CDC logo, Safer Healthier People  CDC HomeCDC SearchCDC Health Topics A-Z
NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Search NIOSH  |  NIOSH Home  |  NIOSH Topics  |  Site Index  |  Databases and Information Resources  |  NIOSH Products  |  Contact Us






Acetic acid

RTECS #: AF1225000

CAS #: 64-19-7


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 60.06 MF: C2H4O2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Acetic acid (ACGIH:OSHA)
  2. Acetic acid, glacial
  3. Acide acetique (French)
  4. Acido acetico (Italian)
  5. Azijnzuur (Dutch)
  6. Essigsaeure (German)
  7. Ethanoic acid
  1. Ethylic acid
  2. Glacial acetic acid
  3. Kyselina octova (Czech)
  4. Methanecarboxylic acid
  5. Octowy kwas (Polish)
  6. Vinegar acid


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
5 mg/30S rinse mild TXCYAC 23,281,1982
skin
human
50 mg/24 hour mild TXAPA9 31,481,1975
skin
rabbit
525 mg open irritation test severe UCDS** 8/7/1963
skin
rabbit
50 mg/24 hour mild TXAPA9 31,481,1975


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis parenteral
grasshopper
40 mmol/L NULSAK 9,119,1966
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 10 mmol/L MUREAV 240,195,1990
unscheduled DNA synthesis skin
mouse
79,279 g/kg JNCIAM 55,983,1975
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 300 ppm/3 hour (-enzymatic activation step) AMNTA4 85,119,1951
other mutation test systems skin
mouse
1,201 mg/kg JNCIAM 55,983,1975
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 5 mmol/L MUREAV 279,75,1992
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction inhalation
Drosophila melanogaster
1,000 ppm/24 hour THAGA6 39,330,1969
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
1,000 ppm THAGA6 39,330,1969


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intratesticular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females) FESTAS 24,884,1973
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg (18 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NTOTDY 4,105,1982


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 816 ppm/3 minute Olfaction: Other olfaction effects

Eye: Other eye effects

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
AMIHAB 21,28,1960
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic dose: 10 ppm/2 hour Olfaction: Other olfaction effects TOLED5 165,22,2006
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 11.4 gm/m3/4 hour N/R FEREAC 68,34955,2003
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 5,620 ppm/1 hour Eye: Conjunctiva irritation

Eye: Other eye effects

Blood: Other changes
MELAAD 48,559,1957
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 12 ppm/6 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression TOLED5 9,137,1981
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 330 ppm Olfaction: Other olfaction effects TOXID9 66,98,2002
inhalation
rat
lowest published lethal concentration: 16,000 ppm/4 hour N/R AIHQA5 17,129,1956
implant
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
EJPHAZ 442,125,2002
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Behavioral: Analgesia FRMCE8 55,439,2000
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 93.75 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold FATOAO 44,46,1982
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 525 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold APTOA6 18,141,1961
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 1,470 g/kg Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of esophagus

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from small intestine

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine
AIHAAP 33,624,1972
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,960 mg/kg N/R FEREAC 68,34955,2003
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,310 mg/kg N/R DMDJAP 31,276,1959
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.33 mL/kg/1 minute Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach CYLPDN 22,488,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.48 mL/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach TXAPA9 183,41,2002
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 600 mg/kg N/R CRSBAW 83,136,1920
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.263 mL/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
BPBLEO 29,2206,2006
rectal
child
lowest published toxic dose: 281 L/kg Gastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
JTCTDW 82,333,1994
rectal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
JTEHD6 66,169,2003
rectal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.24 mL/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine TOLED5 143,133,2003
rectal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine

Gastrointestinal: Necrotic changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOLED5 145,79,2003
rectal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from large intestine

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXAPA9 205,43,2005
rectal
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 600 mg/kg N/R CRSBAW 83,136,1920
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 600 mg/kg N/R CRSBAW 83,136,1920
skin
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,060 mg/kg N/R FEREAC 68,34955,2003
skin
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from duodeum LIFSAK 70,17,2001
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,060 L/kg N/R UCDS** 8/7/1963
skin
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 gm/kg/24 hour Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation AEHLAU 30,168,1975
unreported route
man
lowest published lethal dose: 308 mg/kg N/R 85DCAI 2,73,1970


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,070 g/m3/24 hour/95 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GISAAA 34(4),103,1969
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22,680 mg/kg/9 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JPETAB 16,463,1921


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 10 ppm;short term exposure limit 15 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AMIHAB 21,28,1960
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ARTODN 39,299,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,239,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,83,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 46,551,2000


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,2,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (37 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (38 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (37 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VLE 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 25 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 25 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 15 ppm (37 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 15 ppm (37 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 25 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 15 ppm (37 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 35 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 5 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 5 ppm (13 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 10 ppm (25 mg/m3),KZG- week 20 ppm (50 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 10 ppm (25 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 10 ppm;
short term exposure limit 15 ppm
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 10 ppm;
short term exposure limit 15 ppm


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ACETIC ACID-air 10 hour time-weighted average 10 ppm;
short term exposure limit 15 ppm
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 01568;
Number of Industries 264;
Total Number of Facilities 51,469;
Number of Occupations 150;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 486,503
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 01568;
Number of Industries 266;
Total Number of Facilities 49,403;
Number of Occupations 169;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 907,205;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 322,123


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in production of VINYL ACETATE, CELLULOSE ACETATE and acetic esters
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Risk Notification, 8EHQ-0892-9237;8EHQ-0892-9238
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Acetic acid, 1603
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-118


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85DCAI "Poisoning; Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments," 2nd ed., Arena, J.M., Springfield, IL, C.C. Thomas, 1970
AEHLAU Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1960-
AIHAAP American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. (AIHA, 475 Wolf Ledges Pkwy., Akron, OH 44311) V.19- 1958-
AIHQA5 American Industrial Hygiene Association Quarterly. (Baltimore, MD) V.7-18, 1946-57. For publisher information, see AIHAAP.
AMIHAB AMA Archives of Industrial Health. (Chicago, IL) V.11-21, 1955-60. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
AMNTA4 American Naturalist. (Univ. of Chicago Press, Journals Div., POB 37005, Chicago, IL 60637) V.1- 1867-
APTOA6 Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. (Copenhagen, Denmark) V.1-59, 1945-86. For publisher information, see PHTOEH
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
BPBLEO Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. (Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 2-12-15-201 Shibuya Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan) V.16- 1993-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CRSBAW Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.1- 1849-
CYLPDN Zhongguo Yaoli Xuebao. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. Chinese Journal of Pharmacology. (China International Book Trading Corp., POB 2820, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1980-
DIMON* Disease-a Month (Chicago : Year Book Publishers) V. 24- 1978-
DMDJAP Delaware State Medical Journal. (Wilmington, DE) V.1-32(1), 1929-60. For publisher information, see DSMJAA.
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EJPHAZ European Journal of Pharmacology. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1967-
FATOAO Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow). For English translation, see PHTXA6 and RPTOAN. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.2- 1939-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
FESTAS Fertility and Sterility. (American Fertility Soc., 608 13th Ave. S, Birmingham, AL 35282) V.1- 1950-
FRMCE8 Farmaco. (Societa Chimica Italiana, Corso Strada Nova, 86, Casella Postale 227, 27100 Pavia, Italy) V.44- 1989-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
JNCIAM Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.1-60, 1940-78. For publisher information, see JJIND8.
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
LIFSAK Life Sciences. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1-8, 1962-69; V.14- 1974-
MELAAD Medicina del Lavoro. Industrial Medicine. (Via S. Barnaba, 8, 20122 Milan, Italy) V.16- 1925-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTOTDY Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.3-8, 1981-86. For publisher information, see NETEEC.
NULSAK Nucleus (Calcutta). (Dr. A.K. Sharma, Centre of Advanced Studies in Cell and Chromosome Research, Calcutta, 35 Baliygunge Circular Rd., Calcutta 700 019, India) V.1- 1958-
THAGA6 Theoretical & Applied Genetics. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.38- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
UCDS** Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817)

Used in production of VINYL ACETATE, CELLULOSE ACETATE and acetic esters

Top 50 chemical production: 3.60 billions lbs in 1992, 3.62 billions in 1991

NIOSH PROFILE (ACIDS, ORGANIC), SRI, 2/77

NIOSH PROFILE (PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (ACIDS, ORGANIC), SRC, 4/78

FDA-over the counter and proprietary drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

NIOSH Home |  NIOSH Search  |  Site Index  |  Topic List |  Contact Us