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Acetonitrile

RTECS #: AL7700000

CAS #: 75-05-8


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 41.06 MF: C2H3N


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Acetonitril (German, Dutch)
  2. Acetonitrile (ACGIH:OSHA)
  3. Cyanomethane
  4. Cyanure de methyl (French)
  5. Ethanenitrile
  6. Ethyl nitrile
  1. Methanecarbonitrile
  2. Methane, cyano -
  3. Methylkyanid (Czech)
  4. NCI - C60822
  5. RCRA waste number U003
  6. USAF EK - 488


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
100 ÁL/24 hour moderate IJTOFN 19,363,2000
skin
rabbit
500 mg open irritation test mild UCDS** 3/18/1965


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 5 gm/L EMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction inhalation
Drosophila melanogaster
131 ppm MUREAV 259,165,1991
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 47,600 ppm MUREAV 149,339,1985


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,000 ppm/1 hour (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
TJADAB 27,313,1983
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 8,000 ppm/1 hour (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 27,313,1983
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,800 ppm/6 hour (6-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) FAATDF 20,365,1993
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system TJADAB 27,313,1983
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) TJADAB 27,313,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus TXAPA9 163,149,2000
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 390 mg/kg (6-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NTIS** OTS0555575


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 400 ppm/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-447,1996


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 18 gm/m3 N/R 85GMAT -,16,1982
inhalation
dog
lowest published lethal concentration: 16,000 ppm/4 hour N/R JOCMA7 1,634,1959
inhalation
guinea pig
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 5,655 ppm/4 hour Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Blood: Hemorrhage
JOCMA7 1,634,1959
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 160 ppm/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes 34ZIAG -,65,1969
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2,693 ppm/1 hour Liver: Other changes CTOXAO 18,991,1981
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7,551 ppm/8 hour Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Blood: Hemorrhage
JOCMA7 1,634,1959
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 17,100 ppm/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea HALRE* 10/1/1968
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 7,500 ppm N/R ENTOX* -,28,2005
inhalation
rabbit
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2,828 ppm/4 hour Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Blood: Hemorrhage
JOCMA7 1,634,1959
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 175 mg/kg Eye: Corneal damage

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TXAPA9 59,589,1981
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 850 mg/kg N/R JOCMA7 1,634,1959
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 612 mg/kg N/R 85GMAT -,16,1982
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,680 mg/kg N/R JOCMA7 1,634,1959
oral
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kg N/R ZAARAM 19,225,1969
oral
child
lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
AJEMEN 9,268,1991
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 177 mg/kg N/R JOCMA7 1,634,1959
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,670 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 39(4),86,1974
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 571 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Metabolic acidosis
APTSAI 41,340,1977
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 64 mg/kg Behavioral: Excitement JTCTDW 29,447,1991
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 269 mg/kg N/R ARTODN 55,47,1984
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,460 mg/kg N/R UCDS** 3/18/1965
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kg N/R ZAARAM 19,225,1969
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg Behavioral: Coma

Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
PGMJAO 73,299,1997
parenteral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,100 mg/kg N/R 85GMAT -,16,1982
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 9,100 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
AIPTAK 5,161,1899
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,480 mg/kg N/R 85GMAT -,16,1982
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,900 mg/kg N/R EKFAE9 62,48,1999
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,520 mg/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
EKFAE9 62,48,1999
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 105 mg/kg N/R AIPTAK 36,455,1929
skin
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 100 pph Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory stimulation
JTCTDW 41,643,2003
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 980 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* -,28,2005


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
dog
lowest published toxic concentration: 350 ppm/7 hour/91 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain JOCMA7 1,634,1959
inhalation
monkey
lowest published toxic concentration: 350 ppm/7 hour/91 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Changes in circulation

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Emphysema

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
JOCMA7 1,634,1959
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 800 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTIS** OTS0535664
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 655 ppm/7 hour/90 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
JOCMA7 1,634,1959
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 800 ppm/6 hour/13 week- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTIS** OTS0535664
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,200 ppm/14 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field NTIS** #DE94-008272


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 20 ppm (skin) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
SAIGBL 33,463,1991
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,28,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 25,192,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,683,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,577,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 40 ppm (70 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,3,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 40 ppm (70 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 40 ppm (70 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 40 ppm (70 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 40 ppm (70 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 40 ppm (70 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 40 ppm (67 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 60 ppm (101 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 20 ppm (34 mg/m3), Skin, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 40 ppm (70 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 70 mg/m3 (40 mL/m3), FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 40 ppm (70 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 60 ppm (105 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 40 ppm (70 mg/m3), Skin, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 34 mg/m3 (20 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 70 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 280 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 40 ppm (70 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 60 ppm (105 mg/m3), skin, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 40 ppm (70 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 60 ppm (105 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 70 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 40 ppm (67 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 60 ppm (101 mg/m3), skin, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 30 ppm (50 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 40 ppm (70 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND time-weighted average 70 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 140 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 30 ppm (50 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 60 ppm (100 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 20 ppm (34 mg/m3);
KZG- week 40 ppm (68 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 40 ppm (70 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 40 ppm (68 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 60 ppm, 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ACETONITRILE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 20 ppm NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 02900;
Number of Industries 9;
Total Number of Facilities 302;
Number of Occupations 25;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 28,201
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 02900;
Number of Industries 19;
Total Number of Facilities 1,172;
Number of Occupations 27;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 31,341;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 7,975


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULE FEREAC 47,26992,82
Used as a solvent
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Acetonitrile, 1606
NTP Carcinogenesis studies (inhalation);equivocal evidence:rat NTPTR* NTP-TR-447,1996
NTP Carcinogenesis studies (inhalation);no evidence:mouse NTPTR* NTP-TR-447,1996


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

34ZIAG "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969
85GMAT "Toxicometric Parameters of Industrial Toxic Chemicals Under Single Exposure," Izmerov, N.F., et al., Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982
AIPTAK Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. (Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium) V.4- 1898-
AJEMEN American Journal of Emergency Medicine. (WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA) V.1- 1983-
APTSAI Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica, Supplementun. (Munksgaard International Pub., POB 2148, DK-1016 Copenhagen K, Denmark) No.1- 1947-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CTOXAO Clinical Toxicology. (New York, NY) V.1-18, 1968-81. For publisher information, see JTCTDW.
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EKFAE9 Eksperimental'naya i Klinicheskaya Farmakologiya. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. (Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, ul. B. Yakimanka, 39, 117049 Moscow, Russia) V.55- 1992-
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
HALRE* E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Haskell Laboratory for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine report NO. 226-68
HUTOX*
IJTOFN International Journal of Toxicology. (Taylor & Francis, 47 Runway Rd., Suite g, Levittown, PA 19057) V.16- 1997-
JOCMA7 Journal of Occupational Medicine. (Chicago, IL) V.1-9, 1957-67. For publisher information, see:JJOMDZ
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
PGMJAO Postgraduate Medical Journal. (Blackwell Scientific Pub. Ltd., POB 88, Oxford, UK) V.1- 1925-
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
SAIGBL Sangyo Igaku. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health. (Nippon Sangyo Eisei Igakkai, Kosu Eisei Bldg., 1-29-8, Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan) V.1- 1959-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
UCDS** Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817)
ZAARAM Zentralblatt fuer Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz. (Darmstadt, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1-25, 1951-75.

Used as a solvent

NIOSH PROFILE (NITRILES), SRC, 10/77

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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