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Acrylonitrile

RTECS #: AT5250000

CAS #: 107-13-1


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 53.07 MF: C3H3N


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 2 - Propenenitrile
  2. Acritet
  3. Acrylnitril (German, Dutch)
  4. Acrylon
  5. Acrylonitrile (ACGIH:OSHA)
  6. Acrylonitrile monomer
  7. Akrylonitril (Czech)
  8. Akrylonitryl (Polish)
  9. Carbacryl
  10. Cianuro di vinile (Italian)
  11. Cyanoethylene
  12. Cyanure de vinyle (French)
  13. ENT 54
  1. Fumigrain
  2. Miller's fumigrain
  3. Nitrile acrilico (Italian)
  4. Nitrile acrylique (French)
  5. Propenenitrile
  6. RCRA waste number U009
  7. TL 314
  8. VCN
  9. Ventox
  10. Vinyl cyanide
  11. Vinylcyanide (OSHA)
  12. Vinylkyanid (Czech)


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
100 mg moderate ATDAEI 1,114,1990
skin
human
500 mg rinse moderate INMEAF 17,199,1948
skin
rabbit
500 mg severe ATDAEI 1,114,1990


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
body fluid assay mouse
Salmonella typhimurium
30 mg/kg TXCYAC 16,67,1980
body fluid assay rat
Salmonella typhimurium
30 mg/kg TXCYAC 16,67,1980
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 4 mmol/L PMRSDJ 5,433,1985
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 6,250 g/L PMRSDJ 5,427,1985
cytogenetic analysis hamster liver 2,500 g/L PMRSDJ 5,397,1985
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
human
0.8 mg/m3/146 week MUREAV 537,93,2003
DNA adduct mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 68 mmol/L CBINA8 51,167,1984
DNA adduct oral
rat
46,500 g/kg CBINA8 47,363,1983
DNA adduct rat liver 16,500 mol/L XENOBH 13,19,1983
DNA damage hamster ovary 3,710 mg/L PMRSDJ 5,359,1985
DNA damage hamster embryo 200 mg/L JJIND8 62,1025,1979
DNA damage human other cell types 200 mg/L MUREAV 241,355,1990
DNA damage inhalation
human
0.8 mg/m3/146 week MUREAV 537,93,2003
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat liver 1 mmol/L PMRSDJ 5,371,1985
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
rat
50 mg/kg CNREA8 46,3932,1986
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 300 mol/L (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 45,283,1977
mutation in microorganisms human lymphocyte 40 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) PMRSDJ 5,497,1985
mutation in microorganisms mouse lymphocyte 161 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) FCTOD7 23,115,1985
mutation in microorganisms mouse embryo 50 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step) PMRSDJ 5,639,1985
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 25 L/plate (+enzymatic activation step) NIOSH* 5AUG1977
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 57 ppm (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 48,271,1977
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 12,100 g/plate/20 minute (+enzymatic activation step) MUTAEX 20,217,2005
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 12,100 g/plate/48 hour (+enzymatic activation step) MUTAEX 20,217,2005
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 800 g/L (+/-enzymatic activation step) PMRSDJ 5,271,1985
micronucleus test hamster ovary 100 mmol/L PMRSDJ 5,359,1985
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Aspergillus nidulans 806 mg/L PMRSDJ 5,307,1985
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Saccharomyes cerevisiae 14 mg/L PMRSDJ 5,225,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cells human lymphocyte 25 mg/L PMRSDJ 5,497,1985
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 12,500 nL/L PMRSDJ 5,555,1985
morphological transform hamster embryo 2 mg/L PMRSDJ 5,665,1985
morphological transform hamster embryo 50 mg/L/7 day CRNGDP 21,727,2000
morphological transform mouse embryo 8,800 g/L PMRSDJ 5,639,1985
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 6,300 g/L CALEDQ 32,293,1986
other mutation test systems oral
rat
46,500 g/kg CBINA8 47,363,1983
other mutation test systems rat liver 16,500 mol/L XENOBH 13,19,1983
other mutation test systems Saccharomyes cerevisiae 500 ppm EESADV 8,162,1984
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 2 mmol/L PMRSDJ 5,433,1985
sister chromatid exchange human other cell types 150 mg/L MUREAV 241,355,1990
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Aspergillus nidulans 4,800 mg/L MUREAV 147,288,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction inhalation
Drosophila melanogaster
3 ppm MUREAV 259,165,1991
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
1,520 mol/L PMRSDJ 5,325,1985
specific locus test oral
mouse
600 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent TOXID9 72(Supp 1),228,2003
sperm morphology inhalation
human
0.8 mg/m3/146 week MUREAV 537,93,2003


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 40 ppm/6 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTXAV 16,547,1978
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 80 ppm/6 hour (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system FCTXAV 16,547,1978
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 ppm/6 hour (6-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) FAATDF 20,365,1993
intraperitoneal
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 641 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
TJADAB 23,317,1981
intraperitoneal
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 641 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TJADAB 23,325,1981
intraperitoneal
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 641 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 23,325,1981
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 32 mg/kg (5 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) ZHYGAM 26,564,1980
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg (60 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Other effects on male
TOLED5 42,55,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 650 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
DOWCC* 03NOV1976
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 650 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
TJADAB 17,50A,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 644 mg/kg (2 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TOXID9 14,87,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 650 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Cardiovascular (circulatory) system
NTIS** OTS0555785
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus TXAPA9 163,149,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9.5 gm/kg (14 week male/14 week prior to copulation-3 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOLED5 132,249,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.7 gm/kg (22 week male/22 week prior to copulation-3 week after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive) TOLED5 132,249,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,727 mg/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOLED5 132,249,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 13.8 mg/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOLED5 132,249,2002


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 ppm/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
MELAAD 68,401,1977
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 20 ppm/4 hour/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
ANYAA9 381,216,1982
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 40 ppm/4 hour/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
ANYAA9 381,216,1982
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10,400 mg/kg/104 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NTIS** PB2002-102198
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,300 mg/kg/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
TOXID9 66,185,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,200 mg/kg/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchogenic carcinoma
TOXID9 66,185,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18,200 mg/kg/52 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
FCTOD7 24,129,1986
oral
rat
toxic dose : 3,640 mg/kg/52 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
DOWCC* MAR1977
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,490 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
NTIS** OTS0540235
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 960 mg/kg/48 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Other reproductive system tumors
TOLED5 132,249,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,000 mg/kg/600 day- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,420 mg/kg/600 day- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors
TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,800 mg/kg/600 day- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors
TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,693.6 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,820 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,115.2 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Spinal Cord: Tumors
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 946.4 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Ear: Tumors
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 218.4 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 72.8 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Tumors
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,280 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21.84 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,280 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Gastrointestinal: Colon tumors
TOLED5 132,153,2002


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 600 ppm/4 hour Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JIHTAB 24,27,1942
inhalation
dog
lowest published lethal concentration: 110 ppm/4 hour Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Coma
JIHTAB 24,27,1942
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 575 ppm/4 hour Eye: Lacrimation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough
JIHTAB 24,27,1942
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 16 ppm/20 minute Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
INMEAF 17,199,1948
inhalation
man
lowest published lethal concentration: 1 gm/m3/1 hour Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
ZAARAM 16,1,1966
inhalation
monkey
lethal concentration : >90 ppm/4 hour N/R NTIS** PB280-478
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 333 ppm/4 hour Eye: Lacrimation

Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
NTIS** OTS0571605
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 350 mg/m3/6 hour Liver: Other changes

Endocrine: Hyperglycemia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXCYAC 65,209,1990
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 333 ppm/4 hour Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
HALRE* 10/1/1968
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 946 ppm/4 hour N/R WILRE* 6/1/2005
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published lethal concentration: 260 ppm/4 hour Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JIHTAB 24,27,1942
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 46 mg/kg Eye: Corneal damage

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TXAPA9 59,589,1981
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 65 mg/kg N/R AMPMAR 36,58,1975
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
TXAPA9 7,367,1965
intravenous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 69 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
NTIS** PB280-478
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kg N/R ZHYGAM 16,316,1970
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 27 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
JHEMA2 3,106,1959
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 mg/kg Blood: Other changes TOXID9 66,125,2002
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 78 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
JHEMA2 3,106,1959
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 mg/kg Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP ARTODN 78,301,2004
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 130 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia

Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
NTIS** PB280-478
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 25 mg/kg Eye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
TXAPA9 7,367,1965
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 18 mg/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response EKFAE9 61,56,1998
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 36 mg/kg N/R TOVEFN (4),14,2000
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 75 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
TXAPA9 102,142,1990
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 37.5 mg/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
EKFAE9 61,56,1998
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 112 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold ARTODN 79,610,2005
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 115 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cabonic anhydrase
CRTOEC 16,583,2003
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 75 mg/kg N/R TOVEFN (4),14,2000
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response TOVEFN (4),14,2000
skin
child
lowest published lethal dose: 2,015 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
DMWOAX 75,1087,1950
skin
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 202 mg/kg N/R JIHTAB 30,63,1948
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 148 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 41(10),103,1976
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 63 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other
NTIS** OTS0534646
unreported route
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kg Endocrine: Other changes TXAPA9 37,133,1976
unreported route
rat
lethal dose : 115 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72,95,2003
unreported route
rat
lethal dose (90 percent kill): 115 mg/kg N/R TOXID9 60,35,2001


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 330 mg/m3/4 hour/8 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 24,255,1942
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 330 mg/m3/4 hour/8 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field JIHTAB 24,255,1942
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 4 gm/kg/325 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Fibrosis, focal (pneumoconiosis)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
CRTXB2 31,697,2001
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 330 mg/kg/4 hour/8 week- intermittent Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 24,255,1942
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 60 mg/m3/4 hour/21 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in spleen weight

Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other esterases
WDZAEK 4,245,1990
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,500 g/m3/5 hour/26 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
GTPZAB 27(4),50,1983
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 330 mg/kg/4 hour/8 week- intermittent Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 24,255,1942
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 330 mg/m3/4 hour/8 week- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field JIHTAB 24,255,1942
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 99 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
TOLED5 6,399,1980
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
NTIS** OTS0555089
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,200 mg/kg/2 year- intermittent Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Tumorigenic: Cells (cultured) transformed
TOXID9 66,185,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kg/2 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,287,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,440 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Behavioral: Excitement

Liver: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
WDZAEK 5,24,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10,920 mg/kg/1 year- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
DOWCC* MAR1977
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,100 mg/kg/21 day- continuous Endocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na
TXAPA9 37,133,1976
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/60 day- intermittent Endocrine: Adrenal cortex hyperplasia

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight

Blood: Other changes
JJATDK 4,131,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 945 mg/kg/90 day- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTIS** OTS0555089
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Excitement

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands
JJATDK 18,25,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,000 mg/kg/600 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,200 mg/kg/420 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,400 mg/kg/300 day- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,640 mg/kg/364 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,912 mg/kg/364 day- continuous Endocrine: Changes in pituitary weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,600 mg/kg/660 day- intermittent Blood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,440 mg/kg/180 day- continuous Blood: Normocytic anemia TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,280 mg/kg/660 day- continuous Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 54.6 mg/kg/546 day- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,000 mg/kg/600 day- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,460 mg/kg/546 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,420 mg/kg/600 day- continuous Endocrine: Changes in pituitary weight TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 59.4 mg/kg/660 day- continuous Gastrointestinal: Other changes TOLED5 132,197,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,528 mg/kg/420 day- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/56 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 991.9 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal) TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,924 mg/kg/360 day- continuous Blood: Normocytic anemia TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,886 mg/kg/540 day- continuous Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 72.8 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,693.6 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Cardiac: Changes in heart weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 946.4 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Eye: Retinal changes pigmentary deposition, retinitis, other)

Vascular: Thromobosis distant from injection site

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 291.2 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 72.8 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Liver: Other changes

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Breasts, lactation (prior to or during pregnancy)
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 218.4 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Liver: Other changes

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,115.2 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,820 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Vascular: Thromobosis distant from injection site TOLED5 132,221,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15.3 gm/kg/510 day- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,995 mg/kg/570 day- continuous Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 609 mg/kg/174 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 910 mg/kg/91 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/3 day- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal) TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 525 mg/kg/150 day- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal) TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/6 day- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 mg/kg/3 day- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,548 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Vascular: Structural changes in vessels

Liver: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,280 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Gastrointestinal: Other changes TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21.84 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Changes in spleen
TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,548 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,280 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21.84 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Breasts, lactation (prior to or during pregnancy)
TOLED5 132,153,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 518 mg/kg/2 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TOLED5 132,249,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 259 mg/kg/1 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal) TOLED5 132,249,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 140 mg/kg/1 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake
TOLED5 132,249,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 77 mg/kg/1 week- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake TOLED5 132,249,2002
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Ear: Change in cochlear structure or function TXAPA9 204,46,2005
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,751 mg/kg/19 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
GISAAA 41(10),103,1976


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 2 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Limited Evidence IMSUDL 7,79,1987
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 19,73,1979
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 71,43,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 71,43,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2B IMEMDT 71,43,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,21,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,43,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 45,271,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,46,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,248,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,248,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 681,3,2009


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 20 ppm (45 mg/m3) (skin) DTLVS* 3,6,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 20 ppm (45 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 39,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 20 ppm (45 mg/m3) (skin) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) cancer hazard CFRGBR 29,1910.1045,1987
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 2 ppm, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 2 ppm (4.3 mg/m3), Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRIA TRK 7 mg/m3 (3 mL/m3), JAN 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 2 ppm (4.4 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 2 ppm (4 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 4 ppm, Skin, Carcinogen, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3), VLE 15 ppm (32.5 mg/m3), continuous2 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY ceiling concentration 4.3 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - INDIA time-weighted average 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 2 ppm (4.3 mg/m3), skin, 2A carcinogen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3), carcinogen, skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3) (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 2 ppm (4.3 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 2 ppm (4 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 20 ppm (45 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 2 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 10 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 6 ppm (13 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 2 ppm (4.5 mg/m3), Skin, Carcinogen, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 20 ppm (45 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 2 ppm (4.4 mg/m3) (skin), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed animal carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed animal carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ACRYLONITRILE-air Carcinogen;
8 hour time-weighted average 1 ppm;
ceiling concentration 10 ppm/15 minute (Sk)
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 03800;
Number of Industries 45;
Total Number of Facilities 3,610;
Number of Occupations 55;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 55,698
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 03800;
Number of Industries 24;
Total Number of Facilities 2,522;
Number of Occupations 39;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 81,691;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 27,358


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; SHE-focus assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-SA7/SHE; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: TRP reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: TRP reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in the manufacture of acrylic and modacrylic fibers
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN 18, 1977
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Acrylonitrile, 1604
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);clear evidence:mouse
NTP 10th Report on Carcinogens,2002:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; on test (two year studies), October 2000
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #37


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

AMPMAR Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.7- 1946-
ANYAA9 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. (New York Academy of Sciences, 2 E. 63rd St., New York, NY 10021) V.1- 1877-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
ATDAEI Acute Toxicity Data. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1- 1990-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CBINA8 Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1969-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
CRTOEC Chemical Research in Toxicology. (American Chemical Soc., Distribution Office Dept. 223, POB 57/36, West End Station, Washington, DC 20037) V.1- 1988-
CRTXB2 CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 1971-
DMWOAX Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. (Stuttgart, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-104, 1875-1979.
DOWCC* Dow Chemical Company Reports. (Dow Chemical USA, Health and Environment Research, Toxicology Research Lab., Midland, MI 48640)
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EESADV Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1977-
EKFAE9 Eksperimental'naya i Klinicheskaya Farmakologiya. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. (Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, ul. B. Yakimanka, 39, 117049 Moscow, Russia) V.55- 1992-
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7.
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HALRE* E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Haskell Laboratory for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine report NO. 226-68
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
IMSUDL IARC Monographs, Supplement. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.1- 1979-
INMEAF Industrial Medicine. (Chicago, IL) V.1-18, 1932-49. For publisher information, see IOHSA5.
JHEMA2 Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, Microbiology, and Immunology. (Avicenum, Malostranske namesti 28, 11802 Prague 1, Czechoslovakia) V.1- 1957-
JIHTAB Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JJIND8 JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.61-79, 1978-87. For publisher information, see JNCIEQ.
MELAAD Medicina del Lavoro. Industrial Medicine. (Via S. Barnaba, 8, 20122 Milan, Italy) V.16- 1925-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
PMRSDJ Progress in Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1981-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOVEFN Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. (18-20 Vadkovskii per. Moscow, 101479, Russia) History Unknown
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
WDZAEK Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi. Journal of Health Toxicology. (Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi Bianjibu, Dongdaqiao, Chaoyang Menwai, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1987
WILRE* WIL Research Laboratories Report WIL-542001 (LLC1407 George RoadAshland, OH 44805-9281)
XENOBH Xenobiotica. (Taylor & Francis Ltd., 4 John St., London WC1N 2ET, UK) V.1- 1971-
ZAARAM Zentralblatt fuer Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz. (Darmstadt, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-25, 1951-75.
ZHYGAM Zeitschrift fuer die Gesamte Hygiene und Ihre Grenzgebiete. (VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Neue Gruenstr. 18, Berlin DDR-1020, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1955-

Used in the manufacture of acrylic and modacrylic fibers

Top 50 chemical production: 2.83 billions lbs in 1992, 2.65 billions in 1991

NIOSH PROFILE (NITRILES), SRC, 10/77

NIOSH PROFILE (RUBBER MANUFACTURING, SYNTHETIC), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (RUBBER MANUFACTURING, SYNTHETIC), FIRL, 4/78

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

ALT CAS #: 29754-21-0
ALT CAS #: 63908-52-1
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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