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Ammonia

RTECS #: BO0875000

CAS #: 7664-41-7


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 17.04 MF: H3N


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. MUTATION DATA:
  3. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  4. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  5. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  6. REVIEWS:
  7. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  8. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  9. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  10. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. AM - Fol
  2. Ammonia (ACGIH:OSHA)
  3. Ammonia anhydrous
  4. Ammoniac (French)
  5. Ammonia gas
  6. Ammoniaca (Italian)
  1. Ammoniak (German)
  2. Amoniak (Polish)
  3. Nitro - sil
  4. R 717
  5. Spirit of hartshorn


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
rat
19,800 g/m3/16 week BZARAZ 27(6),102,1974
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 1,500 ppm/3 hour (-enzymatic activation step) AMNTA4 85,119,1951


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,680 mg/kg/24 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
CALEDQ 65,15,1992


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7 gm/m3/1 hour Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Excitement
JIHTAB 26,29,1944
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough VCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough VCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 ppm Olfaction: Ulcerated nasal septum

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi
AGGHAR 13,528,1955
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 5,000 ppm/5 minute N/R TABIA2 3,231,1933
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 mg/m3 Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 3 mg/m3/8 hour Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,200 mg/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation
human
lowest published lethal concentration: 1,500 mg/m3/30 minute N/R VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 30 ppm/10 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes TOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 110 ppm/1 hour Eye: Conjunctiva irritation TOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 5,000 ppm/5 minute N/R AEPPAE 138,65,1928
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 3,500 mg/m3/90 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4,230 ppm/1 hour Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Ataxia
FEPRA7 41,1568,1982
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/2 hour Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
VCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 30 mg/m3/2 hour Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve VCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4,600 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 21,430 ppm/30 minute N/R FEREAC 69,13740,2004
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 3,317 ppm/1 hour N/R TOXID9 44,302,2005
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 4,500 ppm/1 hour N/R ENTOX* -,101,2005
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2,000 ppm/4 hour N/R 34ZIAG -,607,1969
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough VCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 mg/m3/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea VCVN5* -,11,1993
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 18,600 mg/m3/5 minute N/R VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7,040 mg/m3/30 minute N/R VCVN5* -,12,1993
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 17,401 ppm/15 minute N/R FEREAC 69,13740,2004
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 9,500 ppm/1 hour N/R ENTOX* -,101,2005
inhalation
rabbit
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7 gm/m3/1 hour Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Excitement
JIHTAB 26,29,1944
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough VCVN5* -,11,1993
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 15 L/kg Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of esophagus AJEMEN 3,320,1985
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 112,000 mg/m3/15 minute N/R VCVN5* -,14,1993
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 71,900 mg/m3/30 minute N/R VCVN5* -,14,1993
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,840 mg/m3/60 minute N/R VCVN5* -,14,1993
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 132 mg/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 470 mg/m3/8 hour/90 day- intermittent Eye: Lacrimation TXAPA9 16,646,1970
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 470 mg/m3/8 hour/90 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 16,646,1970
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 6 mg/m3/7 hour/17 week- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes VCVN5* -,13,1989
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 20 mg/m3/5 year- intermittent Autonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema
VCVN5* -,14,1989
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 711 ppm/6 hour/14 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects JJATDK 15,207,1995
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.58 gm/m3/18 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TPKVAL 11,106,1969
inhalation
pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 145 ppm/5 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JANSAG 28,844,1969
inhalation
pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/6 day- continuous Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
AJVRAH 55,1335,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 300 ppm/6 hour/5 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
PHTOEH 64,244,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 455 mg/m3/8 hour/90 day- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 16,646,1970
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 960 mg/m3/4 hour/17 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS GISAAA 50(5),90,1985
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 0.58 gm/m3/19 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
TPKVAL 11,106,1969
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 470 mg/m3/8 hour/90 day- intermittent Eye: Corneal damage

Eye: Other eye effects
TXAPA9 16,646,1970
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 173 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Gastrointestinal: Other changes DDSCDJ 36,33,1991


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 25 ppm;short term exposure limit 35 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NTIS** AD-A094-501
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CPEMM* 3,239,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 9,30,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,101,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,661,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FCTOD7 46,1863,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ISMEA* 10,537,2008


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Active registration RBREV* -,352,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,11,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 25 ppm (17 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 35 ppm (24 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (36 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 14 mg/m3 (20 ppm);
short term exposure limit 36 mg/m3 (50 ppm), FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 40 ppm (30 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 10 ppm (7 mg/m3), VLE 20 ppm (14 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 14 mg/m3 (20 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 14 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 36 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - INDIA time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 35 ppm (27 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 25 ppm (17 mg/m3), APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 35 ppm (27 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 35 ppm (27 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 14 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 25 ppm (17 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 35 ppm (24 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 50 ppm (30 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 20 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 27 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3), ceiling concentration 50 ppm (35 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 20 ppm (14 mg/m3);
KZG- week 40 ppm (28 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 50 ppm (35 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 25 ppm (35 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 25 ppm (18 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 35 ppm(25 mg/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 25 ppm;
short term exposure limit 35 ppm
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 25 ppm;
short term exposure limit 35 ppm


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO AMMONIA-air 10 hour time-weighted average 25 ppm;
short term exposure limit 35 ppm
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 05250;
Number of Industries 363;
Total Number of Facilities 115,139;
Number of Occupations 198;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,168,429
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 05250;
Number of Industries 270;
Total Number of Facilities 42,116;
Number of Occupations 174;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 805,962;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 287,974


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/91/180315/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Ammonia, 6015
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1996: Ammoinia by IC, 6016
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-164
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-188


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

34ZIAG "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969
85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AGGHAR Archiv fuer Gewerbepathologie und Gewerbehygiene. (Berlin, Ger.) V.1-18, 1930-61. For publisher information, see IAEHDW.
AJEMEN American Journal of Emergency Medicine. (WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA) V.1- 1983-
AJVRAH American Journal of Veterinary Research. (American Veterinary Medical Assoc., 930 N. Meacham Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60196) V.1- 1940-
AMNTA4 American Naturalist. (Univ. of Chicago Press, Journals Div., POB 37005, Chicago, IL 60637) V.1- 1867-
BZARAZ Biologicheskii Zhurnal Armenii. Biological Journal of Armenia. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.19- 1966-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CHHSA* Chemical Health & Safety (Orlando, FL : Published by Elsevier Inc. for the ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety) V.1- 1994-
CPEMM* Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine (Philadelphia, PA : W.B. Saunders Co.)
DDSCDJ Digestive Diseases and Sciences. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.24- 1979-
DIMON* Disease-a Month (Chicago : Year Book Publishers) V. 24- 1978-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FEPRA7 Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-46, 1942-87.
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
HUTOX*
ISMEA*
JANSAG Journal of Animal Science. (American Soc. of Animal Science, 309 W. Clark St., Champaign, IL 61820) V.1- 1942-
JIHTAB Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PHTOEH Pharmacology and Toxicology (Copenhagen). (Munksgaard International Pub., POB 2148, DK-1016 Copenhagen K, Denmark) V.60- 1987-
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
TABIA2 Tabulae Biologicae. (The Hague, Netherlands) V.1-22, 1925-63. Discontinued.
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TPKVAL Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. (Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1961-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
VCVN5* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989.

Top 50 chemical production: 35.95 billions lbs in 1992, 34.33 billions in 1991

NIOSH PROFILE (FERTILIZER MANUFACTURE), SRC, 3/80

NIOSH PROFILE (FIREFIGHTING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (GRAIN HANDLERS), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (HAIRDRESSING and BARBERS), SRC, 6/80

NIOSH PROFILE (INCINERATION), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PULP AND PAPER MILLS), SRI, 2/77

FDA-over the counter drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Human Data
   Natural Product

ALT CAS #: 8007-57-6
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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