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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Carbon tetrachloride

RTECS #

FG4900000

CAS #

56-23-5

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

153.81

Molecular Formula

CCl4

Synonyms

Benzinoform
Carbon chloride (CCl4)
Carbon TET
Carbon tetrachloride (ACGIH:OSHA)
Carbona
Chlorid uhlicity (Czech)
Czterochlorek wegla (Polish)
ENT 27164
ENT 4,705
Flukoids
Halon 1040
Methane tetrachloride
Methane, tetrachloro-
Necatorina
Perchloromethane
R 10
R 10 (Refrigerant)
RCRA waste number U211
Tetrachloorkoolstof (Dutch)
Tetrachloormetaan
Tetrachlorkohlenstoff, tetra (German)
Tetrachlormethan (German)
Tetrachlorocarbon
Tetrachloromethane (OSHA)
Tetrachlorure de carbone (French)
Tetraclorometano (Italian)
Tetracloruro di carbonio (Italian)
Tetrafinol
Tetraform
Tetrasol
Univerm
Vermoestricid

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 2200 µg/30S mildXEURAQ MDDC-1715
eye /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild85JCAE -,91,1986
skin /rabbit 4 mg mildXEURAQ MDDC-1715
skin /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild85JCAE -,91,1986

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysissubcutaneous/rat31 gm/kg/12W- intermittentFHCYAI 13,207,1975
DNA adductintraperitoneal/mouse367 µmol/kgIJCNAW 11,419,1973
DNA adductliver/mouse10 µmolPAACA3 24,81,1983
DNA adductintraperitoneal/rat367 µmol/kgIJCNAW 11,419,1973
DNA adduct/Escherichia coli300 ppmMUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA adductlymphocyte/mammal (species unspecified)1 mmol/LTOLED5 11,243,1982
DNA Damageliver/rat1 mmol/L/2HTXCYAC 187,101,2003
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/rat7.2 mL/kg/4W- intermittentFCTOD7 48,2469,2010
DNA Damagesubcutaneous/rat31 gm/kg/12W- intermittentFHCYAI 13,207,1975
DNA Damageliver/rat3 mmol/LSinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA Damageoral/mouse335 µmol/kgPSEBAA 175,237,1984
DNA Damagelymphocyte/mouse6550 µmol/LMUREAV 203,155,1988
DNA inhibitionoral/mouse2 gm/kgMUREAV 46,305,1977
DNA repairoral/mouse100 mg/kgTCMUD8 18,309,1998
DNA repair/Escherichia coli12500 ng/wellMUREAV 133,161,1984
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Saccharomyes cerevisiae2 gm/LMUREAV 397,271,1998
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Aspergillus nidulans5000 ppmMUREAV 147,288,1985
morphological transformembryo/hamster500 µg/LCRNGDP 4,291,1983
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse0.01 mg/L/21D (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 35,300,2000
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium0.5 pph/24H (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 43,128,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli0.2 pph/24H (+enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 43,128,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli0.1 pph/24H (-enzymatic activation step)EMMUEG 43,128,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli0.1 pph/24HEMMUEG 43,128,2004
mutation in microorganisms/Aspergillus nidulans5000 ppm (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 147,288,1985
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium20 µL/L (+enzymatic activation step)EJMBA2 18,213,1983
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/rat100 mg/kgTOLED5 35,191,1987
other mutation test systemsoral/rat50 mg/kgMUREAV 344,109,1995
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/rat7.2 mL/kg/4W- intermittentFCTOD7 48,2469,2010
phage inhibition capacity/Escherichia coli200 µg/wellMUREAV 260,349,1991
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Aspergillus nidulans5000 ppmMUREAV 147,288,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionlung/hamster1600 µmol/LMUREAV 182,135,1987
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisintraperitoneal/rat100 mg/kgTOLED5 35,191,1987
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat1400 mg/kgMUREAV 320,189,1994
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/mouse100 mg/kgENMUDM 6,474,1984

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 300 ppm/7H (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis
TXAPA9 28,452,1974
inhalation/rat 250 ppm/8H (10-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)
DABBBA 32,2021,1971
intraperitoneal/rat 71500 mg/kg (15D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
EXPEAM 22,395,1966
intraperitoneal/rat 5 gm/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Other effects on maleTXCYAC 10,39,1978
intraperitoneal/rat 32 mL/kg (16W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Other effects on male
FCTOD7 47,1393,2009
oral/rat 2 gm/kg (7-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)85DJA5 -,95,1971
oral/rat 3 gm/kg (14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)BEXBAN 82,1262,1976
oral/rat 150 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
TJADAB 56,252,1997
oral/rat 750 mg/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)FAATDF 40,30,1997
parenteral/rat 2384 mg/kg (18D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
BEXBAN 76,1467,1973

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/6H/6W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
TOLED5 176,207,2008
oral/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 9250 mg/kg/30W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 26,855,1961
oral/mouse toxic dose: 12 gm/kg/88D- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 4,385,1944
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4400 mg/kg/19W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
JNCIAM 20,431,1958
oral/mouse toxic dose: 8580 mg/kg/9W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 4,385,1944
oral/mouse toxic dose: 57600 mg/kg/12W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 2,197,1941
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5040 mg/kg/36W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
TXCYAC 199,169,2004
parenteral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 305 gm/kg/30W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
BEXBAN 89,845,1980
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 100 gm/kg/25W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
KRMJAC 12,37,1965
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 31 gm/kg/12W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 45,1237,1970
subcutaneous/rat toxic dose: 182 gm/kg/70W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
JNCIAM 44,419,1970
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15600 mg/kg/12W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 38,891,1967

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 8013 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 1621 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 5464 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 950 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Mouse, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 12.5 mmol/L/2HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TIVIEQ 4,783,1990
In Vitro/Non-mammalian species, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3.5 mmol/L/1HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayAQUTO* 37,327,1997
In Vitro/Rat, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 mg/L/24HReproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TIVIEQ 3,271,1989
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 18.7 mmol/L/2HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TIVIEQ 4,783,1990
inhalation/cat Lowest published lethal concentration: 38110 ppm/2HHBAMAK 4,1405,1935
inhalation/cat lowest published toxic concentration: 6300 mg/m3/15MLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Changes in liver weight
VCVGH* -,340,1990
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 133000 mg/m3/1HBehavioral: General anestheticVCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation/Dog Lowest published lethal concentration: 14620 ppm/8HBehavioral: General anesthetic

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
NIHBAZ 191,1,1949
inhalation/frog Lowest published lethal concentration: 58 gm/m3AEXPBL 97,86,1923
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 20000 ppm/2HFLCRAP 1,197,1967
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 80000 mg/m3/40MBehavioral: General anestheticVCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 50000 mg/m3/1HVCVGH* -,341,1990
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppmGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting85CYAB 2,136,1959
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 1000 ppmPCOC** -,198,1966
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 45 ppm/3DBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Anorexia (human)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
LANCAO 1,360,1960
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 317 ppm/30MGastrointestinal: Nausea or vomitingJAMAAP 103,962,1934
inhalation/human Lowest published lethal concentration: 5 pph/5MTABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation/mammal (species unspecified) lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 34500 mg/m3GTPZAB 24(3),17,1980
inhalation/monkey lowest published toxic concentration: 75000 mg/m3Behavioral: General anestheticVCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 134300 mg/m3/90SBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningVCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 50000 mg/m3/2HBehavioral: General anestheticVCVGH* -,307,1990
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 34500 mg/m3/2HVCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 9526 ppm/8HJIHTAB 29,382,1947
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 8000 ppm/4HNPIRI* 1,16,1974
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 46000 mg/m3/6HVCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1350 ppm/1HLiver: Other changesVCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 75000 mg/m3/2HBehavioral: General anestheticVCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 3.25 gm/m3/4HLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
TPKVAL 12,23,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.35 gm/m3/4HLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TPKVAL 12,23,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.025 gm/m3/4HPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria
TPKVAL 12,23,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 670 mg/m3Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Vascular: Other changes
TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.02 gm/m3/4HLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonalTPKVAL 9,37,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 gm/m3/4HLiver: Liver function tests impairedTPKVAL 9,43,1967
intraperitoneal/chicken lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4497 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from small intestine

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
BVJOA9 127,304,1971
intraperitoneal/chicken lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2.83 mg/kg/1HGastrointestinal: PeritonitisBVJOA9 127,304,1971
intraperitoneal/Dog lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1500 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impairedTXAPA9 10,119,1967
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
FCTOD7 47,2022,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 572 mg/kgPHMCAA 10,172,1968
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 40,517,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 572 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),360,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 1 mL/kgTOSCF2 73,220,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 153.81 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 243,249,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JPHSC* 106,136,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
FCTOD7 46,1778,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 µL/kgLiver: Other changesTOLED5 177,20,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 µL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
JPHSC* 109,119,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.01 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonalTXAPA9 197,301,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 78,306,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOXID9 78,306,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 572 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOXID9 78,310,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.02 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TXAPA9 223,56,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15.38 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JAPTO* 27,25,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
TXCYAC 218,58,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 208,87,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 218,58,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.0175 mL/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory syndrome diagnostic of central lesion

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerve
TOLED5 160,204,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1590 mg/kgLiver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 228,310,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1590 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteinsTOXID9 228,310,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1.25 mL/kgJPETAB 316,507,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 48,3177,2010
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 25 µL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
HETOEA 27,559,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases
BJPCBM 155,945,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOLED5 188,201,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 750 µL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 50,2473,2012
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 50 µL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 50,3073,2012
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
BCLPT* 103,17,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FTRPAE 81,375,2010
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.01 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
FTRPAE 81,1246,2010
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FITOT* 82,591,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 3 mL/kgTOXID9 72,196,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
JOETD7 136,309,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.01 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JOETD7 136,316,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 278,345,2010
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 20 µL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 282,104,2011
intraperitoneal/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 477 mg/kgGASTAB 71,118,1976
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.05 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOVEFN -,12,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mL/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOVEFN -,12,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
FCTOD7 48,803,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 48,944,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1500 µL/kgXEURAQ MDDC-1715
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 191,211,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 3 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 191,211,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mL/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other esterases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases
TOVEFN -,12,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mL/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOVEFN -,12,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mL/kgLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
VCVGH* -,340,1990
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72,96,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
CYLPDN 22,1159,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Xanthine oxidases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JAPTO* 26,178,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 206,27,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 mL/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 66,362,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 26 µL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 66,363,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
TXAPA9 206,27,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Changes in liver weight
EJPHAZ 546,152,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgLiver: Other changesTXCYAC 238,49,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 237,1,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOXID9 66,284,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
BCPCA6 66,1091,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 255,6,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 179,124,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mL/kgLiver: Other changesTOLED5 179,124,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
TXAPA9 228,225,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (70 percent kill): 3 mL/kgTXAPA9 228,225,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductasesTXAPA9 228,239,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mL/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammationTXAPA9 226,38,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 170,42,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 49,1316,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 49,1604,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mL/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
FCTOD7 50,310,2012
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 50,3405,2012
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 0.1 mL/kgHBPTO* 1,880,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
BCLPT* 100,115,2007
intratracheal/rat lowest published lethal dose: 90 mg/kgNTIS** OTS0520615
intrauterine/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 256,191,2009
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 125 mg/kgQJPPAL 7,205,1934
intravenous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5840 mg/kgBehavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
ZAPPAN 118,305,1974
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3200 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
BCPCA6 67,2141,2004
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kgQJPPAL 7,205,1934
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5760 mg/kgVCVGH* -,339,1990
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 0.3 mL/kgVCVGH* -,342,1990
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 mL/kgLiver: Other changesVCVGH* -,342,1990
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6 gm/kgGTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 1700 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
SAMJAF 49,635,1975
oral/man lowest published lethal dose: 429 mg/kgCardiac: Change in rate

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis
ZHYGAM 19,781,1973
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7749 mg/kgVCVGH* -,339,1990
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 25 µL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,393,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 10 mL/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Liver: Other changes
BPBLEO 27,1913,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes
JTPAE7 15,161,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JTSCDR 31,23,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
JTSCDR 31,23,2006
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5760 mg/kgVCVGH* -,339,1990
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FATOAO 47,87,1984
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 250 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FATOAO 44,191,1981
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 49,2422,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 49,3183,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
JAPTO* 28,147,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2000 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
JTSCDR 34,175,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mL/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXCYAC 261,33,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mL/kgLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 48,3184,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 48,1255,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JPETAB 300,273,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 183,71,2002
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2350 mg/kgARTODN 54,275,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 47,1453,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 47,2321,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.75 mL/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: TransaminasesFCTOD7 47,2742,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 179,124,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
FCTOD7 46,2972,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
FCTOD7 46,2972,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 mL/kgBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)FCTOD7 46,2972,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.6 mL/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weightFCTOD7 46,2972,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
JTPAE7 17,223,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes
JTSCDR 32,401,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kgLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
JTSCDR 32,469,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
INJPD2 38,408,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
INJPD2 39,33,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mL/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
BPBLEO 31,493,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
PHREP* 57,596,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
JTSCDR 31,49,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kgLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TPKVAL 15,87,1979
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kgTPKVAL 12,162,1971
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuseCEXPB9 30,799,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
ARTODN 77,392,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
TOXID9 66,87,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.66 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 196,155,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1600 mg/kgOlfaction: Change in olfactory nerve

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 79,224,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOXID9 60,236,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kgOlfaction: Other olfaction effects

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal
TOXID9 78,435,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1600 mg/kgOlfaction: Ulcerated nasal septum

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal
TOXID9 78,435,2004
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 1800 mg/kgEye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction)

Behavioral: Coma

Behavioral: Antipsychotic
TXMDAX 69,86,1973
parenteral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 183,36,2008
parenteral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.01 mL/kgLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight
FCTOD7 50,2681,2012
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOXID9 44,46,2005
skin/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): >9400 µL/kgTXAPA9 7,559,1965
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): >20 gm/kgATDAEI 1,712,1992
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5070 mg/kgSPEADM 78-1,16,1978
subcutaneous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Hemorrhage
JPETAB 63,153,1938
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 31 gm/kgBehavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Ataxia
JPETAB 123,224,1958
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 3 gm/kgQJPPAL 7,205,1934
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4000 mg/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FATOAO 53,33,1990
unreported route/man lowest published lethal dose: 93 mg/kg85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kgKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionTOXID9 66,199,2002
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 -,239,2009
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 180S,S39,2008
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 66,10,2002

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/Dog lowest published toxic concentration: 515 mg/m3/8H/6W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degenerationTXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 515 mg/m3/8H/6W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 61 mg/m3/90D- continuousLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/7H/33W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AMIHBC 6,50,1952
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/8H/46W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes
JIHTAB 18,277,1936
inhalation/hamster lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/12W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOXID9 48,408,1999
inhalation/monkey lowest published toxic concentration: 515 mg/m3/8H/6W- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation/monkey lowest published toxic concentration: 61 mg/m3/90D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation/monkey lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/8H/46W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheathJIHTAB 18,277,1936
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/12W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOXID9 48,408,1999
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 515 mg/m3/8H/6W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degenerationTXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 61 mg/m3/90D- continuousLiver: Other changesTXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/7H/30W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainAMIHBC 6,50,1952
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 100 mg/m3/3H/35W- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
GTPZAB 25(5),47,1981
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 61 mg/m3/90D- continuousLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/1H/46D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightAMIHBC 6,50,1952
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/7H/27W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AMIHBC 6,50,1952
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/3H/8W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degenerationINHEAO 11,48,1973
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/8H/46W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 18,277,1936
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 41 mg/m3/4H/8D- intermittentEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunctionTPKVAL 12,5,1971
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 0.0144 gm/m3/2D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impairedTPKVAL 13,145,1973
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 670 mg/m3/4D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Changes in liver weight
TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 670 mg/m3/8D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 240 mg/m3/4D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Other changes
TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 240 mg/m3/8D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningTPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 240 mg/m3/14D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in thymus weightTPKVAL 15,76,1979
intramuscular/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 32 mg/kg/30D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Liver: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
FATOAO 46,103,1983
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/4D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FATOAO 50,67,1987
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 gm/kg/4D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffusePCJOAU 36,91,2002
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)TOXID9 72,198,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 39 mL/kg/13W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JJATDK 26,326,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.07 mL/kg/2D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed
TXAPA9 223,56,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12 mL/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)JPETAB 323,778,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5.6 mL/kg/7W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Changes in liver weight
FCTOD7 49,848,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/7W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
JOETD7 135,173,2011
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5.6 mL/kg/7W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Changes in liver weight
TXCYAC 272,1,2010
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 800 µL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
TXCYAC 273,45,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mL/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FTRPAE 83,81,2012
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12 mL/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JOETD7 135,575,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
JOETD7 135,575,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kg/2D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
JOETD7 136,55,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.28 gm/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 50,3086,2012
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12 mL/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 50,3343,2012
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.16 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TXAPA9 248,234,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16 mL/kg/16W- intermittentVascular: Measurement of regional blood flow

Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Blood: Changes in spleen
CEXPB9 33(Suppl),A2,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
JPHSC* 109,119,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 47,2111,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7.2 mL/kg/4W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 48,2469,2010
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mL/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FITOT* 82,454,2011
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12 mL/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOLED5 176,223,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kg/2D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
IJPHA* 41,36,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32 mL/kg/16W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
FCTOD7 47,1393,2009
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9.6 gm/kg/8W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JAPTO* 28,35,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9.6 gm/kg/8W- continuousLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JAPTO* 28,1021,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mL/kg/16D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
IRJPH* 6,5,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mL/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 248,59,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.9 mL/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
JTSCDR 27,139,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12 mL/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)FCTOD7 41,1789,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7 mL/kg/7W- intermittentLiver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 187,67,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mL/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)TOXID9 72,345,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9600 mg/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JAPTO* 23,103,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9600 mg/kg/8W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JAPTO* 23,103,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.12 mL/kg/7W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 44,336,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kg/1W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
CEXPB9 27,694,2000
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mL/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
CEXPB9 27,694,2000
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mL/kg/5W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
CEXPB9 27,694,2000
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 mL/kg/7W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
CEXPB9 27,694,2000
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 mL/kg/10W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FATOAO 47,67,1984
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.78 mL/kg/1W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
BCPCA6 63,697,2002
intraperitoneal/rat : 2 mL/kg/2D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 44,1989,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4200 µL/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
IJEBA6 37,1025,1999
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 636 gm/kg/16D- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Blood: Change in clotting factors

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JPETAB 22,215,1923
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8750 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FAATDF 7,454,1986
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1080 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
FAATDF 7,454,1986
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 7000 mg/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
NTPTR* IMM-94001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightNTPTR* IMM-91021
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3500 mg/kg/7D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseNTPTR* IMM-91021
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3.2 gm/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 48,1644,2010
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 47,2281,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 47,2031,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JOETD7 135,116,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6 mL/kg/3W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JOETD7 135,440,2011
oral/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 117.2 mg/kg/16W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
CEXPB9 27,987,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8000 mg/kg/4D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Jaundice (or hyperbilirubinemia) hepatocellular
FATOAO 50,66,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 mL/kg/1W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 mL/kg/5W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.8 mL/kg/6D/3W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 mL/kg/6D/2W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 mL/kg/6D/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli
JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9.6 mL/kg/6D/8W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldJTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4800 µL/kg/8W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FAATDF 15,558,1990
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4197 µg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Other changesJPPMAB 3,169,1951
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FAATDF 17,186,1991
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.2 mg/kg/4D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impairedTPKVAL 13,145,1973
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg/2D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impairedTPKVAL 13,145,1973
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.6 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight
JOETD7 134,379,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 49,2433,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.2 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 50,713,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.2 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 50,3413,2012
oral/rat : 16470 mg/kg/28D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Changes in liver weight
FCTOD7 44,1424,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.2 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 48,345,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.75 mL/kg/15D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
FCTOD7 47,2742,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6.4 mL/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 46,2267,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mL/kg/8D- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
FCTOD7 46,2288,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mL/kg/3D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 46,2703,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTPAE7 15,79,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTPAE7 15,79,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 mL/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 253,36,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 32 mL/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 253,36,2008
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6.5 mL/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degenerationTXAPA9 208,242,2005
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mL/kg/60D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: TransaminasesTXAPA9 208,242,2005
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 19 mL/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 208,242,2005
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 24000 mg/kg/3W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: TransaminasesBIPBU* 24,1271,2001
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 64000 mg/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
BIPBU* 24,1271,2001
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8000 mg/kg/4D- intermittentLiver: Multiple effectsFATOAO 50,66,1987
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2160 mg/kg/6W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field

Behavioral: Irritability

Behavioral: Aggression
ACPSI* 23,739,2002
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18 mL/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TPKVAL 5,100,1963
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 36 mL/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCLPH* 19,491,2005
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 31200 µL/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)ARPAAQ 85,275,1968
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 24 mL/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impairedCYLPDN 22,183,2001
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes
JTPAE7 17,219,2004
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 mL/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 47,2196,2009
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 mL/kg/20D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 48,2827,2010
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kg/2D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 49,185,2011
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7 mL/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 48,704,2010
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mL/kg/1W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
IJPHA* 41,23,2009
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6 mL/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 208,242,2005
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 18 mL/kg/30D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 208,242,2005
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4D- intermittentLiver: Jaundice, cholestatic

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 66,10,2002

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 5 ppm;short term exposure limit 10 ppm (skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Suspected human carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 20,371,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 71,401,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 1,53,1972
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 1,53,1972
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 20,371,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 71,401,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2BIMEMDT 71,401,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 189,113,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW32XPAD -,49,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPAREAQ 4,1,1952
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAJMEAZ 38,409,1965
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBNYMAM 54,413,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCTOXAO 13,231,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW85CVA2 5,250,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 7,177,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 6,1133,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTIS** PB256-732
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 33,105,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 196,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 613,138,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 628,67,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 627,59,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEJPHAZ 549,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXCYAC 254,130,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPTPAD4 113,229,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAIRMJ* 20,8,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 22,161,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 682,94,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 23,271,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,154,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,167,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPAREAQ 60,79,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,617,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 711,13,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 49,132,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 714,105,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,108,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 722,147,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 751,49,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 746,104,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 733,39,2012

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 10 ppm (65 mg/m3) (skin)DTLVS* 3,43,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-ARAB Republic of Egypttime-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.63 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 10 ppm (65 mg/m3);KZW 40 ppm (260 mg/m3), skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 5 ppm (31 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMshort term exposure limit 10 ppm (64 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 1 ppm (6.3 mg/m3), skin, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 1 ppm (6.3 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 5 ppm (31 mg/m3), skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 2 ppm (12 mg/m3), VLE 10 ppm (60 mg/m3), C3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 0.5 ppm (3.2 mg/m3), skin, 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYProhibited in Hungary, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 1 ppm (6.3 mg/m3), carc, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-INDIAtime-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 5 ppm (31 mg/m3), skin, 2B carc, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 20 ppm (126 mg/m3) (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.63 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 2 ppm (13 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 5 ppm (31 mg/m3); short term exposure limit 10 ppm (63 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 20 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 100 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 2 ppm (13 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 3 ppm (19 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.5 ppm (3.2 mg/m3), KZG-week 1 ppm (6.4 mg/m3), carc 3, skin, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 10 ppm, short term exposure limit 25 ppm, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 3.2 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 10 ppm (65 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 2 ppm (13 mg/m3), skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (65 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (65 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm;ceiling concentration 25 ppm;Pk 200 ppm/5M/4HCFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 10 ppm (65 mg/m3) (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-airCarcinogen short term exposure limit 2 ppm/60MNIOSH* DHHS #95-121,1995
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 17490; Number of Industries 77; Total Number of Facilities 6629; Number of Occupations 72; Total Number of Employees Exposed 104174; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 20699
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 17490; Number of Industries 73; Total Number of Facilities 5152; Number of Occupations 56; Total Number of Employees Exposed 64009

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/95/100103/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Histidine reversion-Ames test; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae-homozygosis; S cerevisiae-reversion
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, halogenated, 1003
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
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