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Carbon dioxide

RTECS #: FF6400000

CAS #: 124-38-9


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 44.01 MF: CO2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  3. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  4. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  5. REVIEWS:
  6. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  7. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  8. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  9. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Anhydride carbonique (French)
  2. Carbon dioxide (ACGIH:OSHA)
  3. Carbon oxide
  4. Carbonic acid anhydride
  5. Carbonic acid gas
  6. Carbonic anhydride
  1. Dry ice
  2. Khladon 744
  3. Kohlendioxyd (German)
  4. Kohlensaure (German)
  5. R 744


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
N/R N/R N/R N/R


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 55 pph/2 hour (3 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) JRPFA4 13,165,1967
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 55 pph/4 hour (6 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females) JRPFA4 13,165,1967
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 2 pph/8 hour (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 30,187,1984
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 6 pph/24 hour (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system
CIRUAL 8,1218,1960
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 6 pph/24 hour (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) CIRUAL 8,1218,1960
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 13 pph/4 hour (9-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system ZMOAAN 56,165,1965


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 pph Cardiac: Changes in coronary arteries

Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section
VCVN1* -,327,1988
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 pph Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Autonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic
VCVN1* -,327,1988
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 9 pph/5 minute N/R TABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 11 pph N/R VCVN1* -,328,1988
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.25 pph Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Vascular: Other changes
VCVN1* -,328,1988
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 2.5 pph Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Behavioral: Headache

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section
VCVN1* -,328,1988
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 7 pph Behavioral: Irritability

Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
VCVN1* -,328,1988
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 7 pph/20 minute Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
JOPSEQ 19,494,2005
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic dose: 7.5 pph/20 minute Behavioral: Excitement JOPSEQ 21,42,2007
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 90,000 ppm/5 minute N/R AEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 11 pph/2 hour Blood: Normocytic anemia VCVN1* -,327,1988
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 70 pph Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: K
VCVN1* -,327,1988
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 pph Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema VCVN1* -,327,1988
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 361 gm/m3/2 hour N/R TPKVAL 9,7,1967
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 200,000 ppm/2 hour N/R TPKVAL 9,7,1967
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 21 pph/1 hour Cardiac: Other changes

Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)
VCVN1* -,327,1988
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 470,000 ppm/30 minute N/R ENTOX* -,639,2005
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 pph/5 hour Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
VCVN1* -,327,1988
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 pph/7 day Blood: Normocytic anemia VCVN1* -,327,1988
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.1 pph/20 minute Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cabonic anhydrase
CEXPB9 27,95,2000


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 4 pph/1 hour/7 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
TOXID9 72,296,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10,000 ppm/24 hour/30 day- continuous Blood: Other changes JPETAB 78,11,1943
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 27,000 ppm/24 hour/30 day- continuous Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity) JPETAB 78,11,1943


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 5000 ppm;short term exposure limit 30000 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EVHPAZ 11,163,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,239,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,125,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JEADV* 13,14,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,639,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,661,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: RED Completed RBREV* -,299,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,39,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 12500 ppm (22500 mg/m3) (in coal mines), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA short term exposure limit 30000 ppm (54000 mg/m3) (in coal mines), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 30000 ppm (54000 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9131 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM short term exposure limit 30000 ppm (54784 mg/m3), Asphyxiant, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 9000 mg/m3 (5000 ppm), FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 9100 mg/m3 (5000 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 9 gm/m3, short term exposure limit 18 gm/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3), APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 30000 ppm (54000 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 15000 ppm, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 9000 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 30000 ppm (54000 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 9000 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 27000 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 5000 ppm, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 10000 ppm (18000 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9000 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 5000 ppm (9150 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 15000 ppm, 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 5000 ppm;
short term exposure limit 30000 ppm
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 5000 ppm;
short term exposure limit 30000 ppm


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO CARBON DIOXIDE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 5000 ppm;
short term exposure limit 30000 ppm
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 17367;
Number of Industries 239;
Total Number of Facilities 35,989;
Number of Occupations 150;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 447,416
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: X8532;
Number of Industries 110;
Total Number of Facilities 12,913;
Number of Occupations 95;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 192,401;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 17,538
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 17367;
Number of Industries 310;
Total Number of Facilities 70,119;
Number of Occupations 186;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,121,046;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 222,613


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Carbon dioxide, 6603
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-172


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
CEXPB9 Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. (Blackwell Scientific Publications, (Australia) Pty Ltd., 107 Barry St., Carlton, Vic. 3053, Australia) V.1- 1974-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CIRUAL Circulation Research. (American Heart Assoc., 7320 Greenville Ave., Dallas, TX 75231) V.1- 1953-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
HUTOX*
JEADV* Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV (Amsterdam ; New York : Elsevier Science Publishers) V.1- 1992-
JOPSEQ Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford). (Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon St., Oxford OX2 6DP, UK) V.1- 1987-
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JRPFA4 Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. (Biochemical Soc. Book Depot, POB 32, Commerce Way, Colchester, Essex CO2 8HP, UK) V.1- 1960-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
TABIA2 Tabulae Biologicae. (The Hague, Netherlands) V.1-22, 1925-63. Discontinued.
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TPKVAL Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. (Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1961-
VCVN1* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov I-IV groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing I-IV group elements), Filov V.A., Chimia, 1988.
ZMOAAN Zeitschrift fuer Morphologie und Anthropologie. (E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Johannesstr. 3A, D-7000 Stuttgart 1, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1899-

Top 50 chemical production: 10.79 billions lbs in 1992, 10.34 billions in 1991

NIOSH PROFILE (ALUMINUM REDUCTION PLANTS), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (DIESEL EMISSIONS), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (FIREFIGHTING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (INCINERATION), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (LEATHER TANNING), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (PETROLEUM REFINING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (SLAUGHTERING AND RENDERING PLANTS), SRC, 10/77

NIOSH PROFILE (WELDING AND BRAZING), SRC, 10/77

FDA-over the counter drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data

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