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Basic Information About Gynecologic Cancers

Photo of three middle-aged women

Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in a woman’s reproductive organs, it is called gynecologic cancer. The five main types of gynecologic cancer are: cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar. (A sixth type of gynecologic cancer is the very rare fallopian tube cancer.)

Of all the gynecologic cancers, only cervical cancer has a screening test—the Pap test—that can find this cancer early, when treatment can be most effective. Since there is no simple and reliable way to screen for any gynecologic cancers except cervical cancer, it is especially important to recognize warning signs, and learn if there are things you can do to reduce your risk.

There are several ways to treat gynecologic cancer. The treatment depends on the type of cancer and how far it has spread.