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Ammonium chloride

RTECS #: BP4550000

CAS #: 12125-02-9


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 53.50 MF: ClH4N


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REVIEWS:
  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Amchlor
  2. Ammoneric
  3. Ammoniumchlorid (German)
  4. Ammonium chloride (ACGIH)
  5. Ammonium muriate
  6. Chlorid amonny (Czech)
  1. Darammon
  2. Sal ammonia
  3. Sal ammoniac
  4. Salammonite
  5. Salmiac


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
500 mg/24 hour mild 28ZPAK -,15,1972
eye
rabbit
100 mg severe LPPTAK 24,598,1976


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster fibroblast 400 mg/L FCTOD7 22,623,1984


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intramuscular
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 30 mg/kg N/R EMSUA8 4,223,1946
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 485 mg/kg N/R COREAF 256,1043,1963
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 250 mg/kg N/R VCVN5* -,17,1993
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 140 mg/kg N/R VCVN5* -,17,1993
intravenous
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 220 mg/kg N/R 27ZWAY 1,470,1923
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 358 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
JCINAO 37,497,1958
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 78 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
oral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 0.2 gm/kg N/R VCVN5* -,17,1993
oral
domestic animal
lowest published lethal dose: 1,500 mg/kg Eye: Mydriasis (pupilliary dilation)

Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
AJVRAH 32,1229,1971
oral
infant
lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kg Cardiac: Other changes AJEMEN 6,506,1988
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,300 mg/kg N/R IYKEDH 21,257,1990
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,650 mg/kg N/R 28ZPAK -,15,1972
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 0.5 gm/kg N/R VCVN5* -,17,1993
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 72 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1289,1935
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kg N/R 27ZIAQ -,39,1973
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kg N/R 27ZWAY 1,470,1923
unreported route
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 550 mg/kg N/R FRXXBL #2444025


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,400 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
SIMEJ* 49,650,2008
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 51,660 mg/kg/10 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
FAATDF 40,247,1997
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 56,100 mg/kg/170 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight
VCVN5* -,17,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 35.3 gm/kg/4 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight FCTOD7 42,135,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 52.9 gm/kg/6 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
FCTOD7 42,135,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,500 mg/kg/1 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis FCTOD7 42,135,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 29.4 gm/kg/4 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain FCTOD7 42,135,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 455 gm/kg/130 week- continuous Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia FCTOD7 42,135,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 44.1 gm/kg/6 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: P
FCTOD7 42,135,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 556 gm/kg/78 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) FCTOD7 42,135,2004


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 10 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3 (fume) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 DTLVS* 3,12,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3 (fume), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3 (fume), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (fume), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 10 mg/m3 (fume), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 10 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3 (fume), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 10 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (fume);
short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3 (fume), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3 (vapors and fumes), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 3 mg/m3, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 10 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3 (fume), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 10 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3 (fume)
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 10 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3 (fume)


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO AMMONIUM CHLORIDE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 10 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 05270;
Number of Industries 223;
Total Number of Facilities 29,596;
Number of Occupations 97;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 259,567
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 05270;
Number of Industries 180;
Total Number of Facilities 24,833;
Number of Occupations 131;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 415,676;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 139,037


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as an industrial chemical, pharmaceutical and veterinary drug
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

27ZIAQ "Drug Dosages in Laboratory Animals - A Handbook," Rev. ed., Barnes, C.D., and L.G. Eltherington, Berkeley, Univ. of California Press, 1973
27ZWAY "Handbuch der Experimentellen Pharmakologie," Heffter, A., Berlin, Verlag von Julius Springer. V.1-3, 1920-35. For publisher information, see HEPHD2.
28ZPAK "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J.V., Institut Pro Vychovu Vedoucicn Pracovniku Chemickeho Prumyclu Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1972
AJEMEN American Journal of Emergency Medicine. (WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA) V.1- 1983-
AJVRAH American Journal of Veterinary Research. (American Veterinary Medical Assoc., 930 N. Meacham Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60196) V.1- 1940-
COREAF Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, Academie des Sciences. (Paris, France) V.1-261, 1835-1965. For publisher information, see CRASEV.
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMSUA8 Experimental Medicine and Surgery. (Brooklyn, NY) V.1-29, 1943-71. Suspended.
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FRXXBL French Demande Patent Document. (U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Foreign Patents, Washington, DC 20231)
HBAMAK "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.)
IYKEDH Iyakuhin Kenkyu. Study of Medical Supplies. (Nippon Koteisho Kyokai, 12-15, 2-chome, Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan) V.1- 1970-
JCINAO Journal of Clinical Investigation. (Rockefeller Univ. Press, 1230 York Ave., New York, NY 10021) V.1- 1924-
LPPTAK Labo-Pharma-Problemes et Techniques. (Editions de Sante, 19 rue Louis-le-Grand, 75002 Paris, France) V.12- 1965-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
SIMEJ*
VCVN5* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989.

Used as an industrial chemical, pharmaceutical and veterinary drug

NIOSH PROFILE (LEATHER TANNING), SRI, 2/77

FDA-over the counter and proprietary drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

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