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Chlorine

RTECS #: FO2100000

CAS #: 7782-50-5


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 70.90 MF: Cl2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Bertholite
  2. Chloor (Dutch)
  3. Chlor (German)
  4. Chlore (French)
  5. Chlorinated water
  1. Chlorine (ACGIH:OSHA)
  2. Chlorine mol.
  3. Cloro (Italian)
  4. Molecular chlorine


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 20 ppm CBINA8 6,375,1973
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 1,800 g/L (-enzymatic activation step) OZSEDS 8,217,1986
sperm morphology oral
mouse
20 mg/kg/5 day- continuous ENMUDM 7,201,1985


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 565 mg/kg (8 week male/2 week prior to copulation-3 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic TJADAB 35,43A,1987


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,300 ppb/6 hour/1 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
NTIS** OTS0571476
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,096 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
NTPTR* NTP-TR-392,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,047 mg/kg/103 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
NTIS** PB92-191659


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 870 mg/m3/1 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
VCVN5* -,373,1989
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 29 mg/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
VCVN5* -,373,1989
inhalation
dog
lowest published lethal concentration: 800 ppm/30 minute Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JPETAB 14,65,1919
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 145 mg/m3/30 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
VCVN5* -,373,1989
inhalation
domestic animal
lowest published toxic concentration: 60 ppm/30 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 12,404,2008
inhalation
domestic animal
lowest published toxic concentration: 90 ppm/30 minute Cardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 12,404,2008
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 3,200 ppm/3 hour N/R AHYGAJ 7,231,1887
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 870 mg/m3/1 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
VCVN5* -,373,1989
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 29 mg/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
VCVN5* -,373,1989
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 500 ppb/2 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance JAPYAA 54,1120,1983
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 2,530 mg/m3/30 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion
28ZOAH -,150,1937
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 500 ppm/5 minute N/R TABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 66 ppm/1 hour Behavioral: Headache

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
DICYE7 4,28,1988
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 2,900 mg/m3/5 minute N/R VCVN5* -,373,1989
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 100 mg/m3/30 minute N/R VCVN5* -,373,1989
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.9 mg/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough VCVN5* -,373,1989
inhalation
horse, donkey
lowest published lethal concentration: 2,900 mg/m3/35 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
VCVN5* -,373,1989
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 500 ppm/5 minute N/R AEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 137 ppm/1 hour N/R AMRL** TR-72-62,1972
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 1,100 mg/m3/10 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
VCVN5* -,373,1989
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 368 mg/m3/30 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
VCVN5* -,373,1989
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.6 ppm/15 minute Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
TOXID9 78,439,2004
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 293 ppm/1 hour N/R AMRL** TR-72-62,1972
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3 Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
VCVN5* -,375,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough VCVN5* -,375,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,330 ppm/15 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Pleural thickening
INHTE5 16,911,2004
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,330 ppm/15 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Pleural thickening
INHTE5 16,911,2004
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 870 mg/m3/1 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory obstruction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
VCVN5* -,373,1989
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 29 mg/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
VCVN5* -,373,1989
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 2.9 mg/kg Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation VCVN5* -,374,1989


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,300 ppb/6 hour/1 year- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
FAATDF 9,557,1987
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 9,100 ppb/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 71,225,1983
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppb/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects NTIS** OTS0538318
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 9 ppm/6 hour/6 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXAPA9 49,77,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 9,100 ppb/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 71,225,1983
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppb/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects NTIS** OTS0538318
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/24 hour/5 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
VCVN5* -,375,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/24 hour/5 day- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough VCVN5* -,375,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 26 mg/m3/6 hour/6 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi VCVN5* -,375,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2.9 mg/m3/6 hour/6 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects VCVN5* -,375,1989
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 1.7 mg/m3/5 hour/38 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
VCVN5* -,375,1989
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 153 gm/kg/73 week- continuous Cardiac: Changes in heart weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight
FCTOD7 21,435,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,312 mg/kg/92 day- continuous Blood: Change in clotting factors JTEHD6 20,401,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 109 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
FCTOD7 21,427,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,568 mg/kg/28 day- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
FCTOD7 21,423,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 gm/kg/2 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
JTEHD6 2,1161,1977
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 136.5 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
VCVN5* -,375,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 36.2 gm/kg/69 week- continuous Blood: Normocytic anemia VCVN5* -,375,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30.2 gm/kg/69 week- continuous Blood: Changes in platelet count VCVN5* -,375,1989


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 0.5 ppm;short term exposure limit 1 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CPEMM* 3,239,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 9,24,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,553,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,661,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,671,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,683,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: RED Completed RBREV* -,301,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,46,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) ceiling concentration 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) ceiling concentration 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) ceiling concentration 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) ceiling concentration 1 ppm (3 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA ceiling concentration 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM short term exposure limit 0.5 ppm (1.5 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.5 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3 (0.5 ppm), FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.5 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VLE 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 1.5 mg/m3 (0.5 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 1.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - INDIA time-weighted average 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 3 ppm (9 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit- continuous 0.5 ppm (1.5 mg/m3), APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 3 ppm (9 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 1 ppm (3 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 3 ppm (9 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC- continuous 3 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.5 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 1 ppm (2.9 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.5 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 1.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 9 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 1 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.5 mg/m3), ceiling concentration 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.5 ppm (1.5 mg/m3);
KZG- week 0.5 ppm (1.5 mg/m3),DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 1 ppm (3 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 0.5 ppm (1.5 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 1 ppm, 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CHLORINE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 0.5 ppm;
short term exposure limit 1 ppm
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 18040;
Number of Industries 169;
Total Number of Facilities 21,429;
Number of Occupations 86;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 220,544
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: X9656;
Number of Industries 3;
Total Number of Facilities 338;
Number of Occupations 6;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 4,768;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 1,862
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 18040;
Number of Industries 70;
Total Number of Facilities 5,343;
Number of Occupations 75;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 178,105;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 20,221


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in waste treatment and in production of VINYL CHLORIDE and chlorinated ethanes
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Bromine and chlorine, 6011
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (water);equivocal evidence:rat
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (water);no evidence:mouse
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-101


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

28ZOAH "Chemicals in War," Prentiss, A.M., New York, McGraw Hill Book Co., 1937
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AHYGAJ Archiv fuer Hygiene. (Munich, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-100, 1883-1928. For publisher information, see ZHPMAT.
AMRL** Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory Report. (Aerospace Technical Div., Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433)
CBINA8 Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1969-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CHHSA* Chemical Health & Safety (Orlando, FL : Published by Elsevier Inc. for the ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety) V.1- 1994-
CPEMM* Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine (Philadelphia, PA : W.B. Saunders Co.)
DICYE7 Diagnostic Cytopathology. (Wiley-Liss, 605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158) V.1- 1985-
DIMON* Disease-a Month (Chicago : Year Book Publishers) V. 24- 1978-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
HUTOX*
INHTE5 Inhalation Toxicology. (Published by Taylor & Francis Health, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE) V.1- 1989-
JAPYAA Journal of Applied Physiology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-41, 1948-76.
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
OZSEDS Ozone: Science & Engineering. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1979-
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
TABIA2 Tabulae Biologicae. (The Hague, Netherlands) V.1-22, 1925-63. Discontinued.
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
VCVN5* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989.

Used in waste treatment and in production of VINYL CHLORIDE and chlorinated ethanes

Top 50 chemical production: 22.28 billions lbs in 1992, 22.84 billions in 1991

NIOSH PROFILE (CHLORINES, INORGANIC), SRC, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (FIREFIGHTING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (LEATHER TANNING), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (PULP AND PAPER MILLS), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (SEWAGE TREATMENT), FIRL, 4/78

RTECS Compound Description:
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   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

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