Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Acrylamide

RTECS #

AS3325000

CAS #

79-06-1

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

71.09

Molecular Formula

C3H5NO

Synonyms

2-Propenamide
2-Propenamide (9CI)
Acrylamide (ACGIH:OSHA)
Acrylamide monomer
Acrylic amide
Akrylamid (Czech)
Amid kyseliny akrylove (Czech)
Ethylenecarboxamide
Propenamide
Propenoic acid amide
RCRA waste number U007
Vinyl amide

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 10 mg/30S rinse mildTXAPA9 6,172,1964
eye /rabbit 100 mg/24H moderate28ZPAK -,54,1972
eye /rabbit 10% mildHPV308 -,-,2001
eye /rabbit 82 mgHPV308 -,-,2001
skin /rabbit 50 mg/3D mildTXAPA9 6,172,1964
skin /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild85JCAE -,337,1986

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse500 ppm/2W- intermittentMUREAV 57,313,1978
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/mouse750 mg/LENMUDM 9,261,1987
Cytogenetic Analysisintraperitoneal/mouse100 mg/kgMUREAV 209,91,1988
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster150 mg/LESKHA5 (103),64,1985
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/hamster500 mg/LMUREAV 245,191,1990
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster2 mmol/LMUREAV 577S,1,2005
Cytogenetic Analysislung/mouse50 mg/kgTOVEFN (4),25,1998
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster284000 µg/L/24H (-enzymatic activation step)HPV308 -,-,2001
Cytogenetic Analysislung/hamster2 mmol/L/16HMUREAV 678,87,2009
DNA adductoral/rat0.1 mg/kgTXAPA9 208,199,2005
DNA adductlung/human320 µmol/L/4HJNCIEQ 96,1023,2004
DNA adductfibroblast/mouse3.2 mmol/L/4HJNCIEQ 95,889,2003
DNA adductunreported route/mouse100 µg/kgMUTAEX 19,499,2004
DNA adductoral/mouse28 mg/kg/28D- intermittentTOXID9 -,144,2009
DNA adductoral/mouse12.5 mg/kg/1DTOXID9 -,395,2009
DNA adductintraperitoneal/mouse1 mg/kgCRTOEC 16,1328,2003
DNA adductoral/mouse3 mg/kg/3D- intermittentMUREAV 580,131,2005
DNA adductoral/rat3 mg/kg/3D- intermittentMUREAV 580,131,2005
DNA adductoral/mouse50 mg/kgMUREAV 580,131,2005
DNA adductintraperitoneal/rat50 mg/kgMUREAV 580,131,2005
DNA Damagelung/hamster6 mmol/L/24HMUREAV 580,71,2005
DNA Damageother cell types/human10 mmol/L/4H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 577S,1,2005
DNA Damageoral/rat36 mg/kgMUREAV 580,119,2005
DNA Damageunreported route/mouse5 mg/kgMUREAV 577S,1,2005
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse125 mg/kg/5DMUREAV 577S,1,2005
DNA Damageintraperitoneal/mouse50 mg/kgMUREAV 603,145,2006
DNA Damagemammary gland/human2.1 mg/L/24H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 588,47,2005
DNA Damageoral/mouse50 mg/kg/4DMUREAV 577S,1,2005
DNA Damageoral/rat50 mg/kg/4DMUREAV 577S,1,2005
DNA Damagefibroblast/mouse3.2 µmol/L/4HJNCIEQ 95,889,2003
DNA Damageliver/human10 mmol/LNSAPCC 372(Suppl 1),115,2006
DNA Damageother cell types/mouse12 mmol/L/4HFCTOD7 46,628,2008
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human1 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damagesperm/human3 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human0.5 mmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damagesperm/human0.5 mmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damageoral/rat60 mg/kg/3D- intermittentMUREAV 702,40,2010
DNA Damageoral/rat145 mg/kg/29D- intermittentMUREAV 702,40,2010
DNA Damageother cell types/human5000 µmol/L/24HMUTAEX 25,555,2010
DNA Damageother cell types/hamster150000 µg/L/24H (-enzymatic activation step)HPV308 -,-,2001
DNA inhibitionother cell types/rat1 mmol/LTIVIEQ 2,69,1988
Dominant Lethal Testoral/rat150 mg/kg/5D-continuousMUTAEX 2,215,1987
Dominant Lethal Testintraperitoneal/mouse125 mg/kgMUREAV 173,35,1986
Dominant Lethal Testoral/mouse840 mg/kg/20W-continuousEMMUEG 17(Suppl 19),11,1991
heritable translocation testintraperitoneal/mouse50 mg/kgHPV308 -,-,2001
host-mediated assayunreported route/mouse500 mg/kgMUREAV 577S,1,2005
micronucleus testoral/mouse75 mg/kg/3D- intermittentMUREAV 649,101,2008
micronucleus testoral/rat75 mg/kg/3D- intermittentMUREAV 649,101,2008
micronucleus testoral/mouse125 mg/kg/3W-continuousEMMUEG 47,6,2006
micronucleus testoral/rat280 mg/kg/28D-continuousTOXID9 -,395,2009
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse6 mg/kgMUREAV 535,215,2003
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse125 mg/kg/5DMUREAV 577S,1,2005
micronucleus testoral/mouse50 mg/kg/4DMUREAV 577S,1,2005
micronucleus testsubcutaneous/mouse50 mg/kgMUREAV 580,111,2005
micronucleus testother cell types/human10 mmol/L/4H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 577S,1,2005
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/rat100 mg/kgMUREAV 309,245,1994
micronucleus testoral/mouse84 mg/kg/28DEMMUEG 44,179,2004
micronucleus testfibroblast/mouse100 mg/LMUTAEX 16,145,2001
micronucleus testoral/rat420 mg/kg/2W- intermittentJAPTO* 28,484,2008
micronucleus testoral/mouse112 mg/kg/28D- intermittentTOXID9 -,144,2009
micronucleus testoral/rat125 mg/kgFCTOD7 47,2120,2009
morphological transformfibroblast/mouse12500 µg/LCALEDQ 32,293,1986
morphological transformembryo/mouse25 mg/LCALEDQ 32,293,1986
morphological transformembryo/hamster0.5 mmol/L/7DTOSCF2 65,177,2002
mutation in mammalian somatic cellslymphocyte/mouse500 mg/LENMUDM 9,261,1987
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsoral/rat840 mg/kg/30W-continuousJTSCDR 34,407,2009
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsintraperitoneal/mouse50 mg/kgHPV308 -,-,2001
mutation in mammalian somatic cellsother cell types/mouse7500000 µg/L/2H (+/-enzymatic activation step)HPV308 -,-,2001
mutation in microorganismslymphocyte/mouse300 mg/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUTAEX 3,263,1988
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae200 mg/l/10MMUREAV 673,53,2009
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionintraperitoneal/mouse120 mg/kgMUREAV 367,195,1996
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionlung/hamster500 mg/LMUREAV 245,191,1990
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster300 mg/LMUTAEX 3,263,1988
sister chromatid exchangeoral/rat600 mg/kg/10D-continuousENMUDM 7(Suppl 3),79,1985
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse125 µg/kgEMMUEG 13,218,1989
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster2 mmol/LMUREAV 577S,1,2005
sister chromatid exchangelung/hamster200 µmol/L/32HMUREAV 580,41,2005
specific locus testother cell types/human10 mmol/L/4H (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 577S,1,2005
specific locus testoral/mouse25 mg/kg/3W-continuousEMMUEG 47,6,2006
specific locus testoral/mouse125 mg/kg/4W-continuousEMMUEG 47,6,2006
specific locus testintraperitoneal/mouse50 mg/kgMUREAV 226,157,1989
specific locus testoral/Drosophila melanogaster1 mmol/LMUTAEX 3,263,1988
specific locus testintraperitoneal/mouse175 mg/kg/7DMUREAV 540,141,2003
specific locus testoral/mouse16.8 mg/kg/28DEMMUEG 44,179,2004
sperm morphologyintraperitoneal/mouse100 mg/kgMUREAV 57,313,1978
sperm morphologyoral/mouse96634 µg/kg/4W-continuousARTODN 59,201,1986
Unscheduled DNA Synthesismammary gland/human1 mmol/LEMMUEG 20,148,1992
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat150 mg/kg/5D-continuousEMMUEG 20,148,1992
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisoral/rat14 mg/kg/7D-continuousTOXID9 66,182,2002
Unscheduled DNA Synthesisintraperitoneal/mouse62500 µg/kgEMMUEG 16,137,1990

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 300 ppm/6H (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TOSCF2 48,240,1999
inhalation/rat 225 mg/kg (5D male)Reproductive: Other effects on male

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
REPTED 14,147,2000
intraperitoneal/rat 350 mg/kg (7D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)NRTXDN 13,219,1992
intraperitoneal/rat 400 mg/kg (8D male)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NRTXDN 13,219,1992
intraperitoneal/mouse 125 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)REPTED 17,1,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse 225 mg/kg (10-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
MUREAV 226,157,1989
intraperitoneal/mouse 125 mg/kg (1D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)CGANE7 34,35,1994
intraperitoneal/mouse 250 mg/kg (5D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
CGANE7 34,35,1994
intraperitoneal/mouse 300 mg/kg (8-10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)CGANE7 34,35,1994
intraperitoneal/mammal (species unspecified) 75 mg/kg (12D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemMUREAV 226,157,1989
intraperitoneal/mammal (species unspecified) 225 mg/kg (10-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
MUREAV 226,157,1989
oral/mouse 840 mg/kg (20W male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)EMMUEG 17,11,1991
oral/rat 16 mg/kg (7-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)NETEEC 27,553,2005
oral/rat 160 mg/kg (7-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 27,553,2005
oral/rat 32.1 mg/kg (6D preg-91D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNETEEC 29,407,2007
oral/rat 80 mg/kg (6D preg-22D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNETEEC 29,407,2007
oral/rat 150 mg/kg (7-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)TERP2* -,312,2004
oral/rat 148.5 mg/kg (10-22D preg/2D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)JTSCDR 33,11,2008
oral/rat 567.8 mg/kg (10-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
JTSCDR 33,11,2008
oral/rat 567.8 mg/kg (10-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)JTSCDR 33,11,2008
oral/rat 754.8 mg/kg (10-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
JTSCDR 33,11,2008
oral/rat 754.8 mg/kg (10-22D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
JTSCDR 33,11,2008
oral/rat 188 mg/kg (6D preg-172D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNETEEC 30,254,2008
oral/mouse 125 mg/kg (5D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TOXID9 -,14,2009
oral/mouse 571 mg/kg (16D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductARTODN 47,179,1981
oral/mouse 95 gm/kg (4W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
ARTODN 59,201,1986
oral/mouse 95 gm/kg (4W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)ARTODN 59,201,1986
oral/mouse 71 gm/kg (4W male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)ARTODN 59,201,1986
oral/rat 200 mg/kg (7-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicTOLED5 7,233,1981
oral/rat 560 mg/kg (6-21D preg/10D after birth)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
NETEEC 17,189,1995
oral/rat 75 mg/kg (5D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)TJADAB 35,37A,1987
oral/rat 140 mg/kg (2W pre-3W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)JTEHD6 17,457,1986
oral/rat 150 mg/kg (5D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
MUTAEX 2,215,1987
oral/rat 810 mg/kg (70D male/70D prior to copulation/22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
REPTED 28,196,2009
oral/rat 810 mg/kg (70D male/70D prior to copulation/22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)REPTED 28,196,2009
oral/rat 5 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)REPTED 28,196,2009
oral/rat 285 mg/kg (14D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
HPV308 -,-,2001
oral/rat 565 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Other effects on male

Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
HPV308 -,-,2001
oral/rat 160 mg/kg (6-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
ARTODN 83,785,2009
oral/rat 85 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNETEEC 32,220,2010
oral/rat 85 mg/kg (6-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)NETEEC 32,373,2010
oral/rat 225 mg/kg (5D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
REPTED 14,147,2000
oral/rat 945 mg/kg (70D male/70D pre-4W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
REPTED 14,385,2000
oral/rat 945 mg/kg (70D male/70D pre-4W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
REPTED 14,385,2000
oral/rat 378 mg/kg (70D male/70D pre-4W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
REPTED 14,385,2000
oral/rat 945 mg/kg (multigeneration))Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
REPTED 14,385,2000
oral/rat 945 mg/kg (multigeneration))Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
REPTED 14,385,2000
oral/rat 35 mg/kg (70D male/70D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)REPTED 14,385,2000
oral/mouse 3462.48 mg/kg (189D male/189D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)NTIS** PB93-158285
oral/mouse 1282.4 mg/kg (140D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
NTIS** PB93-158285
oral/mouse 2.39 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemNTIS** PB93-158285
oral/mouse 540 mg/kg (6-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemNTIS** #PB89-140008/AS
oral/mouse 180 mg/kg (6-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)NTIS** #PB89-140008/AS
oral/rat 700 mg/kg (10W male/10W prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat 810 mg/kg (10W male/10W prior to copulation/22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat 2 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat 5 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesREPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat 5 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat 2 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat 350 mg/kg (10W male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/mouse 308 mg/kg (1W male/1W prior to copulation/21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/mouse 8.8 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/mouse 8.8 mg/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/mouse 862.4 mg/kg (98D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/mouse 862.4 mg/kg (98D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility
REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat 700 mg/kg (56D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat 700 mg/kg (56D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat 560 mg/kg (2W prior to copulation/21D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)
REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat 280 mg/kg (2W prior to copulation/21D preg/21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Mating performance (e.g., # sperm positive females per # females mated; # copulations per # estrus cycles)REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat 336 mg/kg (4W male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat 35 mg/kg (4W male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat 70 mg/kg (4W male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)REPTED 17,1,2003
unreported route/rat 348 mg/kg (6D preg-13D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTOXID9 -,35,2009
unreported route/rat 320 mg/kg (6D preg-4D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)TOXID9 -,35,2009
unreported route/rat 432 mg/kg (6D preg-11D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralTOXID9 -,35,2009

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 24 mg/kg/8W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CNREA8 44,107,1984
intraperitoneal/mouse toxic dose: 72 mg/kg/8W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CNREA8 44,107,1984
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/2W- intermittentTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
CALEDQ 24,209,1984
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/8W- intermittentTumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Tumorigenic: Increased incidence of tumors in susceptible strains
HPV308 -,-,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1456 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
TXAPA9 85,154,1986
oral/rat toxic dose: 1456 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Uterine tumors
TXAPA9 85,154,1986
oral/rat toxic dose: 1460 mg/kg/2Y- continuousTumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
NTIS** OTS0555720

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 5.8 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Mouse, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 3.5 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 50,3306,2012
In Vitro/Rat, cerebellum Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.52 mmol/L/8DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 2,69,1988
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 818 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 801 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 768 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 344 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 880 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1430 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 977 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 671 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >5.7 ppm/6HHPV308 -,-,2001
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >5.7 ppm/6HHPV308 -,-,2001
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 170 mg/kgHPV308 -,-,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 170 mg/kgTXAPA9 33,142,1975
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 90 mg/kgHPV308 -,-,2001
intravenous/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published lethal dose: 190 mg/kgCOREAF 153,895,1911
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 150 mg/kgTXAPA9 6,172,1964
oral/guinea pig lowest published lethal dose: 252 mg/kgHPV308 -,-,2001
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kgKASEAA 17,495,1979
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 107 mg/kgHPV308 -,-,2001
oral/quail lethal dose (50 percent kill): 186 mg/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
JTEHD6 7,935,1981
oral/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 126 mg/kgBehavioral: TremorHPV308 -,-,2001
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 150 mg/kgTXAPA9 6,172,1964
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 203 mg/kgBehavioral: TremorHPV308 -,-,2001
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 124 mg/kgHPV308 -,-,2001
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 175 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
HPV308 -,-,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgBlood: Other changesTOXID9 72(Suppl 1),248,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOSCF2 71,164,2003
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1680 µL/kgBehavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptionsATDAEI 1,115,1990
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1150 mg/kgENTOX* -,42,2005
skin/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1.68 mL/kgHPV308 -,-,2001
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 mg/kgHPV308 -,-,2001
skin/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 mg/kgBlood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases
GISAAA 44(10),73,1979
subcutaneous/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 170 mg/kgHPV308 -,-,2001
subcutaneous/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 170 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
MELAAD 47,192,1956
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.91 mmol/L 144HEye: Other eye effects

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)
REPTED 33,142,2012
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.91 mmol/L 144HBlood: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Skin and Appendages: Other glands
REPTED 33,142,2012
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 10.55 mmol/L 24HRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldREPTED 33,142,2012
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 10.55 mmol/L 48HRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldREPTED 33,142,2012
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 3.77 mmol/L 72HRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldREPTED 33,142,2012
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 1.88 mmol/L 144HRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldREPTED 33,142,2012
unreported route/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 173 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
GISAAA 43(9),38,1978
unreported route/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 156 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
GISAAA 43(9),38,1978
unreported route/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 280 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
GISAAA 43(9),38,1978
unreported route/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 208 mg/kgBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
GISAAA 43(9),38,1978

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
intramuscular/cat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/10D- intermittentSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
TXAPA9 88,175,1987
intraperitoneal/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/2D- intermittentLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 6,172,1964
intraperitoneal/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/3D- continuousBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV308 -,,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/2W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTOLED5 193,86,2010
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 50,3306,2012
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
NRTXDN 28,252,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 63,470,1982
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
NEZAAQ 50,292,1995
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 108 mg/kg/3W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
NETEEC 14,273,1992
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 168 mg/kg/2W- continuousBehavioral: Muscle weaknessTXAPA9 40,589,1977
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 780 mg/kg/13W- intermittentSpinal Cord: Demyelination

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath

Behavioral: Ataxia
FAATDF 18,343,1992
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
ENVRAL 61,37,1993
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg/12D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
WDZAEK 6,71,1992
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 550 mg/kg/11D- intermittentBehavioral: Ataxia

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
NRTXDN 22,341,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/2W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
NETEEC 22,247,2000
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 550 mg/kg/11D- intermittentBehavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NRTXDN 23,397,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NRTXDN 23,95,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 550 mg/kg/11D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Ataxia
TXAPA9 188,135,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Ataxia
NRTXDN 23,397,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 550 mg/kg/11D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NRTXDN 23,397,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBehavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NRTXDN 23,95,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weaknessNRTXDN 23,95,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/5D- intermittentSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changesNRTXDN 23,415,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/8D- intermittentSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Ataxia
NRTXDN 23,415,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 550 mg/kg/11D- intermittentSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NRTXDN 23,415,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/10D- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 44,316,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/12D- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
TOXID9 44,317,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/3W- intermittentBehavioral: AtaxiaFCTOD7 45,2126,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/1W- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)FCTOD7 45,2126,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 mg/kg/2W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: ProteinuriaFCTOD7 45,2126,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/1W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: ProteinuriaFCTOD7 45,2126,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/10D- intermittentSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Ataxia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 78,62,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/9D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on Na-K pump
TOXID9 66,15,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTOXID9 66,17,2002
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
TOXID9 60,366,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/8W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 217,46,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
NRTXDN 28,252,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/3W- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheathHPV308 -,,2001
intravenous/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/4D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTXAPA9 6,172,1964
multiple/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 59 gm/m3/4D- continuousRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldREPTED 22,263,2006
oral/cat lowest published toxic dose: 260 mg/kg/1Y- continuousBehavioral: Muscle weaknessHPV308 -,,2001
oral/cat lowest published toxic dose: 771 mg/kg/1Y- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weaknessTXAPA9 6,172,1964
oral/chicken lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/3W- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
BJIMAG 32,31,1975
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 330 mg/kg/22D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia
ARZNAD 23,1566,1973
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 392 mg/kg/8W- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JNNPAU 44,906,1981
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 330 mg/kg/22D- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerveHPV308 -,,2001
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 392 mg/kg/8W- continuousBehavioral: AtaxiaHPV308 -,,2001
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 239.4 mg/kg/6W- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
HPV308 -,,2001
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/44D- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Tremor
HPV308 -,,2001
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 650 mg/kg/13W- continuousEye: Optic nerve neuropathyHPV308 -,,2001
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 671 mg/kg/75W- intermittentAutonomic Nervous System: Other (direct) parasympathomimetic

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 6,172,1964
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 450 mg/kg/61D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerveTXAPA9 71,266,1983
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 568 mg/kg/8W- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weightARTODN 47,179,1981
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5.04 mg/kg/1W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeNTIS** PB93-158285
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 451.71 mg/kg/27W- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)NTIS** PB93-158285
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/3W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
TOLED5 135,S52,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/3W- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TOLED5 135,S52,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 540 mg/kg/12D- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTIS** #PB89-140008/AS
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 238 mg/kg/17W- continuousBehavioral: Muscle weaknessREPTED 17,1,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 238 mg/kg/17W- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductREPTED 17,1,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 806 mg/kg/75D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HPV308 -,,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 568 mg/kg/8W- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
HPV308 -,,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2100 mg/kg/3W- continuousLiver: Other changesEMMUEG 49,741,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2058 mg/kg/3W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeEMMUEG 47,6,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2100 mg/kg/3W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 -,78,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 111 mg/kg/5D- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeJTSCDR 33,11,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 244.2 mg/kg/11D- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Behavioral: Ataxia
JTSCDR 33,11,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 344 mg/kg/20D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJTSCDR 33,11,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 567.8 mg/kg/34D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath
JTSCDR 33,11,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 450.9 mg/kg/27D- continuousBehavioral: AtaxiaJTSCDR 33,11,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/14D- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 230,208,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kg/14D- continuousEndocrine: Other changesTXAPA9 230,208,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg/1W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJTPAE7 17,37,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1050 mg/kg/5W- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTPAE7 17,37,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1890 mg/kg/9W- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTPAE7 17,37,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 630 mg/kg/3W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory changeJTPAE7 17,37,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1050 mg/kg/5W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory changeJTPAE7 17,37,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
ARTODN 79,531,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 980 mg/kg/49D- continuousSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 78,62,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1219 mg/kg/49D- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on Na-K pump
TOXID9 66,15,2002
oral/rat : 550 mg/kg/11D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JAPTO* 26,198,2006
oral/rat : 350 mg/kg/7D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JAPTO* 26,198,2006
oral/rat : 250 mg/kg/5D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory changeJAPTO* 26,198,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12250 µg/kg/7W- continuousBehavioral: Muscle weaknessTXCYAC 219,133,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1750 µg/kg/10W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
TXCYAC 219,133,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 350 µg/kg/10W- continuousLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TXCYAC 219,133,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 35 µg/kg/10W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 219,133,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.1 mg/kg/17D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNETEEC 32,373,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kg/70D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainREPTED 28,196,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.28 gm/kg/4W- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath

Behavioral: Ataxia
ETPAEK 61,406,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.56 gm/kg/4W- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath

Behavioral: Ataxia

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
ETPAEK 61,406,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/10D- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Endocrine: Hyperglycemia

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
BCLPT* 105(Suppl 1),120,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 616 mg/kg/2W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 240,401,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/3D- intermittentOlfaction: Deviated nasal septum

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
MUREAV 702,40,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 580 mg/kg/29D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Paresthesia

Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
MUREAV 702,40,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1710 mg/kg/90D- continuousBehavioral: Muscle weaknessHPV308 -,,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2700 mg/kg/90D- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath

Behavioral: Muscle weakness
HPV308 -,,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1460 mg/kg/2Y- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV308 -,,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1860 mg/kg/93D- continuousSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
HPV308 -,,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 390 mg/kg/13W- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheathHPV308 -,,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 770 mg/kg/5W- continuousSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HPV308 -,,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 532 mg/kg/28D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
HPV308 -,,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/56D- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/56D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainREPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 336 mg/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Muscle weaknessREPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 597.2 mg/kg/10D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JESEDU A22,639,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 298.6 mg/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weightJESEDU A22,639,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/4W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainREPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21 mg/kg/4W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesREPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 460 mg/kg/92D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
REPTED 17,1,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 294 mg/kg/14D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Ataxia
NRTXDN 23,397,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 798 mg/kg/38D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NRTXDN 23,397,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 588 mg/kg/28D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Spinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Ataxia
TXAPA9 188,135,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 294 mg/kg/14D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Ataxia
NRTXDN 23,397,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 798 mg/kg/38D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNRTXDN 23,397,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 980 mg/kg/49D- continuousMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
TOXID9 44,317,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 980 mg/kg/49D- continuousMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 44,316,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 588 mg/kg/28D- continuousSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Ataxia
NRTXDN 23,415,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 798 mg/kg/38D- continuousSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NRTXDN 23,415,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 231 mg/kg/11D- continuousBehavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NRTXDN 23,95,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 378 mg/kg/18D- continuousBehavioral: Muscle weaknessNRTXDN 23,95,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/5D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
REPTED 19,527,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg/5D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Endocrine: Androgenic
REPTED 19,527,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/5D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductREPTED 19,527,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 112.5 mg/kg/15D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTIS** #PB89-164669/AS
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 546 mg/kg/26D- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NRTXDN 23,95,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 56 mg/kg/28D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainREPTED 14,385,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg/14D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainREPTED 14,385,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 84 mg/kg/42D- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)REPTED 14,385,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 mg/kg/70D- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
REPTED 14,385,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 680 mg/kg/34D- continuousBehavioral: Ataxia

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other hydrolases
NRTXDN 22,341,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/5D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainREPTED 14,147,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 225 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningREPTED 14,147,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBehavioral: Sleep

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
REPTED 14,147,2000
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1035 mg/kg/15W- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTOTDY 5,91,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 608 mg/kg/16D- continuousSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTOTDY 3,487,1981
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1800 mg/kg/90D- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JEPTDQ 4(5/6),157,1980
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/6W- continuousBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia
NTOTDY 4,355,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 286 mg/kg/28D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Cardiac: Changes in heart weight

Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells
WATRAG 24,661,1990
subcutaneous/cat lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TXAPA9 60,324,1981
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/4W- continuousPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Behavioral: Ataxia
HPV308 -,,2001
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1155 mg/kg/13W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Sensory change involving peripheral nerve

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
ENVRAL 63,229,1993
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg/8W- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Structural change in nerve or sheath
TXAPA9 139,15,1996
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/10D- intermittentBehavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JOCHFV 41,181,1999
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42 mg/kg/3W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in cerebral spinal fluid

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXAPA9 197,318,2004
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatumTOXID9 44,315,2005
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 441 mg/kg/21D- intermittentBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatumTOXID9 44,315,2005
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 714 mg/kg/34D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 90,495,2006
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 252 mg/kg/21D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)TOXID9 -,35,2009

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-time-weighted average 0.03 mg/m3 (inhal, vapor, skin)DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 39,41,1986
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Sufficient EvidenceIMEMDT 60,389,1994
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human No Adequate DataIMEMDT 39,41,1986
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Human Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 60,389,1994
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Group 2AIMEMDT 60,389,1994
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 23,265,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 23,259,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 23,253,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 23,43,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 23,223,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTOTDY 3,445,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOPADD 14,279,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,43,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 580,21,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 580,143,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 580,167,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,42,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 44,1699,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 627,10,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIJTOFN 24,21,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 36,481,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHETOEA 23,357,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 580,31,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 25,192,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBDERB* 74,17,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRNGDP 28,519,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 659,68,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 46,1360,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHTOPA* 1,501,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 180,110,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 681,51,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 47,760,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 590,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 678,113,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTEHD6 9,397,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 48,,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTOD7 48,,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,377,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTXAPA9 243,180,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 22,83,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETEEC 32,4,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,239,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,265,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,617,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,629,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,737,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 678,76,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,43,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,199,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,101,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 53,166,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETOX* 33,911,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 54,480,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 53,166,2012

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3 (skin)DTLVS* 3,5,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3, Carcinogen, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 0.06 mg/m3;KZW 0.24 mg/m3, dust, inhal, skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIATRK-TMW 0.03 mg/m3;KZW 0.12 mg/m3, inhal, skin, 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 0.03 mg/m3, Skin, Carcinogen, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 0.03 mg/m3, skin, carc, MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.9 mg/m3, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 0.1 ppm (0.3 mg/m3), Skin, C2 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYceiling concentration 0.03 mg/m3, Carcinogen, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 0.03 mg/m3, carc, skin, NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-JAPANOccupational Exposure Limit 0.1 mg/m3, skin, 2A carc, s2 sen, MAY2012
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 0.03 mg/m3, skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 0.03 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 0.06 mg/m3 (skin), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 0.03 mg/m3, skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 0.03 mg/m3, JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDtime-weighted average 0.1 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 0.05 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 0.2 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 0.03 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 0.1 mg/m3, Carcinogen, Skin, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 0.03 mg/m3, carc 2, inhal, skin, sen, JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3, carc, skin, OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 0.3 mg/m3 (skin)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ACRYLAMIDE-air10H Carcinogen time-weighted average 0.03 mg/m3 (Sk)NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 03540; Number of Industries 19; Total Number of Facilities 453; Number of Occupations 22; Total Number of Employees Exposed 10651; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 721
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 03540; Number of Industries 10; Total Number of Facilities 442; Number of Occupations 24; Total Number of Employees Exposed 7047

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: In vivo SCE-nonhuman
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vivo cytogenetics-nonhuman bone marrow
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Cytogenetics-male germ cell
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULEFEREAC 47,26992,82
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NTP 10th Report on Carcinogens,2002:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
On EPA IRIS database
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #21
TOP