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Ethyl alcohol

RTECS #: KQ6300000

CAS #: 64-17-5


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 46.08 MF: C2H6O


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Absolute ethanol
  2. Aethanol (German)
  3. Aethylalkohol (German)
  4. Alcohol
  5. Alcohol dehydrated
  6. Alcohol, anhydrous
  7. Alcool ethylique (French)
  8. Alcool etilico (Italian)
  9. Algrain
  10. Alkohol (German)
  11. Alkoholu etylowego (Polish)
  12. Anhydrol
  13. Cologne Spirit
  14. Etanolo (Italian)
  15. Ethanol
  16. Ethanol (ACGIH:OSHA)
  17. Ethyl alcohol (DOT:OSHA)
  1. Ethyl alcohol anhydrous
  2. Ethyl hydrate
  3. Ethyl hydroxide
  4. Etylowy alkohol (Polish)
  5. Fermentation alcohol
  6. Grain alcohol
  7. Jaysol
  8. Jaysol S
  9. Methylcarbinol
  10. Molasses alcohol
  11. NCI - C03134
  12. Potato alcohol
  13. SD alcohol 23 - hydrogen
  14. Spirits of wine
  15. Spirt
  16. Tecsol


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
500 mg severe AJOPAA 29,1363,1946
eye
rabbit
500 mg/24 hour mild 85JCAE -,189,1986
eye
rabbit
100 mg/4S rinse moderate FCTOD7 20,573,1982
skin
rabbit
400 mg open irritation test mild UCDS** 7/22/1970
skin
rabbit
20 mg/24 hour moderate 85JCAE -,189,1986


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis parenteral
grasshopper
500 mmol/L NATWAY 51,646,1964
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 100 ppm ENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),72,1986
cytogenetic analysis hamster embryo 1 pph MUTAEX 3,207,1988
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 160 mmol/L BIZNAT 106,169,1987
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 1,160 gm/L AEMBAP 85A,25,1977
cytogenetic analysis human fibroblast 12,000 ppm ACYTAN 16,41,1972
cytogenetic analysis human leukocyte 1 pph/72 hour- continuous TSITAQ 20,421,1978
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 2.5 pph/24 hour MUREAV 537,117,2003
cytogenetic analysis oral
human
49,014 gm/kg/25 year MUREAV 560,187,2004
cytogenetic analysis oral
mouse
40 gm/kg NATUAS 302,258,1983
cytogenetic analysis intramuscular
other fish
1 pph MUREAV 542,1,2003
cytogenetic analysis oral
rat
2 gm/kg TGANAK 14(5),48,1980
dominant lethal test oral
mouse
3,720 mg/kg/3 day AEMBAP 85A,25,1977
DNA adduct oral
rat
5 gm/kg MUREAV 479,81,2001
DNA adduct oral
rat
3 gm/kg/7 day MUREAV 479,81,2001
DNA damage oral
rat
4 gm/kg MUREAV 345,191,1995
DNA damage Salmonella typhimurium 15 pph/120 minute MUREAV 575,34,2005
DNA damage Saccharomyes cerevisiae 850 mmol/L MUREAV 326,165,1995
DNA inhibition human lymphocyte 220 mmol/L PNASA6 79,1171,1982
DNA repair Escherichia coli 5 mg/well MUREAV 133,161,1984
DNA repair Salmonella typhimurium 15 pph/120 minute MUREAV 575,34,2005
mutation in microorganisms Aspergillus nidulans 20 pph (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 48,51,1977
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 140 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 130,97,1984
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 11 pph (+enzymatic activation step) ENVRAL 52,225,1990
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 24 pph (-enzymatic activation step) GNKAA5 15,927,1979
micronucleus test dog lymphocyte 400 mol/L NTIS** AD-A075-605
micronucleus test human liver 15 mmol/L/24 hour TXCYAC 198,315,2004
micronucleus test oral
human
817.6 gm/kg/6 year- intermittent MUREAV 615,134,2007
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
1,240 mg/kg/2 day AEMBAP 85A,25,1977
micronucleus test intramuscular
other fish
1 pph MUREAV 542,1,2003
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Aspergillus nidulans 5 pph MUREAV 48,51,1977
other mutation test systems intraperitoneal
rat
250 gm/kg/16 day- continuous CYTBAI 56,195,1988
other mutation test systems oral
rat
3 gm/kg APTOA6 49,125,1981
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 3,900 mg/L MUREAV 124,85,1983
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 500 ppm/72 hour- continuous CGCGBR 27,66,1980
sister chromatid exchange oral
mouse
420 mg/kg/3 week MUREAV 68,291,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Aspergillus nidulans 30 gm/L EVHPAZ 31,81,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
10 pph MUREAV 268,95,1992
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
mouse
5 gm/kg CGCGBR 44,7,1987
specific locus test oral
rat
56 gm/kg/4 week MUREAV 577S,1,2005
sperm morphology oral
mouse
1,500 mg/kg/50 day MUREAV 65,229,1979


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intracerebral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility JRPFA4 42,199,1975
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 20,000 ppm/7 hour (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities TJADAB 29(2),48A,1984
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,800 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 27,231,1983
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,800 mg/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TJADAB 27,231,1983
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,622 g/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
AJOGAH 124,676,1976
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material) ANREAK 193,515,1979
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4,300 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) NETOD7 2,227,1980
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2.9 gm/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material) TOXID9 72,171,2003
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg (6-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
REPTED 17,475,2003
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 22.8 gm/kg (6-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
REPTED 20,453,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 22.8 gm/kg (6-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
REPTED 20,453,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 22.8 gm/kg (6-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
REPTED 22,263,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5.8 gm/kg (3-5 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system BDERE* 70,163,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 22.8 gm/kg (6-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
JTEHF8 67,2073,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,900 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TERP2* -,368,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,900 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TERST* -,315,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,900 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TERST* -,315,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 gm/kg (8-13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
TJADAB 36,31A,1987
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,240 mg/kg (9-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord) DABBBA 38,5835,1978
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg (8-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TJADAB 26(1),12A,1982
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg (8-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
IJEBA6 21,108,1983
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg (8-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
IJEBA6 21,108,1983
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,600 mg/kg (7-8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NELED5 289,13,2000
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 11.25 mg/kg (7-9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
REPTED 17,475,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18,000 mg/kg (5-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
BDERE* 73,897,2005
intratesticular
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct FESTAS 24,884,1973
intratesticular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females) FESTAS 24,884,1973
intrauterine
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,400 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) IJEBA6 14,316,1976
intrauterine
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg (5 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated) INJFA3 14,280,1969
intravenous
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 94 gm/kg (14-21 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) PBBHAU 12,329,1980
intravenous
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 40 gm/kg (14-17 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NTOTDY 3,105,1981
intravenous
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg (18 week pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system AJOGAH 151,859,1985
intravenous
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 29,000 mg/kg (106-134 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 22,205,2000
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg (6-7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
RECYAR 8,105,1971
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg (6-7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) RECYAR 8,105,1971
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg (6-7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
RECYAR 8,105,1971
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 15 mg/kg (15-29 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
JPDSA3 29,1030,1994
intravenous
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 8 gm/kg (32 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Apgar score (human only)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects
AJDCAI 134,419,1980
multiple
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 642 gm/kg (1-21 day pregnant/23 day after birth) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
DEPBA5 10,435,1977
multiple
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 373 gm/kg (23 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
DEPBA5 10,435,1977
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 21,600 mg/kg (1-60 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
FEPRA7 36,285,1977
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 260 gm/kg (1-62 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive) ACRSDM 4,123,1980
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 221 gm/kg (1-47 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion ACRSDM 4,123,1980
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 90 gm/kg (1-68 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
ANREAK 127,438,1957
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 240 gm/kg (2-61 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
DBRRDB 106,39,1998
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 264 gm/kg (2-67 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
ACRSDM 23,1816,1999
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 72 gm/kg (45-62 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue) FAJOEC 14,A1447,2000
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 76,000 mg/kg (43-62 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
NETEEC 23,355,2001
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 264,000 mg/kg (2-67 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
NETEEC 22,183,2000
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 264 gm/kg (2-67 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NETEEC 25,59,2003
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 272 gm/kg (2-67 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
NETEEC 26,59,2004
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 57 gm/kg (43-62 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) NETEEC 26,543,2004
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 204 gm/kg (0-67 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
JPETAB 308,650,2004
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 264 gm/kg (2-67 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 28,333,2006
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 260 gm/kg (2-67 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
ALCOH* 41,577,2007
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 31,500 mg/kg (15-35 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue) TJADAB 30,203,1984
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 78 gm/kg (4-23 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion TJADAB 35,345,1987
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg (2-21 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) TJADAB 29,49,1984
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 206 gm/kg (90 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders SCIEAS 221,677,1983
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 32,400 mg/kg (2-19 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TJADAB 44,29,1991
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 43,200 mg/kg (1-24 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord) TJADAB 44,29,1991
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 162 gm/kg (11-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord) TJADAB 27,56A,1983
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 21 gm/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
JSALDP 38,1696,1977
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,800 mg/kg (7 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
TJADAB 27,231,1983
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 75,600 mg/kg (5-11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
RCOCB8 23,127,1979
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,500 mg/kg (9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TJADAB 24(1),53A,1981
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,680 gm/kg (70 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) FEPRA7 39,542,1980
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 20 gm/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTIS** #PB85118651
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 20 gm/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) NTIS** #PB85118651
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 20 gm/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system NTIS** #PB85118651
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 700 gm/kg (7 day male/7 day prior to copulation/21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth) NTIS** #PB85118651
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 60 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system MUREAV 577S,1,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
REPTED 22,61,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 50 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
REPTED 22,61,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,270 gm/kg (13 week prior to copulation-3 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) BDERE* 73,980,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,210 gm/kg (13 week prior to copulation-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) BDERE* 73,65,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 360 gm/kg (60 day male/60 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) BDERB* 71,135,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 180 gm/kg (60 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) BDERB* 71,135,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,900 mg/kg (8 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) TERMG* -,234,2003
oral
pig
lowest published toxic dose: 2,648 gm/kg (78 week prior to copulation/1-16 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTOTDY 5,229,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 78 gm/kg (7-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic PBBHAU 59,577,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg (13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material) CYGEDX 15(2),23,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 322 gm/kg (35 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
INJFA3 23,176,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12 gm/kg (9-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus) PLPSAX 7,311,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 132 gm/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TJADAB 23,217,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 24 gm/kg (14-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TJADAB 23,41A,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 354 gm/kg (10 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic RCPBDC 2,119,1977
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
JTEHD6 10,267,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 35,295 mg/kg (1-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
ONGZAC 22(1),71,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 44 gm/kg (7-17 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
ESKHA5 (103),10,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 191,220 mg/kg (2-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NETEEC 23,453,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 gm/kg (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects
TJADAB 163,15,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 22.5 gm/kg (11-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NETEEC 24,719,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 40 gm/kg (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
FATOAO 45,68,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 gm/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities FATOAO 45,66,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 240 gm/kg (30 day male) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system FATOAO 47,82,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 65 gm/kg (7-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system ENDOAO 138,389,1997
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 75 gm/kg (7-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system ENDOAO 138,389,1997
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 112 mg/kg (14 day male) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic FATOAO 48,86,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 147 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
FATOAO 47,84,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60,000 mg/kg (1-30 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
FATOAO 48,93,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mL/kg (19 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 24,275,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 110 gm/kg (1-23 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
EKFAE9 59,44,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 135 gm/kg (1 day pregnant-7 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
EKFAE9 59,44,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 210 gm/kg (6-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),341,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg (30 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Other effects on male

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
LIFSAK 71,3059,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 gm/kg (16-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects NETEEC 25,447,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 gm/kg (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects NETEEC 25,447,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 45 gm/kg (15-22 day pregnant/7 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral NEROEW 24,691,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 45 gm/kg (15-22 day pregnant/7 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NEROEW 26,191,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10,400 mg/kg (7-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
BJCAAI 90,2225,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 110 gm/kg (10-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 27,73,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 120 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TOXID9 44,57,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16.25 gm/kg (7-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Other reproductive system tumors

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
BJCAAI 90,2225,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 54 gm/kg (6-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects on female TOXID9 78,280,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 36.5 gm/kg (30 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 27,585,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 292 gm/kg (30 day prior to copulation-21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 27,585,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 94,500 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 94,500 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 99,000 mg/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic NETEEC 28,238,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,188 gm/kg (55 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Impotence

Reproductive: Other effects on male

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
REPTED 22,599,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,188 gm/kg (55 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)
REPTED 22,599,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21 gm/kg (8-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
ALCOH* 6,353,1989
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 3,945 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated) JOENAK 34,275,1966
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 3,750 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility IJMRAQ 58,501,1970
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 41 gm/kg (41 week pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Apgar score (human only)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Drug dependence
AJDCAI 129,1075,1975
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg (37 week pregnant) Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus AJOGAH 145,251,1983
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 5,860 mL/kg (3 year prior to copulation-100 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
INJPD2 37,129,2005
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 gm/kg (9-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
FATOAO 45(1),83,1982


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 320 mg/kg/50 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
CALEDQ 13,345,1981
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 400 gm/kg/57 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
ZIETA2 59,203,1928
rectal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 120 gm/kg/18 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
ZIETA2 59,203,1928


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraarterial
man
lowest published toxic dose: 0.71 mL/kg Vascular: Acute arterial occulsion JKMSEH 18,585,2003
intraarterial
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 11 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TXAPA9 18,60,1971
intracerebral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 363.6 g/kg Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PSCHDL 170,51,2003
intracerebral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 106 g/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) PSCHDL 170,368,2003
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published lethal concentration: 21,900 ppm N/R FAONAU 48A,99,1970
inhalation
guinea pig
lowest published toxic concentration: 12,000 mg/m3/8 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGK* -,93,1984
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,500 mg/m3/20 minute Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerve VCVGK* -,93,1984
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 39 gm/m3/4 hour N/R GTPZAB 26(8),53,1982
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 117,000 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGK* -,93,1984
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 50,000 mg/m3/2 hour Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning VCVGK* -,93,1984
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,500 mg/m3/40 minute Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes VCVGK* -,93,1984
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 20,000 ppm/10 hour N/R NPIRI* 1,44,1974
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 12,000 mg/m3/8 hour Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGK* -,93,1984
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 4,930 mg/m3 N/R TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,110 mg/m3/4 hour N/R TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,500 mg/m3/40 minute Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes VCVGK* -,93,1984
intramuscular
non-mammalian species
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 gm/kg Cardiac: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
MUREAV 542,1,2003
intraperitoneal
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 3 gm/kg N/R BJIMAG 1,207,1944
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,414 mg/kg N/R EVHPAZ 61,321,1985
intraperitoneal
hamster
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,068 mg/kg N/R EVHPAZ 61,321,1985
intraperitoneal
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4,300 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
TXAPA9 13,358,1968
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 528 mg/kg N/R STRAAA 127,245,1965
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 gm/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease JPETAB 293,188,2000
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.75 gm/kg Behavioral: Ataxia PSCHDL 153,415,2001
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) NNAPBA 367,414,2003
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4.25 gm/kg Behavioral: Sleep PSCHDL 174,283,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS TOLED5 145,69,2003
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 4,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
EJPHAZ 499,285,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kg Behavioral: Antianxiety PSCHDL 177,84,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
PSCHDL 176,166,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 gm/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
PSCHDL 176,166,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity) PSCHDL 174,358,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
PSCHDL 174,291,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg Behavioral: Antianxiety

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
HOBEAO 49,123,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/kg Liver: Other changes MUREAV 577S,1,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 gm/kg Behavioral: Analgesia JPETAB 309,86,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests JPETAB 314,675,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg Behavioral: Withdrawal JPETAB 319,219,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2.0 gm/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
JPETAB 319,219,2006
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Antianxiety
PSCHDL 191,311,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
PSCHDL 191,311,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning PSCHDL 191,311,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 gm/kg Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex) PSCHDL 191,311,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PSCHDL 192,39,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Antianxiety

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
PSCHDL 192,39,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.8 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Antianxiety

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
PSCHDL 192,39,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,600 g/kg N/R PHMGBN 2,27,1969
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.45 gm/kg Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex) JPETAB 299,698,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,500 mg/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases FATOAO 51,92,1988
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
EKFAE9 59,38,1996
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests EJPHAZ 462,115,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Sleep TOSCF2 73,270,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
EJPHAZ 484,241,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg Taste: Change in function PSCHDL 167,130,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.4 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
PSCHDL 169,60,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 gm/kg Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum NEROEW 28,939,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.25 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) NEROEW 28,2124,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,700 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia PSCHDL 170,343,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg Behavioral: Analgesia PSCHDL 171,204,2004
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 gm/kg Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning JOPSEQ 17,293,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
JOPSEQ 17,293,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Food intake (animal) EJPHAZ 519,96,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,000 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
EJPHAZ 520,51,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
JPETAB 319,1366,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Muscle weakness NRTXDN 27,1064,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
NRTXDN 27,1064,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning NETEEC 29,23,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,000 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
TOLED5 169,253,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Anticonvulsant
JPHPH* 58,641,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 gm/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease BJMRDK 40,1517,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 46,1739,2008
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 963 mg/kg N/R EVHPAZ 61,321,1985
intravenous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 3,945 mg/kg N/R HBTXAC 1,130,1955
intravenous
chicken
lowest published lethal dose: 8,216 mg/kg Vascular: Other changes JPETAB 60,312,1937
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 1,600 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
TXAPA9 18,60,1971
intravenous
human
lowest published toxic dose: 1.6 gm/kg/6 hour Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other CLPTAT 67,591,2000
intravenous
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.89 mL/kg Vascular: Regional or general arteriolar constriction

Vascular: Measurement of regional blood flow
JKMSEH 19,51,2004
intravenous
man
lowest published toxic dose: 0.57 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests NEROEW 29,1527,2004
intravenous
man
lowest published toxic dose: 0.571 gm/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes PSCHDL 191,975,2007
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg Behavioral: Sleep JPETAB 302,257,2002
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg Behavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Tolerance
JPETAB 302,257,2002
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,973 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* ,706,2005
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,440 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea TXAPA9 18,60,1971
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS NEROEW 29,530,2004
intravenous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2,374 mg/kg N/R EVHPAZ 61,321,1985
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 gm/kg Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG PHREP* 57,61,2005
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 gm/kg Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Behavioral: Ataxia
PHREP* 58,890,2006
multiple
man
lowest published toxic dose: 3,660 mg/kg Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction PSCHDL 170,213,2003
oral
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 6 gm/kg Gastrointestinal: Gastritis

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis
JPETAB 56,117,1936
oral
child
lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Other changes
ATXKA8 17,183,1958
oral
child
lowest published toxic dose: 14,400 mg/kg/30 minute- intermittent Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
APSVAM 74,977,1985
oral
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 5,500 mg/kg N/R HBTXAC 1,130,1955
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests TOXID9 66,263,2002
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,560 mg/kg N/R JIHTAB 23,259,1941
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 1,400 mg/kg Behavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NPIRI* 1,44,1974
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NEROEW 28,371,2003
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 gm/kg Behavioral: Euphoria

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NEROEW 28,740,2003
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PSCHDL 172,68,2004
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests JOPSEQ 17,379,2003
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 gm/kg/10 minute Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests JOPSEQ 19,627,2005
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg Cardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JTCTDW 42,761,2004
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 gm/kg Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases NSAPCC 369(Suppl 1),R106,2004
oral
infant
lowest published toxic dose: 11,712 L/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JOUOD4 9,53,1987
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 4,000 mg/kg Endocrine: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TOXID9 44,184,2005
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 22,500 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
CLECAP 25,143,1986
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 3,371 L/kg Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Coma
VHTODE 21,272,1979
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
JPETAB 56,117,1936
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 1,430 g/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Antipsychotic
JPETAB 197,488,1976
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 gm/kg Behavioral: Euphoria

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
JPETAB 300,236,2002
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kg Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Endocrine: Other changes
NEROEW 25,537,2001
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 gm/kg Brain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NEROEW 28,747,2003
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 1.14 mL/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests NEROEW 28,1366,2003
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Endocrine: Other changes
NEROEW 29,1156,2004
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 625 mg/kg Cardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Cardiac: Change in rate

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
ECPPH* 2,53,1994
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 650 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
NRTXDN 27,1064,2006
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 0.45 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests ALCOH* 4,293,1987
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 mg/kg Behavioral: Abuse JPETAB 301,993,2002
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 102 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PSCHDL 170,1,2003
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,450 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 32(3),31,1967
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Vascular: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
JPETAB 298,737,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kg Blood: Other changes TOXID9 72,99,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kg Liver: Changes in liver weight TOXID9 72,98,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Aggression
PSCHDL 157,131,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6 gm/kg Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOXID9 72,202,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
TOXID9 72,172,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Aggression PSCHDL 172,255,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,000 mg/kg Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
TOXID9 44,184,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6,000 mg/kg Blood: Changes in spleen TOXID9 44,184,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,000 mg/kg Liver: Other changes TOXID9 44,213,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6,000 mg/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response TOXID9 60,28,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning ACPSI* 24,1137,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXAPA9 223,225,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 6.7 mL/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach BMCPH* 2,21,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg Behavioral: Sleep JPHSC* 106,361,2008
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 -,276,2008
oral
pigeon
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests JPETAB 293,551,2000
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7,060 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes TXAPA9 16,718,1970
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6.4 gm/kg Gastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach
LIFSAK 70,17,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia VCVGK* -,93,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 gm/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes AEPPAE 365,17,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8,000 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Cardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Liver: Multiple effects
FATOAO 50,52,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
FATOAO 44,319,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) FATOAO 44,319,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,000 mg/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function FATOAO 55,18,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,800 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach FATOAO 51,82,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mL/kg Gastrointestinal: Gastritis JPETAB 303,1301,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mL/kg Gastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach
FCLPH* 16,311,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.25 gm/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
TOXID9 72,128,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,600 mg/kg Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 41,1551,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes TOLED5 133,255,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,250 mg/kg Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NETEEC 26,451,2004
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7 gm/kg N/R USXXAM #6696575
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXAPA9 197,206,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,000 mg/kg Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
TOXID9 44,184,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,000 mg/kg Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response TOXID9 44,184,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning TOXID9 44,224,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kg Behavioral: Anticonvulsant ARTODN 79,610,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.72 gm/kg Behavioral: Abuse

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity
BJMRDK 37,1511,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 gm/kg/2 hour Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 78,380,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6 gm/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
PSCHDL 175,189,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,000 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic TOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,000 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests TOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mL/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach BPBLEO 30,451,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4 mL/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
BPBLEO 29,1973,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mL/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
BPBLEO 29,2206,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mL/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes BPBLEO 29,2206,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,300 mg/kg Vascular: Measurement of regional blood flow TXCYAC 235,141,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,000 mg/kg Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other TXCYAC 235,141,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 gm/kg Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites PSCHDL 191,679,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.44 mL/kg Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
PHREP* 57,481,2005
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6,300 mg/kg N/R HBTXAC 1,130,1955
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 1,200 mg/kg/3 hour Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
ACRSDM 7,289,1983
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 256 gm/kg/12 week Behavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle
JAMAAP 238,2143,1977
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 gm/kg Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests JOPSEQ 16,379,2002
parenteral
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 36 gm/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
AIPTAK 50,296,1935
subcutaneous
chicken
lowest published lethal dose: 5 gm/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 6 gm/kg N/R HBTXAC 1,130,1955
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 7,100 mg/kg N/R HBTXAC 1,128,1955
subcutaneous
infant
lowest published lethal dose: 19,440 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Coma

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
AJCPAI 5,466,1935
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 8,285 mg/kg N/R FAONAU 48A,99,1970
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal TOXID9 66,119,2002
subcutaneous
pigeon
lowest published lethal dose: 5 gm/kg N/R FDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 20 gm/kg N/R YAKUD5 22,651,1980
skin
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 20 gm/kg N/R 31ZTAS -,72,1968
unreported route
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kg N/R JTSCDR 32,421,2007
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 150,325,2004


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 8,000 mg/m3/4 hour/17 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
VCVGK* -,93,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 8,000 mg/m3/4 hour/17 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
VCVGK* -,93,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 6,130 ppm/4 week- intermittent Endocrine: Changes in thymus weight JAPTO* 25,193,2005
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 6,130 ppm/4 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Cardiac: Changes in heart weight

Endocrine: Hyperglycemia
JAPTO* 25,193,2005
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 6,130 ppm/4 week- intermittent Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other JAPTO* 25,193,2005
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 4,930 mg/m3/4 day- intermittent Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 4,930 mg/m3/8 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 4,930 mg/m3/14 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1,110 mg/m3/14 day- intermittent Vascular: Other changes TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation
rabbit
lowest published toxic concentration: 8,000 mg/m3/4 hour/17 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
VCVGK* -,93,1994
intramuscular
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 42 gm/kg/14 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Liver: Other changes
FATOAO 46,103,1983
intramuscular
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 63 gm/kg/21 day- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
FATOAO 46,103,1983
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 420 gm/kg/6 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JPETAB 299,832,2001
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning BJPCBM 138,9,2003
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg/8 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
PSCHDL 176,50,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 37.8 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
PSCHDL 192,39,2007
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 12.6 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance PSCHDL 192,39,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) PSCHDL 160,48,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,000 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 29,23,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,000 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests NETEEC 29,23,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,000 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NETEEC 29,23,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg/3 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning PSCHDL 191,909,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 gm/kg/19 day- intermittent Behavioral: Tolerance

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
BJMRDK 40,1517,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 16 gm/kg/19 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease BJMRDK 40,1517,2007
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 560 mL/kg/10 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Cardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
PSEBAA 128,1021,1968
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 204 gm/kg/68 day- continuous Reproductive: Other effects on female JPETAB 308,644,2004
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 512 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
CBCPAI 129,285,2001
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 559 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
CBCPAI 129,285,2001
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 149 units/kg/4 year- intermittent Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other BJDEAZ 155,195,2006
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 112,000 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response TOXID9 44,184,2005
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 4,623 gm/kg/12 year- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes DADEDV 65,159,2002
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 210 gm/kg/5 week- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration JTSCDR 8,243,1983
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 260 gm/kg/2 year- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Aggression
PSCHDL 165,1,2002
oral
monkey
lowest published toxic dose: 32.5 gm/kg/90 day- intermittent Cardiac: Change in rate PSCHDL 192,183,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3,500 gm/kg/10 week- continuous Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females) JPETAB 225,479,1983
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,100 gm/kg/5 week- continuous Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females) JPETAB 225,479,1983
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,750 gm/kg/5 week- continuous Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) JPETAB 225,479,1983
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 448 gm/kg/4 week- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake NTIS** #PB85118651
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 24,000 mL/kg/120 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition TOXID9 72,195,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 36,000 mL/kg/180 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 72,195,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 36,000 mL/kg/180 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 72,195,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,120 gm/kg/4 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in spleen

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOSCF2 73,72,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 98,800 mg/kg/13 day- continuous Behavioral: Withdrawal

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
EJPHAZ 499,285,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 480,000 mg/kg/60 day- continuous Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreas TOXID9 44,318,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 396 gm/kg/198 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
TOXID9 78,14,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 396 gm/kg/198 day- continuous Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 78,14,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 295.2 gm/kg/10 week- intermittent Cardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Cardiac: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
TOXID9 78,167,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 15,000 mg/kg/2 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,41,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 35 gm/kg/5 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 215,234,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 95,200 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake
NTPTR* TR-510
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 78,400 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
NTPTR* TR-510
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 496,000 mg/kg/80 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NTPTR* TR-510
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 2,920,000 mg/kg/2 year- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Liver: Tumors

Liver: Changes in liver weight
NTPTR* TR-510
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,256,000 mg/kg/2 year- intermittent Liver: Tumors NTPTR* TR-510
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 470,220 mg/kg/51 day- continuous Musculoskeletal: Osteoporosis TXAPA9 220,302,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 284.4 gm/kg/45 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
HETOEA 22,149,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 84 gm/kg/5 week- continuous Cardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Cardiac: Other changes

Cardiac: Changes in heart weight
NSAPCC 375(Suppl 1),60,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 84 gm/kg/5 week- continuous Vascular: Relaxation (isolated tissue) NSAPCC 375(Suppl 1),60,2007
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 284.4 gm/kg/45 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCLPH* 20,129,2006
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 72 mL/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
FCTOD7 46,1503,2008
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 284.4 gm/kg/45 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on Na-K pump
SIMEJ* 47,864,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,825 gm/kg/1 year- continuous Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
DDSCDJ 25,587,1980
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 19 gm/kg/21 day- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.) TOLED5 12,265,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 280 gm/kg/5 week- intermittent Cardiac: Changes in heart weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
JTSCDR 8,243,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 851 gm/kg/10 week- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
APTOA6 38,260,1976
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mL/kg/7 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Effect on specific coenzyme: B vitamins including folate
JDGRAX 10(1-2),25,1978
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,300 mg/kg/9 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
GISAAA 64(1),46,1999
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 45 gm/kg/30 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests GISAAA -,64,1993
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 62.5 gm/kg/5 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins
BIREBV 37,1089,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 62.5 gm/kg/6 day- continuous Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle BIREBV 37,1089,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 65 gm/kg/13 day- continuous Endocrine: Other changes ENDOAO 138,389,1997
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mL/kg/62 day- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 24,275,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 240,000 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) FATOAO 47,82,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 35,000 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain EKFAE9 59,44,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 115,000 mg/kg/23 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning EKFAE9 59,44,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 67.5 mg/kg/15 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Xanthine, purine or nucleotides including urate

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JPETAB 296,857,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 93.8 mL/kg/2 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JJATDK 22,207,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 882 gm/kg/75 day- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Other changes JPETAB 301,1132,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 72 gm/kg/7 day- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOXID9 72,315,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 908 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JAPTO* 22,207,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,372 gm/kg/20 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Vascular: Regional or general arteriolar constriction

Vascular: Other changes
CEXPB9 29,707,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg/4 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72,127,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,660 gm/kg/56 week- intermittent Cardiac: Change in resting or action potential

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 189,196,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 240 gm/kg/60 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOXIA6 42,367,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12 gm/kg/20 day- continuous Behavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
EJPHAZ 477,129,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 210 gm/kg/10 week- continuous Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 41,1551,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,500 gm/kg/24 week- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Cardiac: Change in force of contraction

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity
TXAPA9 179,111,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 84 gm/kg/4 week- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Endocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes
BJMRDK 36,125,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 14 gm/kg/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes BJMRDK 36,503,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 28 gm/kg/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
BJMRDK 36,503,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 875 mg/kg/10 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on Na-K pump
LIFSAK 71,2881,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 41.6 gm/kg/4 day- continuous Behavioral: Analgesia LIFSAK 73,3351,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 130 gm/kg/10 day- continuous Behavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Withdrawal
LIFSAK 73,3351,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 36,000 mg/kg/6 day- continuous Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
NETEEC 26,35,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8 gm/kg/10 day- intermittent Behavioral: Abuse PSCHDL 168,208,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300 gm/kg/12 week- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 42,429,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 27,000 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes NETEEC 26,353,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 31,500 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Cardiac: Change in rate NETEEC 26,451,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 21,000 mg/kg/7 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
BJPCBM 138,1376,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15 gm/kg/15 day- intermittent Endocrine: Androgenic REPTED 17,641,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 gm/kg/15 day- intermittent Endocrine: Estrogenic REPTED 17,641,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 90 gm/kg/15 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct REPTED 17,641,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 108 gm/kg/4 week- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Liver: Other changes
FCTOD7 42,2045,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10,400 mg/kg/13 day- intermittent Endocrine: Estrogenic BJCAAI 90,2225,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 875 gm/kg/35 day- continuous Liver: Liver function tests impaired TXAPA9 197,206,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 42 gm/kg/7 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests NETEEC 27,55,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25,000 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning PSCHDL 171,204,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 420 gm/kg/10 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 199,161,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 48,000 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 44,46,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,650 mL/kg/10 week- continuous Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
CBCPAI 131,161,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 273,000 mg/kg/21 day- continuous Musculoskeletal: Osteoporosis TOXID9 44,354,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,428,000 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake

Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency
DCTODJ 26,191,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 168 gm/kg/12 week- intermittent Cardiac: Other changes

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 78,168,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 270 gm/kg/90 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 78,276,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 54 gm/kg/9 day- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
TOXID9 78,280,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 54 gm/kg/9 day- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Musculoskeletal: Osteoporosis
TOXID9 78,280,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 60 gm/kg/30 day- intermittent Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
BJMRDK 37,1839,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 gm/kg/10 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
PSCHDL 182,58,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 600,000 mg/kg/75 day- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
TOXID9 60,388,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 354,000 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
TOXID9 60,388,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 462,000 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Other changes TOXID9 60,388,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 31.5 gm/kg/6 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 27,815,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 126 gm/kg/12 week- continuous Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section JPETAB 306,271,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 gm/kg/8 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Withdrawal
JPETAB 307,566,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 52,800 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Withdrawal

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
TOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 52,800 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 52,800 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field TOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 30 gm/kg/3 day- continuous Biochemical: Effect on specific coenzyme: Proportion of isoenzymes

Liver: Other changes
ACPSI* 24,831,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 195 gm/kg/30 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes ACPSI* 24,930,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 420,000 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TXCYAC 219,11,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 210 gm/kg/6 week- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
BPBLEO 27,1636,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50.4 gm/kg/7 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Abuse
BJPCBM 143,455,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300,000 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency
FCTOD7 45,1478,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 216,000 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 45,1333,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 315 gm/kg/9 week- intermittent Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
CEXPB9 33,183,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 151.2 gm/kg/21 day- intermittent Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Abuse
FCLPH* 18,693,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 980 gm/kg/14 week- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Cardiac: Cardiac output

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in blood vessels or in circulation of kidney
JTEHF8 68,797,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,050 gm/kg/70 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ALCOH* 41,591,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 188 gm/kg/25 day- intermittent Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
INJPD2 39,43,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 140 mL/kg/2 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
PHREP* 58,876,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 980 gm/kg/8 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
FCTOD7 46,1378,2008
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 355.5 gm/kg/45 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
SIMEJ* 48,311,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 355.5 gm/kg/45 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 46,1627,2008
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,814.4 gm/kg/12 week- continuous Vascular: Measurement of regional blood flow

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 46,1940,2008
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50,000 mg/kg/50 day- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOXID9 44,15,2005
subcutaneous
mouse
: 5,000 mg/kg/20 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
FCTOD7 44,588,2006
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8 gm/kg/4 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTSCDR 32,421,2007
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 16 gm/kg/8 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTSCDR 32,421,2007
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 16 gm/kg/8 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTSCDR 32,421,2007


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 1000 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 44,35,1988
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
IRXPAT 11,177,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AEMBAP 56,291,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AICMA2 44,874,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MAEPBU 6,81,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FCTXAV 8,433,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CLCHAU 19,361,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PAREAQ 4,1,1952
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
SCIEAS 209,353,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JAMAAP 235,1458,1976
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NEJMAG 342,186,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JFSCAS 45,7,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JKMSEH 17,236,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 23,519,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 33,407,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,155,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,161,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PSCHDL 172,352,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PBBHAU 55,501,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TJADAB 21,157,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 24,55,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 22,196,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TJADAB 16,53,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,197,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PSCHDL 174,539,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ARPTDI 44,27,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ARPTDI 44,87,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 19,421,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 24,41,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 24,266,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 24,151,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TPHSDY 24,456,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 45,271,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JAPTO* 23,289,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 613,17,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETOX* 26,521,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EJCCER 41,956,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JPETAB 312,875,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 19,251,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EJPHAZ 526,113,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EJPHAZ 526,163,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JOPSEQ 20,143,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AINCM* 7,63,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BIPHEX 58,84,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,62,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 628,67,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JPETAB 318,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,742,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,263,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,387,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
NETEEC 29,425,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ALCOH* 41,399,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ALCOH* 41,479,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PHREP* 57,23,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PSBUL* 35,89,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PSBUL* 35,66,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PSBUL* 37,64,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTPAE7 19,111,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,125,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ITODC* -,327,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,493,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,623,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: RED Completed RBREV* -,290,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,103,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1880 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1907 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 1250 ppm (2400 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), VLE 5000 ppm (9500), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 960 mg/m3 (500 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 1900 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 7600 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 1000 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1880 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 500 ppm (950 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 1000 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 3000 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 1000 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 2000 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 500 ppm (1000 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 500 ppm (960 mg/m3),KZG- week 1000 ppm (1920 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1920 mg/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ETHYL ALCOHOL-air 10 hour time-weighted average 1000 ppm NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 31500;
Number of Industries 430;
Total Number of Facilities 157,709;
Number of Occupations 242;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 2,088,926
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 31500;
Number of Industries 334;
Total Number of Facilities 86,077;
Number of Occupations 222;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 2,069,125;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 1,014,002


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Rodent dominant lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Aspergillus-forward mutation; SHE-clonal assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro cytogenetics-nonhuman; Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: N crassa-aneuploidy; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro SCE-human lymphocytes; In vitro SCE-human
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro SCE-nonhuman; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative/limited: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as a topical anti-infective agent, solvent to make beverages
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Ethanol in blood, 8002
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Alcohols I, 1400
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; on test (two year studies), October 2000
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #100


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

31ZTAS "Alcohols: Their Chemistry, Properties and Manufacture," Monick, J.A., New York, Reinhold Book, 1968
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
ACPSI* Acta pharmacologica Sinica (Shanghai : Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica : Chinese Academy of Science ; Carlton, VIC, Australia : Blackwell Publishing Asia, 2005) V.21- 2000-
ACRSDM Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1977-
ACYTAN Acta Cytologica. (Science Printers and Pub., Inc., 2 Jacklynn Ct., St. Louis, MO 63132) V.1- 1957-
AEMBAP Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.1- 1967-
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AICMA2 Archivos del Instituto de Cardiologia de Mexico. (Instituto de Cardiologia de Mexico, Juan Badiano No.1, 14080 Mexico City, Mexico) V.14- 1944-
AINCM* Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine (Abingdon: Medicine Pub. Co.) V.1- 2000-
AIPTAK Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. (Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium) V.4- 1898-
AJCPAI American Journal of Clinical Pathology. (Lippincott/Harper, Journal Fulfillment Dept., 2350 Virginia Ave., Hagerstown, MD 21740) V.1- 1931-
AJDCAI American Journal of Diseases of Children. (AMA, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610) V.1-80(3), 1911-50; V.100- 1960-
AJOGAH American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. (C.V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO 63146) V.1- 1920-
AJOPAA American Journal of Ophthalmology. (Ophthalmic Pub. Co., 435 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 1415, Chicago, IL 60611) Series 3: V.1- 1918-
ALCOH*
ANREAK Anatomical Record. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1906/08-
APSVAM Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica. (Almqvist & Wiksell International, POB 4627, S-11691 Stockholm, Sweden) V.54-80 1965-91 For publisher information, see APAEEL
APTOA6 Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. (Copenhagen, Denmark) V.1-59, 1945-86. For publisher information, see PHTOEH
ARPTDI Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. (Annual Reviews, Inc., POB 10139, Palo Alto, CA 94303) V.16- 1976-
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
ATXKA8 Archiv fuer Toxikologie. (Berlin, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.15-31, 1954-74. For publisher information, see ARTODN.
BDERB*
BDERE* Birth Defects Research Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology (Hoboken, N.J. : John Wiley & Sons) V.67- 2003-
BIPHEX Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy (Editions Scientifiques et Medicales Elsevier, Journals Fulfilment Department, 23 rue Linois, F -75724 Paris Cedex 15, France OR Editions Scientifiques et Medicales Elsevier, P.O.BOX 7247-7576, Philadelphia, PA 19170-7576,USA) V. 36- Jan.1982-)
BIREBV Biology of Reproduction. (Soc. for the Study of Reproduction, 309 W. Clark St., Champaign, IL 61820) V.1- 1969-
BIZNAT Biologisches Zentralblatt. (VEB Georg Thieme, Postfach 946, Leipzig DDR-7010, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1881-
BJCAAI British Journal of Cancer. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1947-
BJDEAZ British Journal of Dermatology. (Blackwell Scientific Pub. Ltd., POB 88, Oxford, UK) V.63- 1951-
BJIMAG British Journal of Industrial Medicine. (British Medical Journal, Box 560B, Kennebunkport, ME 04046) V.1- 1944-
BJMRDK Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. (Associacao Brasileira de Divulgacao Cientifica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP, 141000 Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil) V.14- 1981-
BJPCBM British Journal of Pharmacology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.34- 1968-
BMCPH* BioMedCentral Pharmacology (Biomed Central Ltd) -
BPBLEO Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. (Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 2-12-15-201 Shibuya Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan) V.16- 1993-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CBCPAI Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. (Elmsford, NY) V.1-37, 1960-70. For publisher information, see CBPBB8.
CEXPB9 Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology. (Blackwell Scientific Publications, (Australia) Pty Ltd., 107 Barry St., Carlton, Vic. 3053, Australia) V.1- 1974-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CGCGBR Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. (S. Karger Pub., Inc., 79 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10003) V.12- 1973-
CHHSA* Chemical Health & Safety (Orlando, FL : Published by Elsevier Inc. for the ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety) V.1- 1994-
CLCHAU Clinical Chemistry (Winston-Salem, NC). (American Assoc. for Clinical Chemistry, 1725 K St., NW, Washington, DC 20006) V.1- 1955-
CLECAP Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford). (Blackwell Scientific Pub. Ltd., POB 88, Oxford, UK) V.1- 1972-
CLPTAT Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, St. Louis Mo Mosby-Year Book) V.1- 1960-
CRTXB2 CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 1971-
CYGEDX Cytology and Genetics (English Translation). Translation of TGANAK. (Allerton Press Inc., 150 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10011) V.8- 1974-
CYTBAI Cytobios. (Faculty Press, 88 Regent St., Cambridge, UK) V.1- 1969-
DABBBA Dissertation Abstracts International, B: The Sciences and Engineering. (University Microfilms International, 300 N. Zeeb Rd., Ann Arbor, MI 48106) V.30- 1969-
DADEDV Drug and Alcohol Dependence. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
DBRRDB Developmental Brain Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1981-
DCTODJ Drug and Chemical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.1- 1977/78-
DDSCDJ Digestive Diseases and Sciences. (Plenum Pub. Corp., 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013) V.24- 1979-
DEPBA5 Developmental Psychobiology. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158) V.1- 1968-
DIMON* Disease-a Month (Chicago : Year Book Publishers) V. 24- 1978-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ECPPH* Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Washington Dc American Psychological Association) V.1- 1993-
EJCCER Oral Oncology (Elsevier Science, P.O.Box 7247-7682,Philadelphia,PA 19170 -7682,USA OR Elsevier Science B.V.,P.O.Box 1270,1000 BG Amsterdam,The Netherlands) V. 28B, No. 1- July 1992
EJPHAZ European Journal of Pharmacology. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1967-
EKFAE9 Eksperimental'naya i Klinicheskaya Farmakologiya. Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. (Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, ul. B. Yakimanka, 39, 117049 Moscow, Russia) V.55- 1992-
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENDOAO Endocrinology (Baltimore). (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21203) V.1- 1917-
ENMUDM Environmental Mutagenesis. (New York, NY) V.1-9, 1979-87. For publisher information, see EMMUEG.
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
ENVRAL Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967-
ESKHA5 Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku. Bulletin of the Institute of Hygienic Sciences. (Kokuritsu Eisei Shikenjo Kagaku, 18-1 Bushitsu Johobu, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158, Japan) V.1- 1886-
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FAJOEC FASEB Journal. Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814) V.1- 1987-
FAONAU FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. (Rome, Italy) No.?-57, 1948-77. Discontinued.
FATOAO Farmakologiya i Toksikologiya (Moscow). For English translation, see PHTXA6 and RPTOAN. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.2- 1939-
FCLPH* Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology (Oxford : Blackwell Science) 2001-
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7.
FDWU** "Ueber die Wirkung Verschiedener Gifte Auf Vogel, Dissertation," Forchheimer, L., Pharmakologischen Institut der Universitat Wurzburg, Fed. Rep. Ger., 1931
FEPRA7 Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-46, 1942-87.
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
FESTAS Fertility and Sterility. (American Fertility Soc., 608 13th Ave. S, Birmingham, AL 35282) V.1- 1950-
FNSCA6 Forensic Science. (Lausanne, Switzerland) V.1-11, 1972-78. For pub lisher information, see FSINDR.
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GNKAA5 Genetika (Moscow). For English translation, see SOGEBZ. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1965-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HBTXAC "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59
HETOEA Human & Experimental Toxicology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Brunel Road, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG21 2XS, UK) V.9- 1990-
HOBEAO Hormones and Behavior. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1969-
HUTOX*
IJEBA6 Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. (Publications & Information Directorate, CSIR, Hillside Rd., New Delhi 110 012, India) V.1- 1963-
IJMRAQ Indian Journal of Medical Research. (Indian Council of Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India) V.1- 1913-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
INJFA3 International Journal of Fertility. (Allen Press, 1041 New Hampshire, St., Lawrence, KS 66044) V.1- 1955-
INJPD2 Indian Journal of Pharmacology. (Dept. of Pharmacology, Baranas Hindu Univ., Varanasi 221 005, India) V.1- 1968(?)-
IRXPAT International Review of Experimental Pathology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1962-
ITODC*
JAMAAP JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. (AMA, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610) V.1- 1883-
JAPTO* Journal of Applied Toxicology (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Oldlands Way Bognor Regis West Sussex, PO22 9SA England) V.1- 1981-
JDGRAX Journal of Drug Research. (National Organization for Drug Research and Control, POB 29, Cairo, Egypt) V.2- 1969-
JFSCAS Journal of Forensic Sciences. (American Soc. for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA 19103) V.1- 1956-
JIHTAB Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JKMSEH Journal of Korean Medical Science. (Korean Academy of Medical Science, C.P.O. Box 2062, Seoul, S. Korea) V.1- 1986-
JOENAK Journal of Endocrinology. (Biochemical Soc. Book Depot, POB 32, Commerce Way, Colchester, Essex CO2 8HP, UK) V.1- 1939-
JOPSEQ Journal of Psychopharmacology (Oxford). (Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon St., Oxford OX2 6DP, UK) V.1- 1987-
JOUOD4 Journal of UOEH (University of Occupational and Environmental Health). (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807, Japan) V.1- 1979-
JPDSA3 Journal of Pediatric Surgery. (Grune and Stratton, Inc., Journal Subscription Dept., POB 6280, Duluth, MN 55806) V.1- 1966-
JPETAB Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10-
JPHPH*
JPHSC*
JRPFA4 Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. (Biochemical Soc. Book Depot, POB 32, Commerce Way, Colchester, Essex CO2 8HP, UK) V.1- 1960-
JSALDP Journal of Studies on Alcohol. (P.O. Box 969, Piscataway, NJ 08854) V.36- 1975-
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
JTEHF8 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A. (Taylor & Francis, 47 Runway Rd., Suite G, Levittown, PA 19057) V.53- 1998-
JTPAE7 Journal of Toxicologic Pathology. (Nihon Dokusei Byori Gakkai, editor, 3-25-8 Nishi- shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan) V.1- 1988
JTSCDR Journal of Toxicological Sciences. (Japanese Soc. of Toxicological Sciences, 4th Floor, Gakkai Center Bldg., 4-16, Yayoi 2-chome, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan) V.1- 1976-
LIFSAK Life Sciences. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1-8, 1962-69; V.14- 1974-
MAEPBU Methods and Achievements in Experimental Pathology. (S. Karger AG, Postfach, CH-4009, Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1966-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NATUAS Nature. (Nature Subscription Dept., POB 1018, Manasguan, NJ 08736) V.1- 1869-
NATWAY Naturwissenschaften. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1913-
NEJMAG New England Journal of Medicine. (Massachusetts Medical Soc., 10 Shattuck St., Boston, MA 02115) V.198- 1928-
NELED5 Neuroscience Letters. (Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
NEROEW Neuropsychopharmacology. (Elsevier Science, 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010) V.1- 1987-
NETEEC Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987-
NETOD7 Neurobehavioral Toxicology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.1-2, 1979-80. For publisher information, see NTOTDY.
NETOX* NeuroToxicology (Amsterdam : Elsevier Science) V.1- 1979-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NNAPBA Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv fuer Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.264-271, 1969-71. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
NPIRI* Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol.1: Organic Solvents, 1974. (National Assoc. of Printing Ink Research Institute, Francis McDonald Sinclair Memorial Laboratory, Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA 18015)
NRTXDN Neurotoxicology. (Intox Press, Inc., POB 34075, Little Rock, AR 72203) V.1- 1979-
NSAPCC Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberger, Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.272- 1972-
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTOTDY Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.3-8, 1981-86. For publisher information, see NETEEC.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
ONGZAC Ontogenez (Moscow). For English translation, see SJDBA9. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095, Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1970-
PAREAQ Pharmacological Reviews. (Williams & Wilkins, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1949-
PBBHAU Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. (ANKHO International Inc., P.O. Box 426, Fayetteville, NY 13066) V.1- 1973-
PHMGBN Pharmacology: International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. (S. Karger AG, Postfach CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1968-
PHREP*
PLPSAX Physiological Psychology. (Austin, TX) V.1-14, 1973-86.
PNASA6 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (National Academy of Sciences, Printing & Pub. Office, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418) V.1- 1915-
PSBUL*
PSCHDL Psychopharmacology (Berlin). (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.47- 1976-
PSEBAA Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1903/04-
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
RCOCB8 Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology. (PJD Pub. Ltd., P.O. Box 966, Westbury, NY 11590) V.1- 1970-
RCPBDC Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior. (PJD Pub. Ltd., P.O. Box 966, Westbury, NY 11590) V.1- 1976-
RECYAR Revue Roumaine d'Embryologie et de Cytologia, Serie d'Embrologie. (Bucharest, Romania) V.1-8, 1964-71.
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
SCIEAS Science. (American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, 1333 H St., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1895-
SIMEJ*
STRAAA Strahlentherapie. (Urban & Schwarzenberg, Postfach 202440, D-8000 Munich 2, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1912-
TERMG*
TERP2*
TERST*
TGANAK Tsitologiya i Genetika. Cytology and Genetics. For English translation, see CYGEDX. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1967-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOSCF2 Toxicological Sciences (Oxford University Press, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887 ) V. 41, Jan. 1998-
TOVEFN Toksikologicheskii Vestnik. (18-20 Vadkovskii per. Moscow, 101479, Russia) History Unknown
TOXIA6 Toxicon. (Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 OBW, UK) V.1- 1962-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TPHSDY Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. (Elsevier Science Pub. Co., Inc., 52 Vanderbilt Ave., New York, NY 10017) V.1- 1979-
TPKVAL Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. (Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1961-
TSITAQ Tsitologiya. Cytology. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1959-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
UCDS** Union Carbide Data Sheet. (Union Carbide Corp., 39 Old Ridgebury Rd., Danbury, CT 06817)
USXXAM United States Patent Document. (U.S. Patent Office, Box 9, Washington, DC 20231)
VCVGK* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia". (Hazardous substances. Galogen and oxygen containing substances), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1994.
VHTODE Veterinary and Human Toxicology. (American College of Veterinary and Comparative Toxicology, Publication Office, Comparative Toxicology, Manhattan, KS 66506) V.19- 1977-
YAKUD5 Gekkan Yakuji. Pharmaceuticals Monthly. (Yakugyo Jihosha, Inaoka Bldg., 2-36 Jinbo-cho, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan) V.1- 1959-
ZIETA2 Zeitschrift fuer Immunitaetsforschung und Experimentelle Therapie. (Stuttgart, Fed. Rep. Ger.) 1924-62. For publisher information, see ZIEKBA.

Used as a topical anti-infective agent, solvent to make beverages

NIOSH PROFILE (PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (SPRAY PAINTING), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (PAINT AND ALLIED PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING), SRI, 2/7

FDA-over the counter and proprietary drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Natural Product
   Primary Irritant

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