Physical education is defined as an academic subject that provides a planned, sequential, K-12 standards-based program of curricula and instruction designed to develop motor skills, knowledge and behaviors for healthy, active living, physical fitness, sportsmanship, self-efficacy and emotional intelligence.
Physical education equips students with the appropriate knowledge, skills, and confidence to be physically active for a lifetime and helps meet the nationally recommended 60 minutes of daily physical activity.
What is the difference between a waiver, exemption, and substitution?
A waiver means that a school district or school is not required to provide students with state-mandated physical education class time or credit. State, school district, and school policy should not allow waivers for physical education class time or credit requirements.
An exemption means that a school district or school allows students to be exempted from physical education class time or credit by allowing exempted students to participate in other academic courses or activities. Exemptions from physical education class time or credit is sometimes allowed due to medical illness or disability. State, school district, and school policy should not allow exemptions from physical education class time or credit requirements.
A substitution means that a school district or school allows students to participate in other activities for physical education class time or credit. School districts and schools should prohibit students from substituting other activities, such as interscholastic sports, ROTC, or marching band, for physical education class time or credit requirements.
What should grade-level outcomes be for elementary school students? Middle school students? High school students?
By the end of Grade 5, students should be able to demonstrate competence in fundamental motor skills; use basic movement concepts in dance, gymnastics and small-sided practice tasks; identify basic health-related fitness concepts; exhibit acceptance of self and others in physical activities; and identify the benefits of a physically active lifestyle.
By the end of Grade 8, students should be able to apply tactics and strategies to modified game play; demonstrate fundamental movement skills in a variety of contexts; design and implement a health-enhancing fitness program; participate in self-selected physical activity; cooperate with and encourage classmates; accept individual differences and demonstrate inclusive behaviors; and engage in physical activity for enjoyment and self-expression.
By the end of high school, students should be able to demonstrate the ability to plan and implement different types of personal fitness programs; demonstrate competency in two or more lifetime activities; describe key concepts associated with successful participation in physical activity; model responsible behavior while engaged in physical activity; and engage in physical activities that meet the need for self-expression, challenge, social interaction, and enjoyment.
What is meant by differentiated instruction and deliberate instructional practice?
Differentiated instruction is a framework or philosophy for effective teaching that involves providing different students with different avenues to learning (often in the same classroom) in terms of acquiring content, processing, constructing, or developing teaching materials and assessment measures so that all students within a classroom can learn effectively, regardless of differences in ability. Examples include active engagement and modified activities.
Deliberate instructional practice involves activities that are designed to lead to knowledge acquisition and improved performance. Examples include self-assessment and self-monitoring.
What does a well-designed PE program do, and what is the purpose of a PE curriculum?
A well-designed program includes the opportunity to learn meaningful content, appropriate instruction, and student and program assessment. Quality physical education:
Meets the needs of all students
Keeps students active for most of physical education class time
Teaches skills to maximize movement proficiency
Emphasizes knowledge and skills for a lifetime of physical activity
Is an enjoyable experience for all students
A physical education curriculum standardizes the curriculum in a school district across schools and ensures equitable education for all students. It also results in improved teacher quality and increased consistency in instruction. The curriculum should identify the content to be taught at all grade levels and includes learning objectives for students to meet and units and lessons for teachers to implement.
What are the National Standards for K-12 Physical Education, and is there a national program to help increase student fitness?
The National Standards for K-12 Physical Education are:
Standard 1 - The physically literate individual demonstrates competency in a variety of motor skills and movement patterns.
Standard 2 - The physically literate individual applies knowledge of concepts, principles, strategies and tactics related to movement and performance.
Standard 3 - The physically literate individual demonstrates the knowledge and skills to achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical activity and fitness.
Standard 4 - The physically literate individual exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others.
Standard 5 - The physically literate individual recognizes the value of physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression and/or social interaction.
The national program to help schools achieve excellence in physical education is the Presidential Youth Fitness Program.
What three domains of learning are addressed by physical education?
The three domains of learning addressed by physical education are:
Cognitive or mental skills, which are related to the knowledge of movement
Affective, which addresses growth in feelings or attitudes
Psychomotor, which relates to the physical or manual skills related to movement
How can inclusion of students with special needs or disabilities be ensured?
The physical education teacher should include strategies for differentiation and modification of lessons for students with an individualized education program (IEP) to participate in physical education.
What physical education policies should be included in a local school wellness policy?
Physical education policies that should be included are:
Every student is required to take daily physical education in grades K-12, with instruction periods totaling 150 minutes/week in elementary and 225 minutes/week in middle and high school.
School districts and schools require full inclusion of all students in physical education.
School districts and schools do not allow waivers from physical education class time or credit requirements.
School districts and schools do not allow student exemptions from physical education class time or credit requirements.
School districts and schools prohibit students from substituting other activities (e.g., JROTC, interscholastic sports) for physical education class time or credit requirements.
Physical education class size is consistent with that of other subject areas and aligns with school district and school teacher/student ratio policy.
Physical activity is not assigned or withheld as punishment.
Physical education is taught by a state licensed or state-certified teacher who is endorsed to teach physical education.
Physical education teachers engage students in moderate to vigorous physical activity for 50% of class time.
Why is student assessment in physical education important, and what does it include?
Assessments provide concrete evidence of whether students have achieved grade-level outcomes, allow teachers to reflect on effectiveness of instruction, and provide evidence of program success. Student assessment includes:
Conducting pre-assessments to learn where students are in the beginning of a learning sequence.
Formative assessments that are ongoing during instruction to check for understanding.
Summative assessments at the close of a unit or instructional sequence to provide a comprehensive summary of each student’s progress.