 hour N/R USXXAM #5122301
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3,421 ppm/1 hour N/R CRTXB2 31,139,2001
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 3,421 ppm/3 hour N/R CRTXB2 31,139,2001
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1,948 ppm/4 hour N/R CRTXB2 31,139,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1.2 gm/m3/2 hour Brain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1.2 gm/m3 Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia TPKVAL 11,86,1969
intramuscular
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,900 mg/kg N/R ARZNAD 15,618,1965
intraperitoneal
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)
BJIMAG 13,51,1956
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 4 gm/kg Liver: Fatty liver degeneration AIHAAP 35,21,1974
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 650 mg/kg N/R CNCRA6 30,9,1963
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,400 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BJIMAG 13,51,1956
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 gm/kg N/R CRTXB2 31,139,2001
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 gm/kg Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)
BJIMAG 13,51,1956
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 gm/kg N/R CRTXB2 31,139,2001
intravenous
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 470 mg/kg N/R ARZNAD 15,618,1965
intravenous
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,050 mg/kg N/R ARZNAD 15,618,1965
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,500 mg/kg N/R ARZNAD 15,618,1965
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2 gm/kg N/R ZEKBAI 69,103,1967
intravenous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,800 mg/kg N/R ARZNAD 15,618,1965
ocular
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 25 pph Eye: Lacrimation

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,900 mg/kg N/R NTIS** OTS0521148
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 1,250 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral
mouse
lethal dose : 2,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral
mouse
lethal dose (20 percent kill): 2,500 mg/kg Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral
mouse
lethal dose : 3,000 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,750 mg/kg Behavioral: Tetany

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral
mouse
lethal dose (70 percent kill): 4,500 mg/kg Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,000 mg/kg N/R CBINA8 148,1,2004
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Vascular: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in pulmonary vascular resistance
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 2,000 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 1,54,1961
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,000 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic

Eye: Corneal damage

Eye: Other eye effects
TPKVAL 11,86,1969
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5 gm/kg N/R NTIS** OTS0520699
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 1,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose : 2,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Tetany

Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose : 3,000 mg/kg Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,500 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 1,54,1961
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,800 mg/kg N/R ARZNAD 15,618,1965
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 1,000 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 100 pph/30 minute Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation TPKVAL 1,54,1961
skin
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 100 pph/3 hour Blood: Hemorrhage

Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
skin
rat
lethal dose : >3,160 mg/kg N/R NTIS** OTS0516779
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >3.2 gm/kg N/R CRTXB2 31,139,2001
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,720 mg/kg N/R AIHAAP 30,470,1969
skin
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 100 pph/1 hour Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation TPKVAL 1,54,1961
unreported route
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >3 gm/kg N/R ARZNAD 18,645,1968
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,002 mg/kg Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
ARTODN 68,291,1994


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 130 mg/m3/4 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria TPKVAL 15,69,1979
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 130 mg/m3/8 day- intermittent Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
TPKVAL 15,69,1979
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/8 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
TPKVAL 15,69,1979
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 130 mg/m3/27 day- intermittent Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section TPKVAL 15,69,1979
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 800 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* NIH-93-3345
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/13 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TOSCF2 72,347,2003
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/13 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
TOSCF2 72,347,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
NTPTR* NIH-93-3345
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/4 hour/26 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)
GISAAA 23(5),31,1958
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 g/m3/24 hour/60 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
GISAAA 27(4),3,1962
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,523 ppm/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field DCTODJ 9,147,1986
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/13 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight TOSCF2 72,347,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/4 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases TOSCF2 72,347,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/13 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOSCF2 72,347,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10.7 mg/m3/17 day- intermittent Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TPKVAL 15,21,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2.3 mg/m3/17 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition TPKVAL 15,21,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10.7 mg/m3/20 day- intermittent Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders TPKVAL 15,21,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.4 gm/m3/30 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.4 gm/m3/122 day- intermittent Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Blood: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TPKVAL 1,54,1961
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.4 gm/m3/61 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning TPKVAL 1,72,1961
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.4 gm/m3/182 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TPKVAL 1,72,1961
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.8 gm/m3/100 day- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TPKVAL 11,86,1969
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9 mL/kg/12 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
APJAAG 37,1879,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 13 gm/kg/15 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOXID9 3,128,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,400 mg/kg/90 day- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
DCTODJ 9,147,1986
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,500 mg/kg/10 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes
NTIS** OTS0572893
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 gm/kg/5 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TPKVAL 1,80,1961
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 gm/kg/10 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TPKVAL 1,80,1961
skin
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 18 gm/kg/2 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
DCTODJ 9,147,1986


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 10 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT 47,171,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 47,171,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 71,545,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal No Evidence IMEMDT 71,545,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 71,545,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,683,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) DTLVS* 3,90,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 20 ppm (60 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 15 mg/m3 (5 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 30 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 120 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), skin, 2B carcinogen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 20 ppm (60 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 15 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 10 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 60 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 15 ppm (45 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 5 ppm (15 mg/m3),KZG- week 20 ppm (60 mg/m3), Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 10 ppm (30 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 20 ppm (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (Sk) NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 26560;
Number of Industries 64;
Total Number of Facilities 3,115;
Number of Occupations 71;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 69,191
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 26560;
Number of Industries 85;
Total Number of Facilities 6,209;
Number of Occupations 93;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 124,683;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 16,011


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: SHE-clonal assay; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro UDS in rat liver
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Mammalian micronucleus
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as a solvent for liquids and gases and as a gasoline additive
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Dimethylformamide, 2004
NTP Toxicity studies, RPT# TOX-22, October 2000
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-66


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19- 1958-
APJAAG Acta Pathologica Japonica. (Japan Publications Trading Co., Ltd., POB 5030, Tokyo International, Tokyo 101-31, Japan) V.1- 1951-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
ARZNAD Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. (Editio Cantor Verlag, Postfach 1255, W-7960 Aulendorf, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1951-
BJIMAG British Journal of Industrial Medicine. (British Medical Journal, Box 560B, Kennebunkport, ME 04046) V.1- 1944-
CBINA8 Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1969-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CHPUA4 Chemicky Prumysl. Chemical Industry. (SNTL-Statni Nakladatelstvi Technicke Literatury, Spalena 51, 113 02 Prague 1, Czechoslovakia) V.1- 1951-
CNCRA6 Cancer Chemotherapy Reports. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-52, 1959-68. For publisher information, see CTRRDO.
CRTXB2 CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 1971-
DCTODJ Drug and Chemical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1977/78-
DEGEA3 Deutsche Gesundheitswesen. (VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Neue Gruenstr. 18, Berlin DDR-1020, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1946-
DOYADI Dongwuxue Yanjiu. Zoological Research. (China International Book Trading Corp., POB 2820, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1980-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
HUTOX*
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
PMRSDJ Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1981-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TPKVAL Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. (Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1961-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
USXXAM United States Patent Document. (U.S. Patent Office, Box 9, Washington, DC 20231)
ZEKBAI Zeitschrift fuer Krebsforschung. (Berlin, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-75, 1903-71. For publisher information, see JCROD7.
ZHYGAM Zeitschrift fuer die Gesamte Hygiene und Ihre Grenzgebiete. (VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Neue Gruenstr. 18, Berlin DDR-1020, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1955-

Used as a solvent for liquids and gases and as a gasoline additive

NIOSH PROFILE (N,N-DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE), SRC, 12/79

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Hormone
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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