CDC logo, Safer Healthier People  CDC HomeCDC SearchCDC Health Topics A-Z
NIOSH - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

Search NIOSH  |  NIOSH Home  |  NIOSH Topics  |  Site Index  |  Databases and Information Resources  |  NIOSH Products  |  Contact Us






Zinc oxide

RTECS #: ZH4810000

CAS #: 1314-13-2


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 81.37 MF: OZn


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. AI3 - 00277
  2. Actox 14
  3. Actox 16
  4. Actox 216
  5. Akro - zinc bar 85
  6. Akro - zinc bar 90
  7. Amalox
  8. Azo - 33
  9. Azo - 55
  10. Azo - 55TT
  11. Azo - 66
  12. Azo - 66TT
  13. Azo - 77
  14. Azo - 77TT
  15. Azodox - 55
  16. Azodox - 55TT
  17. C.I. 77947
  18. C.I. Pigment White 4
  19. Cadox XX 78
  20. Chinese White
  21. Cynku tlenek (Polish)
  22. EMAR
  23. Electox 2500
  24. Emanay zinc oxide
  25. Felling zinc oxide
  26. Flowers of zinc
  27. GIAP 10
  28. Green seal - 8
  29. Hubbuck's White
  30. K - Zinc
  31. Kadox 15
  32. Kadox 72
  1. Kadox - 25
  2. Outmine
  3. Ozide
  4. Ozlo
  5. Permanent White
  6. Philosopher's wool
  7. Powder base 900
  8. Protox type 166
  9. Protox type 167
  10. Protox type 168
  11. Protox type 169
  12. Protox type 267
  13. Protox type 268
  14. Red Seal 9
  15. Snow White
  16. Unichem ZO
  17. Vandem VAC
  18. Vandem VOC
  19. White seal - 7
  20. XX 203
  21. XX 601
  22. XX 78
  23. ZN - 0401 E 3/16''
  24. Zinc White
  25. Zinc oxide (ACGIH:OSHA)
  26. Zinc oxide fume
  27. Zinc oxide fume (OSHA)
  28. Zinca 20
  29. Zincite
  30. Zincoid
  31. Zn 0701T


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
500 mg/24 hour mild 28ZPAK -,10,1972
skin
rabbit
500 mg/24 hour mild 28ZPAK -,10,1972


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis human other cell types 100 mol/L/30 hour MUREAV 650,39,2008
cytogenetic analysis inhalation
rat
100 g/m3 CYGEDX 12(3),46,1978
DNA adduct Escherichia coli 3,000 ppm MUREAV 89,95,1981
unscheduled DNA synthesis inhalation
guinea pig
5,300 g/m3/3 hour/6 day TXAPA9 78,29,1985
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster embryo 1 mg/L SHIGAZ 74,1385,1987
morphological transform hamster embryo 1 mg/L SHIGAZ 74,1385,1987
sister chromatid exchange hamster embryo 300 g/L SHIGAZ 74,1385,1987


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,846 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
JONUAI 98,303,1969


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 mg/m3 Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JIDHAN 9,88,1927
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 2,500 mg/m3 N/R ENTOX* -,481,2005
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 mg/m3/3 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 72,298,2003
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 25 mg/m3/3 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 44,213,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 240 mg/kg N/R ZDKAA8 38(9),18,1978
intratracheal
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVN1* -,151,1988
intratracheal
rat
lethal dose : >4,979 g/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
ESKGA2 35,P19,1989
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kg N/R YAKUD5 22,291,1980
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7,950 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* -,481,2005
oral
rat
lethal dose : >8,437 mg/kg N/R GTPZAB 18(5),48,1974


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,900 g/m3/3 hour/3 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
JTEHD6 25,57,1988
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 4,600 g/m3/3 hour/6 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight
TXAPA9 78,29,1985
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3/6 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
HBTME* -,925,2007
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 15 mg/m3/1 hour/84 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVN1* -,153,1988
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 6.9 mg/m3/7 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Changes in lung weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
INHTE5 15,435,2003
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 32,203 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Endocrine: Change in GH

Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOLED5 57,309,1991
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 6,468 mg/kg/1 week- intermittent Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TOLED5 57,309,1991
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 12.93 gm/kg/2 week- intermittent Endocrine: Change in GH TOLED5 57,309,1991
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 25.87 gm/kg/4 week- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes TOLED5 57,309,1991
oral
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 3,584 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Other metals
JJATDK 4,92,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 17,431 mg/kg/90 day- continuous Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) TOXID9 36(1 Pt2),183,1997


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 2 mg/m3;short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3 (respirable) DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ANAEA3 35,165,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JIDHAN 8,322,1926
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,481,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HBTME* ,925,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,661,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,515,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: RED Completed RBREV* -,346,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 (fume) DTLVS* 3,284,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, fume and respirable fraction CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, total dust CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, fume and respirable fraction CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, total dust CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, fume and respirable fraction CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, total dust CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (dust), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3 (fume), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (dust), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3 (fume), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 4 mg/m3 (fume), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 (fume), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 10 mg/m3 (dust), 5 mg/m3 (fume), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 1 mg/m3 (respirable, fume), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 (resp), short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3 (resp), SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit Pending (fumes), APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit 1 mg/m3 (respirable), 4 mg/m3 (total), APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 (fume), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 10 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3 (inhalable), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 5 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 (fume), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (fume), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 (inspirable dust), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) fume 5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) fume 10 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 3 mg/m3,KZG- week 0.125 mg/m3 (fume), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 5 mg/m3 (fume), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

time-weighted average 2 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3 (respirable)
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
time-weighted average 2 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3 (respirable)


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ZINC OXIDE, fume-air 10 hour time-weighted average 5 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 10 mg/m3
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ZINC OXIDE, total dust-air time-weighted average 5 mg/m3;
ceiling concentration 15 mg/m3/15 minute
NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: X5686;
Number of Industries 295;
Total Number of Facilities 56,635;
Number of Occupations 168;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 919,197;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 151,582
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: X9509;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 7;
Number of Occupations 1;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 105;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 7


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as an antiinflammatory agent
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Elements by ICP, 7300
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Zinc and compounds, 7030 or 7502
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID121
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID143


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

28ZPAK "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J.V., Institut Pro Vychovu Vedoucicn Pracovniku Chemickeho Prumyclu Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1972
ANAEA3 Annals of Allergy. (American College of Allergists, POB 20671, Bloomington, MN 55420) V.1- 1943-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CYGEDX Cytology and Genetics (English Translation). Translation of TGANAK. (Allerton Press Inc., 150 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10011) V.8- 1974-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
ESKGA2 Eisei Kagaku. Hygienic Chemistry. (Nippon Yakugakkai, 2-12-15 Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan) V.1- 1953-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HBTME*
HUTOX*
INHTE5 Inhalation Toxicology. (Published by Taylor & Francis Health, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE) V.1- 1989-
JIDHAN Journal of Industrial Hygiene. (Cambridge, MA) V.1-17, 1919-35. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JONUAI Journal of Nutrition. (Subscription Dept., 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20014) V.1- 1928-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
SHIGAZ Shigaku. Ondotology. (Nippon Shika Daigaku Shigakkai, 1-9-20 Fujimi, Chiyodaku, Tokyo 102, Japan) V.38- 1949-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
VCVN1* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov I-IV groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing I-IV group elements), Filov V.A., Chimia, 1988.
YAKUD5 Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. (Yakugyo Jihosha, Inaoka Bldg., 2-36 Jinbo-cho, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan) V.1- 1959-
ZDKAA8 Zdravookhranenie Kazakhstana. Public Health of Kazakhstan. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1941-

Used as an antiinflammatory agent

NIOSH PROFILE (GLASS and CERAMICS MANUFACTURE), SRC, 6/80

FDA-over the counter drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

ALT CAS #: 8051-03-4
ALT CAS #: 78590-82-6
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

NIOSH Home |  NIOSH Search  |  Site Index  |  Topic List |  Contact Us