Table of Contents

Locator Record

Title: Food Security (FSQ_E_R )
Contact Number: 1-866-441-NCHS
Years of Content: 2007 - 2008
First Published: July, 2010
Revised: NA
Access Constraints: RDC Only
Use Constraints: RDC Only
Geographic Coverage: National
Subject:The food security section provides data on household and individual level food security, food stamp benefits, and participation in the WIC program
Record Source: NHANES 2007 - 2008
Survey Methodology: NHANES 2007 - 2008 is a stratified multistage probability sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the U.S.
Medium: NHANES Web site; SAS transport files

Component Description

The Food Security (variable name prefix FSQ) section provides personal interview data on the following four topics:

1. Household food security
In the household interview, an adult responded to the US Food Security Survey Module (US FSSM) questions (Bickel G, et al, 2000). There are 18 items for households with children under age of 18 years and 10 items for households without children. Questions refer to all household members, not just NHANES participants. Three categorical household-level variables were created to characterize the overall food security status for the entire household, the adults in the household, and the children in the household. Responses to the 10 or 18 US FSSM items and the categorical data derived from these responses are released on each household participant’s record.

A question on household member’s use of emergency foods from food banks, soup kitchens, or other organizations in the last 12 month is also included in this section.

2. Individual food security
Individual-level food security items were administered to all survey participants in the households that affirmed any FSSM item during the household interview. Adult (= 16 years) and children (< 12 years) individual-level food security questions were administered after the 24-hour dietary recall in the Mobile Examination Center (MEC). Generally, adults responded for themselves. An adult family member responded for a child, although the child may have assisted. Adolescents (12-15 years) responded for themselves, in a private room in the MEC, using an Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) system.

Participants 16 years and older were asked 6 questions about their own food security. Participants under 16 years old were asked 5 questions; the question about having lost weight was not asked of this age group. Most NHANES survey questions that assess a specific aspect of food security are identical or very similar for adults, teens, and children. Similar to the 2005-2006 cycle, data collected separately for different age groups are combined and released as one variable for each topic, although the actual survey instruments may be slightly different by participants’ ages. The exact wording of the FSQ questionnaires used in the survey can be found at the NHANES website at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/nhanes2007-2008/questexam07_08.htm.

These data are released only on the individual participant’s record.

3. Food Stamp program benefits
The questions related to Food Stamp program benefits were re-designed for the 2007-2008 data collection. In this cycle, we no longer collected information at the individual level. All Food Stamp benefits questions were collected at the household level. One adult responded to these questions for the entire household during the household interview. Information collected included whether anyone in the household had ever received Food Stamp benefits; whether anyone in the household received benefits in the last 12 months; time since last received benefits within last 12 months; and the amount of benefits the household received last time.

These household level data on food stamp benefits are released on all household participants’ records.

4. Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program benefits
Data collected for WIC benefits included one household level question as well as 7 individual level questions for participants 0-11 years of age and 3 individual level questions for women 12-59 years of age.

In the household interview an adult responded to the question on whether anyone in the household received WIC benefits in the last 12 months. This household level question is released on all household participants’ records.

For children participants’ WIC benefits, we collected information on current participation, participation in the last 12 month, and total length (in months) of benefits received. Similar to previous cycles, current participation and participation in the last 12 months were ascertained for children 0-5 years of age. In 2007-2008, the target age group for the benefit length question was extended from children 0-5 years of age to 0-11 years old. Also new in this cycle, additional information was obtained on WIC participation during various important periods in early childhood, including prenatal, infancy, and 1-4 years of age. These data were collected through adult proxy during the household interview as part of the Dietary Behavior and Nutrition questionnaire (DBQ) and released on the individual participant’s record.

For female participants 12 to 59 years of age, we collected information on current WIC participation, participation in the last 12 month, and total length (in months) of benefits received. These questions were administered as part of the Reproductive Health questionnaire (RHQ) during the interview in the MEC, using the Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing-CAPI (interviewer administered) system. Due to disclosure risks, the WIC benefits data will only be released for women aged 20 years and above in the present dataset. Data for women 12-19 years old will be available in the Research Data Center only. Please refer to the Analytic Notes section for more details.

The table in Appendix 1 provides detailed information on each of the four FSQ components described above. Appendix 2 highlights the changes in the FSQ section among the latest three release cycles.

Quality Assurance & Quality Control

The automated interview systems used in NHANES are programmed with built-in consistency checks to reduce data entry errors. Incoming FSQ data were reviewed for accuracy and completeness. NHANES staff reviewed taped interviews, traveled to field sites to observe interviews, read interviewer comments, and attended training and re-training sessions to maintain the high quality of NHANES interviews.

Data Processing and Editing

Frequency counts were checked, "skip" patterns were verified, and the reasonableness of question responses was reviewed. Edits were made to some variables to ensure the completeness, consistency, and analytic usefulness of the data. Edits were also made, when necessary, to address data disclosure concerns.

FSDHH, FSDAD, FSDCH (Household, adult, and child food security category)
Eighteen FSSM questions were asked of households with children under ages of 18. Ten questions were asked of households without children. Three categorical variables, each with four response levels, were created based on the number of affirmative responses for those questions. These categorical variables could be used to characterize the overall food security status for the entire household, the adults in the household, and the children in the household. The algorithms used to derive these categorical variables are described below:

FSDHH (Household food security category):

Count affirmative responses in these 18 items: FSD032a, FSD032b, FSD032c, FSD032d, FSD032e, FSD032f, FSD041, FSD052, FSD061, FSD071, FSD081, FSD092, FSD102, FSD111, FSD122, FSD132, FSD141, and FSD146. Derive the codes as the following:

1 = Household full food security: no affirmative response in any of these items.
2 = Household marginal food security: 1-2 affirmative responses.
3 = Household low food security: 3-5 affirmative responses for household without children under 18 years of age; 3-7 affirmative responses for household with children
4 = Household very low food security: 6-10 affirmative responses for household without children under 18 years of age; 8-18 affirmative responses for household with children

Households with children but provided no valid response to any of the questions about children’s food security were classified using the specifications for households with no child.

FSDAD (Adult food security category):

Count affirmative responses in these 10 items: FSD032a, FSD032b, FSD032c, FSD041, FSD052, FSD061, FSD071, FSD081, FSD092, and FSD102. Derive the codes as the following:

1 = Adult full food security: no affirmative response in any of these items.
2 = Adult marginal food security: 1-2 affirmative responses.
3 = Adult low food security: 3-5 affirmative responses
4 = Adult very low food security: 6-10 affirmative responses

For households without children under 18 years of age, their household food security category (FSDHH) should be identical to their adult food security category (FSDAD).

FSDCH (Child food security category):

This category is only generated for households with children under 18 years of age. Count affirmative responses in these 8 items: FSD032d, FSD032e, FSD032f, FSD111, FSD122, FSD132, FSD141, and FSD146. Derive the codes as the following:

1 = Child full or marginal food security: no affirmative response in any of these items.
2 = Child marginal food security: 1 affirmative response.
3 = Child low food security: 2-4 affirmative responses.
4 = Child very low food security: 5-8 affirmative responses.

The labels used to describe ranges of food security in this category are slightly modified, based on USDA's recommendation, for this release cycle.

Definition of FSSM affirmative response

Affirmative response for FSSM questions are defined as:

No food security categories are assigned if all or most of these items were answered as "don't know" or "refusal". There are 9 such records in the 2007-2008 dataset, two of them from households with children. These records contain missing values for FSDHH, FSDAD, and FSDCH.

FSD451 (Not eat for whole day)
Because responses other than "Never" were very rare for FSQ451, responses of "often" and "sometimes" were collapsed into one category, "ever" in the released variable.

FSD225 (Time since last received Food Stamp benefits)
During the household interview, the respondent was asked to report the date that the household last received Food Stamp benefits. A variable was then derived by calculating the number of days between the time the household last received the Food Stamp benefit and the date of interview and released as FSD225.

When the respondent refused to answer the question or did not know the exact date, a follow-up question (FSQ230) was asked to see whether any members of the household currently receive Food Stamp benefits. For these households, the answer to FSQ230 was used to derive the codes 55555 (current HH FS benefits recipient, last received date unknown) and 66666 (non-current HH FS benefits recipient, last received date unknown) for variable FSD225.

FSD670ZC, FSD670ZW (Number of months the participant received WIC benefit)This information was collected using two-part (number and unit) questions to allow respondents to report the length in either month or year. The released variables were edited to standardize the reported length to number of months.

Seven respondents reported that the child received WIC for more than 60 months, even though children are only eligible for the program up until their 5th birthday. All of these respondents also indicated on FSQ690 that the mother of the child received WIC while she was pregnant with the child, which may explain why answers greater than 60 were given.

WIC data for women that appeared unlikely (e.g. a mother receiving WIC for longer than WIC regulations stipulate) were not edited either, as there are plausible explanations for longer WIC intake.

FSD650ZW (Women received WIC benefit in last 12 month)
Similar to previous data collection cycles, this question only asked of female participants who were pregnant at the time of interview or who had given birth in the two years period prior to the interview.

FSD660ZW (Women currently received WIC benefit)
This question only asked of female participants who received WIC benefits in the last 12 months, and were pregnant or 0-12 months postpartum at the time of interview. The postpartum screening criterion for this question is a new addition in 2007-2008. It helps to better classify eligibility for WIC benefit.

Analytic Notes

NHANES has assessed household food security with the US Food Security Survey Module (US FSSM) since 1999. Individual-level food security items for adults and children were implemented in the survey in 2000, and added for adolescents in 2005. Similar modules have been used in various surveys, including the the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS) and a growing number of State, local, and regional studies such as the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). For more information on food security measurement, please refer to the USDA’s website at: http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/FoodSecurity.

The NHANES household interview included two questionnaires: a sample person questionnaire to collect information regarding each individual survey participant’s personal health status, and a family questionnaire to collect information at the family level, such as total income for the family, food availibility in the family, etc. The sample person questionnaire was answered by participants themselves (adult proxy for child under 16 years old). The family questionnaire required an adult family member, preferably the head of the family, to respond to these questions for the entire family. The information on household food security status and Food Stamp program benefits in the FSQ section were collected as part of this family questionnaire. In 2007-2008, 77 participants have missing values to all of these items in the FSQ section because the family questionnaire was not administered. Most common reasons for missing the family questionnaire interview were no eligible adult respondent in the family available or refusal.

The eligibility of the individual food security questions was determined by the reported household food security status. The abovementioned 77 participants who did not have food security data reported for their household were not eligible for the individual food security questions collected in the MEC. In this dataset, there were 280 participants who were eligible to the individual food security questions but did not have data in these items. 239 of them did not come to the MEC exam or missed the interview when they were in the exam center due to various reasons (such as arrived late/left early, refusal, illness, emergency, or equipment failure). 41 of them missed the individual food security questions because their family questionnaire data were collected or uploaded to the system after their examinations in the MEC.

In 2007-2008, a new sample design was implemented to the survey. All Hispanics were oversampled, not just Mexican Americans. In addition, for each of the race/ethnicity domains, the 12-15 and 16-19 year age domains were combined and the 40-59 year age minority domains were split into 10 year age domains 40-49 and 50-59. This has led to an increase in the number of participants aged 40+ and a decrease in 12-19 year olds from previous cycles. Lastly, pregnant women were no longer oversampled. Based on these changes, unweighted frequencies of certain variables may differ slightly in this survey cycle compared to earlier survey cycles. For further discussion, please see the Analytic Notes for the Demographic data file: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/nhanes2007-2008/DEMO_E.htm

WIC benefit information was collected for female participants 12 to 59 years of age in 2007-2008. This file contains all data for females 12 years and older, whereas the publicly released data set (FSQ_E) has limited information for females 12-19 years of age due to possible disclosure risks.

FSQ data were collected in the household and in the MEC. For data items collected in the household interview, the interview sample weights may be used in their analysis. However, if the data analysis requires merging of data collected in the household with data collected in the MEC, examination sample weights should be used for analyses. The recommended weights for each individual component in the FSQ section are listed in the table in Appendix 1. Please refer to the NHANES Analytic Guidelines and the on-line NHANES Tutorial for further details on the use of sample weights and other analytic issues. Both of these are available on the NHANES website.

 

References

Codebook and Frequencies

SEQN - Respondent sequence number

Variable Name:
SEQN
SAS Label:
Respondent sequence number
English Text:
Respondent sequence number.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD032A - HH Worried run out of food

Variable Name:
FSD032A
SAS Label:
HH Worried run out of food
English Text:
Now I am going to read you several statements that people have made about their food situation. For these statements, please tell me whether the statement was often true, sometimes true, or never true for {you/your household} in the last 12 months, that is since last {DISPLAY CURRENT MONTH}. The first statement is . . . {I/we} worried whether {my/our} food would run out before {I/we} got money to buy more.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often true 898 898
2 Sometimes true 1889 2787
3 Never true 7269 10056
7 Refused 10 10066
9 Don't know 6 10072
. Missing 77 10149

FSD032B - HH Food didn't last

Variable Name:
FSD032B
SAS Label:
HH Food didn't last
English Text:
[The next statement is . . .] The food that {I/we} bought just didn't last, and {I/we} didn't have money to get more.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often true 620 620
2 Sometimes true 1665 2285
3 Never true 7779 10064
7 Refused 6 10070
9 Don't know 2 10072
. Missing 77 10149

FSD032C - HH Couldn't afford balanced meals

Variable Name:
FSD032C
SAS Label:
HH Couldn't afford balanced meals
English Text:
[The next statement is . . .] {I/we} couldn't afford to eat balanced meals.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often true 419 419
2 Sometimes true 1204 1623
3 Never true 8434 10057
7 Refused 6 10063
9 Don't know 9 10072
. Missing 77 10149

FSQBOX1 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX1
English Instructions:
BOX 1. CHECK ITEM: IF THERE IS NO ONE IN THE HOUSEHOLD WHO IS 17 YEARS OLD OR LESS, GO TO FSQBOX2.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD032D - HH Relied on low-cost food for child

Variable Name:
FSD032D
SAS Label:
HH Relied on low-cost food for child
English Text:
[The next statement is . . .] (I/we) relied on only a few kinds of low-cost food to feed {CHILD'S NAME / THE CHILDREN} because (I was/we were) running out of money to buy food.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often true 345 345
2 Sometimes true 1040 1385
3 Never true 5067 6452
7 Refused 1 6453
9 Don't know 4 6457
. Missing 3692 10149

FSD032E - HH Couldn't feed child balanced meal

Variable Name:
FSD032E
SAS Label:
HH Couldn't feed child balanced meal
English Text:
[The next statement is . . .] (I/we) couldn't feed {CHILD'S NAME / THE CHILDREN} a balanced meal, because (I/we) couldn't afford that.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often true 175 175
2 Sometimes true 657 832
3 Never true 5610 6442
7 Refused 1 6443
9 Don't know 14 6457
. Missing 3692 10149

FSQBOX2 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX2
English Instructions:
BOX 2. CHECK ITEM: IF THE RESPONSE TO FSD032 'A', 'B', 'C', 'D' or 'E' IS 'OFTEN TRUE' (CODE 1) OR 'SOMETIMES TRUE' (CODE 2) CONTINUE. OTHERWISE, GO TO FSDHH.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSQBOX3 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX3
English Instructions:
BOX 3. CHECK ITEM: IF THERE IS NO ONE IN THE HOUSEHOLD WHO IS 17 YEARS OLD OR LESS, GO TO FSD041.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD032F - HH Child not eating enough

Variable Name:
FSD032F
SAS Label:
HH Child not eating enough
English Text:
[The next statement is . . .] {CHILD'S NAME WAS /THE CHILDREN WERE} not eating enough because (I/we) just couldn't afford enough food.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often true 93 93
2 Sometimes true 380 473
3 Never true 1959 2432
7 Refused 0 2432
9 Don't know 0 2432
. Missing 7717 10149

FSD041 - HH Adults cut size or skip meals

Variable Name:
FSD041
SAS Label:
HH Adults cut size or skip meals
English Text:
In the last 12 months, since last {DISPLAY CURRENT MONTH}, did {you/you or other adults in your household} ever cut the size of your meals or skip meals because there wasn't enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 866 866
2 No 2270 3136 FSD061
7 Refused 1 3137 FSD061
9 Don't know 0 3137 FSD061
. Missing 7012 10149

FSD052 - HH How often adults cut size/skip meals

Variable Name:
FSD052
SAS Label:
HH How often adults cut size/skip meals
English Text:
How often did this happen?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Almost every month, 259 259
2 Some months but not every month, or 394 653
3 Only 1 or 2 months? 213 866
7 Refused 0 866
9 Don't know 0 866
. Missing 9283 10149

FSD061 - HH Eat less than should

Variable Name:
FSD061
SAS Label:
HH Eat less than should
English Text:
In the last 12 months, did you ever eat less than you felt you should because there wasn't enough money to buy food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1006 1006
2 No 2126 3132
7 Refused 1 3133
9 Don't know 4 3137
. Missing 7012 10149

FSD071 - HH Hungry, but didn't eat

Variable Name:
FSD071
SAS Label:
HH Hungry, but didn't eat
English Text:
[In the last 12 months], were you ever hungry but didn't eat because you couldn't afford enough food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 548 548
2 No 2588 3136
7 Refused 1 3137
9 Don't know 0 3137
. Missing 7012 10149

FSD081 - HH Lost weight, no money for food

Variable Name:
FSD081
SAS Label:
HH Lost weight, no money for food
English Text:
[In the last 12 months], did you lose weight because you didn't have enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 316 316
2 No 2811 3127
7 Refused 1 3128
9 Don't know 9 3137
. Missing 7012 10149

FSQBOX4 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX4
English Instructions:
BOX 4. CHECK ITEM: IF FSD032F IS OFTEN TRUE (CODE 1) OR SOMETIMES TRUE (CODE 2), OR IF 'YES' (CODE 1) IN FSD041, FSD061, FSD071, OR FSD081, CONTINUE. OTHERWISE, GO TO FSDHH.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD092 - HH Adults not eat whole day

Variable Name:
FSD092
SAS Label:
HH Adults not eat whole day
English Text:
[In the last 12 months], did {you/you or other adults in your household} ever not eat for a whole day because there wasn't enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 235 235
2 No 1121 1356
7 Refused 0 1356
9 Don't know 0 1356
. Missing 8793 10149

FSD102 - HH How often adults not eat for day

Variable Name:
FSD102
SAS Label:
HH How often adults not eat for day
English Text:
How often did this happen? Would you say . . .
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Almost every month, 68 68
2 Some months but not every month, or 103 171
3 Only 1 or 2 months? 64 235
7 Refused 0 235
9 Don't know 0 235
. Missing 9914 10149

FSQBOX5 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX5
English Instructions:
BOX 5. CHECK ITEM: IF THERE IS NO ONE IN THE HOUSEHOLD WHO IS 17 YEARS OLD OR LESS, GO TO FSDHH.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD111 - HH Cut size of child meals

Variable Name:
FSD111
SAS Label:
HH Cut size of child meals
English Text:
In the last 12 months, since {DISPLAY CURRENT MONTH} of last year, did you ever cut the size of {CHILD'S NAME's/any of the children's} meals because there wasn't enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 131 131
2 No 906 1037
7 Refused 0 1037
9 Don't know 4 1041
. Missing 9108 10149

FSD122 - HH Child skip meals

Variable Name:
FSD122
SAS Label:
HH Child skip meals
English Text:
[In the last 12 months], did {CHILD'S NAME/any of the children} ever skip meals because there wasn't enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 81 81
2 No 956 1037 FSD141
7 Refused 0 1037 FSD141
9 Don't know 4 1041 FSD141
. Missing 9108 10149

FSD132 - HH How often child skip meals

Variable Name:
FSD132
SAS Label:
HH How often child skip meals
English Text:
How often did this happen?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Almost every month, 18 18
2 Some months but not every month, or 50 68
3 Only 1 or 2 months? 13 81
7 Refused 0 81
9 Don't know 0 81
. Missing 10068 10149

FSD141 - HH Child hungry in last 12 months

Variable Name:
FSD141
SAS Label:
HH Child hungry in last 12 months
English Text:
In the last 12 months, {was CHILD'S NAME/were the children} ever hungry but you just couldn't afford more food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 151 151
2 No 883 1034
7 Refused 0 1034
9 Don't know 7 1041
. Missing 9108 10149

FSD146 - HH Child not eat whole day

Variable Name:
FSD146
SAS Label:
HH Child not eat whole day
English Text:
[In the last 12 months], did {CHILD'S NAME/any of the children} ever not eat for a whole day because there wasn't enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 34 34
2 No 1003 1037
7 Refused 0 1037
9 Don't know 4 1041
. Missing 9108 10149

FSDHH - Household food security category

Variable Name:
FSDHH
SAS Label:
Household food security category
English Text:
Household food security category for last 12 months
English Instructions:
Calculated at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 HH full food security: 0 6927 6927
2 HH marginal food security: 1-2 1148 8075
3 HH low food security: 3-5 (HH w/o child) / 3-7 (HH w/ child) 1354 9429
4 HH very low food security: 6-10 (HH w/o child) / 8-18 (HH w/ child) 634 10063
. Missing 86 10149

FSDAD - Adult food security category

Variable Name:
FSDAD
SAS Label:
Adult food security category
English Text:
Adult food security category for last 12 months
English Instructions:
Calculated at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 AD full food security: 0 7002 7002
2 AD marginal food security: 1-2 1351 8353
3 AD low food security: 3-5 1116 9469
4 AD very low food security: 6-10 594 10063
. Missing 86 10149

FSDCH - Child food security category

Variable Name:
FSDCH
SAS Label:
Child food security category
English Text:
Child food security category for last 12 months
English Instructions:
Calculated at household level. Only applies if there is at least one child 17 years old or less in the household.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 CH full or marginal food security: 0 5017 5017
2 CH marginal food security: 1 558 5575
3 CH low food security: 2-4 770 6345
4 CH very low food security: 5-8 107 6452
. Missing 3697 10149

FSD151 - HH Emergency food received

Variable Name:
FSD151
SAS Label:
HH Emergency food received
English Text:
In the last 12 months, did {you/you or any member of your household} ever get emergency food from a church, a food pantry, or a food bank, or eat in a soup kitchen?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 835 835
2 No 9226 10061
7 Refused 6 10067
9 Don't know 5 10072
. Missing 77 10149

FSQBOX6 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX6
English Instructions:
BOX 6. CHECK ITEM: IF THE RESPONSE TO FSD032 'A', 'B', 'C', 'D' or 'E' IS 'OFTEN TRUE' (CODE 1) OR 'SOMETIMES TRUE' (CODE 2), OR 'REFUSE' (CODE 7), OR 'DON'T KNOW' (CODE 9) CONTINUE. OTHERWISE, GO TO FSQ165.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD401 - Meal size cut

Variable Name:
FSD401
SAS Label:
Meal size cut
English Text:
In the last 30 days, {did you cut the size of (your/ child's name) meals/ was the size of your meals cut} because {there wasn't/ your family didn't have} enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the MEC interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often 146 146
2 Sometimes 527 673
3 Never 2164 2837
7 Refused 4 2841
9 Don't know 16 2857
. Missing 7292 10149

FSD411 - Skipped meals

Variable Name:
FSD411
SAS Label:
Skipped meals
English Text:
In the last 30 days, did {you/ child's NAME} skip {meals/ a meal} because {there wasn't/ your family didn't have} enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the MEC interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often 88 88
2 Sometimes 337 425
3 Never 2412 2837
7 Refused 6 2843
9 Don't know 14 2857
. Missing 7292 10149

FSD421 - Ate less than should

Variable Name:
FSD421
SAS Label:
Ate less than should
English Text:
In the last the last 30 days, did {you/ child's name} eat less than you {felt/ thought} {you/she/he} should because {there wasn't/your family didn't have} enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the MEC interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often 106 106
2 Sometimes 445 551
3 Never 2288 2839
7 Refused 4 2843
9 Don't know 14 2857
. Missing 7292 10149

FSD431 - Hungry

Variable Name:
FSD431
SAS Label:
Hungry
English Text:
In the last 30 days, {were you/ was child's name} hungry but {didn't eat because (you couldn't afford/ your family didn't have) enough food/ you just couldn't afford more food}?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the MEC interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Often 65 65
2 Sometimes 273 338
3 Never 2498 2836
7 Refused 5 2841
9 Don't know 16 2857
. Missing 7292 10149

FSQ440 - Lost weight

Variable Name:
FSQ440
SAS Label:
Lost weight
English Text:
In the last 30 days, did you lose weight because you did not have enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the MEC interview.
Target:
Both males and females 16 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 93 93
2 No 1450 1543
7 Refused 3 1546
9 Don't know 39 1585
. Missing 8564 10149

FSQBOX7 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX7
SAS Label:
CHECK ITEM
English Text:
CHECK ITEM
English Instructions:
BOX 7. CHECK ITEM: IF THE RESPONDENT AGE BETWEEN 12-15, CONTINUE. ELSE IF (FSD401 OR FSD411 OR FSD421 OR FSD431 = 1or 2) OR IF (FSQ440=1), CONTINUE; OTHERWISE, GO TO FSQ165.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD451 - Not eat whole day

Variable Name:
FSD451
SAS Label:
Not eat whole day
English Text:
In the last 30 days, did {you/ child's name} not eat for a whole day because {there wasn't/ your family didn't have} enough money for food?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the MEC interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Ever 149 149
2 Never 797 946
7 Refused 0 946
9 Don't know 1 947
. Missing 9202 10149

FSQ165 - HH FS benefit: ever received

Variable Name:
FSQ165
SAS Label:
HH FS benefit: ever received
English Text:
The next questions are about the Food Stamp Program. Food stamps are usually provided on an electronic debit card {or EBT card} {called the {{STATE NAME FOR EBT CARD}} card in {{STATE}}}. Have {you/you or anyone in your household} ever received Food Stamp benefits?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 3075 3075
2 No 6987 10062 FSQ162
7 Refused 5 10067 FSQ162
9 Don't know 5 10072 FSQ162
. Missing 77 10149

FSQ171 - HH FS benefit: receive in last 12 months

Variable Name:
FSQ171
SAS Label:
HH FS benefit: receive in last 12 months
English Text:
In the last 12 months, did {you/you or any member of your household} receive Food Stamp benefits?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 2188 2188
2 No 886 3074 FSQ162
7 Refused 0 3074 FSQ162
9 Don't know 1 3075 FSQ162
. Missing 7074 10149

FSD225 - HH FS benefit: time since last received

Variable Name:
FSD225
SAS Label:
HH FS benefit: time since last received
English Text:
Number of days between the time the household last received Food Stamp benefit and the date of interview.
English Instructions:
Calculated at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 to 352 Range of Values 2080 2080
55555 Current HH FS benefits recipient, last received date unknown 63 2143
66666 Non-current HH FS benefits recipient, last received date unknown 45 2188
77777 Refused 0 2188
99999 Don't know 0 2188
. Missing 7961 10149

FSQ235 - HH FS benefit: amount received last time

Variable Name:
FSQ235
SAS Label:
HH FS benefit: amount received last time
English Text:
How much did {you/your household} receive in food stamp benefits the last time you got them? ENTER DOLLAR AMOUNT.
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
10 to 1250 Range of Values 2097 2097
77777 Refused 14 2111
99999 Don't know 77 2188
. Missing 7961 10149

FSQBOX8 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX8
SAS Label:
CHECK ITEM
English Text:
English Instructions:
BOX 8. CHECK ITEM: IF THERE IS AT LEAST 1 CHILD IN THE HOUSEHOLD WHO IS 0-5 YEARS OLD OR THERE IS A FEMALE IN THE HOUSEHOLD WHO IS BETWEEN 12 AND 59 YEARS OLD, CONTINUE. OTHERWISE, GO TO BOX 9.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSQ162 - HH WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month

Variable Name:
FSQ162
SAS Label:
HH WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month
English Text:
In the last 12 months, did {you/you or any member of your household} receive benefits from the WIC program, that is, the Women, Infants and Children program?
English Instructions:
Collected at household level.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1731 1731
2 No 6218 7949
7 Refused 3 7952
9 Don't know 12 7964
. Missing 2185 10149

FSQBOX9 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX9
English Instructions:
BOX 9. CHECK ITEM: IF THE RESPONDENT AGE BETWEEN 0-5 YEARS, GO TO FSD650ZC. IF THE RESPONDENT AGE BETWEEN 6-11 YEARS, GO TO FSD675. IF THE RESPONDENT IS FEMALE AND AGE IS 12 YEARS OR OLDER, GO TO BOX10. OTHERWISE, GO TO END OF SECTION.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD650ZC - CH WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month

Variable Name:
FSD650ZC
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month
English Text:
Did {SP} receive benefits from WIC, that is, the Women, Infants, and Children program, in the past 12 months?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 5 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 971 971
2 No 741 1712 FSD675
7 Refused 0 1712 FSD675
9 Don't know 1 1713 FSD675
. Missing 8436 10149

FSD660ZC - CH WIC benefit: currently receive

Variable Name:
FSD660ZC
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: currently receive
English Text:
Is {SP} now receiving benefits from the WIC program?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 5 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 717 717
2 No 254 971
7 Refused 0 971
9 Don't know 0 971
. Missing 9178 10149

FSD675 - CH WIC benefit: received in infancy

Variable Name:
FSD675
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: received in infancy
English Text:
{Next are a few questions about the WIC program, that is, the Women, Infants, and Children program} Did {SP} receive benefits from WIC when {he/she} was less than one year old?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 11 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1880 1880
2 No 1071 2951
7 Refused 0 2951
9 Don't know 23 2974
. Missing 7175 10149

FSD680 - CH WIC benefit: received b/w 1-4 yrs old

Variable Name:
FSD680
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: received b/w 1-4 yrs old
English Text:
Did {SP} receive benefits from WIC when {he/she} {was/is} between the ages of 1 to {SP AGE} years old?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 1 YEARS - 11 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1434 1434
2 No 1024 2458
7 Refused 0 2458
9 Don't know 33 2491
. Missing 7658 10149

FSD670ZC - CH WIC benefit: # of months received

Variable Name:
FSD670ZC
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: # of months received
English Text:
How long {did SP receive/has SP been receiving} benefits from the WIC program?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 11 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 to 84 Range of Values 2938 2938
777 Refused 0 2938
999 Don't know 36 2974
. Missing 7175 10149

FSQ690 - CH WIC benefit: Mom received while preg.

Variable Name:
FSQ690
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: Mom received while preg.
English Text:
Did {SP's} mother receive benefits from WIC, while she was pregnant with {SP}?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 11 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 1650 1650
2 No 1268 2918 End of Section
7 Refused 0 2918 End of Section
9 Don't know 56 2974 End of Section
. Missing 7175 10149

FSQ695 - CH WIC benefit: starting month of preg.

Variable Name:
FSQ695
SAS Label:
CH WIC benefit: starting month of preg.
English Text:
What month of the pregnancy did {SP's} mother begin to receive WIC benefits?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the household interview.
Target:
Both males and females 0 YEARS - 11 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
0 to 9 Range of Values 1599 1599
77 Refused 0 1599
99 Don't know 51 1650
. Missing 8499 10149

FSQBOX10 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX10
English Instructions:
BOX 10. CHECK ITEM: IF SP CURRENTLY PREGNANT (CODED '1' IN RHD143), CONTINUE WITH FSD650ZW. IF THE AGE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARTICIPANT'S CURRENT AGE AND AGE REPORTED IN RHD190 IS ZERO, 1, OR 2, CONTINUE WITH FSD650ZW. ELSE IF RHD190 IS MISSING AND THE AGE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PARTICIPANT'S CURRENT AGE AND AGE REPORTED IN RHD173 IS ZERO, 1, OR 2, CONTINUE WITH FSD650ZW. OTHERWISE, GO TO END OF SECTION. NOTE: RHD 143, RHD190, AND RHD173 ARE REPORTED AT THE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SECTION (RHQ).
Target:
Females only 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD650ZW - WM WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month

Variable Name:
FSD650ZW
SAS Label:
WM WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month
English Text:
These next questions are about participation in programs for women with young children. Did {you/SP} personally receive benefits from WIC, that is, the Women, Infants, and Children Program, in the past 12 months?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the MEC interview.
Target:
Females only 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 145 145
2 No 121 266 End of Section
7 Refused 0 266 End of Section
9 Don't know 0 266 End of Section
. Missing 9883 10149

FSQBOX11 - CHECK ITEM

Variable Name:
FSQBOX11
English Instructions:
BOX 11. CHECK ITEM: IF CODED '1-12' IN RHQ197, CONTINUE WITH FSD660ZW. IF PARTICIPANT CURRENTLY PREGNANT (CODED '1') IN RHD143, CONTINUE WITH FSD660ZW. OTHERWISE, GO TO END OF SECTION. NOTE: RHD 143 AND RHQ197 ARE REPORTED AT THE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SECTION (RHQ).
Target:
Females only 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS

FSD660ZW - WM WIC benefit: currently receive

Variable Name:
FSD660ZW
SAS Label:
WM WIC benefit: currently receive
English Text:
{Are you/Is SP} now receiving benefits from the WIC Program?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the MEC interview.
Target:
Females only 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 Yes 86 86
2 No 6 92
7 Refused 0 92
9 Don't know 0 92
. Missing 10057 10149

FSD670ZW - WM WIC benefit: # of months received

Variable Name:
FSD670ZW
SAS Label:
WM WIC benefit: # of months received
English Text:
Thinking about {your/SP's} {pregnancy/recent pregnancy/most recent pregnancy/most recent pregnancies}, how long {did you receive/have you been receiving/did she receive/has she been receiving} benefits from the WIC Program?
English Instructions:
Collected at individual level in the MEC interview.
Target:
Females only 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS
Code or Value Value Description Count Cumulative Skip to Item
1 to 60 Range of Values 91 91
777 Refused 0 91
999 Don't know 1 92
. Missing 10057 10149

Appendix 1

Components of the Food Security Questionnaire in 2007-2008
Component Data Collection Details Weights Variable Name Target Gender Age Label
Household Food Security Food Security (FSQ)  
Family Interview


Household level
Interview FSD032A MF(0-150) HH Worried run out of food
FSD032B MF(0-150) HH Food didn't last
FSD032C MF(0-150) HH Couldn't afford balanced meals
FSD032D MF(0-150) HH Relied on low-cost food for child
FSD032E MF(0-150) HH Couldn't feed child balanced meal
FSD032F MF(0-150) HH Child not eating enough
FSD041 MF(0-150) HH Adults cut size or skip meals
FSD052 MF(0-150) HH How often adults cut size/skip meals
FSD061 MF(0-150) HH Eat less than should
FSD071 MF(0-150) HH Hungry, but didn't eat
FSD081 MF(0-150) HH Lost weight, no money for food
FSD092 MF(0-150) HH Adults not eat whole day
FSD102 MF(0-150) HH How often adults not eat for day
FSD111 MF(0-150) HH Cut size of child meals
FSD122 MF(0-150) HH Child skip meals
FSD132 MF(0-150) HH How often child skip meals
FSD141 MF(0-150) HH Child hungry in last 12 months
FSD146 MF(0-150) HH Child not eat whole day
FSDHH MF(0-150) Household food security category
FSDAD MF(0-150) Adult food security category
FSDCH MF(0-150) Child food security category
FSD151 MF(0-150) HH Emergency food received
Individual Food Security Dietary Post Recall (DRX)
Mobile Exam Center (MEC)

Food Security (FSQ)-ACASI
Mobile Exam Center (MEC)

Individual level
MEC FSD401 MF(0-150) Meal size cut
FSD411 MF(0-150) Skipped meals
FSD421 MF(0-150) Ate less than should
FSD431 MF(0-150) Hungry
FSQ440 MF(16-150) Lost weight
FSD451 MF(0-150) Not eat whole day
Food Stamp Program Benefits Food Security (FSQ)  
Family Interview


Household level
Interview FSQ165 MF(0-150) HH FS benefit: ever received
FSQ171 MF(0-150) HH FS benefit: receive in last 12 months
FSD225 MF(0-150) HH FS benefit: time since last received
FSQ235 MF(0-150) HH FS benefit: amount received last time
Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Program Benefits Food Security (FSQ)
Family Interview


Household level
Interview FSQ162 MF(0-150) HH WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month
Diet Behavior (DBQ)
Household Interview


Individual level
Interview FSD650ZC MF(0-5) CH WIC benefit: receive in last 12 month
FSD660ZC MF(0-5) CH WIC benefit: currently receive
FSD675 MF(0-11) CH WIC benefit: received in infancy
FSD680 MF(1-11) CH WIC benefit: received b/w 1-4 yrs old
FSD670ZC MF(0-11) CH WIC benefit: # of months received
FSQ690 MF(0-11) CH WIC benefit: Mom received while preg.
FSQ695 MF(0-11) CH WIC benefit: starting month of preg.
Reproductive Health (RHQ)
Mobile Exam Center (MEC
)

Individual level
MEC FSD650ZW F(12-59) WM WIC benefit: SP receive in last 12 month
FSD660ZW F(12-59) WM WIC benefit: SP currently receive
FSD670ZW F(12-59) WM WIC benefit: # of months SP rceived

Appendix 2

Changes in the FSQ section among the latest three release cycles
Item 2003-2004 2005-2006 2007-2008
Eligible sample for household food security questions Households with income equal or less than 4 times the Department of Health and Human Services' poverty guidelines All households All households
Codes for child food security category (FSDCH) 1=CH food quality & quantity unaffected
2=CH reduced food quality or quantity
3=CH reduced food quality and quantity
4=CH severely reduced food quality and quantity
No changes from 2003-2004 Modified labels as:
1=CH full or marginal food security
2=CH marginal food security
3=CH low food security
4=CH very low food security
Individual food security questions for 0-11 years old Collected and released 6 items; 5 of them were categorical variables with response options "yes" or "no"; 1 follow-up question on number of days the child skipped a meal. Collected and released 5 items; dropped follow-up question on number of days the child skipped a meal; modified response options for categorical variables as "often", "sometimes", "never". Collected and released 5 items; no changes from 2005-2006.
Individual food security questions for 16+ years old Collected and released 7 items; 5 of them were categorical variables with response options "yes" or "no"; 2 follow-up questions on number of days the participant skipped meals and days participant did not eat the whole day.
Collected and released 6 items; dropped follow-up questions on number of days the participant skipped meals and days participant did not eat the whole day; separated the question of cut the meal size and skipped meals into 2 questions; modified response op tions for categorical variables as "often", "sometimes", "never".
Collected and released 6 items; no changes from 2005-2006.
Individual food security questions for 12-15 years old Not collected Collected and released 5 items similar to questions for children 0-11 years old. Collected and released 5 items; no changes from 2005-2006.
Household members ever received Food Stamp (FS) benefits Not collected Not collected Collected and released for all households
Household members received Food Stamp (FS) benefits in the last 12 months Collected as "any household members authorized to receive Food Stamps". No changes from 2003-2004 Collected as "any household members received FS benefits"; the word "authorized" was no longer used.
Time since last received Food Stamp (FS) benefits Not collected Not collected Collected and released for all households with member(s) who received FS benefits in the last 12 months.
Food Stamp (FS) benefit amount received last time Not collected Collected and released in 2 separate items; benefit received in last month for households with current FS participant(s); benefit received last time for households with no current participant but had received benefits in the last 12 months. Collected and released 1 item for all households with member(s) who received FS benefits in the last 12 months.
Individual level questions on Food Stamp (FS) benefits in the last 12 months 3 items collected for all household members but only released data on survey participants: whether authorized to receive FS benefits; the length of the benefits authorized in the last 12 months; current participation. No changes from 2003-2004. Not collected
Number of people in the household authorized to receive Food Stamp (FS) benefits in the last 12 months Derived from individual level FS questions collected from all household members. No changes from 2003-2004. Not collected
Child received WIC benefits in infancy Not collected Not collected Collected and released for children 0-11 years old.
Child received WIC benefits between 1 to 4 years old Not collected Not collected Collected and released for children 0-11 years old.
Total number of months the child received WIC benefits Collected and released for children 0-5 years old. Collected and released for children 0-5 years old. Collected and released for children 0-11 years old.
Mom received WIC benefits while pregnant with the child participant Not collected Not collected Collected and released for children 0-11 years old; also included an item for the month of pregnancy that mom started to receive WIC benefits.
WIC benefits questions for women Collected and released for women 12-59 years old. Collected and released for women 12-59 years old. Collected for women 12-59 years old, but only publically released for 20-59 years old due to disclosure risks.
Women currently receive WIC benefits Collected for female participants who received WIC benefits in the last 12 month. Collected for female participants who received WIC benefits in the last 12 month. Collected for female participants who received WIC benefits in the last 12 month, and were pregnant or 0-12 months postpartum at the time of interview.