Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine
Inactivated Vero cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine (manufactured as IXIARO) is the only JE vaccine licensed and available in the United States. This vaccine was approved in March 2009 for use in people aged 17 years and older and in May 2013 for use in children 2 months through 16 years of age. Other JE vaccines are manufactured and used in other countries but are not licensed for use in the United States.
IXIARO is given as a two-dose series, with the doses spaced 28 days apart. The last dose should be given at least 1 week before travel. For persons aged 17 years and older, a booster dose may be given if a person has received the two-dose primary vaccination series one year or more previously and there is a continued risk for JE virus infection or potential for reexposure. Although studies are being conducted on the need for a booster dose for children, data are not yet available.
More information about JE vaccine can be found in the Vaccine Information Statement for IXIARO Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine [PDF - 2 pages] and in the IXIARO product information available at the FDA IXIARO webpage.
JE Vaccine Recommendations
- JE vaccine is recommended for travelers who plan to spend 1 month or more in endemic areas during the JE virus transmission season. This includes long-term travelers, recurrent travelers, or expatriates who will be based in urban areas but are likely to visit endemic rural or agricultural areas during a high-risk period of JE virus transmission.
- Vaccine should also be considered for the following:
- Short-term (less than1 month) travelers to endemic areas during the transmission season, if they plan to travel outside an urban area and their activities will increase the risk of JE virus exposure. Examples of higher-risk activities or itineraries include: 1) spending substantial time outdoors in rural or agricultural areas, especially during the evening or night; 2) participating in extensive outdoor activities (such as camping, hiking, trekking, biking, fishing, hunting, or farming); and 3) staying in accommodations without air conditioning, screens, or bed nets.
- Travelers to an area with an ongoing JE outbreak.
- Travelers to endemic areas who are uncertain of specific destinations, activities, or duration of travel.
- JE vaccine is not recommended for short-term travelers whose visits will be restricted to urban areas or times outside a well-defined JE virus transmission season.
Precautions and Contraindications
- A serious allergic reaction after a previous dose of IXIARO is a contraindication to further doses. The vaccine contains protamine sulfate, a compound known to cause allergic reactions in some people.
- No studies of IXIARO in pregnant women have been conducted. Therefore, administration of IXIARO to pregnant women usually should be deferred. However, pregnant women who must travel to an area where risk for infection is high should be vaccinated when the theoretical risk of immunization is outweighed by the risk of infection.
Reactions to JE Vaccine
Reactions to IXIARO are generally mild and include pain and tenderness, mild headaches, myalgia (muscle aches), and low-grade fevers.
Healthcare providers are encouraged to report all adverse events that might be caused by vaccination to the CDC/FDA Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) by one of the following methods:
- Submit a report online at https://vaers.hhs.gov/esub/index
- Print a VAERS Form [PDF - 2 pages] and fax or mail as instructed at https://vaers.hhs.gov/contact
- Call (800) 822-7967
For More Information
- MMWR Recommendations and Reports
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations for use of JE vaccine
- CDC's Health Information for International Travel (Yellow Book)
Information about JE risk by country and recommendations for prevention of JE among travelers
- JE vaccine for U.S. children