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Ether, bis (2 - chloroethyl)

RTECS #: KN0875000

CAS #: 111-44-4


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 143.02 MF: C4H8Cl2O


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1,1' - Oxybis (2 - chloro) ethane
  2. 1 - Chloro - 2 - (beta - chloroethoxy) ethane
  3. 2,2' - Dichloorethylether (Dutch)
  4. 2,2' - Dichlor - diaethylaether (German)
  5. 2,2' - Dichlorethyl ether
  6. 2,2' - Dichloroethyl ether
  7. 2,2' - Dicloroetiletere (Italian)
  8. 2 - Chloro - 1 - (2 - chloroethoxy) ethane
  9. 2 - Chloro - 1 - (2 - chloroethoxy) ethane, fume
  10. Bis (2 - chloroethyl) ether
  11. Bis (beta - chloroethyl) ether
  12. Chlorex
  13. Chloroethyl ether
  14. Clorex
  15. DCEE
  1. Di (2 - chloroethyl) ether
  2. Di (beta - chloroethyl) ether
  3. Dichloroether
  4. Dichloroethyl ether
  5. Dichloroethyl ether (ACGIH:OSHA)
  6. Dichloroethyl oxide
  7. Dwuchlorodwuetylowy eter (Polish)
  8. ENT 4,504
  9. Ethane, 1,1' - oxybis (2 - chloro -
  10. Ether dichlore (French)
  11. Oxyde de chlorethyle (French)
  12. RCRA waste number U025
  13. beta,beta' - Dichloroethyl ether
  14. beta,beta - Dichlorodiethyl ether
  15. sym - Dichloroethyl ether


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
100 mg severe AJOPAA 29,1363,1946
skin
rabbit
10 mg/24 hour open irritation test severe JIHTAB 30,63,1948
skin
rabbit
500 mg open irritation test mild UCDS** 12/29/1971


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 1,457 mg/plate (+enzymatic activation step) DHEFDK FDA-78-1046,1978
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 1 mg/plate (-enzymatic activation step) ENMUDM 8(Suppl 7),1,1986
gene conversion and mitotic recombination inhalation
Drosophila melanogaster
4,000 ppm CRNGDP 17,1083,1996
specific locus test parenteral
Drosophila melanogaster
10,500 ppm EMMUEG 23,51,1994


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 33 gm/kg/79 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
JNCIAM 42,1101,1969
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,400 mg/kg/60 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Tumors at site of application
JNCIAM 48,1431,1972


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 5,500 mg/m3/2 hour Cardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation
guinea pig
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 500 ppm/1 hour N/R 85JCAE -,541,1986
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 3,000 mg/m3/5 hour Cardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 600 mg/m3/10 hour Cardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 mg/m3 Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 5,500 mg/m3 Cardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 650 mg/m3/2 hour N/R 85GMAT -,45,1982
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 3,000 mg/m3/2 hour Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 500 mg/m3/7 hour Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 330 mg/m3/4 hour N/R 85GMAT -,45,1982
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 330 mg/m3 Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 5,500 mg/m3/2 hour Cardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,282,1994
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 112 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 39(4),86,1974
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 209 mg/kg Eye: Ptosis

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
ATDAEI 1,163,1992
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 112 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,282,1994
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 75 mg/kg N/R JIHTAB 30,63,1948
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 126 mg/kg N/R 38MKAJ 2A,2518,1981
skin
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kg N/R JIHTAB 30,63,1948
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 90 mg/kg N/R 38MKAJ 2A,2518,1981


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 mg/m3/45 minute/14 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 32 mg/m3/4 hour/137 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Cardiac: Other changes

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
VCVGK* -,282,1994
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 32 mg/m3/4 hour/137 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Cardiac: Other changes

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
VCVGK* -,282,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,170 mg/kg/45 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Multiple effects

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
VCVGK* -,283,1994


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 5 ppm;short term exposure limit 10 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 9,117,1975
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 71,1265,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human No Adequate Data IMEMDT 9,117,1975
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 71,1265,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 71,1265,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85CVA2 5,250,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BNYMAM 54,413,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3) (skin) DTLWS* 3,16,1973
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) ceiling concentration 15 ppm (90 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) ceiling concentration 15 ppm (90 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) ceiling concentration 15 ppm (90 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) ceiling concentration 15 ppm (90 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 5 ppm (29 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (58 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 5 ppm (29 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM short term exposure limit 10 ppm (59 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (60 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, continuous3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 59 mg/m3 (10 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 15 ppm (88 mg/m3), skin, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (60 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 10 ppm (60 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 30 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 5 ppm (29 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 10 ppm (58 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 15 ppm (90 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 10 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 60 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 2 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN Group B Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 5 ppm (30 mg/m3),KZG- week 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 15 ppm (90 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 15 ppm (90 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO DICHLOROETHYLETHER-air Carcinogen time-weighted average 5 ppm (Sk);
short term exposure limit 10 ppm
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 84164;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 21;
Number of Occupations 2;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 41


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/90/168683/AS)
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as a soil fumigant, an insecticide and an acaricide, and as a solvent for fats, waxes
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Dichloroethyl ether, 1004


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

38MKAJ "Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology," 3rd rev. ed., Clayton, G.D., and F.E. Clayton, eds., New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1978-82. Vol. 3 originally pub. in 1979; pub. as 2nd rev. ed. in 1985.
85CVA2 "Oncology 1970, Proceedings of the Tenth International Cancer Congress," Chicago, Year Book Medical Pub., 1971
85GMAT "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
AJOPAA American Journal of Ophthalmology. (Ophthalmic Pub. Co., 435 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1415, Chicago, IL 60611) Series 3: V.1- 1918-
ATDAEI Acute Toxicity Data. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1- 1990-
BNYMAM Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. (New York Academy of Medicine, 2 E. 103rd St., New York, NY 10029) Ser 2: V.1- 1925-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
DHEFDK HEW Publication (FDA. United States). (Washington, DC) ?-1979(?). For publisher information, see HPFSDS.
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
DTLWS* "Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Substances in Workroom Air," Supplements. For publisher information, see 85INA8.
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JIHTAB Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
JNCIAM Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8.
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
UCDS** Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817)
VCVGK* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia". (Hazardous substances. Galogen and oxygen containing substances), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1994.

Used as a soil fumigant, an insecticide and an acaricide, and as a solvent for fats, waxes

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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