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	From 2006-2013, certain state policies reduced amounts of opioids prescribed by 8% and prescription opioid overdose death rates by 12%. provider review and pain clinic laws reduce the amounts of opioids prescribed and overdose death rates

State policies, specifically mandated provider review of state-run prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) data and pain clinic laws, reduced opioid amounts prescribed by 8 percent and prescription opioid overdose death rates by 12 percent, during 2006–2013. Additionally, there is no evidence to support the claim that policies to curb opioid prescribing are leading to heroin overdoses. These policies may actually reduce the number of people initiating heroin use in the longer term by reducing the number of people exposed to opioids both for use as prescribed and for nonmedical use.

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An analysis of Washington prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) data revealed that multiple provider episodes (MPEs) vary by age group and class of prescription drug. Opioids and opioid combinations had the highest number of days of overlapping prescriptions, and eight opioids had a mean daily dosage greater than 120 morphine milligram equivalents (MME). Findings indicate that MPEs, overlapping prescription, and mean daily dosages over 100 MMEs are patient risk factors to look for in PDMP data.

Maine’s PDMP data was analyzed to examine several patient risk measures for prescription drug misuse, abuse and overdose. Patients aged 35-54 had the highest rate of MPEs, and opioids were the drug class most frequently involved with MPEs. However, the rate of MPEs declined from 2010 to 2014, and this coincided with an increase in prescribing of buprenorphine, widely used in treating opioid dependence.

	Assess. Manage. Monitor. Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain