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EHS-Net Publications by Study Topic

This page lists EHS-Net food safety publications grouped by study topic.

Restaurant-related Foodborne Illness Outbreaks

This section describes EHS-Net food safety publications focused on characteristics of foodborne illness outbreaks. For example, one study describes differences between restaurants linked with outbreaks and restaurants not linked with outbreaks.

Evaluation of Outbreak and Nonoutbreak Restaurants
Study objective: To identify pathogens and contributing factors associated with restaurant-related foodborne illness outbreaks and food-safety differences between outbreak and nonoutbreak restaurants, through systematic environmental evaluations.

Publication: Systematic environmental evaluations to identify food safety differences between outbreak and nonoutbreak restaurants. [PDF - 195 KB] J Food Prot. 2006;69(11):2697-702.

Study findings in plain language: Food safety differences between restaurants linked and not linked to outbreaks.

Foodborne Illness Outbreak Study
Study objective: To identify contributing factors to foodborne illness outbreaks in food-service facilities and to describe the characteristics, policies and practices of those facilities. Food-service facilities include restaurants, delis, cafeterias, schools, nursing homes, etc.

Poster presentation: Understanding foodborne disease outbreaks using environmental assessment. [PDF - 77 KB] Presented at the Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases Biannual Meeting; 2008 March 16-19, Atlanta.

General Public’s Beliefs About Gastrointestinal Illness

This section describes an EHS-Net food safety publication on the public’s belief about restaurant meals as the cause of their gastrointestinal illness.

Beliefs About Sources of Gastrointestinal Illness Population Study
Study objective: To increase understanding of the population’s experiences with and beliefs about gastrointestinal illness.

Publication: Beliefs about meals eaten outside the home as sources of gastrointestinal illness. [PDF - 207 KB] J Food Prot. 2005;68(10):2184-9. Article includes quantitative data about the population’s beliefs about meals eaten outside the home as the source of gastrointestinal illness, reasons for attributing illness to specific outside meals, and factors associated with attributing illness to outside meals.

Study findings in plain language: Beliefs that restaurant meals made people sick.

Restaurant Food Handling and Food Safety Practices

This section describes EHS-Net food safety publications focused on restaurant and food worker food handling and food safety practices.

Foods associated with foodborne illness

Publications in this section focus on foods associated with foodborne illness. These include publications on restaurant food handling and food safety practices concerning beef, eggs, and tomatoes.

Chicken Handling Practices Study
Study objective: To describe restaurant chicken preparation and cooking practices and kitchen managers’ food safety knowledge concerning chicken.

Publication: Frequency of inadequate chicken cross contamination prevention and cooking practices in restaurants. [PDF - 77 KB] J Food Prot. 2013;76(12):2141–2145.

Study findings in plain language: How restaurants prepare and cook chicken.

Beef Grinding Logs Study
Study objective: To describe recordkeeping practices of beef grinding activities in retail establishments.

Publication: Recordkeeping practices of beef grinding activities at retail establishments. [PDF - 283 KB] J Food Prot. 2011;74(6):1022-4. Article discusses results from study on recordkeeping practices of beef grinding activities in retail establishments.

Study findings in plain language: Beef grinding records kept by retail stores.

Egg Handling Practices Study
Study objective: To identify the prevalence of high-risk egg-handling practices and establishment policies in restaurants that serve breakfast all day.

Publication: Prevalence of high-risk egg-preparation practices in restaurants that prepare breakfast egg entrees: An EHS-Net study. [PDF - 521 KB] J Food Prot. 2004;67:1444-50. Article includes quantitative data about restaurants’ egg-preparation practices, including egg holding time and temperatures, egg cooking temperatures, and sanitization of equipment used to prepare eggs.

Study findings in plain language: How restaurants prepare eggs.

Ground Beef Handling Practices Study
Study objective: To evaluate ground beef handling practices in restaurants.

Publication: Ground beef handling and cooking practices in restaurants in eight states. [PDF - 318 KB] J Food Prot. 2013;76(12):2132-40. doi:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-13-126

Study findings in plain language:

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Leafy Greens Handling Practices Study
Study objective: To describe restaurant leafy greens preparation practices.

Publication: Handling practices of fresh leafy greens in restaurants: receiving and training. [PDF - 165 KB] J Food Prot. 2013;76(12):2126-31.
Study findings in plain language: How restaurants receive leafy vegetables.

Tomato Handling Practices Study
Study objective: To identify the types of tomatoes used in restaurants, describe tomato-handling practices, and to identify factors associated with safer tomato-handling practices.

Publication: Tomato handling practices in restaurants. [PDF - 109 KB] J Food Prot. 2009;72(8):1692-8. Article discusses study to collect descriptive data on tomato handling practices (tomato receiving, storing, washing, cutting, and holding practices) in restaurants.

Study findings in plain language: How restaurants handle tomatoes.

Food handling practices associated with foodborne illness

Publications in this section focus on food handling practices associated with foodborne illness. These include publications on hand hygiene, the behavior of ill food workers, and food workers’ general food safety practices.

Hand Hygiene Study
Study objective: To describe restaurant food workers' hand hygiene practices and identify factors associated with safe hand hygiene practices.

Publication: Factors related to food worker hand hygiene practices. [PDF - 489 KB] J Food Prot. 2007;70(3):661-6. Article includes quantitative data on establishment characteristics associated with food-worker hand washing and glove use practices.

Study findings in plain language: Food worker handwashing and restaurant factors.

Publication: Food worker hand washing practices: an EHS-Net observation study. [PDF - 288 KB] J Food Prot. 2006;69(10):2417-23. Article includes quantitative observational data about food workers’ handwashing practices by work activity and glove use.

Study findings in plain language: Food worker handwashing and food preparation.

Ill Food Worker Study
Study objective: To describe the frequency with which food workers work while ill with vomiting or diarrhea and to identify restaurant and worker charactieristics linked with working with these symptoms.

Publication: Factors associated with food workers working while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea. [PDF - 190 KB] J Food Prot. 2011;74(2):215-20. Article includes quantitative data on food workers’ frequency of working while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea and factors associated with working while experiencing vomiting or diarrhea.

Study findings in plain language: Food workers working when they are sick.

Publication: Food worker experiences with and beliefs about working while ill. [PDF - 157 KB] J Food Prot. 2013;76(12):2146-54.

Study findings in plain language:

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Food Workers’ Food Preparation Practices Focus Group Study
Study objective: To examine the relationship between KM/PIC certification, food safety knowledge, and attitudes. The study will describe and compare the food safety knowledge levels and attitudes of certified KM/PIC and non-certified KM/PIC.

Publication: Factors impacting food workers’ and managers’ safe food preparation practices: a qualitative study. [PDF - 289 KB] Food Prot Trends. 2005;25:981-90. Article includes qualitative data about food workers’ food-preparation practices [e.g., handwashing, prevention of cross contamination, and holding food at proper temperatures] and factors that impact food workers’ ability to safely engage in these food-preparation practices.

Study findings in plain language: Factors affecting safe food preparation by food workers and managers.

Food Workers’ Food Preparation Practices Population Study
Study objective: To determine self-reported prevalence of food service workers’ safe and unsafe food preparation practices at the population level.

Publication: Food service workers’ self-reported food preparation practices: an EHS-Net study. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2005;208(1–2):27-35. Article includes quantitative data about food workers’ food-preparation practices, including handwashing, glove use and checking food temperatures, and factors associated with safe preparation practices.

Study findings in plain language: Food safety practices of restaurant workers.

Restaurant Food Cooling Practices
Study objective: To collect descriptive data on food cooling processes and practices in restaurants.

Publication: Restaurant food cooling practices. [PDF - 435 KB] J Food Prot. 2012;75(12):2172-8. Article includes quantitative data on restaurants’ food cooling processes and practices such as whether cooling processes are tested and proven to be safe; temperature monitoring practices; refrigeration cooling practices, and cooling food temperatures.

Study findings in plain language: How restaurants cool food.

Retail Food Safety Programs

This section describes EHS-Net food safety publications focused on environmental health retail food safety programs. For example, one publication describes on environmental health specialists’ foodborne illness investigation practices.

Environmental Health Specialists’ Inspection and Outbreak Investigation Practices Focus Group Study
Study objective: To evaluate environmental health specialists’ restaurant inspection and foodborne illness outbreak investigation practices.

Publication: Environmental health specialists’ self-reported foodborne illness outbreak investigation practices. [PDF - 330 KB] J Environ Health. 2008;70(6):16-21. Article includes qualitative data about environmental health specialists' foodborne illness outbreak investigation practices and difficulties associated with those practices.

Study findings in plain language: How environmental health specialists investigate outbreaks.

Manager Certification and Inspection Scores Study
Study objective: To determine if the presence of a certified kitchen manager results in fewer critical violations.

Publication: Certified kitchen managers: do they improve restaurant inspection outcomes? [PDF - 310 KB] J Food Prot. 2009;72(2):384-91. Article examines relationships between the results of routine restaurant inspections and the presence of a certified kitchen manager.

Study findings in plain language: Kitchen manager certification study and food safety.

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