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Ethylene, trichloro -

RTECS #: KX4550000

CAS #: 79-01-6


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 131.38 MF: C2HCl3


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1,1,2 - Trichloroethylene
  2. 1,1 - Dichloro - 2 - chloroethylene
  3. 1,2,2 - Trichloroethylene
  4. 1 - Chloro - 2,2 - dichloroethylene
  5. Acetylene trichloride
  6. Algylen
  7. Anamenth
  8. Benzinol
  9. Blacosolv
  10. Blancosolv
  11. Cecolene
  12. Chlorilen
  13. Chlorylen
  14. Circosolv
  15. Crawhaspol
  16. Densinfluat
  17. Dow - tri
  18. Dukeron
  19. Ethinyl trichloride
  20. Ethylene trichloride
  21. Fleck - flip
  22. Flock FLIP
  23. Fluate
  24. Germalgene
  25. Lanadin
  26. Lethurin
  27. NCI - C04546
  28. Narcogen
  29. Narkosoid
  30. Nialk
  31. Perm - A - chlor
  32. Petzinol
  33. Philex
  34. RCRA waste number U228
  35. TCE
  36. Threthylen
  1. Threthylene
  2. Trethylene
  3. Tri
  4. Tri - clene
  5. Tri - plus
  6. Tri - plus M
  7. Triad
  8. Trial
  9. Triasol
  10. Trichlooretheen (Dutch)
  11. Trichloorethyleen, tri (Dutch)
  12. Trichloraethen (German)
  13. Trichloraethylen, tri (German)
  14. Trichloran
  15. Trichloren
  16. Trichlorethylene, tri (French)
  17. Trichloroethene
  18. Trichloroethylene
  19. Trichloroethylene (ACGIH:OSHA)
  20. Trichloroethylene (IUPAC)
  21. Tricloretene (Italian)
  22. Tricloroetilene (Italian)
  23. Trielene
  24. Trielin
  25. Trielina (Italian)
  26. Trieline
  27. Trilen
  28. Trilene
  29. Trilene TE - 141
  30. Triline
  31. Trimar
  32. Triol
  33. Vestrol
  34. Vitran
  35. Westrosol


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
20 mg/24 hour moderate 85JCAE -,106,1986
skin
rabbit
2 mg/24 hour severe 85JCAE -,106,1986


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis skin
mouse
7 gm/kg EMMUEG 37,185,2001
cytogenetic analysis multiple
other fish
3 gm/L MUREAV 399,125,1998
DNA adduct mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 1 mmol/L TOLED5 11,243,1982
DNA damage human kidney 1 mmol/L/20 hour TXCYAC 204,187,2004
DNA damage intraperitoneal
mouse
6 mmol/kg TOLED5 31,31,1986
DNA damage mouse liver 100 µmol/L CNREA8 43,1145,1983
DNA damage rat liver 100 µmol/L CNREA8 43,1145,1983
DNA damage rat kidney 1 mmol/L/20 hour TXCYAC 204,187,2004
DNA damage oral
rat
3,591 mg/kg TXCYAC 204,187,2004
DNA damage Saccharomyes cerevisiae 22 mmol/L MUREAV 206,209,1988
DNA inhibition human lymphocyte 5 mL/L CALEDQ 13,213,1981
DNA repair intraperitoneal
mouse
100 mg/kg EVHPAZ 109,71,2001
unscheduled DNA synthesis human lung 100 mg/L NTIS** PB82-185075
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
mouse
2,500 mg/L NTIS** AD-A080-636
unscheduled DNA synthesis mouse bone marrow 1 mmol/L NTIS** AD-A080-636
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat liver 2,800 µmol/L CRNGDP 5,1629,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
rat
16,500 mg/kg/3 week- intermittent TXAPA9 62,137,1982
host-mediated assay mouse
Saccharomyes cerevisiae
400 mg/kg JEPTDQ 1(4),411,1978
mutation in microorganisms Aspergillus nidulans 2,500 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 155,105,1985
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 3,300 µmol/L (+enzymatic activation step) BCPCA6 24,2013,1975
mutation in microorganisms mouse lymphocyte 146 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) SCIEAS 236,933,1987
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 10 µg/plate (+/-enzymatic activation step) TECSDY 15,101,1987
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 5,000 mg/L/2 hour (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 44,329,2004
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 40 mmol/L (+enzymatic activation step) JEPTDQ 1(4),411,1978
micronucleus test human kidney 1 mmol/L/48 hour TXCYAC 204,187,2004
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
1 gm/kg MUREAV 413,151,1998
micronucleus test multiple
other fish
3 gm/L MUREAV 399,125,1998
micronucleus test inhalation
rat
5 ppm/6 hour- continuous MUREAV 322,87,1994
micronucleus test oral
rat
4 mmol/kg MUREAV 413,1,1998
micronucleus test rat kidney 1 mmol/L/48 hour TXCYAC 204,187,2004
micronucleus test oral
rat
3,590 mg/kg TXCYAC 204,187,2004
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 20 mmol/L JEPTDQ 1(4),411,1978
morphological transform hamster embryo 5 mg/L CRNGDP 4,291,1983
morphological transform mouse embryo 20 mg/L CALEDQ 28,85,1985
morphological transform rat embryo 1,100 µmol/L ITCSAF 14,290,1978
other mutation test systems hamster fibroblast 1 pph ANESAV 43,21,1975
other mutation test systems oral
mouse
600 mg/kg MUREAV 343,157,1995
phage inhibition capacity Escherichia coli 18 µg/well MUREAV 260,349,1991
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 401 mg/L EMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 178 mg/L AGTQAH 24,105,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Aspergillus nidulans 17,500 ppm MUREAV 155,105,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction hamster lung 1,150 µmol/L MUREAV 182,135,1987
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 11 mmol/L MUREAV 206,209,1988
specific locus test intraperitoneal
mouse
140 mg/kg ARTODN 38,87,1977
sperm morphology inhalation
mouse
100 ppm NTIS** PB82-185075


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/7 hour (5 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) NTIS** PB82-185075
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/24 hour (4 week male/4 week prior to copulation-3 week pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system TOLED5 23,223,1984
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,800 ppm/24 hour (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
APTOD9 19,A22,1980
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/4 hour (6-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
JPHYA7 276,24P,1978
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,800 ppm/6 hour (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system TXCYAC 14,153,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/4 hour (8-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system BJANAD 54,337,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 176 gm/kg (15 week male/15 week prior to copulation-3 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) NTIS** #PB86173150
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 24.5 gm/kg (7 day male/7 day prior to copulation/21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) NTIS** #PB86173150
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
NTIS** #PB86173150
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 mg/kg (0 day pregnant - 21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),375,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 84 mg/kg (0 day pregnant - 21 day after birth) Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),375,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 mg/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),375,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,688 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral TOXID9 4,179,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 36 gm/kg (15 day prior to copulation/1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4) TXCYAC 32,229,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,140 mg/kg (14 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system BRREAP 488,403,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 19 gm/kg (15 week male/15 week prior to copulation-3 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) NTIS** #PB86190782
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.5 gm/kg (7 day male/7 day prior to copulation/21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth) NTIS** #PB86190782
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 76 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTIS** #PB86190782
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 156 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system NTIS** #PB86190782
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10,115 mg/kg (7 day male/7 day prior to copulation/21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility NTIS** #PB86190782
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,010 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear EVHPAZ 108,323,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60.5 mg/kg (1-11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis BDERE* 67,488,2003


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/6 hour/77 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease

Liver: Tumors
ARTODN 43,237,1980
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/7 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Vascular: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
INHEAO 21,243,1983
inhalation
mouse
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 500 ppm/6 hour/77 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
ARTODN 43,237,1980
inhalation
mouse
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 150 ppm/7 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
INHEAO 21,243,1983
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/7 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
INHEAO 21,243,1983
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 455 gm/kg/78 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NCITR* NCI-TR-2,1976
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 912 gm/kg/78 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NCITR* NCI-TR-2,1976
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 515 gm/kg/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-243,1990
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 515,000 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTIS** PB91-111815
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 553 gm/kg/79 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
TXAPA9 182,55,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 515,000 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
NTIS** PB91-111815
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 456 gm/kg/28 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
VCVGH* -,446,1990
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 912 gm/kg/78 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
VCVGH* -,446,1990


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 32,500 mg/m3/2 hour Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
AHBAAM 116,131,1936
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 32,500 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGH* -,441,1990
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 45,000 mg/m3/5 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,442,1990
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 90,000 mg/m3/2 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,442,1990
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 37,200 ppm/40 minute N/R HBTXAC 5,76,1959
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 6,900 mg/m3/10 minute Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions
AHBAAM 116,131,1936
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/83 minute Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions AIHAAP 23,167,1962
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 812 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Liver: Jaundice, other or unclassified
BMJOAE 2,689,1945
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/16.1 year- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
ARTODN 73,246,1999
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 110 ppm/8 hour Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests EVHPAZ 108,323,2000
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/90 minute Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests AIHAAP 28,43,1967
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1.95 ppm/4 hour Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases VCVGH* -,443,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity) VCVGH* -,443,1990
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 110 ppm/8 hour Eye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions
BJIMAG 28,293,1971
inhalation
man
lowest published lethal concentration: 2,900 ppm N/R NZMJAX 50,119,1951
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 8,450 ppm/4 hour N/R APTOA6 9,303,1953
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 450 ppm/6 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes EVHPAZ 108,261,2000
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 10,000 ppm/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Effect on specific coenzyme: NAD, NADP
EVHPAZ 108,261,2000
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 220,000 mg/m3/20 minute N/R VCVGH* -,441,1990
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 262,000 mg/m3/30 minute N/R VCVGH* -,441,1990
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 16,000 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGH* -,441,1990
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 40,000 mg/m3/4 hour N/R VCVGH* -,441,1990
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 25,000 mg/m3/2 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,442,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 4,800 ppm/4 hour N/R AMIHBC 4,469,1951
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 ppm/70 minute Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning NETEEC 22,221,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 4,000 ppm/1 hour Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS EVHPAZ 108,317,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 6,000 ppm/6 hour Ear: Change in acuity

Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function
EVHPAZ 108,317,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/4 hour Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS EVHPAZ 108,317,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 ppm/2 hour Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS EVHPAZ 108,317,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,000 ppm/80 minute Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS EVHPAZ 108,317,2000
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 140,700 mg/m3/1 hour N/R VCVGH* -,441,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 30,000 mg/m3/4 hour N/R VCVGH* -,442,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/4 hour Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory syndrome diagnostic of central lesion

Eye: Other eye effects
TOSCF2 76,121,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 5,000 ppm/6 hour N/R TOXID9 44,456,2005
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 11,000 ppm N/R FAONAU 48A,121,1970
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 107,000 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGH* -,441,1990
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 53,500 mg/m3/150 minute N/R VCVGH* -,441,1990
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 26,750 mg/m3/14 hour N/R VCVGH* -,441,1990
intraperitoneal
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,900 mg/kg Liver: Liver function tests impaired TXAPA9 10,119,1967
intraperitoneal
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,725 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,442,1990
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,000 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,442,1990
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),322,2003
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi JPETAB 316,520,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
JPETAB 316,520,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,250 mg/kg Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
JTCTDW 42,752,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,222 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
JTCTDW 42,753,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,720 mg/kg Behavioral: Muscle weakness JTCTDW 42,753,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,282 mg/kg N/R ENVRAL 40,411,1986
intratracheal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 150 mg/kg N/R NTIS** OTS0520615
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 150 mg/kg N/R QJPPAL 7,205,1934
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 33,900 µg/kg N/R CBCCT* 6,141,1954
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,725 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,442,1990
oral
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 5,864 mg/kg N/R HBTXAC 5,76,1959
oral
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,680 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,442,1990
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 7 gm/kg N/R ARTODN 35,295,1976
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 7,000 mg/kg Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction) VCVGH* -,443,1990
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Coma
TOSCF2 41,157,1998
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 2,143 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes 34ZIAG -,602,1969
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,402 mg/kg Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
NTIS** AD-A080-636
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,400 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,442,1990
oral
mouse
lethal dose : 1,500 mg/kg N/R TOXID9 78,365,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression TOXID9 90,178,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Xanthine, purine or nucleotides including urate ABCPO* 47,1129,2000
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,920 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,442,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,200 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning TOXID9 44,428,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Sputum

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 90,178,2006
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 7,330 mg/kg N/R HBTXAC 5,76,1959
subcutaneous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 150 mg/kg N/R HBTXAC 5,76,1959
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 16 gm/kg Behavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Ataxia
JPETAB 123,224,1958
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,440 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,442,1990
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 1,800 mg/kg N/R QJPPAL 7,205,1934
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 800 µL/kg Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation TXCYAC 248,113,2008
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >20 gm/kg N/R NTIS** AD-A062-138
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 20 mL/kg N/R VCVGH* -,442,1990


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,825 mg/m3/8 hour/6 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/4 hour/8 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes JIHTAB 26(7),250,1944
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/7 hour/35 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
AMIHBC 4,469,1951
inhalation
gerbil
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/24 hour/30 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TOLED5 10,1,1982
inhalation
gerbil
lowest published toxic concentration: 320 ppm/24 hour/90 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
NEPADD 3,151,1985
inhalation
gerbil
lowest published toxic concentration: 510 ppm/8 hour/24 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
SWEHDO 10,89,1984
inhalation
gerbil
lowest published toxic concentration: 170 ppm/8 hour/24 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
SWEHDO 10,89,1984
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 ppm/17 year- intermittent Liver: Change in gall bladder structure or function

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
BJIMAG 49,700,1992
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/24 hour/30 day- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TOLED5 10,1,1982
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 10,000 ppm/1 hour/12 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
BJPCAL 4,177,1949
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/4 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Endocrine: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
JJATDK 20,471,2000
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 810 mg/m3/2 day- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight VCVGH* -,444,1990
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 37 ppm/8 hour/30 day- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight EVHPAZ 108,323,2000
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/7 hour/104 week- intermittent Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
EVHPAZ 108,343,2000
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 ppm/104 week- intermittent Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
EVHPAZ 108,343,2000
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/7 hour/107 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
EVHPAZ 108,343,2000
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/7 hour/78 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
EVHPAZ 108,343,2000
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/6 hour/104 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma

Tumorigenic: Tumor types after systemic administration not seen spontaneously
EVHPAZ 108,261,2000
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 ppm/7 hour/78 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumor types after systemic administration not seen spontaneously
EVHPAZ 108,261,2000
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 450 ppm/5 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
EVHPAZ 108,261,2000
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/4 week- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct TXAPA9 182,244,2002
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/1 week- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct TOXID9 72,273,2003
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/5 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition TOXID9 66,60,2002
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,000 ppm/4 week- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOXID9 66,60,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 4,380 ppm/4 hour/2 week- intermittent Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
AIHAAP 25,369,1964
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,200 ppm/12 hour/14 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Ear: Change in acuity
NETEEC 13,83,1991
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 150 ppm/24 hour/30 day- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight TOLED5 10,1,1982
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,400 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Ear: Change in acuity FAATDF 38,101,1997
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 mg/m3/5 hour/26 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
GTPZAB 5(3),9,1961
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/24 hour/12 week- continuous Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
ETPAEK 46,133,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 ppm/1 hour/10 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning

Behavioral: Tolerance
NETEEC 23,617,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 ppm/5 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
NETEEC 22,221,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 376 ppm/30 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) JAPTO* 21,441,2001
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6 hour/26 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TOLED5 -,247,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 ppm/7 hour/104 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumor types after systemic administration not seen spontaneously
EVHPAZ 108,225,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,200 ppm/6 hour/1 week- intermittent Ear: Change in acuity

Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function
EVHPAZ 108,317,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,200 ppm/6 hour/4 week- intermittent Ear: Change in acuity

Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function
EVHPAZ 108,317,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,400 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Ear: Change in acuity

Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function
EVHPAZ 108,317,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/8 hour/6 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP
EVHPAZ 108,323,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/7 hour/104 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
EVHPAZ 108,323,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 ppm/7 hour/104 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
EVHPAZ 108,343,2000
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/182 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed
TOLED5 128,243,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppm/6 hour/26 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes ETOPFR 12,157,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 ppm/6 hour/15 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TOXID9 66,237,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 ppm/3 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain BDERB* 77,405,2006
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 350 ppm/4 hour/12 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS NRTXDN 13,203,1992
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 mg/m3/4 hour/39 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other esterases
GTPZAB 17(5),55,1973
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 125 gm/kg/10 week- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
NRTXDN 13,601,1992
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,720 mg/m3/5 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 85,145,1986
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,941 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight TXCYAC 70,231,1991
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 48 gm/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JJATDK 9,15,1986
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 49,080 mg/kg/17 week- continuous Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
NTIS** AD-A080-636
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 182 gm/kg/26 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 62,351,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 13 gm/kg/5 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 62,351,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 102,900 mg/kg /21 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
NTIS** #PB86161999
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 102,900 mg/kg /21 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
NTIS** #PB86173150
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 102,900 mg/kg /21 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
NTIS** #PB86173150
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,000 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight EVHPAZ 108,323,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 44,800 mg/kg/16 week- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement)
EVHPAZ 108,323,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 67,200 mg/kg/24 week- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Hypersensitivity delayed (multiple organ involvement)
EVHPAZ 108,323,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 735,000 mg/kg/105 week- continuous Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
EVHPAZ 108,335,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,312.8 mg/kg/78 week- intermittent Liver: Tumors EVHPAZ 108,241,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 984.6 mg/kg/78 week- intermittent Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumor types after systemic administration not seen spontaneously
EVHPAZ 108,241,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 525 gm/kg/105 week- intermittent Liver: Tumors EVHPAZ 108,241,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 24,000 mg/kg/24 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight EVHPAZ 108,241,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7 gm/kg/1 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Isomerases
TXCYAC 173,229,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 84 gm/kg/12 week- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement) TXAPA9 197,279,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,500 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TXCYAC 203,83,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,500 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TXCYAC 203,83,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,250 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOXID9 78,365,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,000 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TOXID9 78,365,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,206,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 22,400 µg/kg/16 week- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
TOXID9 60,141,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 36,400 µg/kg/26 week- continuous Blood: Other changes TOXID9 60,141,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/3 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TOXID9 60,159,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 31,500 mg/kg/3 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TOXID9 60,159,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 21,000 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 90,178,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,400 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight NTPTR* IMM-98010
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 18,200 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Liver: Multiple effects

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 -,12,2008
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 16,800 mg/kg/24 week- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TOXID9 -,71,2008
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25,200 mg/kg/36 week- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 -,71,2008
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25.2 gm/kg/36 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation

Liver: Other changes
TXAPA9 228,68,2008
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in humoral response

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 12,437,2008
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 22.4 mg/kg/32 week- continuous Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)
TOXID9 12,437,2008
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,160 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Demyelination NETEEC 12,375,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 84 gm/kg/2 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOXID9 5,228,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 130 gm/kg/13 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-273,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 24 gm/kg/6 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXAPA9 78,105,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 28 gm/kg/28 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
NTIS** OTS0590061
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14,000 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTPAE7 29,451,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,128 mg/kg /28 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NTIS** #PB86190782
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42,483 mg/kg /21 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTIS** #PB86190782
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 257.5 gm/kg/103 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumor types after systemic administration not seen spontaneously

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
EVHPAZ 108,225,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 515 gm/kg/103 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors

Tumorigenic: Tumor types after systemic administration not seen spontaneously
EVHPAZ 108,225,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight EVHPAZ 108,323,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 65,000 mg/kg/52 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
EVHPAZ 108,323,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6.3 gm/kg/2 week- continuous Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility REPTED 17,273,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21,000 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 90,178,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 gm/kg/8 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTPTR* IMM-96007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 gm/kg/8 week- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Autoimmune (multiple organ involvement)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* IMM-96007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,000 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NTPTR* IMM-96007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 32,500 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased TXCYAC 224,108,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16,250 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) TXCYAC 224,108,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,000 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 225,171,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21,000 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 225,171,2007
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 gm/kg/15 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
INHEAO 25,89,1987


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 10 ppm;short term exposure limit 25 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Suspected human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 20,545,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 63,75,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT 63,75,1995
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 20,545,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMSUDL 7,364,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2A IMEMDT 63,75,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,111,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CLPTAT 8,91,1967
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JJOMDZ 16,194,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JJOMDZ 17,603,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BNYMAM 54,413,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FAATDF 13,747,1989
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NTOTDY 3,417,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 30,253,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EVHPAZ 108,323,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EVHPAZ 108,343,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EVHPAZ 108,241,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EVHPAZ 108,261,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,321,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,17,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,43,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,53,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 14,5,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 39,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 33,137,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 14,271,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXCYAC 196,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 628,31,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 627,59,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,382,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 20,245,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HETOEA 25,413,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 6,257,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BDERE* 73,931,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 22,557,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,577,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 100 ppm (535 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,263,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm;
ceiling concentration 200;
peak concentration 300/5 minute/2 hour
CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm (535 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm (535 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 100 ppm (535 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 10 ppm (54 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 40 ppm (216 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 50 ppm (273 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM short term exposure limit 100 ppm (545 mg/m3), Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 10 ppm (55 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 30 ppm (160 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 45 ppm (240 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 75 ppm (405 mg/m3), VLE 200 ppm (1080 mg/m3), continuous2 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 270 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 540 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 25 ppm (135 mg/m3), 2B carcinogen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 50 ppm (270 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 200 ppm (1080 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 100 ppm (535 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 200 ppm (1080 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 190 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 50 ppm (269 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 200 ppm (1070 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 20 ppm (110 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 100 ppm (535 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 50 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 400 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 30 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 10 ppm (50 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 25 ppm (140 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 50 ppm (260 mg/m3),KZG- week 100 ppm (520 mg/m3), dayEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 100 ppm, short term exposure limit 200 ppm, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 100 ppm (535 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 100 ppm (550 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 150 ppm (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Suspected human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Suspected human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO TRICHLOROETHYLENE-air Carcinogen;
10 hour time-weighted average 25 ppm;
ceiling concentration 2 ppm/1 hour
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO WASTE ANESTHETIC GASES AND VAPORS-air ceiling concentration 2 ppm/1 hour MMWR** 37(S-7),28,1988
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 73790;
Number of Industries 251;
Total Number of Facilities 37,699;
Number of Occupations 141;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 446,588
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 73790;
Number of Industries 192;
Total Number of Facilities 23,225;
Number of Occupations 143;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 401,373;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 175,316


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/98/101165/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo; Host-mediated assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Mouse spot test; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae gene conversion; S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae-reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/limited: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as a vapor degreaser of fabricated metal parts, as a solvent and as a drug
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 2, 1975
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Trichloroethylene, 1022; by portable GC, 3701
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);clear evidence:mouse
NTP Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);clear evidence:mouse NTPTR* NTP-TR-243,1983
NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (gavage);no evidence:rat NCITR* NCI-TR-2,1976
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);inadequate study:rat
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);inadequate studies:rat NTPTR* NTP-TR-243,1983
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #1001


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

34ZIAG "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
ABCPO* Acta Biochimica Polonica (Published by Polish Biochemical Society and the Committee of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, L.Pasteura 3 02-093 Warszawa, Poland) V.1- 1954-
AGTQAH Annales de Genetique. (Expansion Scientifique Francaise, 15 rue Saint-Benoit, F-75278, Paris Cedex 06, France) V.1- 1958-
AHBAAM Archiv fuer Hygiene und Bakteriologie. (Munich, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.101-154, 1929-71. For publisher information, see ZHPMAT.
AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19- 1958-
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APTOA6 Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. (Copenhagen, Denmark) V.1-59, 1945-86. For publisher information, see PHTOEH
APTOD9 Abstracts of Papers, Society of Toxicology. Annual Meetings. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802)
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
BCLPT* Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology (Copenhagen, Denmark : Nordic Pharmacological Society Oxford, UK : Distributed by Blackwell Munksgaard) V.94- 2004-
BCPCA6 Biochemical Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1958-
BDERB*
BDERE* Birth Defects Research Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology (Hoboken, N.J. : John Wiley & Sons) V.67- 2003-
BJANAD British Journal of Anesthesia. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1923-
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CBCCT* "Summary Tables of Biological Tests," National Research Council Chemical-Biological Coordination Center. (National Academy of Science Library, 2101 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20418)
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
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DIMON* Disease-a Month (Chicago : Year Book Publishers) V. 24- 1978-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
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ETPAEK Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. (Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena, Postfach 100537, D-07705 Jena, Germany) V.44- 1992-
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FAONAU FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. (Rome, Italy) No.?-57, 1948-77. Discontinued.
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FNSCA6 Forensic Science. (Lausanne, Switzerland) V.1-11, 1972-78. For pub lisher information, see FSINDR.
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HBTXAC "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59
HETOEA Human & Experimental Toxicology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Brunel Road, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG21 2XS, UK) V.9- 1990-
HUTOX*
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
IMSUDL IARC Monographs, Supplement. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.1- 1979-
INHEAO Industrial Health. (National Institute of Industrial Health, 6-21-1 Nagao, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, 213 Japan) V.1- 1963-
ITCSAF In Vitro. (Rockville, MD) V.1-20, 1965-85. For publisher information, see ICDBEO.
JAPTO* Journal of Applied Toxicology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oldlands Way Bognor Regis West Sussex, PO22 9SA England) V.1- 1981-
JEPTDQ Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology. (Park Forest South, IL) V.1-5(3), 1977-81(?). For publisher information, see JEPOEC.
JIHTAB Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JJOMDZ JOM, Journal of Occupational Medicine. (American Occupational Medicine Assoc., 150 N. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606) V.10- 1968-
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JPHYA7 Journal of Physiology. (Cambridge Univ. Press, 32 E. 57th St., New York, NY 10022) V.1- 1878-
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
JTPAE7 Journal of Toxicologic Pathology. (Nihon Dokusei Byori Gakkai, editor, 3-25-8 Nishi- shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan) V.1- 1988
MMWR** MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333) V.25(10)- 1976- for RTECS citation, only V.34(Suppl 1S), 1985 is used.
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NCITR* National Cancer Institute Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series. (Bethesda, MD) No.0-205. For publisher information, see NTPTR*.
NEPADD Neurochemical Pathology. (Humana Press Inc., 999 Riverview Dr., Suite 208, Totowa, NJ 07512) V.1- 1983-
NETEEC Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NRTXDN Neurotoxicology. (Intox Press, Inc., POB 34075, Little Rock, AR 72203) V.1- 1979-
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTOTDY Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.3-8, 1981-86. For publisher information, see NETEEC.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
NZMJAX New Zealand Medical Journal. (New Zealand Medical Assoc., P.O. Box 156, Wellington, New Zealand) V.1- 1900-
QJPPAL Quarterly Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. (London, UK) V.2-21, 1929-48. For publisher information, see JPPMAB.
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
SCIEAS Science. (American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, 1333 H St., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1895-
SWEHDO Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. (Haartmaninkatu 1, SF-00290 Helsinki, 29, Finland) V.1- 1975-
TECSDY Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry. (Gordon & Breach Science Pub. Inc., 1 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.3(3/4)- 1981-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VCVGH* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogenproisvodnie uglevodorodov". (Hazardous substances: Galogenated hydrocarbons) Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1990.

Used as a vapor degreaser of fabricated metal parts, as a solvent and as a drug

NIOSH PROFILE (GRAIN HANDLERS), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (SOLDER, MANUFACTURE AND USE), FIRL, 4/78

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

ALT CAS #: 52037-46-4
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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