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Carbon tetrachloride

RTECS #: FG4900000

CAS #: 56-23-5


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 153.81 MF: CCl4


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Benzinoform
  2. Carbon chloride (CCl4)
  3. Carbon TET
  4. Carbon tetrachloride (ACGIH:OSHA)
  5. Carbona
  6. Chlorid uhlicity (Czech)
  7. Czterochlorek wegla (Polish)
  8. ENT 27164
  9. ENT 4,705
  10. Flukoids
  11. Halon 1040
  12. Methane tetrachloride
  13. Methane, tetrachloro -
  14. Necatorina
  15. Perchloromethane
  16. R 10
  1. R 10 (Refrigerant)
  2. RCRA waste number U211
  3. Tetrachloorkoolstof (Dutch)
  4. Tetrachloormetaan
  5. Tetrachlorkohlenstoff, tetra (German)
  6. Tetrachlormethan (German)
  7. Tetrachlorocarbon
  8. Tetrachloromethane (OSHA)
  9. Tetrachlorure de carbone (French)
  10. Tetraclorometano (Italian)
  11. Tetracloruro di carbonio (Italian)
  12. Tetrafinol
  13. Tetraform
  14. Tetrasol
  15. Univerm
  16. Vermoestricid


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
2,200 痢/30S mild XEURAQ MDDC-1715
eye
rabbit
500 mg/24 hour mild 85JCAE -,91,1986
skin
rabbit
4 mg mild XEURAQ MDDC-1715
skin
rabbit
500 mg/24 hour mild 85JCAE -,91,1986


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis subcutaneous
rat
31 gm/kg/12 week- intermittent FHCYAI 13,207,1975
DNA adduct Escherichia coli 300 ppm MUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA adduct mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 1 mmol/L TOLED5 11,243,1982
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
mouse
367 痠ol/kg IJCNAW 11,419,1973
DNA adduct mouse liver 10 痠ol PAACA3 24,81,1983
DNA adduct intraperitoneal
rat
367 痠ol/kg IJCNAW 11,419,1973
DNA damage oral
mouse
335 痠ol/kg PSEBAA 175,237,1984
DNA damage mouse lymphocyte 6,550 痠ol/L MUREAV 203,155,1988
DNA damage subcutaneous
rat
31 gm/kg/12 week- intermittent FHCYAI 13,207,1975
DNA damage rat liver 3 mmol/L SinJF# 26OCT1982
DNA damage rat liver 1 mmol/L/2 hour TXCYAC 187,101,2003
DNA inhibition oral
mouse
2 gm/kg MUREAV 46,305,1977
DNA repair Escherichia coli 12,500 ng/well MUREAV 133,161,1984
DNA repair oral
mouse
100 mg/kg TCMUD8 18,309,1998
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
mouse
100 mg/kg ENMUDM 6,474,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis intraperitoneal
rat
100 mg/kg TOLED5 35,191,1987
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
rat
1,400 mg/kg MUREAV 320,189,1994
mutation in microorganisms Aspergillus nidulans 5,000 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 147,288,1985
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 0.2 pph/24 hour (+enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 43,128,2004
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 0.1 pph/24 hour (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 43,128,2004
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 0.1 pph/24 hour EMMUEG 43,128,2004
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 20 無/L (+enzymatic activation step) EJMBA2 18,213,1983
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 0.5 pph/24 hour (+enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 43,128,2004
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Aspergillus nidulans 5,000 ppm MUREAV 147,288,1985
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 2 gm/L MUREAV 397,271,1998
morphological transform hamster embryo 500 痢/L CRNGDP 4,291,1983
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 0.1 mg/L/21 day (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 35,300,2000
other mutation test systems intraperitoneal
rat
100 mg/kg TOLED5 35,191,1987
other mutation test systems oral
rat
50 mg/kg MUREAV 344,109,1995
phage inhibition capacity Escherichia coli 200 痢/well MUREAV 260,349,1991
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Aspergillus nidulans 5,000 ppm MUREAV 147,288,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction hamster lung 1,600 痠ol/L MUREAV 182,135,1987


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/7 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis
TXAPA9 28,452,1974
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 250 ppm/8 hour (10-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)
DABBBA 32,2021,1971
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 71,500 mg/kg (15 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
EXPEAM 22,395,1966
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Other effects on male TXCYAC 10,39,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg (7-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) 85DJA5 -,95,1971
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg (14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord) BEXBAN 82,1262,1976
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
TJADAB 56,252,1997
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) FAATDF 40,30,1997
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,384 mg/kg (18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
BEXBAN 76,1467,1973


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 9,250 mg/kg/30 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 26,855,1961
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,400 mg/kg/19 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
JNCIAM 20,431,1958
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 12 gm/kg/88 day- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 4,385,1944
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 8,580 mg/kg/9 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 4,385,1944
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 57,600 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 2,197,1941
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,040 mg/kg/36 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens
TXCYAC 199,169,2004
parenteral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 305 gm/kg/30 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
BEXBAN 89,845,1980
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15,600 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 38,891,1967
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 100 gm/kg/25 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
KRMJAC 12,37,1965
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 31 gm/kg/12 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JNCIAM 45,1237,1970
subcutaneous
rat
toxic dose : 182 gm/kg/70 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors
JNCIAM 44,419,1970


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 38,110 ppm/2 hour N/R HBAMAK 4,1405,1935
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 6,300 mg/m3/15 minute Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Changes in liver weight
VCVGH* -,340,1990
inhalation
dog
lowest published lethal concentration: 14,620 ppm/8 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
NIHBAZ 191,1,1949
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 133,000 mg/m3/1 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation
frog
lowest published lethal concentration: 58 gm/m3 N/R AEXPBL 97,86,1923
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 20,000 ppm/2 hour N/R FLCRAP 1,197,1967
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 80,000 mg/m3/40 minute Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting 85CYAB 2,136,1959
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 1,000 ppm N/R PCOC** -,198,1966
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 45 ppm/3 day Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Anorexia (human)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
LANCAO 1,360,1960
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 317 ppm/30 minute Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting JAMAAP 103,962,1934
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 5 pph/5 minute N/R TABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 50,000 mg/m3/1 hour N/R VCVGH* -,341,1990
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 34,500 mg/m3 N/R GTPZAB 24(3),17,1980
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 75,000 mg/m3 Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 9,526 ppm/8 hour N/R JIHTAB 29,382,1947
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 50,000 mg/m3/2 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,307,1990
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 34,500 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 134,300 mg/m3/90S Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning VCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 8,000 ppm/4 hour N/R NPIRI* 1,16,1974
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 46,000 mg/m3/6 hour N/R VCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 75,000 mg/m3/2 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,350 ppm/1 hour Liver: Other changes VCVGH* -,339,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 3.25 gm/m3/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
TPKVAL 12,23,1971
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.35 gm/m3/4 hour Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TPKVAL 12,23,1971
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.25 gm/m3/4 hour Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Proteinuria
TPKVAL 12,23,1971
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 670 mg/m3 Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Vascular: Other changes
TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.2 gm/m3/4 hour Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal TPKVAL 9,37,1967
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 gm/m3/4 hour Liver: Liver function tests impaired TPKVAL 9,43,1967
intraperitoneal
chicken
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,497 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from small intestine

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
BVJOA9 127,304,1971
intraperitoneal
chicken
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2.83 mg/kg/1 hour Gastrointestinal: Peritonitis BVJOA9 127,304,1971
intraperitoneal
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,500 mg/kg Liver: Liver function tests impaired TXAPA9 10,119,1967
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 572 mg/kg N/R PHMCAA 10,172,1968
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose : 3 mL/kg N/R TOXID9 72,196,2003
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 40,517,2002
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 572 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),360,2003
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 1 mL/kg N/R TOSCF2 73,220,2003
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal TXAPA9 197,301,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 203,106,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 78,306,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOXID9 78,306,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 572 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOXID9 78,310,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 208,87,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 218,58,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.175 mL/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory syndrome diagnostic of central lesion

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerve
TOLED5 160,204,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,590 mg/kg Liver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 228,310,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,590 mg/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins TOXID9 228,310,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1.25 mL/kg N/R JPETAB 316,507,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 15.38 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JAPTO* 27,25,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
TXCYAC 218,58,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
TXAPA9 223,56,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 153.81 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 243,249,2008
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JPHSC* 106,136,2008
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
FCTOD7 46,1778,2008
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,500 無/kg N/R XEURAQ MDDC-1715
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
CYLPDN 22,1159,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose : 0.1 mL/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,880,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mL/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72,96,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mL/kg Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
VCVGH* -,340,1990
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 191,211,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 3 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 191,211,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
BCPCA6 66,1091,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOXID9 66,284,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mL/kg Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 66,362,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 26 無/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 66,363,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kg Liver: Other changes TOXID9 66,364,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXAPA9 206,27,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Xanthine oxidases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JAPTO* 26,178,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
TXAPA9 206,27,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Changes in liver weight
EJPHAZ 546,152,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg Liver: Other changes TXCYAC 238,49,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 237,1,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.2 mL/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation TXAPA9 226,38,2008
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOLED5 170,42,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
TXAPA9 228,225,2008
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (70 percent kill): 3 mL/kg N/R TXAPA9 228,225,2008
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases TXAPA9 228,239,2008
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 477 mg/kg N/R GASTAB 71,118,1976
intratracheal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 90 mg/kg N/R NTIS** OTS0520615
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 125 mg/kg N/R QJPPAL 7,205,1934
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,200 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
BCPCA6 67,2141,2004
intravenous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,840 mg/kg Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
ZAPPAN 118,305,1974
oral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 1 gm/kg N/R QJPPAL 7,205,1934
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,760 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,339,1990
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 0.3 mL/kg N/R VCVGH* -,342,1990
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 mL/kg Liver: Other changes VCVGH* -,342,1990
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6 gm/kg N/R GTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 1,700 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
SAMJAF 49,635,1975
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 429 mg/kg Cardiac: Change in rate

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis
ZHYGAM 19,781,1973
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7,749 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,339,1990
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25 無/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 44,393,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mL/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Liver: Other changes
BPBLEO 27,1913,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JTSCDR 31,23,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
JTSCDR 31,23,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes
JTPAE7 15,161,2002
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,350 mg/kg N/R ARTODN 54,275,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JPETAB 300,273,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 183,71,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.66 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 196,155,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse CEXPB9 30,799,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
ARTODN 77,392,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
TOXID9 66,87,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,600 mg/kg Olfaction: Change in olfactory nerve

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 79,224,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOXID9 60,236,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal
TOXID9 78,435,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,600 mg/kg Olfaction: Ulcerated nasal septum

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal
TOXID9 78,435,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg N/R TPKVAL 12,162,1971
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition
TPKVAL 15,87,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
JTSCDR 31,49,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
INJPD2 38,408,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
INJPD2 39,33,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mL/kg Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
BPBLEO 31,493,2008
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes
PHREP* 57,596,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
JTPAE7 17,223,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes
JTSCDR 32,401,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
JTSCDR 32,469,2007
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FATOAO 47,87,1984
oral
rabbit
lethal dose : 250 mg/kg Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FATOAO 44,191,1981
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,760 mg/kg N/R VCVGH* -,339,1990
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 1,800 mg/kg Eye: Miosis (pupilliary constriction)

Behavioral: Coma

Behavioral: Antipsychotic
TXMDAX 69,86,1973
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOXID9 44,46,2005
subcutaneous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Hemorrhage
JPETAB 63,153,1938
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 31 gm/kg Behavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Ataxia
JPETAB 123,224,1958
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,000 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FATOAO 53,33,1990
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 3 gm/kg N/R QJPPAL 7,205,1934
skin
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >9,400 無/kg N/R TXAPA9 7,559,1965
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,070 mg/kg N/R SPEADM 78-1,16,1978
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >20 gm/kg N/R ATDAEI 1,712,1992
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 93 mg/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,000 mg/kg Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition TOXID9 66,199,2002
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 mL/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 66,10,2002


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 515 mg/m3/8 hour/6 week- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 515 mg/m3/8 hour/6 week- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 61 mg/m3/90 day- continuous Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/7 hour/33 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AMIHBC 6,50,1952
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/8 hour/46 week- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes
JIHTAB 18,277,1936
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/12 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOXID9 48,408,1999
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 515 mg/m3/8 hour/6 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis (interstitial)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 61 mg/m3/90 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/8 hour/46 week- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath JIHTAB 18,277,1936
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm/12 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOXID9 48,408,1999
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 61 mg/m3/90 day- continuous Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes
TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/1 hour/46 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight AMIHBC 6,50,1952
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 200 ppm/7 hour/27 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AMIHBC 6,50,1952
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 50 ppm/3 hour/8 week- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration INHEAO 11,48,1973
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/8 hour/46 week- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 18,277,1936
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 41 mg/m3/4 hour/8 day- intermittent Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction TPKVAL 12,5,1971
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.144 gm/m3/2 day- intermittent Liver: Liver function tests impaired TPKVAL 13,145,1973
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 670 mg/m3/4 day- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Changes in liver weight
TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 670 mg/m3/8 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 240 mg/m3/4 day- intermittent Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Other changes
TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 240 mg/m3/8 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 240 mg/m3/14 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 515 mg/m3/8 hour/6 week- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 61 mg/m3/90 day- continuous Liver: Other changes TXAPA9 10,270,1967
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 ppm/7 hour/30 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain AMIHBC 6,50,1952
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 mg/m3/3 hour/35 week- intermittent Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
GTPZAB 25(5),47,1981
intramuscular
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 32 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Liver: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
FATOAO 46,103,1983
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FATOAO 50,67,1987
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8 gm/kg/4 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse PCJOAU 36,91,2002
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 mL/kg/8 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring) TOXID9 72,198,2003
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 39 mL/kg/13 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JJATDK 26,326,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 mL/kg/2 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed
TXAPA9 223,56,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,200 無/kg/2 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
IJEBA6 37,1025,1999
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mL/kg/1 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
CEXPB9 27,694,2000
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mL/kg/2 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
CEXPB9 27,694,2000
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mL/kg/5 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
CEXPB9 27,694,2000
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mL/kg/7 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
CEXPB9 27,694,2000
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mL/kg/10 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FATOAO 47,67,1984
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.78 mL/kg/1 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
BCPCA6 63,697,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.9 mL/kg/7 day- intermittent Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
JTSCDR 27,139,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12 mL/kg/6 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring) FCTOD7 41,1789,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mL/kg/7 week- intermittent Liver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 187,67,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mL/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring) TOXID9 72,345,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,600 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JAPTO* 23,103,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,600 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JAPTO* 23,103,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.12 mL/kg/7 week- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 44,336,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
: 2 mL/kg/2 day- intermittent Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 44,1989,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mL/kg/16 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
IRJPH* 6,5,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mL/kg/28 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 248,59,2008
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 636 gm/kg/16 day- intermittent Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Blood: Change in clotting factors

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JPETAB 22,215,1923
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8,750 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FAATDF 7,454,1986
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,080 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
FAATDF 7,454,1986
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7,000 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
NTPTR* IMM-94001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight NTPTR* IMM-91021
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,500 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response NTPTR* IMM-91021
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,800 無/kg/8 week- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,200 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FAATDF 15,558,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,197 痢/kg/28 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes JPPMAB 3,169,1951
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FAATDF 17,186,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8,000 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Jaundice (or hyperbilirubinemia) hepatocellular
FATOAO 50,66,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 mL/kg/1 week- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal) JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 mL/kg/5 week- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 mL/kg/8 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.8 mL/kg/6 day/3 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 mL/kg/6 day/2 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 mL/kg/6 day/8 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli
JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9.6 mL/kg/6 day/8 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field JTSCDR 25,33,2000
oral
rat
: 16,470 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Changes in liver weight
FCTOD7 44,1424,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.2 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Liver: Liver function tests impaired TPKVAL 13,145,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16 mg/kg/2 day- intermittent Liver: Liver function tests impaired TPKVAL 13,145,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTPAE7 15,79,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JTPAE7 15,79,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6.4 mL/kg/8 week- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 46,2267,2008
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 117.2 mg/kg/16 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
CEXPB9 27,987,2000
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6.5 mL/kg/30 day- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration TXAPA9 208,242,2005
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12.5 mL/kg/60 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases TXAPA9 208,242,2005
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 19 mL/kg/90 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 208,242,2005
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 24,000 mg/kg/3 week- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases BIPBU* 24,1271,2001
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 64,000 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
BIPBU* 24,1271,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 31,200 無/kg/12 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring) ARPAAQ 85,275,1968
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8,000 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Liver: Multiple effects FATOAO 50,66,1987
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 24 mL/kg/12 week- intermittent Liver: Liver function tests impaired CYLPDN 22,183,2001
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,160 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field

Behavioral: Irritability

Behavioral: Aggression
ACPSI* 23,739,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18 mL/kg/5 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TPKVAL 5,100,1963
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 36 mL/kg/12 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCLPH* 19,491,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Other changes
JTPAE7 17,219,2004
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Liver: Jaundice, cholestatic

Liver: Other changes
TOXID9 66,10,2002
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6 mL/kg/30 day- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 208,242,2005
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18 mL/kg/30 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXAPA9 208,242,2005


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 5 ppm;short term exposure limit 10 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Suspected human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 20,371,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 71,401,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 1,53,1972
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 1,53,1972
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 20,371,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 71,401,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2B IMEMDT 71,401,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXCYAC 189,113,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
32XPAD -,49,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PAREAQ 4,1,1952
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AJMEAZ 38,409,1965
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BNYMAM 54,413,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CTOXAO 13,231,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
85CVA2 5,250,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 7,177,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 6,1133,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NTIS** PB256-732
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 33,105,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXCYAC 196,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 613,138,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 628,67,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 627,59,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EJPHAZ 549,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TXCYAC 254,130,2008


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 10 ppm (65 mg/m3) (skin) DTLVS* 3,43,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm;
ceiling concentration 25 ppm;
peak concentration 200 ppm/5 minute/4 hour
CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (65 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (65 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (65 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.63 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 5 ppm (31 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM short term exposure limit 10 ppm (64 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 1 ppm (6.3 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 5 ppm (31 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (63 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 2 ppm (12 mg/m3), VLE 10 ppm (60 mg/m3), continuous3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 3.2 mg/m3 (0.5 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY Prohibited in Hungary, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - INDIA time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 5 ppm (31 mg/m3), skin, 2B carcinogen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 5 ppm (30 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 20 ppm (126 mg/m3) (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 3.2 mg/m3, Skin, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 0.1 ppm (0.63 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 2 ppm (13 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 10 ppm (65 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 20 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 100 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 2 ppm (13 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 3 ppm (19 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 0.5 ppm (3.2 mg/m3),KZG- week 1 ppm (6.4 mg/m3), Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 10 ppm, short term exposure limit 25 ppm, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 2 ppm (13 mg/m3) (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Suspected human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Suspected human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CARBON TETRACHLORIDE-air Carcinogen short term exposure limit 2 ppm/60 minute NIOSH* DHHS #95-121,1995
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 17490;
Number of Industries 73;
Total Number of Facilities 5,152;
Number of Occupations 56;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 64,009
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 17490;
Number of Industries 77;
Total Number of Facilities 6,629;
Number of Occupations 72;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 104,174;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 20,699


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/95/100103/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae-homozygosis; S cerevisiae-reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Histidine reversion-Ames test; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in the manufacture of chlorofluoromethanes and as grain fumigant, fire extinguishers
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydrocarbons, halogenated, 1003
NTP 11th Report on Carcinogens,2004:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

32XPAD "Teratology," Berry, C.L., and D.E. Poswillo, eds., New York, Springer, 1975
85CVA2 "Oncology 1970, Proceedings of the Tenth International Cancer Congress," Chicago, Year Book Medical Pub., 1971
85CYAB "Chemistry of Industrial Toxicology," 2nd ed., Elkins, H.B., New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1959
85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
85DJA5 "Malformations Congenitales des Mammiferes," Tuchmann-Duplessis, H., Paris, Masson et Cie, 1971
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
ACPSI* Acta pharmacologica Sinica (Shanghai : Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica : Chinese Academy of Science ; Carlton, VIC, Australia : Blackwell Publishing Asia, 2005) V.21- 2000-
AEXPBL Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1-109, 1873-1925. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AJMEAZ American Journal of Medicine. (Technical Pub., 875 Third Ave., New York, NY 10022) V.1- 1946-
AMIHBC AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. (Chicago, IL) V.2-10, 1950-54. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
ARPAAQ Archives of Pathology. (Chicago, IL) V.5(3)-50(3), 1928-50; V.70-99, 1960-75. For publisher information, see APLMAS.
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
ATDAEI Acute Toxicity Data. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1- 1990-
BCPCA6 Biochemical Pharmacology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1958-
BEXBAN Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine (English Translation). Translation of BEBMAE. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.41- 1956-
BIPBU* Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin. (Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 2-12-15, Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-0002, Japan) V.1- 1993-
BNYMAM Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. (New York Academy of Medicine, 2 E. 103rd St., New York, NY 10029) Ser 2: V.1- 1925-
BPBLEO Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. (Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 2-12-15-201 Shibuya Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan) V.16- 1993-
BVJOA9 British Veterinary Journal. (Bailliere Tindall, 33 The Avenue, Eastbourne BN21 3UN, UK) V.105- 1949-
CEXPB9 Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. (Blackwell Scientific Publications, (Australia) Pty Ltd., 107 Barry St., Carlton, Vic. 3053, Australia) V.1- 1974-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
CRTXB2 CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 1971-
CTOXAO Clinical Toxicology. (New York, NY) V.1-18, 1968-81. For publisher information, see JTCTDW.
CYLPDN Zhongguo Yaoli Xuebao. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. Chinese Journal of Pharmacology. (China International Book Trading Corp., POB 2820, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1980-
DABBBA Dissertation Abstracts International, B: The Sciences and Engineering. (University Microfilms International, 300 N. Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106) V.30- 1969-
DIMON* Disease-a Month (Chicago : Year Book Publishers) V. 24- 1978-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EJMBA2 Egyptian Journal of Microbiology. (National Information and Documentation Centre, A1-Tahrir St., Awqaf P.O. Dokki, Cairo, Egypt) V.7- 1972-
EJPHAZ European Journal of Pharmacology. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1967-
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
EXPEAM Experientia. (Birkhaeuser Verlag, POB 133, CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1945-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FATOAO Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow). For English translation, see PHTXA6 and RPTOAN. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.2- 1939-
FCLPH* Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (Oxford : Blackwell Science) 2001-
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FHCYAI Folia Histochemica et Cytochemica. (Cracow, Poland) V.1-21, 1963-83.
FLCRAP Fluorine Chemistry Reviews. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1967-
GASTAB Gastroenterology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1943-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HBAMAK "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.)
HBPTO* Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Robert Krieger ed, Academic press, 2001
HTOPA*
HUTOX*
IJCNAW International Journal of Cancer. (International Union Against Cancer, 3 rue du Conseil- General, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland) V.1- 1966-
IJEBA6 Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. (Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, Hillside Rd., New Delhi 110 012, India) V.1- 1963-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
INHEAO Industrial Health. (National Institute of Industrial Health, 6-21-1 Nagao, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, 213 Japan) V.1- 1963-
INJPD2 Indian Journal of Pharmacology. (Dept. of Pharmacology, Baranas Hindu Univ., Varanasi 221 005, India) V.1- 1968(?)-
IRJPH*
JAMAAP JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. (AMA, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610) V.1- 1883-
JAPTO* Journal of Applied Toxicology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oldlands Way Bognor Regis West Sussex, PO22 9SA England) V.1- 1981-
JIHTAB Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JNCIAM Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8.
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JPHSC*
JPPMAB Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. (Pharmaceutical Soc. of Great Britain, 1 Lambeth High St., London SEI 7JN, UK) V.1- 1949-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
JTPAE7 Journal of Toxicologic Pathology. (Nihon Dokusei Byori Gakkai, editor, 3-25-8 Nishi- shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan) V.1- 1988
JTSCDR Journal of Toxicological Sciences. (Japanese Soc. of Toxicological Sciences, 4th Floor, Gakkai Center Bldg., 4-16, Yayoi 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan) V.1- 1976-
KRMJAC Kurume Medical Journal. (Kurume Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Physiology, 67, Asahi- machi, Kurume 830, Japan) V.1- 1954-
LANCAO Lancet. (7 Adam St., London WC2N 6AD, UK) V.1- 1823-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIHBAZ National Institutes of Health, Bulletin. (Bethesda, MD)
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NPIRI* Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol.1: Organic Solvents, 1974. (National Assoc. of Printing Ink Research Institute, Francis McDonald Sinclair Memorial Laboratory, Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA 18015)
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
PAACA3 Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research. (Waverly Press, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1954-
PAREAQ Pharmacological Reviews. (Williams & Wilkins, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1949-
PCJOAU Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal (English Translation). Translation of KHFZAN. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) No.1- 1967-
PCOC** Pesticide Chemicals Official Compendium, Association of the American Pesticide Control Officials, Inc., 1966. (Topeka, KS)
PHMCAA Pharmacologist. (American Soc. for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20014) V.1- 1959-
PHREP*
PSEBAA Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1903/04-
QJPPAL Quarterly Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology. (London, UK) V.2-21, 1929-48. For publisher information, see JPPMAB.
SAMJAF South African Medical Journal. (Medical Assoc. of South Africa, Secy., P.O. Box 643, Cape Town, S. Africa) V.6- 1932-
SPEADM Special Publication of the Entomological Society of America. (4603 Calvert Rd., College Park, MD 20740)
SinJF# Personal Communication from J.F. Sina, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research, West Point, PA 19486, Oct. 26, 1982
TABIA2 Tabulae Biologicae. (The Hague, Netherlands) V.1-22, 1925-63. Discontinued.
TCMUD8 Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980-
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TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TPKVAL Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. (Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1961-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
TXMDAX Texas Medicine. (Texas Medical Assoc., 1801 N. Lamar Blvd., Austin, TX 78701) V.60- 1964-
VCVGH* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogenproisvodnie uglevodorodov". (Hazardous substances: Galogenated hydrocarbons) Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1990.
XEURAQ U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, University of Rochester, Research and Development Reports. (Rochester, NY)
ZAPPAN Zentralblatt fuer Allgemeine Pathologie und Pathologische Anatomie. (VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Postfach 176, Jena DDR-6900, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1890-
ZHYGAM Zeitschrift fuer die Gesamte Hygiene und Ihre Grenzgebiete. (VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Neue Gruenstr. 18, Berlin DDR-1020, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1955-

Used in the manufacture of chlorofluoromethanes and as grain fumigant, fire extinguishers

NIOSH PROFILE (FUMIGANTS), SRC, 10/77

NIOSH PROFILE (GRAIN HANDLERS), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (IRON AND STEEL FOUNDRIES), SRC, 14/77

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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