Table of Contents

Locator Record

Title: Ophthalmology – Retinal Imaging (OPXRET_D )
Contact Number: 1-866-441-NCHS
Years of Content: 2005 - 2006
First Published: December, 2008
Revised: NA
Access Constraints: None
Use Constraints: None
Geographic Coverage: National
Subject:Retinal Imaging Exam, non-mydriatic digital imaging, fundus photography
Record Source: NHANES 2005 - 2006
Survey Methodology: NHANES 2005 - 2006 is a stratified multistage probability sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the U.S.
Medium: NHANES Web site; SAS transport files

Component Description

The Retinal Imaging subsection of the Ophthalmology Component tests for the presence of diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and other retinal conditions. Two forty-five degree non-mydriatic digital retinal images of each eye were obtained using an ophthalmic digital imaging system (National Center for Health Statistics. NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual).

In 2012, retinal images of participants with a CDR greater than or equal to 0.6 were re-read by ophthalmologist from Johns Hopkins University with attention to features relevant to glaucoma.

Eligible Sample

All examined participants aged 40 years and older who did not meet any of the exclusion criteria. Persons could be excluded from the retinal imaging component due to blindness (i.e., unable to see light with both eyes open), eye infections, or eye patches on both eyes (National Center for Health Statistics. NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual).

Retinal images of all examined participants aged 40 years and older who had a vertical CDR 0.6 or greater were re-read.

Protocol and Procedure

The retinal imaging exam was performed using an ophthalmic digital imaging system (Retinal Photography) to assess the presence of retinal diseases.

Forty-five degree non-mydriatic digital images of the retina were captured from survey participants aged 40 years and older using the Canon Non-Mydriatic Retinal Camera CR6-45NM. Technicians conducting the exams were trained in the use of the digital imaging system. The room was darkened while these images were captured to allow the pupils to dilate naturally. No pharmacologic dilation was used (National Center for Health Statistics. NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual).

The exam was conducted with the participant seated in a chair in front of the Canon CR6-45NM, with a Canon 10D camera back (6.3 megapixels per image), with the flash default (DA) set to 2. Please refer to the NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual in the NHANES website for camera settings. Participants were asked to focus on a target for proper field positioning while two digital images per eye were obtained. The first image was centered on the macula (field 2) and the second on the optic nerve (field 1). The first eye to be imaged was determined by an automated system. The digital images were copied to DVDs and shipped to the University of Wisconsin for grading using standardized methods used for other populations.

Field 1 and 2 images provided photographic documentation of the optic disc, macula, and substantial portions of the temporal arcades.

During external alignment of the pupil, its size was estimated, once for each eye, prior to taking the first image for that eye. Each digital image was initially evaluated as it appeared on the back of the digital camera. Technicians were trained to determine when an image should be repeated, such as an image being too dark or the person blinked. After taking the required four images, repeat images were captured for those that were obviously ungradable. The maximum number of images allowed was 12 (i.e., 3 per field) (National Center for Health Statistics. NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual).

Digital images were evaluated by graders at the University of Wisconsin. If an eye was judged to have a treatable pathologic condition that posed an imminent threat to vision, the University of Wisconsin notified NCHS within three working days of receipt of the images. Further information can be found in the NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual available on the NHANES website.

In 2012, retinal images that were determined to have a CDR 0.6 or greater were re-read by ophthalmologists at Johns Hopkins University to look for additional indicators suggestive of the presence of glaucoma. Specifically, the optic disc images were evaluated. A tablet-based review system was used to grade the images.

As a quality control check, 200 images were randomly selected from eyes having a vertical CDR less than 0.6. All optic disc images assessed as 0.6 or greater were selected by the photo reading center and re-read.

Quality Assurance & Quality Control

A variety of quality control procedures were used to ensure the accurate and reliable collection of these data. Calibrations of the Canon forty-five degree non-mydriatic camera were performed prior to conducting examinations at each survey location. Prior to data collection, a multistage training was conducted during which the technician was required to image a minimum of 25 volunteers (50 eyes). Six images captured by each technician were sent to graders for evaluation. At regular intervals, NCHS and contractor staff observed digital imaging examinations to evaluate whether appropriate procedures and techniques were being followed. Midyear and annual retraining sessions were conducted with health technicians to review data collection procedures, provide feedback, review grader evaluation comments, and reinforce proper protocols and technique.

Digital images of the retina were sent to graders under contract to the University of Wisconsin, Madison for reading. The grading protocol for assessing retinopathy, macular degeneration, and other retinal lesions was successfully performed in NHANES III. The grading team included nine experienced graders (a preliminary grading coordinator, two preliminary graders, and six detail graders).

The digital images were evaluated in semi-quantitative fashion by independent graders using EyeQ Lite, an image processing software for storage, retrieval, and manipulation of digital images. The graders viewed each retinal image with a high resolution monitor, using the EyeQLite image processing software and database, and referenced the written protocol and the digital photographic standards to evaluate retinal abnormalities.

Three distinct steps comprised the grading process: early review for pathology, preliminary grading, and detail grading. A preliminary grading coordinator reviewed images for significant pathology and notified NCHS of pathology within 3 days of receiving the images. All images were further graded by at least two graders (a preliminary grader and a detail grader). Upon systematic grading, if the first two graders did not agree on pathology, a third grader graded the eye. If two of the three graders disagreed, the image was evaluated by an adjudicator to make a final decision. Refer to the NHANES Digital Grading Protocol on the NHANES website for more detail (National Center for Health Statistics. NHANES Digital Grading Protocol).

The reading center provided a photo quality report generated from the graders’ evaluations of all photographs which was used to evaluate re-training of technicians.

For details on the QA/QC process for this component, please refer to the NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual on the NHANES website.

Inspection, calibration, and maintenance of the equipment and supplies were performed on a regular basis. The NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual details the equipment quality control procedures (National Center for Health Statistics. NHANES Ophthalmology Procedures Manual).

During the re-reading of the rentinal images, 200 optic disc images from eyes with a vertical CDR of less than 0.6 were randomly evaluated as a quality control measure. All images were determined to have CDR less than 0.6.

Data Processing and Editing

Automated data collection procedures for the survey were used to collect the digital imaging data. Digital images were captured by a non-mydriatic camera. The captured images were then transferred to the survey database system.

During the editing process, all data were examined for logical inconsistencies and technician or equipment errors. Edits of the data were performed when errors were detected.

Analytic Notes

Users are encouraged to note carefully the “English Instructions” describing the various variables and suggested analysis in the codebook documentation.

Note that eye conditions are provided for the worse eye, right eye, and left eye. The following can be determined from the variable names: OP - Ophthalmology component; third letter - data was gathered through examination (X), it is an administrative variable (A), or a derived variable (D). Worse eye is defined by “U”, right eye by “D”, and left eye by “S”. The remaining letters refer to the corresponding data gathered or eye condition.

OPASCCT2 (Retinal Imaging Exam Status Comment) is a quality control variable that allowed NCHS to monitor the component and the reasons technicians provided for why an exam was not done or incomplete. The data were not collected for analytic reasons but for quality control purposes. This variable is only provided in the data release file to allow analysts to have some information on missing data and possible reasons for non-response.

References to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) standards are made in the codebook, thus familiarization with the standards is helpful.

Retinal Imaging data can be combined with the Ophthalmology Frequency Doubling Technology data to assess for the presence of glaucoma. Visual acuity data can be used in analysis where noted in the English Instructions.

Special weights, developed by the researcher, should be used for analyses. Please refer to the Analytic Guidelines on the NHANES website to obtain further details on the use of sample weights and other analytic issues (National Center for Health Statistics. NHANES Analytic Guidelines).

The NHANES Digital Grading Protocol which can be found on the NHANES website provides definitions and a detailed description of the grading process (National Center for Health Statistics. NHANES Digital Grading Protocol).

The following procedures were used in the 2012 re-grading of the optic disc images:

References

Codebook and Frequencies

SEQN - Respondent sequence number

Variable Name:
SEQN
SAS Label:
Respondent sequence number
English Text:
Respondent sequence number.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS

OPASCST2 - Exam status

Variable Name:
OPASCST2
SAS Label:
Exam status
English Text:
Retinal Imaging Status
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Complete 2403 2403
2 Partial 101 2504
3 Not done 430 2934
. Missing 0 2934

OPASCCT2 - Reason for not done/partial

Variable Name:
OPASCCT2
SAS Label:
Reason for not done/partial
English Text:
Retinal Imaging Comment
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Safety exclusion 3 3
2 SP refusal 85 88
3 No time 13 101
4 Physical limitation 94 195
5 Communication problem 22 217
6 Equipment failure 3 220
7 SP ill/emergency 16 236
12 Eye specific limitation 60 296
56 Came late/left early 198 494
72 Error (technician/software/supply) 4 498
84 SP with child 15 513
86 SP Blind 1 514
99 Other, specify 2 516
100 Eye specific limitation: Eye missing/glass eye 1 517
101 Eye specific limitation: Small pupil size 2 519
102 Eye specific limitation: Cataract, right eye 1 520
103 Eye specific limitation: SP unable to keep eyes open 6 526
104 Eye specific limitation: SP unable to fixate adequately 3 529
105 Eye specific limitation: Interference with drooping eyelids 1 530
106 Eye specific limitation: SP not able to control blinking 1 531
. Missing 2403 2934

VIQ110 - SP has severe eye infection?

Variable Name:
VIQ110
SAS Label:
SP has severe eye infection?
English Text:
Does SP appear to have a severe eye infection in one or both eyes?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 0 0
2 No 2780 2780
. Missing 154 2934

VIQ130 - SP wearing eye patch

Variable Name:
VIQ130
SAS Label:
SP wearing eye patch
English Text:
Is SP wearing an eye patch?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1 1
2 No 2779 2780
. Missing 154 2934

VIQ141 - Which eye?

Variable Name:
VIQ141
SAS Label:
Which eye?
English Text:
If so, which eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Right 1 1
2 Left 0 1
3 Both 0 1
. Missing 2933 2934

OPXDCOMP - Are field 1 & field 2 present, right eye

Variable Name:
OPXDCOMP
SAS Label:
Are field 1 & field 2 present, right eye
English Text:
Are field 1 & field 2 present, right eye?
English Instructions:
Completeness of the photo. If field 1 or field 2 are missing, the photos will be incomplete.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No photos 28 28
1 Incomplete 91 119
2 Complete 2385 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXDF1 - Field 1 Present, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDF1
SAS Label:
Field 1 Present, Right Eye
English Text:
Is field 1 present in the photos of the right eye?
English Instructions:
If present, there is a gradability value, OPXDGRBL.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Absent 100 100
2 Present 2404 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXDF1FO - Field 1 Focus, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDF1FO
SAS Label:
Field 1 Focus, Right Eye
English Text:
Was the optic nerve in focus from the right eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Good/fair 2152 2152
1 Borderline 188 2340
2 Poor 64 2404
. Missing 530 2934

OPXDF2 - Field 2 Present, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDF2
SAS Label:
Field 2 Present, Right Eye
English Text:
Is field 2 present, Right Eye?
English Instructions:
Was field 2 present in the photos of the right eye? If absent, ARM and ME may not be measurable in this eye. If present, there is a gradability value, OPXDGRBL.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Absent 38 38
2 Present 2466 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXDF2FO - Field 2 Focus, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDF2FO
SAS Label:
Field 2 Focus, Right Eye
English Text:
Field 2 Focus, Right Eye
English Instructions:
Was the Macula Image in Focus from the right eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Good/fair 2118 2118
1 Borderline 241 2359
2 Poor 107 2466
. Missing 468 2934

OPXDGRBL - Gradability of images, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDGRBL
SAS Label:
Gradability of images, Right Eye
English Text:
Gradability of images, right eye. This assumes at least one digital image of the right eye is available.
English Instructions:
0=All fields are gradable; 1=Disc is ungradable; 2=Portion of the macula is ungradable; 4= Portion of the disc and macula are ungradable; 5=Disc and macula are ungradable; 6= All available fields are ungradable. Please refer to the NHANES Digital Retinal Image Grading Protocol for more details and definitions.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Gradable 2256 2256
1 Disc ungradable 4 2260
2 Part macula 130 2390
3 Macula ungradable 54 2444
4 Part disc & macula 5 2449
5 Disc & macula ungradable 9 2458
6 Ungradable 18 2476
. Missing 458 2934

OPXDPMM - Pupil Size, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPMM
SAS Label:
Pupil Size, Right Eye
English Text:
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 6 Range of Values 2368 2368
. Missing 566 2934

OPXDPHPR - Photo Problems, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHPR
SAS Label:
Photo Problems, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problems
English Instructions:
Were there problems with the quality of the images from the right eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1289 1289
2 Yes 1187 2476
9 No photos of eye 28 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXDPHIL - Photo Prob - Illumination, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHIL
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Illumination, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Illumination
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2014 2014
2 Yes 462 2476
9 No photos of eye 28 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXDPHFD - Photo Prob - Field Definition, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHFD
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Field Definition, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Field Definition
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2399 2399
2 Yes 77 2476
9 No photos of eye 28 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXDPHHZ - Photo Prob - Haze, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHHZ
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Haze, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Haze
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1740 1740
2 Yes 736 2476
9 No photos of eye 28 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXDPHDD - Photo Prob - Dust/Dirt, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHDD
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Dust/Dirt, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Dust/Dirt
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2190 2190
2 Yes 286 2476
9 No photos of eye 28 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXDPHLA - Photo Prob - Lashes, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHLA
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Lashes, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Lashes
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2374 2374
2 Yes 102 2476
9 No photos of eye 28 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXDPHAR - Photo Prob - Arc, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHAR
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Arc, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Arc
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2388 2388
2 Yes 88 2476
9 No photos of eye 28 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXDPHRC - Photo Prob - Red Channel, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHRC
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Red Channel, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Red Channel
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2468 2468
2 Yes 8 2476
9 No photos of eye 28 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXDPHOT - Photo Prob - Other, Right Eye

Variable Name:
OPXDPHOT
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Other, Right Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Other
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1910 1910
2 Yes 566 2476
9 No photos of eye 28 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPDURET - Retinopathy level, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDURET
SAS Label:
Retinopathy level, worse eye
English Text:
Calculated levels of retinopathy severity, worse eye. The worse eye is the eye with the more severe retinopathy.
English Instructions:
Calculated severity levels are described in more detail in the NHANES Grading Protocol, Retinopathy section. HE=HARD EXUDATES; SE=SOFT EXUDATE; IRMA=INTRARETINAL MICROVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES; VL=VENOUS LOOPS; MAS=MICROANEURYSMS; HEM=HEMORRHAGES; NPR=NON-PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY; RET=RETINOPATHY; PRP LASER=PANRETINAL PHOTOCOAGULATION SCARS PRESENT; PR=PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY; HRC=HIGH RISK CHARACTERISTICS AS DEFINED IN THE EARLY TREATMENT DIABETIC RETINOPATHY STUDY; AND VH=VITREOUS HEMORRHAGE Note: Retinopathy is graded masked to diabetes status and retinopathy may be found in persons with and without diabetes (even though value labels may indicate otherwise). Level 12 is indicated when specific nondiabetic disease, e.g. retinal vein occlusion, is present. To examine retinopathy in persons with diabetes use the diabetes definition found in the NHANES Grading Protocol; to examine in nondiabetic persons exclude all persons with diabetes.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
10 No retinopathy 2022 2022
12 Non-diabetic retinal disease specific retinopathy 33 2055
13 Questionable retinopathy 90 2145
14 HE, SE, IRMA, VL but no MAS 11 2156
15 HEM only, no MAS 57 2213
20 MAS only 129 2342
31 Early NPR 47 2389
41 Moderate NPR 52 2441
51 Severe NPR 5 2446
60 Fibrous prolif. only 3 2449
61 No retinopathy but PRP laser 0 2449
62 MAS only + PRP laser 0 2449
63 Early NPR + PRP laser 1 2450
64 Moderate/severe NPR + PRP laser 1 2451
65 PR < HRC 7 2458
70 PR >= HRC 1 2459
80 Total VH 0 2459
. Missing 475 2934

OPDURL4 - 4 levels retinopathy severity, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDURL4
SAS Label:
4 levels retinopathy severity, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on four levels of retinopathy severity, from the worse eye. The worse eye is the eye with the more severe retinopathy.
English Instructions:
Four levels of retinopathy severity are computed from variable OPDURET: 1=LEVELS 10-13; 2=LEVELS 14-31; 3=LEVELS 41-51; 4=LEVELS 60-80. This variable is often used in examining associations with retinopathy severity. To collapse further, can combine code 1=No Retinopathy; 2-4=Retinopathy; For a No Proliferative Retinopathy vs. Proliferative analysis, combine 1-3 as Non-Proliferative.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 No retinopathy 2145 2145
2 Mild NPR 244 2389
3 Moderate/severe NPR 57 2446
4 PR (Proliferative) 13 2459
. Missing 475 2934

OPDUARMA - Any retinopathy, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUARMA
SAS Label:
Any retinopathy, worse eye
English Text:
This field is coded for the presence or absence of any retinopathy from the worse eye. The worse eye is the eye with the more severe retinopathy.
English Instructions:
This variable is calculated from the OPDURET variable as follows: 0(No)=LEVELS <14; 1(Yes)=LEVELS>=14
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2145 2145
1 Yes 314 2459
. Missing 475 2934

OPDUHMA - MAS, HEM, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUHMA
SAS Label:
MAS, HEM, worse eye
English Text:
This summary variable provides information describing microaneurysms (MAS) only, blot hemorrhages (HEM) only, or both, using two severity levels from the ETDRS standard 2A, worse eye.
English Instructions:
Value 5 is more severe than value 4. For MAS only, see variable OPDUMA. For HEM only, see variable OPDUHEM. Combined MAS and/or HEM would include values 2 to 5 as present and values 0 & 1 as none.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2044 2044
1 Questionable 85 2129
2 MAS only 146 2275
3 HEM only 79 2354
4 HEM+MAS < 2A 102 2456
5 HEM+MAS >= 2A 6 2462
. Missing 472 2934

OPDUMA - Retinal microaneurysms, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUMA
SAS Label:
Retinal microaneurysms, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information only on eyes with retinal microaneurysms and no retinal blot hemorrhage, worse eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is calculated as being present (1=YES) if variable OPDUHMA=2 and absent (0=NO) if OPDUHMA=0 or 1. For eyes with any microaneurysms, recode from OPDUHMA.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2226 2226
1 Yes 177 2403
. Missing 531 2934

OPDUHEM - Retinal blot hemorrhages, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUHEM
SAS Label:
Retinal blot hemorrhages, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information only on eyes with retinal blot hemorrhages and no microaneurysms in the worse eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is computed as present (1=YES) from OPDUHMA variable code=3 and absent (0=NO) from OPDUHMA variable code=0 or 1. For eyes with any retinal blot hemorrhages, recode from OPDUHMA.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2271 2271
1 Yes 84 2355
. Missing 579 2934

OPDUHE - Retinal hard exudate, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUHE
SAS Label:
Retinal hard exudate, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of hard exudate in the worse eye. Hard exudate is a result of lipoprotein deposition in the retina and is usually associated with macular edema.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2392 2392
1 Questionable 12 2404
2 Yes 57 2461
. Missing 473 2934

OPDUSE - Retinal soft exudate, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSE
SAS Label:
Retinal soft exudate, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft exudate in the worse eye. Soft exudate, sometimes called cotton wool spot, is due to retinal nerve fiber layer infarction, a result of retinal ischemia.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2376 2376
1 Questionable 15 2391
2 Yes 71 2462
. Missing 472 2934

OPDUIRMA - IRMA, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUIRMA
SAS Label:
IRMA, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Intraretinal Microvascular Abnormalities (IRMA), from the worse eye. IRMA are retinal collateral vessels in areas of retinal ischemia indicating a more severe level of retinopathy. This variable is coded using the ETDRS photo standard, 8A. Eyes with IRMA>=8A have more severe disease than eyes with standard <8A.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for IRMA absent and codes 2 & 3 for IRMA present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2381 2381
1 Questionable 35 2416
2 < 8A 36 2452
3 >= 8A 6 2458
. Missing 476 2934

OPDUVB - Retinal venous beading, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUVB
SAS Label:
Retinal venous beading, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal venous beading from the worse eye. Venous beading is a manifestation of severe retinal ischemia.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2465 2465
1 Questionable 3 2468
2 Yes 0 2468
. Missing 466 2934

OPDUNVO - Retinal new vessels on disc, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUNVO
SAS Label:
Retinal new vessels on disc, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal new vessels on the optic disc area, from the worse eye. Retinal new vessels on the optic disc area are a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. This variable is coded using the ETDRS photo standard, 10A. Eyes with standard>=10A have more new vessels than eyes with standard <10A.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDURL4=4 (Proliferative). Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; codes 2=<10A with 3=>=10A for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2466 2466
1 Questionable 2 2468
2 < 10A 4 2472
3 >= 10A 0 2472
. Missing 462 2934

OPDUNVE - Retinal new vessels elsewhere, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUNVE
SAS Label:
Retinal new vessels elsewhere, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal new vessels elsewhere outside the optic disc margin in the worse eye. Retinal new vessels elsewhere outside the optic disc margin are a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area affected, the more severe the disease.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDURL4=4 (Proliferative). Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and code 2=<1/2 DISC AREA with 3=>=1/2 DISC AREA for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2456 2456
1 Questionable 4 2460
2 < 1/2 Disc Area 4 2464
3 >= 1/2 Disc Area 0 2464
. Missing 470 2934

OPDURFP - Retinal fibrous proliferation, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDURFP
SAS Label:
Retinal fibrous proliferation, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal fibrous proliferation in the worse eye. Retinal fibrous proliferation is a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area affected, the greater the disease.
English Instructions:
FPD = Fibrous proliferation within the optic disc area; FPE = Fibrous proliferation elsewhere outside the optic disc margin. When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDURL4=4. Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; 2=FPD ONLY, 3=FPE ONLY, and 4=FPD + FPE for any present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2458 2458
1 Questionable 4 2462
2 FPD only 2 2464
3 FPE only 1 2465
4 FPD + FPE 3 2468
. Missing 466 2934

OPDUPHVH - Pre-ret./ vitreous hemorrhage, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUPHVH
SAS Label:
Pre-ret./ vitreous hemorrhage, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of pre-retinal hemorrhage or vitreous hemorrhage in the worse eye. Pre-retinal hemorrhage or vitreous hemorrhage is a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area is affected, the more severe the disease.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDURL4=4. Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and 2=<1 Disc Area and 3=>= 1 Disc Area for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2465 2465
1 Questionable 2 2467
2 < 1 Disc Area 0 2467
3 >= 1 Disc Area 1 2468
. Missing 466 2934

OPDUME - Macular edema, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUME
SAS Label:
Macular edema, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of macular edema by clinical significance from the worse eye. The definition for Clinically Significant Macular Edema (CSME), found in the NHANES Grading Protocol: CSME is considered present when edema involves the fovea or is within 500 microns of the fovea, or when a 1+disc area of edema is present with at least a portion of it within the macula.
English Instructions:
Increased permeability of retinal capillaries and MAS may result in accumulation of extracellular fluid and thickening of normally compact retinal tissue called Macular Edema. In some cases, the macular edema becomes clinically significant. "OTHER" refers to evidence of macular edema associated with retinopathy often associated with a specific ocular or systemic condition (e.g. retinal vein occlusion). Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent; and 2=Yes, but not CSME and 3=Yes, CSME for any macular edema present; exclude 7 from analysis.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2400 2400
1 Questionable 12 2412
2 Yes, but not CSME 5 2417
3 Yes CSME 24 2441
7 Other 0 2441
. Missing 493 2934

OPDUMEC - Macular edema in center, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUMEC
SAS Label:
Macular edema in center, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of macular edema in the center from the worse eye. Center involvement specifies involvement of the fovea by macular edema. Cysts indicate more severe involvement, usually associated with visual loss.
English Instructions:
"OTHER" refers to evidence of macular edema associated with retinopathy often associated with a specific ocular or systemic condition (e.g. retinal vein occlusion). Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; 2=Present and CSME and 3=CSME with cysts for any present central involvement; exclude 7 from analysis. Can combine with visual acuity data in corresponding eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2415 2415
1 Questionable 8 2423
2 Present and CSME 15 2438
3 CSME with cysts 2 2440
7 Other 1 2441
. Missing 493 2934

OPDUPPS - Panret. photocoagulation scar, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUPPS
SAS Label:
Panret. photocoagulation scar, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of panretinal photocoagulation scars in the worse eye. Panretinal photocoagulation in a scatter pattern across the retina or in specific areas outside the macular area later results in scarring and is a surrogate for having had active severe disease. Local and/or scatter photocoagulation is usually done to prevent preretinal and vitreous hemorrhage or the development of retinal new vessels.
English Instructions:
In the absence of retinopathy, is usually combined with other signs of proliferative retinopathy which may or may not be present (refer to OPDURET). Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable/Incomplete for absent; and codes 2, 3, and 4 as present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2453 2453
1 Questionable/incomplete 4 2457
2 Local 1 2458
3 Scatter only 11 2469
4 Scatter + local 0 2469
. Missing 465 2934

OPDUFOC - Focal photocoag. scars for ME, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUFOC
SAS Label:
Focal photocoag. scars for ME, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of focal laser photocoagulation from the worse eye. It can appear either as treatment of leaking retinal microaneurysms (MA Rx only) or in a grid pattern in macula done for the treatment of localized or diffuse macular edema (Grid only), or sometimes together.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and codes 2-4 (MA RX only, Grid Only, and MA RX + Grid Rx) for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2446 2446
1 Questionable 3 2449
2 MA RX only 16 2465
3 Grid only 0 2465
4 MA RX & Grid RX 0 2465
. Missing 469 2934

OPDUARM - ARM, 3 severity levels, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUARM
SAS Label:
ARM, 3 severity levels, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the 3-level severity classification of age-related macular degeneration (ARM) from the worse eye. Early ARM is defined by presence or absence of drusen and/or pigmentary abnormalities; late ARM by exudative ARM signs and/or geographic atrophy.
English Instructions:
For ANY ARM, can combine codes 1=Early ARM and 2=Late ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No ARM 2220 2220
1 Early ARM 166 2386
2 Late ARM 27 2413
. Missing 521 2934

OPDUPIGA - Ret. & pigmentary abnorm., worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUPIGA
SAS Label:
Ret. & pigmentary abnorm., worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of increased retinal pigment and/or RPE depigmentation, a manifestation of early ARM in absence of signs of late ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2272 2272
1 Yes 142 2414
. Missing 520 2934

OPDULARM - Late ARM, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDULARM
SAS Label:
Late ARM, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of exudative ARM and/or geographic atrophy from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Late ARM is defined by the presence of signs of exudative ARM and/or geographic atrophy.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2397 2397
1 Yes 27 2424
. Missing 510 2934

OPDUGA - Geographic atrophy, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUGA
SAS Label:
Geographic atrophy, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of pure geographic atrophy in the absence of signs of Exudative ARM, worse eye
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2397 2397
1 Yes 19 2416
. Missing 518 2934

OPDUEXU - Exudative ARM, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUEXU
SAS Label:
Exudative ARM, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of exudative ARM from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Exudative ARM is also called neovascular ARM. Sometimes geographic atrophy is present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2416 2416
1 Yes 8 2424
. Missing 510 2934

OPDUHD - Hard distinct drusen, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUHD
SAS Label:
Hard distinct drusen, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of hard distinct drusen, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Currently considered not to be a sign of ARM by itself.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 928 928
1 Yes 1484 2412
. Missing 522 2934

OPDUD125 - Drusen>=125 microns, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUD125
SAS Label:
Drusen>=125 microns, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of large drusen, greater than or equal to 125 microns in diameter, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Large drusen are considered a sign of early ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2162 2162
1 Yes 255 2417
. Missing 517 2934

OPDUD500 - Drusen>=500 microns, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUD500
SAS Label:
Drusen>=500 microns, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of large drusen, greater than or equal to 500 microns in diameter, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Large drusen covering more area indicates more involvement in the macula area.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2309 2309
1 Yes 106 2415
. Missing 519 2934

OPDUASD - Any soft drusen, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUASD
SAS Label:
Any soft drusen, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any soft indistinct and/or soft distinct drusen from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2003 2003
1 Yes 416 2419
. Missing 515 2934

OPDUSDD - Soft distinct drusen, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSDD
SAS Label:
Soft distinct drusen, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft distinct drusen, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Soft distinct drusen is a less severe type of drusen than soft indistinct drusen.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2032 2032
1 Yes 387 2419
. Missing 515 2934

OPDUSID - Soft indistinct drusen, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSID
SAS Label:
Soft indistinct drusen, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft indistinct drusen from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Soft indistinct drusen is a more severe type of drusen than soft distinct drusen.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2288 2288
1 Yes 125 2413
. Missing 521 2934

OPDUIRP - Increased retinal pigment, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUIRP
SAS Label:
Increased retinal pigment, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of increased retinal pigment due to disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium in early ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2277 2277
1 Yes 137 2414
. Missing 520 2934

OPDURPE - RPE depigmentation, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDURPE
SAS Label:
RPE depigmentation, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of decreased retinal pigmentation due to disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium in early ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2336 2336
1 Yes 75 2411
. Missing 523 2934

OPDUAGA - Any geographic atrophy, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUAGA
SAS Label:
Any geographic atrophy, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any geographic atrophy from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
This variable differs from the pure geographic atrophy variable, OPDUGA, because exudative ARM may be present concurrently in which case OPDUGA may result from exudative ARM and/or its treatment.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2401 2401
1 Yes 23 2424
. Missing 510 2934

OPDUPED - RPE/sensory ret. detachment, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUPED
SAS Label:
RPE/sensory ret. detachment, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Retinal Pigment Epithelial detachment/ Sensory Retinal detachment, a sign of exudative ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2417 2417
1 Yes 6 2423
. Missing 511 2934

OPDUSNV - Subretinal new vessels, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSNV
SAS Label:
Subretinal new vessels, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal new vessels, a sign of exudative ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2421 2421
1 Yes 2 2423
. Missing 511 2934

OPDUSUBH - Subretinal hemorrhage, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSUBH
SAS Label:
Subretinal hemorrhage, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal hemorrhage, a sign of exudative ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2421 2421
1 Yes 3 2424
. Missing 510 2934

OPDUSFS - Subretinal fibrous scar, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSFS
SAS Label:
Subretinal fibrous scar, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal fibrous scar, a sign of exudative ARM, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2419 2419
1 Yes 5 2424
. Missing 510 2934

OPDUARMX - Treatment for ARM, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUARMX
SAS Label:
Treatment for ARM, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of 3 types of treatment for exudative ARM in the worse eye: laser, photodynamic and/or thermal treatment. The presence or absence of these treatments is a sign of exudative ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2423 2423
1 Yes 1 2424
. Missing 510 2934

OPDUBCO - Retinal artery occlusion, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUBCO
SAS Label:
Retinal artery occlusion, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal artery occlusion (branch or central), a blockage of retinal arteriole or artery resulting in infarction of the retina, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center, to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2477 2477
1 Questionable 2 2479
2 Yes 0 2479
3 Yes, in center 0 2479
. Missing 455 2934

OPDUBVO - Retinal branch vein occlusion, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUBVO
SAS Label:
Retinal branch vein occlusion, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal branch vein occlusion, a blockage of retinal branch venule (level 12 in the retinopathy severity scale, variable OPDURET), from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine with retinal central vein occlusion (OPDUCVO) to get retinal vein occlusion. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2459 2459
1 Questionable 4 2463
2 Yes 12 2475
3 Yes, in center 0 2475
. Missing 459 2934

OPDUCVO - Ret. central vein occlusion, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUCVO
SAS Label:
Ret. central vein occlusion, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal central vein occlusion (RCVO) from the worse eye; blockage of the retinal central vein (level 12 in the retinal severity scale variable, OPDURET).
English Instructions:
Can combine with retinal branch vein occlusion (OPDUBVO) to get retinal vein occlusion. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2478 2478
1 Questionable 1 2479
2 Yes 1 2480
3 Yes, in center 0 2480
. Missing 454 2934

OPDUAVN - Retinal AV nicking, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUAVN
SAS Label:
Retinal AV nicking, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal arterio-venous nicking, a pinching of the vein at an artery crossing, from the worse eye. May be secondary to hypertension. Refer to the NHANES Detailed Grading Protocol for more details.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1685 1685
1 Questionable 520 2205
2 Yes 270 2475
. Missing 459 2934

OPDUFAN - Focal arteriolar narrowing, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUFAN
SAS Label:
Focal arteriolar narrowing, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal focal arteriolar narrowing, focal pinching or narrowing of the arteriole, from the worse eye. May be secondary to hypertension. Refer to the NHANES Detailed Grading Protocol for more details.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2286 2286
1 Questionable 140 2426
2 Yes 40 2466
. Missing 468 2934

OPDUHOLL - Hollenhorst plaque, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUHOLL
SAS Label:
Hollenhorst plaque, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal arteriolar embolus (Hollenhorst plaque), from the worse eye. Usually fibrin or cholesterol embolus seen in retinal arterioles, often at a bifurcation of the vessel.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2460 2460
1 Questionable 6 2466
2 Yes 10 2476
. Missing 458 2934

OPDUPPA - Peripapillary atrophy, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUPPA
SAS Label:
Peripapillary atrophy, worse eye
English Text:
This variables provides information on the presence or absence of peripapillary atrophy, defined as retinal-choroidal atrophic area around the disc, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2215 2215
1 Questionable 71 2286
2 Yes 195 2481
. Missing 453 2934

OPDUASHY - Asteroid Hyalosis, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUASHY
SAS Label:
Asteroid Hyalosis, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Asteroid Hyalosis, soap-like crystals floating in the vitreous cavity in front of the retina, which can obstruct the view of retinal lesions, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2461 2461
1 Questionable 10 2471
2 Yes 12 2483
3 Yes, in center 1 2484
. Missing 450 2934

OPDUCHRA - Chorioretinal abnormality, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUCHRA
SAS Label:
Chorioretinal abnormality, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any chorioretinal abnormality from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2471 2471
1 Questionable 1 2472
2 Yes 7 2479
3 Yes, in center 0 2479
. Missing 455 2934

OPDUMACH - Macular hole, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUMACH
SAS Label:
Macular hole, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of a macular hole, a round sharply defined hole involving the center of the macula, resulting in a decrease in visual acuity, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent. Can analyze with visual acuity data.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2429 2429
1 Questionable 6 2435
2 Yes 4 2439
. Missing 495 2934

OPDUCHN - Choroidal nevus, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUCHN
SAS Label:
Choroidal nevus, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of choroidal nevus, a localized increase in the number of pigment bearing cells in choroid, usually round or oval in shape, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; ; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2314 2314
1 Questionable 51 2365
2 Yes 109 2474
3 Yes, in center 0 2474
. Missing 460 2934

OPDUOTRX - Any other treatment, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUOTRX
SAS Label:
Any other treatment, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any other laser treatment for other conditions (i.e. local treatment for retinal detachment), from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; ; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2479 2479
1 Questionable 0 2479
2 Yes 2 2481
3 Yes, in center 0 2481
. Missing 453 2934

OPDUPOHS - Histoplasmosis syndrome, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUPOHS
SAS Label:
Histoplasmosis syndrome, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome, which usually manifests by peripapillary atrophic scars, focal round chorioretinal active lesions or punched out scars, from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2480 2480
1 Questionable 1 2481
2 Yes 0 2481
3 Yes, in center 0 2481
. Missing 453 2934

OPDURDET - Retinal detachment, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDURDET
SAS Label:
Retinal detachment, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of traction or traumatic retinal detachment (not ARM Pigment Epithelial Detachment), from the worse eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2468 2468
1 Questionable 3 2471
2 Yes 8 2479
3 Yes, in center 0 2479
. Missing 455 2934

OPDUSWR - SW, cellophane changes, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSWR
SAS Label:
SW, cellophane changes, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of epiretinal membrane (cellophane changes), from the worse eye. Epiretinal membrane (cellophane changes) refers to a patch or patches of irregular increased reflection on the inner surface of the retina due to membrane cellophane changes only with no traction.
English Instructions:
Can combine with epiretinal membrane (traction changes) variable (OPDUSWRT). Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1895 1895
1 Questionable 62 1957
2 Yes 456 2413
3 Yes, in center 38 2451
. Missing 483 2934

OPDUSWRT - SW, traction changes, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUSWRT
SAS Label:
SW, traction changes, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of epiretinal membrane (retinal traction changes), from the worse eye. Epiretinal membrane (retinal traction changes) refers to a patch or patches of irregular increased reflection on the inner surface of the retina due to retinal traction changes of the membrane.
English Instructions:
Can combine with epiretinal membrane cellophane changes, variable OPDUSWR. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2357 2357
1 Questionable 19 2376
2 Yes 55 2431
3 Yes, in center 15 2446
. Missing 488 2934

OPDUOTHC - Other ocular conditions, worse eye

Variable Name:
OPDUOTHC
SAS Label:
Other ocular conditions, worse eye
English Text:
This variable provides information of other ocular conditions not graded elsewhere, from the worse eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2347 2347
1 Questionable 18 2365
2 Yes 115 2480
3 Yes, in center 0 2480
. Missing 454 2934

OPDDRET - Retinopathy level, right eye.

Variable Name:
OPDDRET
SAS Label:
Retinopathy level, right eye.
English Text:
Calculated levels of retinopathy severity, right eye.
English Instructions:
Calculated severity levels are described in more detail in the NHANES Grading Protocol, Retinopathy section. HE=HARD EXUDATES; SE=SOFT EXUDATE; IRMA=INTRARETINAL MICROVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES; VL=VENOUS LOOPS; MAS=MICROANEURYSMS; HEM=HEMORRHAGES; NPR=NON-PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY; RET=RETINOPATHY; PRP LASER=PANRETINAL PHOTOCOAGULATION SCARS PRESENT; PR=PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY; HRC=HIGH RISK CHARACTERISTICS AS DEFINED IN THE EARLY TREATMENT DIABETIC RETINOPATHY STUDY; AND VH=VITREOUS HEMORRHAGE Note: Retinopathy is graded masked to diabetes status and retinopathy may be found in persons with and without diabetes (even though value labels may indicate otherwise). Level 12 is indicated when specific nondiabetic disease, e.g. retinal vein occlusion, is present. To examine retinopathy in persons with diabetes use the diabetes definition found in the NHANES Grading Protocol; to examine in nondiabetic persons exclude all persons with diabetes.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
10 No retinopathy 2105 2105
12 Non-diabetic retinal disease specific retinopathy 24 2129
13 Questionable retinopathy 59 2188
14 HE, SE, IRMA, VL but no MAS 7 2195
15 HEM only, no MAS 35 2230
20 MAS only 83 2313
31 Early NPR 38 2351
41 Moderate NPR 42 2393
51 Severe NPR 4 2397
60 Fibrous prolif. only 3 2400
61 No retinopathy but PRP laser 0 2400
62 MAS only + PRP laser 0 2400
63 Early NPR + PRP laser 2 2402
64 Moderate/severe NPR + PRP laser 1 2403
65 PR < HRC 3 2406
70 PR >= HRC 0 2406
80 Total VH 0 2406
. Missing 528 2934

OPDDRL4 - 4 levels retinopathy severity, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDRL4
SAS Label:
4 levels retinopathy severity, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on four levels of retinopathy severity, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Four levels of retinopathy severity are calculated from variable OPDDRET: 1=LEVELS 10-13; 2=LEVELS 14-31; 3=LEVELS 41-51; 4=LEVELS 60-80 This variable is often used in examining associations with retinopathy severity. To collapse further 1=No Retinopathy ; 2-4=Retinopathy; For a No Proliferative Retinopathy vs. Proliferative analysis, combine 1-3 as Non-Proliferative.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 No retinopathy 2188 2188
2 Mild NPR 163 2351
3 Moderate/severe NPR 46 2397
4 PR (Proliferative) 9 2406
. Missing 528 2934

OPDDARMA - Any retinopathy, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDARMA
SAS Label:
Any retinopathy, right eye
English Text:
This field is coded for the presence or absence of any retinopathy from the right eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is computed from the OPDDRET variable as follows: 0(No)=LEVELS <14; 1(Yes)=LEVELS>=14
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2188 2188
1 Yes 218 2406
. Missing 528 2934

OPDDHMA - MAS, HEM, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDHMA
SAS Label:
MAS, HEM, right eye
English Text:
This summary variable provides information on describing microaneurysms (MAS) only, blot hemorrhages (HEM) only, or both using two severity levels using the ETDRS standard 2A, right eye.
English Instructions:
Value 5 is more severe than value 4. For MAS only, see variable OPDDMA. For HEM only, see variable OPDDHEM. Combined MAS and/or HEM would include values 2 to 5 as present and values 0 & 1 as none.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2123 2123
1 Questionable 58 2181
2 MAS only 105 2286
3 HEM only 45 2331
4 HEM+MAS < 2A 76 2407
5 HEM+MAS >= 2A 3 2410
. Missing 524 2934

OPDDMA - Retinal microaneurysms, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDMA
SAS Label:
Retinal microaneurysms, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information only on eyes with retinal microaneurysms and no retinal blot hemorrhage, right eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is calculated as being present (1=YES) if variable OPDDHMA=2 and absent (0=NO) if OPDDHMA=0 or 1. For eyes with any microaneurysms, recode from OPDDHMA.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2181 2181
1 Yes 105 2286
. Missing 648 2934

OPDDHEM - Retinal blot hemorrhages, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDHEM
SAS Label:
Retinal blot hemorrhages, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information only on eyes with retinal blot hemorrhages and no microaneurysms in the right eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is computed as present (1=YES) from OPDDHMA variable code=3 and absent (0=NO) from OPDDHMA variable code=0 or 1. For eyes with any retinal blot hemorrhages, recode from OPDDHMA.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2181 2181
1 Yes 45 2226
. Missing 708 2934

OPDDHE - Retinal hard exudate, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDHE
SAS Label:
Retinal hard exudate, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of hard exudate in the right eye. Hard exudate is a result of lipoprotein deposition in the retina and is usually associated with macular edema.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2355 2355
1 Questionable 10 2365
2 Yes 43 2408
. Missing 526 2934

OPDDSE - Retinal soft exudate, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSE
SAS Label:
Retinal soft exudate, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft exudate in the right eye. Soft exudate, sometimes called cotton wool spot, is due to retinal nerve fiber layer infarction, a result of retinal ischemia.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2350 2350
1 Questionable 8 2358
2 Yes 50 2408
. Missing 526 2934

OPDDIRMA - IRMA, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDIRMA
SAS Label:
IRMA, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Intraretinal Microvascular Abnormalities (IRMA), from the right eye. IRMA are retinal collateral vessels in areas of retinal ischemia indicating a more severe level of retinopathy. This variable is coded using the ETDRS photo standard, 8A. Eyes with IRMA>=8A have more severe disease than eyes with standard <8A.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for IRMA absent and codes 2 & 3 for IRMA present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2351 2351
1 Questionable 21 2372
2 < 8A 27 2399
3 >= 8A 5 2404
. Missing 530 2934

OPDDVB - Retinal venous beading, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDVB
SAS Label:
Retinal venous beading, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal venous beading from the right eye. Venous beading is a manifestation of severe retinal ischemia.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2416 2416
1 Questionable 1 2417
2 Yes 0 2417
. Missing 517 2934

OPDDNVO - Retinal new vessels on disc, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDNVO
SAS Label:
Retinal new vessels on disc, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal new vessels on the optic disc area, from the right eye. Retinal new vessels on the optic disc area are a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. This variable is coded using the ETDRS photo standard, 10A. Eyes with standard>=10A have more severe vessels than eyes with standard <10A.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDDRL4=4 (Proliferative). Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; codes 2=<10A with 3=>=10A for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2427 2427
1 Questionable 2 2429
2 < 10A 1 2430
3 >= 10A 0 2430
. Missing 504 2934

OPDDNVE - Retinal new vessels elsewhere, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDNVE
SAS Label:
Retinal new vessels elsewhere, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal new vessels elsewhere outside the optic disc margin in the right eye. Retinal new vessels elsewhere outside the optic disc margin are a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area affected, the more severe the disease.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDDRL4=4 (Proliferative). Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and code 2=<1/2 DISC AREA with 3=>=1/2 DISC AREA for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2411 2411
1 Questionable 3 2414
2 < 1/2 Disc Area 2 2416
3 >= 1/2 Disc Area 0 2416
. Missing 518 2934

OPDDRFP - Retinal fibrous proliferation, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDRFP
SAS Label:
Retinal fibrous proliferation, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal fibrous proliferation in the right eye. Retinal fibrous proliferation is a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area affected, the greater the disease.
English Instructions:
FPD = Fibrous proliferation within the optic disc area; FPE = Fibrous proliferation elsewhere outside the optic disc margin. When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDDRL4=4. Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; 2=FPD ONLY, 3=FPE ONLY, and 4=FPD + FPE for any present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2415 2415
1 Questionable 3 2418
2 FPD only 0 2418
3 FPE only 2 2420
4 FPD + FPE 1 2421
. Missing 513 2934

OPDDPHVH - Pre-ret./ vitreous hemorrhage, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDPHVH
SAS Label:
Pre-ret./ vitreous hemorrhage, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of pre-retinal hemorrhage or vitreous hemorrhage in the right eye. Pre-retinal hemorrhage or vitreous hemorrhage is a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area is affected, the more severe the disease.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDDRL4=4. Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and 2=<1 Disc Area and 3=>= 1 Disc Area for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2421 2421
1 Questionable 1 2422
2 < 1 Disc Area 0 2422
3 >= 1 Disc Area 0 2422
. Missing 512 2934

OPDDME - Macular edema, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDME
SAS Label:
Macular edema, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of macular edema by clinical significance from the right eye. The definition for Clinically Significant Macular Edema (CSME), found in the NHANES Grading Protocol: CSME is considered present when edema involves the fovea or is within 500 microns of the fovea, or when a 1+disc area of edema is present with at least a portion of it within the macula.
English Instructions:
Increased permeability of retinal capillaries and MAS may result in accumulation of extracellular fluid and thickening of normally compact retinal tissue called Macular Edema. In some cases, the macular edema becomes clinically significant. "OTHER" refers to evidence of macular edema associated with retinopathy often associated with a specific ocular or systemic condition (e.g. retinal vein occlusion). Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent; and 2=Yes, but not CSME and 3=Yes, CSME for any macular edema present; exclude 7 from analysis.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2343 2343
1 Questionable 11 2354
2 Yes, but not CSME 6 2360
3 Yes CSME 15 2375
7 Other 0 2375
. Missing 559 2934

OPDDMEC - Macular edema in center, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDMEC
SAS Label:
Macular edema in center, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of macular edema in the center from the right eye. Center involvement specifies involvement of the fovea by macular edema. Cysts indicate more severe involvement, usually associated with visual loss.
English Instructions:
"OTHER" refers to evidence of macular edema associated with retinopathy often associated with a specific ocular or systemic condition (e.g. retinal vein occlusion). Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; 2=Present and CSME and 3=CSME with cysts for any present central involvement; exclude 7 from analysis. Can combine with visual acuity data in corresponding eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2359 2359
1 Questionable 5 2364
2 Present and CSME 9 2373
3 CSME with cysts 2 2375
7 Other 0 2375
. Missing 559 2934

OPDDPPS - Panret. photocoagulation scar, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDPPS
SAS Label:
Panret. photocoagulation scar, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of panretinal photocoagulation scars in the right eye. Panretinal photocoagulation in a scatter pattern across the retina or in specific areas outside the macular area later results in scarring and is a surrogate for having had active severe disease. Local and/or scatter photocoagulation is usually done to prevent preretinal and vitreous hemorrhage or the development of retinal new vessels.
English Instructions:
In the absence of retinopathy, is usually combined with other signs of proliferative retinopathy which may or may not be present (refer to OPDURET). Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable/Incomplete for absent; and codes 2, 3, and 4 as present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2409 2409
1 Questionable/incomplete 2 2411
2 Local 0 2411
3 Scatter only 8 2419
4 Scatter + local 0 2419
. Missing 515 2934

OPDDFOC - Focal photocoag. scars for ME, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDFOC
SAS Label:
Focal photocoag. scars for ME, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of focal laser photocoagulation from the right eye. It can appear either as treatment of leaking retinal microaneurysms (MA Rx only) or in a grid pattern in macula done for the treatment of localized or diffuse macular edema (Grid only), or sometimes together.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and codes 2-4 (MA RX only, Grid Only, and MA RX + Grid Rx) for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2404 2404
1 Questionable 1 2405
2 MA RX only 12 2417
3 Grid only 0 2417
4 MA RX & Grid RX 0 2417
. Missing 517 2934

OPDDARM - ARM, 3 severity levels, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDARM
SAS Label:
ARM, 3 severity levels, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the 3-level severity classification of age-related macular degeneration (ARM) from the right eye. Early ARM is defined by presence or absence of drusen and/or pigmentary abnormalities; late ARM by exudative ARM signs and/or geographic atrophy.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 1=Early ARM and 2=Late ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No ARM 2182 2182
1 Early ARM 131 2313
2 Late ARM 22 2335
. Missing 599 2934

OPDDPIGA - Ret. & pigmentary abnorm., right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDPIGA
SAS Label:
Ret. & pigmentary abnorm., right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of increased retinal pigment and/or RPE depigmentation, a manifestation of early ARM in absence of signs of late ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2230 2230
1 Yes 108 2338
. Missing 596 2934

OPDDLARM - Late ARM, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDLARM
SAS Label:
Late ARM, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of exudative ARM and/or geographic atrophy from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Late ARM is defined by the presence of signs of exudative ARM and/or geographic atrophy.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2334 2334
1 Yes 22 2356
. Missing 578 2934

OPDDGA - Geographic atrophy, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDGA
SAS Label:
Geographic atrophy, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of pure geographic atrophy in the absence of signs of Exudative ARM, right eye
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2334 2334
1 Yes 17 2351
. Missing 583 2934

OPDDEXU - Exudative ARM, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDEXU
SAS Label:
Exudative ARM, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of exudative ARM from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Exudative ARM is also called neovascular ARM. Sometimes geographic atrophy is present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2351 2351
1 Yes 5 2356
. Missing 578 2934

OPDDAREX - Excluded for ARM, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDAREX
SAS Label:
Excluded for ARM, right eye
English Text:
Was the right eye excluded for ARM?
English Instructions:
ARM may not be ascertained for many reasons, refer to OPDDREA for the reason for ARM exclusion.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2360 2360
1 Yes 35 2395
. Missing 539 2934

OPDDREA - Reason for ARM exclusion, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDREA
SAS Label:
Reason for ARM exclusion, right eye
English Text:
If a condition exists in the macula which confounds the grader from evaluating Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARM) lesions from similar changes in the retina due to another process the eye is excluded (cannot grade) from evaluation of all ARM lesions from the right eye.
English Instructions:
This variable lists reasons such as trauma, laser treatment, retinal vessel occlusion, retinal dystrophy, myopic degeneration, presumed ocular histoplasmosis or chorioretinal taxoplasmosis scar, nonspecific inflammatory retinal lesion, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), non ARM retinal pigment epithelial abnormality, non ARM detachment, unknown, other, and/or a retinal coloboma or staphyloma.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2411 2411
1 Trauma 0 2411
2 Laser RX 15 2426
3 Vessel occlusion 0 2426
4 Macular dystrophy 1 2427
5 Myopic degeneration 1 2428
6 Histoplasmosis/toxoplasmosis 1 2429
7 Inflammatory lesion 1 2430
9 Retinopathy of prematurity 0 2430
10 Non-ARM RPE abnormality 5 2435
11 Non-ARM detachment 0 2435
12 Unknown etiology 5 2440
15 Other 6 2446
16 Coloboma/staphyloma 0 2446
99 No photos of eye 28 2474
. Missing 460 2934

OPDDHD - Hard distinct drusen, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDHD
SAS Label:
Hard distinct drusen, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of hard distinct drusen, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Currently considered not to be a sign of ARM by itself.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1171 1171
1 Yes 1172 2343
. Missing 591 2934

OPDDD125 - Drusen>=125 microns, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDD125
SAS Label:
Drusen>=125 microns, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of large drusen, greater than or equal to 125 microns in diameter, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Large drusen are considered a sign of early ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2178 2178
1 Yes 169 2347
. Missing 587 2934

OPDDD500 - Drusen>=500 microns, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDD500
SAS Label:
Drusen>=500 microns, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of large drusen, greater than or equal to 500 microns in diameter, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Large drusen covering more area indicates more involvement in the macula area.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2260 2260
1 Yes 83 2343
. Missing 591 2934

OPDDASD - Any soft drusen, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDASD
SAS Label:
Any soft drusen, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any soft indistinct and/or soft distinct drusen from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2070 2070
1 Yes 278 2348
. Missing 586 2934

OPDDSDD - Soft distinct drusen, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSDD
SAS Label:
Soft distinct drusen, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft distinct drusen, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Soft distinct drusen is a less severe type of drusen than soft indistinct drusen.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2095 2095
1 Yes 253 2348
. Missing 586 2934

OPDDSID - Soft indistinct drusen, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSID
SAS Label:
Soft indistinct drusen, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft indistinct drusen from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Soft indistinct drusen is a more severe type of drusen than soft distinct drusen.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2247 2247
1 Yes 91 2338
. Missing 596 2934

OPDDIRP - Increased retinal pigment, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDIRP
SAS Label:
Increased retinal pigment, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of increased retinal pigment due to disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium in early ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2232 2232
1 Yes 105 2337
. Missing 597 2934

OPDDRPE - RPE depigmentation, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDRPE
SAS Label:
RPE depigmentation, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of decreased retinal pigmentation due to disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium in early ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2279 2279
1 Yes 54 2333
. Missing 601 2934

OPDDAGA - Any geographic atrophy, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDAGA
SAS Label:
Any geographic atrophy, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any geographic atrophy from the right eye.
English Instructions:
This variable differs from the pure geographic atrophy variable, OPDDGA, because exudative ARM may be present concurrently in which case OPDDGA may result from exudative ARM and/or its treatment.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2337 2337
1 Yes 19 2356
. Missing 578 2934

OPDDPED - RPE/sensory ret. detachment, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDPED
SAS Label:
RPE/sensory ret. detachment, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Retinal Pigment Epithelial detachment/ Sensory Retinal detachment, a sign of exudative ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2351 2351
1 Yes 4 2355
. Missing 579 2934

OPDDSNV - Subretinal new vessels, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSNV
SAS Label:
Subretinal new vessels, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal new vessels, a sign of exudative ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2354 2354
1 Yes 1 2355
. Missing 579 2934

OPDDSUBH - Subretinal hemorrhage, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSUBH
SAS Label:
Subretinal hemorrhage, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal hemorrhage, a sign of exudative ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2352 2352
1 Yes 3 2355
. Missing 579 2934

OPDDSFS - Subretinal fibrous scar, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSFS
SAS Label:
Subretinal fibrous scar, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal fibrous scar, a sign of exudative ARM, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2354 2354
1 Yes 2 2356
. Missing 578 2934

OPDDARMX - Treatment for ARM, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDARMX
SAS Label:
Treatment for ARM, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of 3 types of treatment for exudative ARM in the right eye: laser, photodynamic and/or thermal treatment. The presence or absence of these treatments is a sign of exudative ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2356 2356
1 Yes 0 2356
. Missing 578 2934

OPDDBCO - Retinal artery occlusion, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDBCO
SAS Label:
Retinal artery occlusion, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal artery occlusion (branch or central), a blockage of retinal arteriole or artery resulting infarction of the retina, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center, to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2437 2437
1 Questionable 2 2439
2 Yes 0 2439
3 Yes, in center 0 2439
. Missing 495 2934

OPDDBVO - Retinal branch vein occlusion, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDBVO
SAS Label:
Retinal branch vein occlusion, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal branch vein occlusion, a blockage of retinal branch venule (level 12 in the retinopathy severity scale, variable OPDURET), from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine with retinal central vein occlusion (OPDDCVO) to get retinal vein occlusion. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2425 2425
1 Questionable 2 2427
2 Yes 8 2435
3 Yes, in center 0 2435
. Missing 499 2934

OPDDCVO - Ret. central vein occlusion, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDCVO
SAS Label:
Ret. central vein occlusion, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal central vein occlusion (RCVO) from the right eye; blockage of the retinal central vein (level 12 in the retinal severity scale variable, OPDDRET).
English Instructions:
Can combine with retinal branch vein occlusion (OPDDBVO) to get retinal vein occlusion. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2439 2439
1 Questionable 1 2440
2 Yes 0 2440
3 Yes, in center 0 2440
. Missing 494 2934

OPDDAVN - Retinal AV nicking, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDAVN
SAS Label:
Retinal AV nicking, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal arterio-venous nicking, a pinching of the vein at an artery crossing, from the right eye. May be secondary to hypertension. Refer to the NHANES Detailed Grading Protocol for more details.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1916 1916
1 Questionable 349 2265
2 Yes 165 2430
. Missing 504 2934

OPDDFAN - Focal arteriolar narrowing, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDFAN
SAS Label:
Focal arteriolar narrowing, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal focal arteriolar narrowing, focal pinching or narrowing of the arteriole, from the right eye. May be secondary to hypertension. Refer to the NHANES Detailed Grading Protocol for more details.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2308 2308
1 Questionable 91 2399
2 Yes 22 2421
. Missing 513 2934

OPDDHOLL - Hollenhorst plaque, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDHOLL
SAS Label:
Hollenhorst plaque, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal arteriolar embolus (Hollenhorst plaque), from the worse eye. Usually fibrin or cholesterol embolus seen in retinal arterioles, often at a bifurcation of the vessel.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2427 2427
1 Questionable 3 2430
2 Yes 5 2435
. Missing 499 2934

OPDDPPA - Peripapillary atrophy, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDPPA
SAS Label:
Peripapillary atrophy, right eye
English Text:
This variables provides information on the presence or absence of peripapillary atrophy, defined as retinal-choroidal atrophic area around the disc, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2234 2234
1 Questionable 54 2288
2 Yes 149 2437
. Missing 497 2934

OPDDASHY - Asteroid Hyalosis, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDASHY
SAS Label:
Asteroid Hyalosis, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Asteroid Hyalosis, soap-like crystals floating in the vitreous cavity in front of the retina, which can obstruct the view of retinal lesions, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2435 2435
1 Questionable 5 2440
2 Yes 4 2444
3 Yes, in center 1 2445
. Missing 489 2934

OPDDCHRA - Chorioretinal abnormality, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDCHRA
SAS Label:
Chorioretinal abnormality, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any chorioretinal abnormality from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2434 2434
1 Questionable 0 2434
2 Yes 3 2437
3 Yes, in center 0 2437
. Missing 497 2934

OPDDMACH - Macular hole, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDMACH
SAS Label:
Macular hole, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of a macular hole, a round sharply defined hole involving the center of the macula, resulting in a decrease in visual acuity, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent. Can analyze with visual acuity data.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2371 2371
1 Questionable 5 2376
2 Yes 2 2378
. Missing 556 2934

OPDDCHN - Choroidal nevus, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDCHN
SAS Label:
Choroidal nevus, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of choroidal nevus, a localized increase in the number of pigment bearing cells in choroid, usually round or oval in shape, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; ; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2353 2353
1 Questionable 23 2376
2 Yes 57 2433
3 Yes, in center 0 2433
. Missing 501 2934

OPDDOTRX - Any other treatment, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDOTRX
SAS Label:
Any other treatment, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any other laser treatment for other conditions (i.e. local treatment for retinal detachment), from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; ; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2438 2438
1 Questionable 0 2438
2 Yes 1 2439
3 Yes, in center 0 2439
. Missing 495 2934

OPDDPOHS - Histoplasmosis syndrome, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDPOHS
SAS Label:
Histoplasmosis syndrome, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome, which usually manifests by peripapillary atrophic scars, focal round chorioretinal active lesions or punched out scars, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2439 2439
1 Questionable 0 2439
2 Yes 0 2439
3 Yes, in center 0 2439
. Missing 495 2934

OPDDRDET - Retinal detachment, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDRDET
SAS Label:
Retinal detachment, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of traction or traumatic retinal detachment (not ARM Pigment Epithelial Detachment), from the right eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2431 2431
1 Questionable 2 2433
2 Yes 4 2437
3 Yes, in center 0 2437
. Missing 497 2934

OPDDSWR - SW, cellophane changes, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSWR
SAS Label:
SW, cellophane changes, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of epiretinal membrane (cellophane changes), from the right eye. Epiretinal membrane (cellophane changes) refers to a patch or patches of irregular increased reflection on the inner surface of the retina due to membrane cellophane changes only with no traction.
English Instructions:
Can combine with epiretinal membrane (traction changes) variable (OPDDSWRT). Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2016 2016
1 Questionable 41 2057
2 Yes 313 2370
3 Yes, in center 16 2386
. Missing 548 2934

OPDDSWRT - SW, traction changes, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDSWRT
SAS Label:
SW, traction changes, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of epiretinal membrane (retinal traction changes), from the right eye. Epiretinal membrane (retinal traction changes) refers to a patch or patches of irregular increased reflection on the inner surface of the retina due to retinal traction changes of the membrane.
English Instructions:
Can combine with epiretinal membrane cellophane changes, variable OPDDSWR. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2338 2338
1 Questionable 11 2349
2 Yes 27 2376
3 Yes, in center 8 2384
. Missing 550 2934

OPDDOTHC - Other ocular conditions, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDOTHC
SAS Label:
Other ocular conditions, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides information of other ocular conditions not graded elsewhere, from the right eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2345 2345
1 Questionable 15 2360
2 Yes 78 2438
3 Yes, in center 0 2438
. Missing 496 2934

OPDDVCDR - Vertical cup disc ratio, right eye

Variable Name:
OPDDVCDR
SAS Label:
Vertical cup disc ratio, right eye
English Text:
This variable provides the vertical cup to disc ratio, in microns, from the right eye.
English Instructions:
The vertical cup to disc ratio is from 0 to 1.0.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.12 to 0.92 Range of Values 2403 2403
. Missing 531 2934

OPXSCOMP - Are field 1 & field 2 present, left eye

Variable Name:
OPXSCOMP
SAS Label:
Are field 1 & field 2 present, left eye
English Text:
Are field 1 & field 2 present, left eye?
English Instructions:
Completeness of the photo. If field 1 or field 2 are missing, the photos will be incomplete.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No photos 20 20
1 Incomplete 110 130
2 Complete 2374 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXSF1 - Field 1 Present, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSF1
SAS Label:
Field 1 Present, Left Eye
English Text:
Is field 1 present in the photos of the left eye?
English Instructions:
If present, there is a gradability value, OPXSGRBL.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Absent 103 103
2 Present 2401 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXSF1FO - Field 1 Focus, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSF1FO
SAS Label:
Field 1 Focus, Left Eye
English Text:
Was the optic nerve in focus from the left eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Good/fair 2204 2204
1 Borderline 151 2355
2 Poor 46 2401
. Missing 533 2934

OPXSF2 - Field 2 Present, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSF2
SAS Label:
Field 2 Present, Left Eye
English Text:
Is field 2 present, Left Eye?
English Instructions:
Was field 2 present in the photos of the left eye? If absent, ARM and ME may not be measurable in this eye. If present, there is a gradability value, OPXSGRBL.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Absent 43 43
2 Present 2461 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXSF2FO - Field 2 Focus, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSF2FO
SAS Label:
Field 2 Focus, Left Eye
English Text:
Field 2 Focus, Left eye
English Instructions:
Was the Macula Image in Focus from the left eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Good/fair 2172 2172
1 Borderline 204 2376
2 Poor 85 2461
. Missing 473 2934

OPXSGRBL - Gradability of images, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSGRBL
SAS Label:
Gradability of images, Left Eye
English Text:
Gradability of images, left eye. This assumes at least one digital image of the left eye is available.
English Instructions:
0=All fields are gradable; 1=Disc is ungradable; 2=Portion of the macula is ungradable; 4= Portion of the disc and macula are ungradable; 5=Disc and macula are ungradable; 6= All available fields are ungradable. Please refer to the NHANES Digital Retinal Image Grading Protocol for more details and definitions.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 Gradable 2271 2271
1 Disc ungradable 6 2277
2 Part macula 105 2382
3 Macula ungradable 68 2450
4 Part disc & macula 7 2457
5 Disc & macula ungradable 10 2467
6 Ungradable 17 2484
. Missing 450 2934

OPXSPMM - Pupil Size, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPMM
SAS Label:
Pupil Size, Left Eye
English Text:
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 6 Range of Values 2369 2369
. Missing 565 2934

OPXSPHPR - Photo Problems, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHPR
SAS Label:
Photo Problems, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problems
English Instructions:
Were there problems with the quality of the images from the left eye?
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1274 1274
2 Yes 1210 2484
9 No photos of eye 20 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXSPHIL - Photo Prob - Illumination, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHIL
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Illumination, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Illumination
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1994 1994
2 Yes 490 2484
9 No photos of eye 20 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXSPHFD - Photo Prob - Field Definition, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHFD
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Field Definition, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Field Definition
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2379 2379
2 Yes 105 2484
9 No photos of eye 20 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXSPHHZ - Photo Prob - Haze, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHHZ
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Haze, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Haze
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1765 1765
2 Yes 719 2484
9 No photos of eye 20 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXSPHDD - Photo Prob - Dust/Dirt, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHDD
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Dust/Dirt, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Dust/Dirt
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2196 2196
2 Yes 288 2484
9 No photos of eye 20 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXSPHLA - Photo Prob - Lashes, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHLA
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Lashes, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Lashes
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2370 2370
2 Yes 114 2484
9 No photos of eye 20 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXSPHAR - Photo Prob - Arc, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHAR
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Arc, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Arc
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2407 2407
2 Yes 77 2484
9 No photos of eye 20 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXSPHRC - Photo Prob - Red Channel, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHRC
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Red Channel, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Red Channel
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2480 2480
2 Yes 4 2484
9 No photos of eye 20 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPXSPHOT - Photo Prob - Other, Left Eye

Variable Name:
OPXSPHOT
SAS Label:
Photo Prob - Other, Left Eye
English Text:
Photo Problem - Other
English Instructions:
If other is coded describe the problem or artifact from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1901 1901
2 Yes 583 2484
9 No photos of eye 20 2504
. Missing 430 2934

OPDSRET - Retinopathy level, left eye.

Variable Name:
OPDSRET
SAS Label:
Retinopathy level, left eye.
English Text:
Calculated levels of retinopathy severity, left eye.
English Instructions:
Calculated severity levels are described in more detail in the NHANES Grading Protocol, Retinopathy section. HE=HARD EXUDATES; SE=SOFT EXUDATE; IRMA=INTRARETINAL MICROVASCULAR ABNORMALITIES; VL=VENOUS LOOPS; MAS=MICROANEURYSMS; HEM=HEMORRHAGES; NPR=NON-PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY; RET=RETINOPATHY; PRP LASER=PANRETINAL PHOTOCOAGULATION SCARS PRESENT; PR=PROLIFERATIVE RETINOPATHY; HRC=HIGH RISK CHARACTERISTICS AS DEFINED IN THE EARLY TREATMENT DIABETIC RETINOPATHY STUDY; AND VH=VITREOUS HEMORRHAGE Note: Retinopathy is graded masked to diabetes status and retinopathy may be found in persons with and without diabetes (even though value labels may indicate otherwise). Level 12 is indicated when specific nondiabetic disease, e.g. retinal vein occlusion, is present. To examine retinopathy in persons with diabetes use the diabetes definition found in the NHANES Grading Protocol; to examine in nondiabetic persons exclude all persons with diabetes.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
10 No retinopathy 2124 2124
12 Non-diabetic retinal disease specific retinopathy 22 2146
13 Questionable retinopathy 59 2205
14 HE, SE, IRMA, VL but no MAS 8 2213
15 HEM only, no MAS 30 2243
20 MAS only 77 2320
31 Early NPR 35 2355
41 Moderate NPR 40 2395
51 Severe NPR 2 2397
60 Fibrous prolif. only 2 2399
61 No retinopathy but PRP laser 1 2400
62 MAS only + PRP laser 0 2400
63 Early NPR + PRP laser 0 2400
64 Moderate/severe NPR + PRP laser 0 2400
65 PR < HRC 5 2405
70 PR >= HRC 1 2406
80 Total VH 0 2406
. Missing 528 2934

OPDSRL4 - 4 levels retinopathy severity, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSRL4
SAS Label:
4 levels retinopathy severity, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on four levels of retinopathy severity, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Four levels of retinopathy severity are computed from variable OPDSRET: 1=LEVELS 10-13; 2=LEVELS 14-31; 3=LEVELS 41-51; 4=LEVELS 60-80 This variable is often used in examining associations with retinopathy severity. To collapse further 1=No Retinopathy; 2-4=Retinopathy; For a No Proliferative Retinopathy vs. Proliferative analysis, combine 1-3 as Non-Proliferative.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 No retinopathy 2205 2205
2 Mild NPR 150 2355
3 Moderate/severe NPR 42 2397
4 PR (Proliferative) 9 2406
. Missing 528 2934

OPDSARMA - Any retinopathy, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSARMA
SAS Label:
Any retinopathy, left eye
English Text:
This field is coded for the presence or absence of any retinopathy from the left eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is computed from the OPDSRET variable as follows: 0(No)=LEVELS <14; 1(Yes)=LEVELS>=14
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2205 2205
1 Yes 201 2406
. Missing 528 2934

OPDSHMA - MAS, HEM, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSHMA
SAS Label:
MAS, HEM, left eye
English Text:
This summary variable provides information on describing microaneurysms (MAS) only, blot hemorrhages (HEM) only, or both using two severity levels using the ETDRS standard 2A, left eye.
English Instructions:
Value 5 is more severe than value 4. For MAS only, see variable OPDSMA. For HEM only, see variable OPDSHEM. Combined MAS and/or HEM would include values 2 to 5 as present and values 0 & 1 as none.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2144 2144
1 Questionable 58 2202
2 MAS only 97 2299
3 HEM only 40 2339
4 HEM+MAS < 2A 68 2407
5 HEM+MAS >= 2A 3 2410
. Missing 524 2934

OPDSMA - Retinal microaneurysms, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSMA
SAS Label:
Retinal microaneurysms, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information only on eyes with retinal microaneurysms and no retinal blot hemorrhage, left eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is calculated as being present (1=YES) if variable OPDSHMA=2 and absent (0=NO) if OPDSHMA=0 or 1. For eyes with any microaneurysms, recode from OPDSHMA.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2202 2202
1 Yes 97 2299
. Missing 635 2934

OPDSHEM - Retinal blot hemorrhages, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSHEM
SAS Label:
Retinal blot hemorrhages, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information only on eyes with retinal blot hemorrhages and no microaneurysms in the left eye.
English Instructions:
This variable is computed as present (1=YES) from OPDSHMA variable code=3 and absent (0=NO) from OPDSHMA variable code=0 or 1. For eyes with any retinal blot hemorrhages, recode from OPDSHMA.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2202 2202
1 Yes 40 2242
. Missing 692 2934

OPDSHE - Retinal hard exudate, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSHE
SAS Label:
Retinal hard exudate, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of hard exudate in the left eye. Hard exudate is a result of lipoprotein deposition in the retina and is usually associated with macular edema.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2365 2365
1 Questionable 9 2374
2 Yes 40 2414
. Missing 520 2934

OPDSSE - Retinal soft exudate, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSE
SAS Label:
Retinal soft exudate, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft exudate in the left eye. Soft exudate, sometimes called cotton wool spot, is due to retinal nerve fiber layer infarction, a result of retinal ischemia.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2353 2353
1 Questionable 10 2363
2 Yes 50 2413
. Missing 521 2934

OPDSIRMA - IRMA, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSIRMA
SAS Label:
IRMA, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Intraretinal Microvascular Abnormalities (IRMA), from the left eye. IRMA are retinal collateral vessels in areas of retinal ischemia indicating a more severe level of retinopathy. This variable is coded using the ETDRS photo standard, 8A. Eyes with IRMA>=8A have more severe disease than eyes with standard <8A.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for IRMA absent and codes 2 & 3 for IRMA present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2363 2363
1 Questionable 25 2388
2 < 8A 15 2403
3 >= 8A 4 2407
. Missing 527 2934

OPDSVB - Retinal venous beading, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSVB
SAS Label:
Retinal venous beading, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal venous beading from the left eye. Venous beading is a manifestation of severe retinal ischemia.
English Instructions:
Can combine code 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2424 2424
1 Questionable 2 2426
2 Yes 0 2426
. Missing 508 2934

OPDSNVO - Retinal new vessels on disc, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSNVO
SAS Label:
Retinal new vessels on disc, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal new vessels on the optic disc area, from the left eye. Retinal new vessels on the optic disc area are a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. This variable is coded using the ETDRS photo standard, 10A. Eyes with standard>=10A have more severe vessels than eyes with standard <10A.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDSRL4=4 (Proliferative). Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; codes 2=<10A with 3=>=10A for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2431 2431
1 Questionable 1 2432
2 < 10A 3 2435
3 >= 10A 0 2435
. Missing 499 2934

OPDSNVE - Retinal new vessels elsewhere, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSNVE
SAS Label:
Retinal new vessels elsewhere, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal new vessels elsewhere outside the optic disc margin in the left eye. Retinal new vessels elsewhere outside the optic disc margin are a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area affected, the more severe the disease.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDSRL4=4 (Proliferative). Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and code 2=<1/2 DISC AREA with 3=>=1/2 DISC AREA for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2413 2413
1 Questionable 2 2415
2 < 1/2 Disc Area 3 2418
3 >= 1/2 Disc Area 0 2418
. Missing 516 2934

OPDSRFP - Retinal fibrous proliferation, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSRFP
SAS Label:
Retinal fibrous proliferation, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal fibrous proliferation in the left eye. Retinal fibrous proliferation is a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area affected, the greater the disease.
English Instructions:
FPD = Fibrous proliferation within the optic disc area; FPE = Fibrous proliferation elsewhere outside the optic disc margin. When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDSRL4=4. Can combine code 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; 2=FPD ONLY, 3=FPE ONLY, and 4=FPD + FPE for any present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2422 2422
1 Questionable 1 2423
2 FPD only 2 2425
3 FPE only 1 2426
4 FPD + FPE 2 2428
. Missing 506 2934

OPDSPHVH - Pre-ret./ vitreous hemorrhage, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSPHVH
SAS Label:
Pre-ret./ vitreous hemorrhage, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of pre-retinal hemorrhage or vitreous hemorrhage in the left eye. Pre-retinal hemorrhage or vitreous hemorrhage is a manifestation of proliferative retinopathy due to retinal ischemia. The more area is affected, the more severe the disease.
English Instructions:
When combined with other manifestations of proliferative retinopathy is equivalent to OPDSRL4=4. Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and 2=<1 Disc Area and 3=>= 1 Disc Area for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2425 2425
1 Questionable 1 2426
2 < 1 Disc Area 0 2426
3 >= 1 Disc Area 1 2427
. Missing 507 2934

OPDSME - Macular edema, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSME
SAS Label:
Macular edema, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of macular edema by clinical significance. The definition for Clinically Significant Macular Edema (CSME), found in the NHANES Grading Protocol: CSME is considered present when edema involves the fovea or is within 500 microns of the fovea, or when a 1+disc area of edema is present with at least a portion of it within the macula.
English Instructions:
Increased permeability of retinal capillaries and MAS may result in accumulation of extracellular fluid and thickening of normally compact retinal tissue called Macular Edema. In some cases, the macular edema becomes clinically significant. "OTHER" refers to evidence of macular edema associated with retinopathy often associated with a specific ocular or systemic condition (e.g. retinal vein occlusion). Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable for absent; and 2=Yes, but not CSME and 3=Yes, CSME for any macular edema present; exclude 7 from analysis.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2348 2348
1 Questionable 3 2351
2 Yes, but not CSME 5 2356
3 Yes CSME 15 2371
7 Other 0 2371
. Missing 563 2934

OPDSMEC - Macular edema in center, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSMEC
SAS Label:
Macular edema in center, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of macular edema in the center from the left eye. Center involvement specifies involvement of the fovea by macular edema. Cysts indicate more severe involvement, usually associated with visual loss.
English Instructions:
"OTHER" refers to evidence of macular edema associated with retinopathy often associated with a specific ocular or systemic condition (e.g. retinal vein occlusion). Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent; 2=Present and CSME and 3=CSME with cysts for any present central involvement; exclude 7 from analysis. Can combine with visual acuity data in corresponding eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2354 2354
1 Questionable 4 2358
2 Present and CSME 12 2370
3 CSME with cysts 0 2370
7 Other 1 2371
. Missing 563 2934

OPDSPPS - Panret. photocoagulation scar, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSPPS
SAS Label:
Panret. photocoagulation scar, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of panretinal photocoagulation scars in the left eye. Panretinal photocoagulation in a scatter pattern across the retina or in specific areas outside the macular area later results in scarring and is a surrogate for having had active severe disease. Local and/or scatter photocoagulation is usually done to prevent preretinal and vitreous hemorrhage or the development of retinal new vessels.
English Instructions:
In the absence of retinopathy, is usually combined with other signs of proliferative retinopathy which may or may not be present (refer to OPDSRET). Can combine 0=None and 1=Questionable/Incomplete for absent; and codes 2, 3, and 4 as present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2420 2420
1 Questionable/incomplete 4 2424
2 Local 1 2425
3 Scatter only 8 2433
4 Scatter + local 0 2433
. Missing 501 2934

OPDSFOC - Focal photocoag. scars for ME, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSFOC
SAS Label:
Focal photocoag. scars for ME, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of focal laser photocoagulation from the left eye. It can appear either as treatment of leaking retinal microaneurysms (MA Rx only) or in a grid pattern in macula done for the treatment of localized or diffuse macular edema (Grid only), or sometimes together.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 0=None and 1=Questionable for absent and codes 2-4 (MA RX only, Grid Only, and MA RX + Grid Rx) for present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2408 2408
1 Questionable 2 2410
2 MA RX only 13 2423
3 Grid only 0 2423
4 MA RX & Grid RX 0 2423
. Missing 511 2934

OPDSARM - ARM, 3 severity levels, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSARM
SAS Label:
ARM, 3 severity levels, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the 3-level severity classification of age-related macular degeneration (ARM) from the left eye. Early ARM is defined by presence or absence of drusen and/or pigmentary abnormalities; late ARM by exudative ARM signs and/or geographic atrophy.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 1=Early ARM and 2=Late ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No ARM 2206 2206
1 Early ARM 101 2307
2 Late ARM 22 2329
. Missing 605 2934

OPDSPIGA - Ret. & pigmentary abnorm., left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSPIGA
SAS Label:
Ret. & pigmentary abnorm., left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of increased retinal pigment and/or RPE depigmentation, a manifestation of early ARM in absence of signs of late ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2240 2240
1 Yes 89 2329
. Missing 605 2934

OPDSLARM - Late ARM, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSLARM
SAS Label:
Late ARM, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of exudative ARM and/or geographic atrophy from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Late ARM is defined by the presence of signs of exudative ARM and/or geographic atrophy.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2322 2322
1 Yes 22 2344
. Missing 590 2934

OPDSGA - Geographic atrophy, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSGA
SAS Label:
Geographic atrophy, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of pure geographic atrophy in the absence of signs of Exudative ARM, left eye
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2322 2322
1 Yes 16 2338
. Missing 596 2934

OPDSEXU - Exudative ARM, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSEXU
SAS Label:
Exudative ARM, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of exudative ARM from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Exudative ARM is also called neovascular ARM. Sometimes geographic atrophy is present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2338 2338
1 Yes 6 2344
. Missing 590 2934

OPDSAREX - Excluded for ARM, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSAREX
SAS Label:
Excluded for ARM, left eye
English Text:
Was the left eye excluded for ARM?
English Instructions:
ARM may not be ascertained for many reasons, refer to OPDSREA for the reason for ARM exclusion.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2347 2347
1 Yes 37 2384
. Missing 550 2934

OPDSREA - Reason for ARM exclusion, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSREA
SAS Label:
Reason for ARM exclusion, left eye
English Text:
If a condition exists in the macula which confounds the grader from evaluating Age Related Macular Degeneration (ARM) lesions from similar changes in the retina due to another process the eye is excluded (cannot grade) from evaluation of all ARM lesions from the right eye.
English Instructions:
This variable lists reasons such as trauma, laser treatment, retinal vessel occlusion, retinal dystrophy, myopic degeneration, presumed ocular histoplasmosis or chorioretinal taxoplasmosis scar, nonspecific inflammatory retinal lesion, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), non ARM retinal pigment epithelial abnormality, non ARM detachment, unknown, other, and/or a retinal coloboma or staphyloma.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 None 2411 2411
1 Trauma 0 2411
2 Laser RX 18 2429
3 Vessel occlusion 1 2430
4 Macular dystrophy 1 2431
5 Myopic degeneration 1 2432
6 Histoplasmosis/toxoplasmosis 1 2433
7 Inflammatory lesion 1 2434
9 Retinopathy of prematurity 0 2434
10 Non-ARM RPE abnormality 4 2438
11 Non-ARM detachment 0 2438
12 Unknown etiology 2 2440
15 Other 8 2448
16 Coloboma/staphyloma 0 2448
99 No photos of eye 20 2468
. Missing 466 2934

OPDSHD - Hard distinct drusen, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSHD
SAS Label:
Hard distinct drusen, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of hard distinct drusen, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Currently considered not to be a sign of ARM by itself.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1165 1165
1 Yes 1155 2320
. Missing 614 2934

OPDSD125 - Drusen>=125 microns, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSD125
SAS Label:
Drusen>=125 microns, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of large drusen, greater than or equal to 125 microns in diameter, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Large drusen are considered a sign of early ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2163 2163
1 Yes 172 2335
. Missing 599 2934

OPDSD500 - Drusen>=500 microns, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSD500
SAS Label:
Drusen>=500 microns, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of large drusen, greater than or equal to 500 microns in diameter, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Large drusen are considered a sign of early ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2259 2259
1 Yes 75 2334
. Missing 600 2934

OPDSASD - Any soft drusen, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSASD
SAS Label:
Any soft drusen, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any soft indistinct and/or soft distinct drusen from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2048 2048
1 Yes 288 2336
. Missing 598 2934

OPDSSDD - Soft distinct drusen, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSDD
SAS Label:
Soft distinct drusen, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft distinct drusen, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Soft distinct drusen is a less severe type of drusen than soft indistinct drusen.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2070 2070
1 Yes 266 2336
. Missing 598 2934

OPDSSID - Soft indistinct drusen, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSID
SAS Label:
Soft indistinct drusen, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of soft indistinct drusen from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Soft indistinct drusen is a more severe type of drusen than soft distinct drusen.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2246 2246
1 Yes 85 2331
. Missing 603 2934

OPDSIRP - Increased retinal pigment, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSIRP
SAS Label:
Increased retinal pigment, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of increased retinal pigment due to disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium in early ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2245 2245
1 Yes 84 2329
. Missing 605 2934

OPDSRPE - RPE depigmentation, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSRPE
SAS Label:
RPE depigmentation, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of decreased retinal pigmentation due to disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium in early ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2277 2277
1 Yes 51 2328
. Missing 606 2934

OPDSAGA - Any geographic atrophy, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSAGA
SAS Label:
Any geographic atrophy, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any geographic atrophy from the left eye.
English Instructions:
This variable differs from the pure geographic atrophy variable, OPDSGA, because exudative ARM may be present concurrently in which case OPDSGA may result from exudative ARM and/or its treatment.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2325 2325
1 Yes 19 2344
. Missing 590 2934

OPDSPED - RPE/sensory ret. detachment, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSPED
SAS Label:
RPE/sensory ret. detachment, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Retinal Pigment Epithelial detachment/ Sensory Retinal detachment, a sign of exudative ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2339 2339
1 Yes 4 2343
. Missing 591 2934

OPDSSNV - Subretinal new vessels, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSNV
SAS Label:
Subretinal new vessels, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal new vessels, a sign of exudative ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2341 2341
1 Yes 2 2343
. Missing 591 2934

OPDSSUBH - Subretinal hemorrhage, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSUBH
SAS Label:
Subretinal hemorrhage, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal hemorrhage, a sign of exudative ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2343 2343
1 Yes 1 2344
. Missing 590 2934

OPDSSFS - Subretinal fibrous scar, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSFS
SAS Label:
Subretinal fibrous scar, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of subretinal fibrous scar, a sign of exudative ARM, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2340 2340
1 Yes 4 2344
. Missing 590 2934

OPDSARMX - Treatment for ARM, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSARMX
SAS Label:
Treatment for ARM, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of 3 types of treatment for exudative ARM in the left eye: laser, photodynamic and/or thermal treatment. The presence or absence of these treatments is a sign of exudative ARM.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2343 2343
1 Yes 1 2344
. Missing 590 2934

OPDSBCO - Retinal artery occlusion, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSBCO
SAS Label:
Retinal artery occlusion, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal artery occlusion (branch or central), a blockage of retinal arteriole or artery resulting infarction of the retina, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine codes 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center, to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2447 2447
1 Questionable 0 2447
2 Yes 0 2447
3 Yes, in center 0 2447
. Missing 487 2934

OPDSBVO - Retinal branch vein occlusion, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSBVO
SAS Label:
Retinal branch vein occlusion, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal branch vein occlusion, a blockage of retinal branch venule (level 12 in the retinopathy severity scale, variable OPDURET), from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine with retinal central vein occlusion (OPDSCVO) to get retinal vein occlusion. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2437 2437
1 Questionable 2 2439
2 Yes 4 2443
3 Yes, in center 0 2443
. Missing 491 2934

OPDSCVO - Ret. central vein occlusion, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSCVO
SAS Label:
Ret. central vein occlusion, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal central vein occlusion (RCVO) from the left eye; blockage of the retinal central vein (level 12 in the retinal severity scale variable, OPDSRET).
English Instructions:
Can combine with retinal branch vein occlusion (OPDSBVO) to get retinal vein occlusion. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2446 2446
1 Questionable 1 2447
2 Yes 1 2448
3 Yes, in center 0 2448
. Missing 486 2934

OPDSAVN - Retinal AV nicking, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSAVN
SAS Label:
Retinal AV nicking, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal arterio-venous nicking, a pinching of the vein at an artery crossing, from the left eye. May be secondary to hypertension. Refer to the NHANES Detailed Grading Protocol for more details.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 1960 1960
1 Questionable 335 2295
2 Yes 145 2440
. Missing 494 2934

OPDSFAN - Focal arteriolar narrowing, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSFAN
SAS Label:
Focal arteriolar narrowing, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal focal arteriolar narrowing, focal pinching or narrowing of the arteriole, from the left eye. May be secondary to hypertension. Refer to the NHANES Detailed Grading Protocol for more details.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2312 2312
1 Questionable 84 2396
2 Yes 27 2423
. Missing 511 2934

OPDSHOLL - Hollenhorst plaque, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSHOLL
SAS Label:
Hollenhorst plaque, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of retinal arteriolar embolus (Hollenhorst plaque), from the worse eye. Usually fibrin or cholesterol embolus seen in retinal arterioles, often at a bifurcation of the vessel.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2433 2433
1 Questionable 3 2436
2 Yes 5 2441
. Missing 493 2934

OPDSPPA - Peripapillary atrophy, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSPPA
SAS Label:
Peripapillary atrophy, left eye
English Text:
This variables provides information on the presence or absence of peripapillary atrophy, defined as retinal-choroidal atrophic area around the disc, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2249 2249
1 Questionable 66 2315
2 Yes 132 2447
. Missing 487 2934

OPDSASHY - Asteroid Hyalosis, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSASHY
SAS Label:
Asteroid Hyalosis, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Asteroid Hyalosis, soap-like crystals floating in the vitreous cavity in front of the retina, which can obstruct the view of retinal lesions, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2439 2439
1 Questionable 5 2444
2 Yes 9 2453
3 Yes, in center 1 2454
. Missing 480 2934

OPDSCHRA - Chorioretinal abnormality, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSCHRA
SAS Label:
Chorioretinal abnormality, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any chorioretinal abnormality from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2443 2443
1 Questionable 1 2444
2 Yes 4 2448
3 Yes, in center 0 2448
. Missing 486 2934

OPDSMACH - Macular hole, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSMACH
SAS Label:
Macular hole, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of a macular hole, a round sharply defined hole involving the center of the macula, resulting in a decrease in visual acuity, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent. Can analyze with visual acuity data.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2367 2367
1 Questionable 1 2368
2 Yes 2 2370
. Missing 564 2934

OPDSCHN - Choroidal nevus, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSCHN
SAS Label:
Choroidal nevus, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of choroidal nevus, a localized increase in the number of pigment bearing cells in choroid, usually round or oval in shape, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; ; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2356 2356
1 Questionable 31 2387
2 Yes 55 2442
3 Yes, in center 0 2442
. Missing 492 2934

OPDSOTRX - Any other treatment, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSOTRX
SAS Label:
Any other treatment, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of any other laser treatment for other conditions (i.e. local treatment for retinal detachment), from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; ; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2449 2449
1 Questionable 0 2449
2 Yes 1 2450
3 Yes, in center 0 2450
. Missing 484 2934

OPDSPOHS - Histoplasmosis syndrome, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSPOHS
SAS Label:
Histoplasmosis syndrome, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of Presumed Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome, which usually manifests by peripapillary atrophic scars, focal round chorioretinal active lesions or punched out scars, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2448 2448
1 Questionable 1 2449
2 Yes 0 2449
3 Yes, in center 0 2449
. Missing 485 2934

OPDSRDET - Retinal detachment, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSRDET
SAS Label:
Retinal detachment, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of traction or traumatic retinal detachment (not ARM Pigment Epithelial Detachment), from the left eye.
English Instructions:
Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2441 2441
1 Questionable 1 2442
2 Yes 6 2448
3 Yes, in center 0 2448
. Missing 486 2934

OPDSSWR - SW, cellophane changes, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSWR
SAS Label:
SW, cellophane changes, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of epiretinal membrane (cellophane changes) from the left eye. Epiretinal membrane (cellophane changes) refers to a patch or patches of irregular increased reflection on the inner surface of the retina due to membrane cellophane changes only with no traction.
English Instructions:
Can combine with epiretinal membrane (traction changes) variable (OPDSSWRT). Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2015 2015
1 Questionable 42 2057
2 Yes 301 2358
3 Yes, in center 24 2382
. Missing 552 2934

OPDSSWRT - SW, traction changes, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSSWRT
SAS Label:
SW, traction changes, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information on the presence or absence of epiretinal membrane (retinal traction changes), from the left eye. Epiretinal membrane (retinal traction changes) refers to a patch or patches of irregular increased reflection on the inner surface of the retina due to retinal traction changes of the membrane.
English Instructions:
Can combine with epiretinal membrane cellophane changes, variable OPDSSWR. Can combine 0=No and 1=Questionable to define absent; 2=Yes and 3=Yes, in center to define present.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2325 2325
1 Questionable 11 2336
2 Yes 32 2368
3 Yes, in center 8 2376
. Missing 558 2934

OPDSOTHC - Other ocular conditions, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSOTHC
SAS Label:
Other ocular conditions, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides information of other ocular conditions not graded elsewhere, from the left eye.
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 No 2370 2370
1 Questionable 6 2376
2 Yes 73 2449
3 Yes, in center 0 2449
. Missing 485 2934

OPDSVCDR - Vertical cup disc ratio, left eye

Variable Name:
OPDSVCDR
SAS Label:
Vertical cup disc ratio, left eye
English Text:
This variable provides the vertical cup to disc ratio, in microns, from the left eye.
English Instructions:
The vertical cup to disc ration is from 0 to 1.0
Target:
Both males and females 40 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0.14 to 0.86 Range of Values 2413 2413
. Missing 521 2934