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Cyclohexanone

RTECS #: GW1050000

CAS #: 108-94-1


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 98.16 MF: C6H10O


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Anone
  2. Cicloesanone (Italian)
  3. Cyclohexanon (Dutch)
  4. Cyclohexanone (ACGIH:OSHA)
  5. Cyclohexyl ketone
  6. Cykloheksanon (Polish)
  7. Hexanon
  8. Hytrol O
  1. Ketohexamethylene
  2. NCI - C55005
  3. Nadone
  4. Pimelic ketone
  5. Pimelin ketone
  6. RCRA waste number U057
  7. Sextone


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
human
75 ppm N/R JIHTAB 25,282,1943
eye
rabbit
20 mg severe AJOPAA 29,1363,1946
eye
rabbit
250 痢/24 hour severe 85JCAE -,289,1986
skin
human
50%/48 hour mild ADVEA4 27,189,1992
skin
rabbit
500 mg open irritation test mild UCDS**


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis human leukocyte 100 痠ol/L DBTEAD 19,215,1971
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 5 痢/L GISAAA 46(5),76,1981
mutation in microorganisms Bacillus subtilis 200 無/L (-enzymatic activation step) EJMBA2 18,213,1983
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 20 無/L (-enzymatic activation step) EJMBA2 18,213,1983
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster ovary 7,500 無/L ENMUDM 7(Suppl 3),60,1985
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 7,500 無/L ENMUDM 7(Suppl 3),60,1985


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,400 ppm/6 hour (6-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NTIS** OTS0540574
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 105 mg/m3/4 hour (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) TPKVAL 14,26,1975
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 105.2 mg/m3 (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea) TPKVAL 14,26,1975
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 11 gm/kg (8-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) TCMUD8 6,361,1986


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 15,000 mg/m3 Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
VCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 400 ppm/4 hour N/R NTIS** AD-A066-307
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 15,000 mg/m3 Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
VCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 75 ppm Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JIHTAB 25,282,1943
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3/1 minute Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.9 mg/m3 Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 mg/m3/8 hour Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 25 gm/m3 N/R GTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 19,200 mg/m3/90 minute Gastrointestinal: Other changes TXAPA9 49,525,1979
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression TOLED5 9,137,1981
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 15,000 mg/m3 Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
VCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2,375 mg/m3 N/R VCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 8,000 ppm/4 hour N/R NPIRI* 1,18,1974
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 19,000 mg/m3 N/R VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 mg/m3/40 minute Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning VCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 mg/m3/8 hour Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning VCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,203 mg/m3/4 hour Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning VCVGK* -,454,1994
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 mg/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea VCVGK* -,454,1994
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 760 mg/kg N/R NTIS** AD-A066-307
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 930 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,455,1994
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,230 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes TXAPA9 49,525,1979
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,230 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,455,1994
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,130 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes TXAPA9 49,525,1979
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,130 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,455,1994
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,540 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes TXAPA9 49,525,1979
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,540 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,455,1994
intravenous
monkey
lowest published lethal dose: 284 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 37,115,1976
intravenous
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 568 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 37,115,1976
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 714.3 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,455,1994
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3 gm/kg N/R GTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,400 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,455,1994
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,620 無/kg N/R AIHAAP 30,470,1969
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,800 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,455,1994
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 1,600 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic JIHTAB 25,199,1943
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 1,900 mg/kg Autonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AEXPBL 50,199,1903
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 1,300 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AEXPBL 50,199,1903
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,170 mg/kg N/R JIHTAB 25,415,1943
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 mL/kg N/R AIHAAP 30,470,1969


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 mg/m3/6 hour/90 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Eosinophilia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 460 mg/m3/90 day- continuous Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 105 mg/m3/20 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 mg/m3/6 hour/90 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Eosinophilia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 mg/m3/122 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 105.2 mg/m3/17 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TPKVAL 14,26,1975
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 11.5 mg/m3/17 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight TPKVAL 14,26,1975
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 11.5 mg/m3/20 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TPKVAL 14,26,1975
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 105.2 mg/m3/75 day- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TPKVAL 14,26,1975
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,082 ppm/6 hour/3 week- intermittent Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 25,323,1943
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 12,000 mg/m3/6 hour/15 day- intermittent Behavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
VCVGK* -,455,1994
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 mg/m3/6 hour/90 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Eosinophilia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVGK* -,455,1994
intravenous
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 4,260 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 37,115,1976
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.5 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning VCVGK* -,455,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
VCVGK* -,455,1994
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 61,000 mg/kg/122 day- intermittent Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
VCVGK* -,455,1994


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 20 ppm;short term exposure limit 50 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 47,157,1989
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 71,1359,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human No Adequate Data IMEMDT 71,1359,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 71,1359,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,577,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Cancelled RBREV* -,248,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,66,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 25 ppm (100 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA MAK 80 mg/m3 (20 ppm), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 80 mg/m3 (20 mL/m3), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 10 ppm (40.8 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM short term exposure limit 20 ppm (81.6 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 10 ppm (40 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 40.8 mg/m3 (10 ppm);
short term exposure limit 81.6 mg/m3 (skin), FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 75 ppm (250 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 10 ppm (40.8 mg/m3), VLE 20 ppm (81.6 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 40.8 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 81.6 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 25 ppm (100 mg/m3), APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 25 ppm (100 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 100 ppm (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 25 ppm (100 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 20 ppm (80 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 20 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 160 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 30 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 25 ppm (100 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 50 ppm (200 mg/m3), Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 25 ppm (100 mg/m3);
KZG- week 50 ppm (200 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 50 ppm (200 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 10 ppm;
short term exposure limit 20 ppm (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed animal carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed animal carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CYCLOHEXANONE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 25 ppm (Sk) NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 21660;
Number of Industries 123;
Total Number of Facilities 13,457;
Number of Occupations 98;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 151,748
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 21660;
Number of Industries 160;
Total Number of Facilities 33,556;
Number of Occupations 117;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 436,935;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 43,406


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULE FEREAC 47,26992,82
Used as a solvent, an intermediate, and an emulsifier
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Ketones I, 1300
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1996: Volatile organic compound, 2549
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #01


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
ADVEA4 Acta Dermato-Venereologica. (Almqvist & Wiksell, POB 45150, S-10430 Stockholm, Sweden) V.1- 1920-
AEXPBL Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1-109, 1873-1925. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19- 1958-
AJOPAA American Journal of Ophthalmology. (Ophthalmic Pub. Co., 435 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1415, Chicago, IL 60611) Series 3: V.1- 1918-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
DBTEAD Diabete. (Le Raincy, France) V.1-22, 1953-74. Discontinued.
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EJMBA2 Egyptian Journal of Microbiology. (National Information and Documentation Centre, A1-Tahrir St., Awqaf P.O. Dokki, Cairo, Egypt) V.7- 1972-
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HUTOX*
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JIHTAB Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NPIRI* Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol.1: Organic Solvents, 1974. (National Assoc. of Printing Ink Research Institute, Francis McDonald Sinclair Memorial Laboratory, Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA 18015)
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
TCMUD8 Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TPKVAL Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. (Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1961-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
VCVGK* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia". (Hazardous substances. Galogen and oxygen containing substances), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1994.

Used as a solvent, an intermediate, and an emulsifier

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

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