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Publications, Data, & Statistics

These articles provide information related to handwashing and the use of hand sanitizer in a variety of settings around the world. They include key publications on related topics but are not intended to be a comprehensive list of references.

Improved Health

Contamination & Microbe Removal

Antibacterial Soap

Handwashing has been clearly shown to prevent a variety of diseases and is one of the most important ways to protect oneself and others from infections. To date, studies have shown that there is no added health benefit for consumers (this does not include professionals in the healthcare setting) using soaps containing antibacterial ingredients compared with using plain soap. CDC looks forward to any future data about the safety and effectiveness of antibacterial consumer products and will continue to adjust recommendations based on the best available science.

Efficacy of Antibacterial Soaps
Environmental Fate & Potential Health Impact of Antibacterial Soap Additives

Drying Hands

Hand Sanitizer

Animal Settings