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Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS)

Ethyl alcohol

RTECS #

KQ6300000

CAS #

64-17-5

Updated

December 2013

Molecular Weight

46.08

Molecular Formula

C2H6O

Synonyms

Absolute ethanol
Aethanol (German)
Aethylalkohol (German)
Alcohol
Alcohol dehydrated
Alcohol, anhydrous
Alcool ethylique (French)
Alcool etilico (Italian)
Algrain
Alkohol (German)
Alkoholu etylowego (Polish)
Anhydrol
Cologne Spirit
Etanolo (Italian)
Ethanol
Ethanol (ACGIH:OSHA)
Ethyl alcohol (DOT:OSHA)
Ethyl alcohol anhydrous
Ethyl hydrate
Ethyl hydroxide
Etylowy alkohol (Polish)
Fermentation alcohol
Grain alcohol
Jaysol
Jaysol S
Methylcarbinol
Molasses alcohol
NCI-C03134
Potato alcohol
SD alcohol 23-hydrogen
Spirits of wine
Spirt
Tecsol

Skin and Eye Irritation and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
eye /rabbit 500 mg severeAJOPAA 29,1363,1946
eye /rabbit 500 mg/24H mild85JCAE -,189,1986
eye /rabbit 100 mg/4S rinse moderateFCTOD7 20,573,1982
eye /rabbit 100 µL moderateHPV112 -,-,2008
skin /human 70%/2DCODEDG 61,163,2009
skin /rabbit 400 mg open irritation test mildUCDS** 7/22/1970
skin /rabbit 20 mg/24H moderate85JCAE -,189,1986

Mutation Data and Reference

System TestRoute/Organism/TissueDoseReference
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human1160 gm/LAEMBAP 85A,25,1977
Cytogenetic Analysisfibroblast/human12000 ppmACYTAN 16,41,1972
Cytogenetic Analysisleukocyte/human1 pph/72H-continuousTSITAQ 20,421,1978
Cytogenetic Analysisparenteral/grasshopper500 mmol/LNATWAY 51,646,1964
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/rat2 gm/kgTGANAK 14(5),48,1980
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/mouse40 gm/kgNATUAS 302,258,1983
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster100 ppmENMUDM 8(Suppl 6),72,1986
Cytogenetic Analysisembryo/hamster1 pphMUTAEX 3,207,1988
Cytogenetic Analysisovary/hamster160 mmol/LBIZNAT 106,169,1987
Cytogenetic Analysislymphocyte/human2.5 pph/24HMUREAV 537,117,2003
Cytogenetic Analysisintramuscular/other fish1 pphMUREAV 542,1,2003
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/human49014 gm/kg/25YMUREAV 560,187,2004
Cytogenetic Analysisoral/rat504 gm/kg/6W- intermittentHPV112 -,-,2008
DNA adductoral/rat5 gm/kgMUREAV 479,81,2001
DNA adductoral/rat3 gm/kg/7DMUREAV 479,81,2001
DNA Damageoral/rat4 gm/kgMUREAV 345,191,1995
DNA Damage/Saccharomyes cerevisiae850 mmol/LMUREAV 326,165,1995
DNA Damage/Salmonella typhimurium15 pph/120MMUREAV 575,34,2005
DNA Damageoral/rat3150 gm/kg/1Y- intermittentTXCYAC 254,11,2008
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human100 mmol/L/3HMUREAV 721,171,2011
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human1000 mmol/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human10 mmol/L (+enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damagesperm/human100 mmol/L (+/-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 743,25,2012
DNA Damagelymphocyte/human100 mmol/LFCTOD7 50,168,2012
DNA Damageoral/mouse5 mg/kgFCTOD7 50,1208,2012
DNA inhibitionlymphocyte/human220 mmol/LPNASA6 79,1171,1982
DNA repair/Escherichia coli5 mg/wellMUREAV 133,161,1984
DNA repair/Salmonella typhimurium15 pph/120MMUREAV 575,34,2005
Dominant Lethal Testoral/mouse3720 mg/kg/3DAEMBAP 85A,25,1977
gene conversion and mitotic recombination/Aspergillus nidulans5 pphMUREAV 48,51,1977
gene conversion and mitotic recombinationother cell types/Drosophila melanogaster8.4 pphEMMUEG 48,644,2007
micronucleus testlymphocyte/Dog400 µmol/LNTIS** AD-A075-605
micronucleus testoral/human817.6 gm/kg/6Y- intermittentMUREAV 615,134,2007
micronucleus testliver/human15 mmol/L/24HTXCYAC 198,315,2004
micronucleus testother cell types/human4 gm/LMUTAEX 17,509,2002
micronucleus testintraperitoneal/mouse1240 mg/kg/2DAEMBAP 85A,25,1977
micronucleus testintramuscular/other fish1 pphMUREAV 542,1,2003
mutation in microorganisms/Saccharomyes cerevisiae24 pph (-enzymatic activation step)GNKAA5 15,927,1979
mutation in microorganisms/Aspergillus nidulans20 pph (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 48,51,1977
mutation in microorganisms/Salmonella typhimurium11 pph (+enzymatic activation step)ENVRAL 52,225,1990
mutation in microorganisms/Escherichia coli140 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step)MUREAV 130,97,1984
other mutation test systemsintraperitoneal/rat250 gm/kg/16D-continuousCYTBAI 56,195,1988
other mutation test systemsoral/rat3 gm/kgAPTOA6 49,125,1981
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/Drosophila melanogaster10 pphMUREAV 268,95,1992
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction/Aspergillus nidulans30 gm/LEVHPAZ 31,81,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunctionoral/mouse5 gm/kgCGCGBR 44,7,1987
sister chromatid exchangeoral/mouse420 mg/kg/3WMUREAV 68,291,1979
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster3900 mg/LMUREAV 124,85,1983
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human500 ppm/72H-continuousCGCGBR 27,66,1980
sister chromatid exchangeovary/hamster31.6 gm/L/1H (+enzymatic activation step)HPV228 -,-,2001
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human0.5 gm/L/72H (-enzymatic activation step)HPV228 -,-,2001
sister chromatid exchangelymphocyte/human10 gm/L/24H (+enzymatic activation step)HPV228 -,-,2001
sister chromatid exchangeintraperitoneal/mouse0.6 mg/kgHPV228 -,-,2001
sister chromatid exchangeoral/mouse2800 gm/kg/10W- intermittentHPV228 -,-,2001
specific locus testoral/rat56 gm/kg/4WMUREAV 577S,1,2005
sperm morphologyoral/mouse1500 mg/kg/50DMUREAV 65,229,1979

Reproductive Effects Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/rat 20000 ppm/7H (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesTJADAB 29(2),48A,1984
inhalation/rat 20000 ppm (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on femaleHPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/rat 20000 ppm (1-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
HPV228 -,-,2001
intracerebral/rat 5 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityJRPFA4 42,199,1975
intraperitoneal/rat 15 gm/kg (8-13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
TJADAB 36,31A,1987
intraperitoneal/rat 2240 mg/kg (9-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)DABBBA 38,5835,1978
intraperitoneal/rat 600 mg/kg (8-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TJADAB 26(1),12A,1982
intraperitoneal/rat 600 mg/kg (8-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
IJEBA6 21,108,1983
intraperitoneal/rat 600 mg/kg (8-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
IJEBA6 21,108,1983
intraperitoneal/rat 3600 mg/kg (7-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNELED5 289,13,2000
intraperitoneal/mouse 5800 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
TJADAB 27,231,1983
intraperitoneal/mouse 5800 mg/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TJADAB 27,231,1983
intraperitoneal/mouse 5622 µg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
AJOGAH 124,676,1976
intraperitoneal/mouse 4 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)ANREAK 193,515,1979
intraperitoneal/mouse 4300 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)NETOD7 2,227,1980
intraperitoneal/mouse 2.9 gm/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)TOXID9 72,171,2003
intraperitoneal/rat 18000 mg/kg (5-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
BDERE* 73,897,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse 2900 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TERP2* -,368,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse 2900 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TERST* -,315,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 2900 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TERST* -,315,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 30 mg/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
BDERE* 79,513,2007
intraperitoneal/rat 18 gm/kg (5-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemBDERE* 85,791,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse 5.8 gm/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemNETEEC 33,231,2011
intraperitoneal/rat 11.25 mg/kg (7-9D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
REPTED 17,475,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse 15 mg/kg (6-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
REPTED 17,475,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse 22.8 gm/kg (6-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
REPTED 20,453,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse 22.8 gm/kg (6-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
REPTED 20,453,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse 22.8 gm/kg (6-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
REPTED 22,263,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse 5.8 gm/kg (3-5D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal systemBDERE* 70,163,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse 22.8 gm/kg (6-8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
JTEHF8 67,2073,2004
intratesticular/rat 400 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)FESTAS 24,884,1973
intratesticular/Dog 100 mg/kg (1D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductFESTAS 24,884,1973
intrauterine/rat 2400 mg/kg (10D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)IJEBA6 14,316,1976
intrauterine/woman 200 mg/kg (5D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)INJFA3 14,280,1969
intravenous/rat 4 gm/kg (6-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
RECYAR 8,105,1971
intravenous/rat 3 gm/kg (6-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)RECYAR 8,105,1971
intravenous/rat 4 gm/kg (6-7D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
RECYAR 8,105,1971
intravenous/rabbit 15 mg/kg (15-29D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
JPDSA3 29,1030,1994
intravenous/domestic animal 29000 mg/kg (106-134D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 22,205,2000
intravenous/domestic animal 94 gm/kg (14-21W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)PBBHAU 12,329,1980
intravenous/domestic animal 40 gm/kg (14-17W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NTOTDY 3,105,1981
intravenous/domestic animal 1 gm/kg (18W pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory systemAJOGAH 151,859,1985
intravenous/woman 8 gm/kg (32W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Apgar score (human only)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects
AJDCAI 134,419,1980
multiple/rat 642 gm/kg (1-21D preg/23D after birth)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
DEPBA5 10,435,1977
multiple/rat 373 gm/kg (23D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
DEPBA5 10,435,1977
oral/mouse 162 gm/kg (11-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)TJADAB 27,56A,1983
oral/mouse 21 gm/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
JSALDP 38,1696,1977
oral/mouse 5800 mg/kg (7D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
TJADAB 27,231,1983
oral/mouse 75600 mg/kg (5-11D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
RCOCB8 23,127,1979
oral/mouse 5500 mg/kg (9D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TJADAB 24(1),53A,1981
oral/mouse 1680 gm/kg (70D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)FEPRA7 39,542,1980
oral/Dog 21600 mg/kg (1-60D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
FEPRA7 36,285,1977
oral/Dog 260 gm/kg (1-62D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)ACRSDM 4,123,1980
oral/Dog 221 gm/kg (1-47D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: AbortionACRSDM 4,123,1980
oral/rat 78 gm/kg (7-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicPBBHAU 59,577,1998
oral/rat 4 gm/kg (13D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Cytological changes (including somatic cell genetic material)CYGEDX 15(2),23,1981
oral/rat 322 gm/kg (35D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
INJFA3 23,176,1978
oral/rat 12 gm/kg (9-12D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)PLPSAX 7,311,1979
oral/rat 132 gm/kg (1-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Parturition

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TJADAB 23,217,1981
oral/rat 24 gm/kg (14-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
TJADAB 23,41A,1981
oral/rat 354 gm/kg (10D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicRCPBDC 2,119,1977
oral/rat 4 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
JTEHD6 10,267,1982
oral/rat 35295 mg/kg (1-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)
ONGZAC 22(1),71,1991
oral/rat 44 gm/kg (7-17D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
ESKHA5 (103),10,1985
oral/rat 30 gm/kg (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects
TJADAB 163,15,2001
oral/mouse 20 gm/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTIS** #PB85118651
oral/mouse 20 gm/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)NTIS** #PB85118651
oral/mouse 20 gm/kg (multigenerations)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemNTIS** #PB85118651
oral/rat 22.5 gm/kg (11-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NETEEC 24,719,2002
oral/rat 40 gm/kg (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
FATOAO 45,68,1982
oral/rat 42 gm/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalitiesFATOAO 45,66,1982
oral/mouse 700 gm/kg (7D male/7D prior to copulation/21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)NTIS** #PB85118651
oral/rat 240 gm/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital systemFATOAO 47,82,1984
oral/rat 65 gm/kg (7-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine systemENDOAO 138,389,1997
oral/rat 75 gm/kg (7-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine systemENDOAO 138,389,1997
oral/rat 112 mg/kg (14D male)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicFATOAO 48,86,1985
oral/rat 147 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
FATOAO 47,84,1984
oral/rat 60000 mg/kg (1-30D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
FATOAO 48,93,1985
oral/rat 900 mL/kg (19D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 24,275,2002
oral/rat 110 gm/kg (1-23D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
EKFAE9 59,44,1996
oral/rat 135 gm/kg (1D preg-7D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
EKFAE9 59,44,1996
oral/pig 2648 gm/kg (78W prior to copulation/1-16W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
NTOTDY 5,229,1983
oral/guinea pig 90 gm/kg (1-68D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
ANREAK 127,438,1957
oral/guinea pig 240 gm/kg (2-61D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
DBRRDB 106,39,1998
oral/guinea pig 264 gm/kg (2-67D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
ACRSDM 23,1816,1999
oral/guinea pig 72 gm/kg (45-62D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)FAJOEC 14,A1447,2000
oral/woman 41 gm/kg (41W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Apgar score (human only)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Drug dependence
AJDCAI 129,1075,1975
oral/woman 250 mg/kg (37W pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetusAJOGAH 145,251,1983
oral/monkey 78 gm/kg (4-23W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: AbortionTJADAB 35,345,1987
oral/monkey 400 mg/kg (2-21W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)TJADAB 29,49,1984
oral/monkey 206 gm/kg (90D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersSCIEAS 221,677,1983
oral/monkey 32400 mg/kg (2-19W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
TJADAB 44,29,1991
oral/monkey 43200 mg/kg (1-24W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)TJADAB 44,29,1991
oral/rabbit 3945 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)JOENAK 34,275,1966
oral/rabbit 3750 mg/kg (1D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertilityIJMRAQ 58,501,1970
oral/rat 96 gm/kg (5-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 31,303,2009
oral/rat 96 gm/kg (5-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: PhysicalNETEEC 31,303,2009
oral/guinea pig 260 gm/kg (1-65D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
NETEEC 32,164,2010
oral/rat 126 gm/kg (21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
FCLPH* 23(Suppl 1),16,2009
oral/rat 1680 gm/kg (8W pre-7D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)FCTOD7 48,3486,2010
oral/rat 1960 gm/kg (8W pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)FCTOD7 48,3486,2010
oral/rat 378 gm/kg (9W male)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)HPV112 -,-,2008
oral/rat 252 gm/kg (12D preg-10D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
HPV112 -,-,2008
oral/mouse 3210 gm/kg (13W pre-16D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)BDERE* 73,65,2005
oral/mouse 2900 mg/kg (8D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)TERMG* -,234,2003
oral/rat 210 gm/kg (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Abortion

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)
TOXID9 72(Suppl 1),341,2003
oral/mouse 868 gm/kg (28D male)Reproductive: Other effects on male

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
HPV228 -,-,2001
oral/mouse 25200 mg/kg (8-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on femaleHPV228 -,-,2001
oral/mouse 35000 mg/kg (8-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
HPV228 -,-,2001
oral/mouse 2173.5 gm/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth)
HPV228 -,-,2001
oral/mouse 1053.5 gm/kg (49D male)Reproductive: Other effects on maleHPV228 -,-,2001
oral/rat 784 gm/kg (56D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Other effects on femaleHPV228 -,-,2001
oral/rat 43 gm/kg (1D preg-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)HPV112 -,-,2008
oral/rat 175000 mg/kg (28D pre-22D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
HPV112 -,-,2008
oral/rat 182250 mg/kg (6-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralHPV112 -,-,2008
oral/rat 273 gm/kg (21D preg-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNRTXDN 30,23,2009
oral/mouse 2398 mL/kg (60D prior to copulation/3W preg/4W after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NRTXDN 30,59,2009
oral/mouse 150 gm/kg (4-9D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
HPV228 -,-,2001
oral/mammal (species unspecified) 31500 mg/kg (15-35D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)TJADAB 30,203,1984
oral/guinea pig 76000 mg/kg (43-62D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other neonatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
NETEEC 23,355,2001
oral/rat 191220 mg/kg (2-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NETEEC 23,453,2001
oral/guinea pig 264000 mg/kg (2-67D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical
NETEEC 22,183,2000
oral/rat 21 gm/kg (8-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
ALCOH* 6,353,1989
oral/guinea pig 260 gm/kg (2-67D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
ALCOH* 41,577,2007
oral/mouse 360 gm/kg (60D male/60D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)BDERB* 71,135,2004
oral/mouse 180 gm/kg (60D prior to copulation)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)BDERB* 71,135,2004
oral/mouse 3270 gm/kg (13W pre-3W pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)BDERE* 73,980,2005
oral/rat 94500 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
TOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral/rat 94500 mg/kg (1-21D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Physical

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral/woman 5860 mL/kg (3Y pre-100D after birth)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
INJPD2 37,129,2005
oral/rat 99000 mg/kg (multigeneration)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolicNETEEC 28,238,2006
oral/guinea pig 264 gm/kg (2-67D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 28,333,2006
oral/rat 1188 gm/kg (55D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Impotence

Reproductive: Other effects on male

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
REPTED 22,599,2006
oral/rat 1188 gm/kg (55D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)
REPTED 22,599,2006
oral/mouse 60 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemMUREAV 577S,1,2005
oral/rat 36.5 gm/kg (30D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 27,585,2005
oral/rat 292 gm/kg (30D pre-21D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
NETEEC 27,585,2005
oral/guinea pig 204 gm/kg (0-67D pregnant)Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
JPETAB 308,650,2004
oral/mouse 50 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
REPTED 22,61,2006
oral/mouse 50 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
REPTED 22,61,2006
oral/rat 90 mg/kg (30D male)Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Other effects on male

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
LIFSAK 71,3059,2002
oral/guinea pig 264 gm/kg (2-67D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NETEEC 25,59,2003
oral/rat 30 gm/kg (16-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsNETEEC 25,447,2003
oral/rat 120 gm/kg (1-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effectsNETEEC 25,447,2003
oral/guinea pig 272 gm/kg (2-67D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
NETEEC 26,59,2004
oral/guinea pig 57 gm/kg (43-62D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)NETEEC 26,543,2004
oral/rat 45 gm/kg (15-22D preg/7D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: BehavioralNEROEW 24,691,2001
oral/rat 45 gm/kg (15-22D preg/7D after birth)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NEROEW 26,191,2002
oral/rat 10400 mg/kg (7-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Transplacental tumorigenesis

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
BJCAAI 90,2225,2004
oral/rat 110 gm/kg (10-20D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Viability index (e.g., # alive at day 4 per # born alive)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 27,73,2005
oral/rat 120 gm/kg (6-15D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
TOXID9 44,57,2005
oral/rat 16.25 gm/kg (7-19D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Other reproductive system tumors

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
BJCAAI 90,2225,2004
oral/rat 54 gm/kg (6-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Other effects on femaleTOXID9 78,280,2004
unreported route/rat 60 gm/kg (9-14D pregnant)Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
FATOAO 45(1),83,1982

Tumorigenic Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 320 mg/kg/50W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Blood: Lymphoma including Hodgkin's disease
CALEDQ 13,345,1981
oral/mouse toxic dose: 400 gm/kg/57W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors
ZIETA2 59,203,1928
rectal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 120 gm/kg/18W- intermittentTumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Gastrointestinal: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
ZIETA2 59,203,1928

Acute Toxicity Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
In Vitro/Chicken, brain (cerebrum) Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (dye exclusion): trypan blue assay etc.

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro
NETEEC 33,422,2011
In Vitro/Chicken, embryo Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 mmol/L/10HReproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous systemNETEEC 33,422,2011
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 200422 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 16072 µmol/L/21HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 134186 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Chicken, neurons Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 28898 µmol/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 7,653,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, lung fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 147.5 mmol/L/60HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 7,511,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, lung fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 16 mmol/L/60HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 7,511,1993
In Vitro/Hamster, lung fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: >478.8 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 1,3,1987
In Vitro/Human, HeLa cell Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 157.5 mmol/L/60HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 7,511,1993
In Vitro/Human, HeLa cell Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 48 mmol/L/60HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 7,511,1993
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 303 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 6,47,1992
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 126 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 6,47,1992
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.FCTOD7 50,363,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 50,363,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 200 mmol/L/45MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysFCTOD7 50,363,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 50,485,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Apoptosis in vitro

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
FCTOD7 50,3264,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 mmol/LIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysFCTOD7 50,3264,2012
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 mmol/L/24HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

In Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assays
JOETD7 136,168,2011
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration Low: >428.2 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 1,3,1987
In Vitro/Human, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 716 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 3,189,1989
In Vitro/Human, lung fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: 0.1 gm/L/7DIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell proliferation: DNA incorporation, mitotic index etc.TIVIEQ 4,1,1990
In Vitro/Human, lymphocyte Inhibitor Concentration Low: 100 mmol/L/3HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysFCTOD7 50,168,2012
In Vitro/Human, neuroblastoma Inhibitor Concentration Low: 560 mmol/L/4MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Membrane currentsTXAPA9 245,191,2010
In Vitro/Human, oral mucosa Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 40 pph/60MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.FCTOD7 49,2524,2011
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 29000 mg/L/48HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 6,367,1992
In Vitro/Human, skin Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 139000 mg/L/1MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 6,367,1992
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 854 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 6,47,1992
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 521 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 6,47,1992
In Vitro/Mouse, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration Low: >428.2 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 1,3,1987
In Vitro/Mouse, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 1372 mmol/L/2HBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TIVIEQ 4,783,1990
In Vitro/Mouse, macrophage Inhibitor Concentration Low: >513 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 1,3,1987
In Vitro/Non-mammalian species, fibroblast Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 254 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell countingTIVIEQ 7,537,1993
In Vitro/Rabbit, ocular Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 0.06 gm/L/10MIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell Viability (cell death), unspecified assayTIVIEQ 3,329,1989
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 174 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 6,47,1992
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >39450 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >39450 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >39450 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >39450 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 620 µmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 6,47,1992
In Vitro/Rat, liver Inhibitor Concentration Low: 300 mmol/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Other assaysTXCYAC 270,150,2010
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >39450 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity: Cytoplasmic enzymes leakage (lactate dehydrogenase, ATP enzymes etc.)TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >39450 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >33450 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell protein synthesisTIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, liver tumor Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): >39450 mg/L/20HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (lysosomal damage): neutral red assay etc.TIVIEQ 5,543,1991
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 3.8 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (50 percent kill): 12.9 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 0.26 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (75 percent kill): 20 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell membrane integrity (prelabeled cells): release of radioactive isotopes ([51Cr], [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-proline, [35S]- or [75Se]-methionine, 5-[125I]-2-deoxy-uridine) or fluorescent dyes (bis-carboxyethyl-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) or calcein-AM)TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (10 percent kill): 0.62 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
In Vitro/Rat, lung Inhibitor Concentration (75 percent kill): 85.1 gm/L/24HIn Vitro Toxicity Studies: Cell viability (mitochondrial reductase assays): MTT, XTT, MTS, WSTs assays etc.TIVIEQ 7,111,1993
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 21900 ppmFAONAU 48A,99,1970
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 12000 mg/m3/8HBehavioral: General anestheticVCVGK* -,93,1984
inhalation/guinea pig lowest published toxic concentration: 12850 ppm/8.75HBehavioral: General anestheticHPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/guinea pig Lowest published lethal concentration: 21900 ppm/9.8HBehavioral: General anestheticHPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 1800 ppm/30MLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Bronchiolar constriction, including asthma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough
HPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/human lowest published toxic concentration: 2500 mg/m3/20MPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from afferent nerveVCVGK* -,93,1984
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 117000 mg/m3/2HVCVGK* -,93,1984
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 50000 mg/m3/2HBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningVCVGK* -,93,1984
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 2500 mg/m3/40MBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesVCVGK* -,93,1984
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 39000 mg/m3/4HHPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >60000 ppm/1HBehavioral: AtaxiaHPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 13300 ppm/1.33HBehavioral: AtaxiaHPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 23940 ppm/1.25HBehavioral: General anestheticHPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/mouse Lowest published lethal concentration: 29300 ppm/7HBehavioral: General anestheticHPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 31900 ppm/0.33HBehavioral: AtaxiaHPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/mouse lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >40000 ppm/10MBehavioral: AtaxiaHPV228 -,-,2001
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 2500 mg/m3/40MBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesVCVGK* -,93,1984
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 12000 mg/m3/8HBehavioral: General anestheticVCVGK* -,93,1984
inhalation/rat Lethal concentration: >29430 mg/m3/7HHPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 20000 ppm/10HNPIRI* 1,44,1974
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 5900 mg/m3/6HHPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/rat lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 124700 mg/m3/4HHPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 4930 mg/m3TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1110 mg/m3/4HTPKVAL 15,76,1979
intraarterial/man lowest published toxic dose: 0.071 mL/kgVascular: Acute arterial occulsionJKMSEH 18,585,2003
intraarterial/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 11 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Chronic pulmonary edema or congestion

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TXAPA9 18,60,1971
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 363.6 µg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPSCHDL 170,51,2003
intracerebral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 106 µg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)PSCHDL 170,368,2003
intramuscular/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 gm/kgCardiac: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
MUREAV 542,1,2003
intraperitoneal/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 3 gm/kgBJIMAG 1,207,1944
intraperitoneal/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3414 mg/kgEVHPAZ 61,321,1985
intraperitoneal/hamster lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5068 mg/kgEVHPAZ 61,321,1985
intraperitoneal/mammal (species unspecified) lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4300 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
TXAPA9 13,358,1968
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4.2 gm/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decreaseJPETAB 293,188,2000
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.75 gm/kgBehavioral: AtaxiaPSCHDL 153,415,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)NNAPBA 367,414,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 4000 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
EJPHAZ 499,285,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4.25 gm/kgBehavioral: SleepPSCHDL 174,283,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNSTOLED5 145,69,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 528 mg/kgSTRAAA 127,245,1965
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kgBehavioral: AntianxietyPSCHDL 177,84,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
PSCHDL 176,166,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.5 gm/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
PSCHDL 176,166,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)PSCHDL 174,358,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
PSCHDL 174,291,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgBehavioral: Antianxiety

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
HOBEAO 49,123,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kgLiver: Other changesMUREAV 577S,1,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 gm/kgBehavioral: AnalgesiaJPETAB 309,86,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsJPETAB 314,675,2005
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kgBehavioral: WithdrawalJPETAB 319,219,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2.0 gm/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
JPETAB 319,219,2006
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Antianxiety
PSCHDL 191,311,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
PSCHDL 191,311,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3.5 gm/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)PSCHDL 191,311,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPSCHDL 192,39,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Antianxiety

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
PSCHDL 192,39,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.8 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Antianxiety

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
PSCHDL 192,39,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 gm/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningPYTOEY 15,587,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4.4 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNRTXDN 30,459,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
PSCHDL 200,105,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kgBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sitesJPETAB 322,1003,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 4 mL/kgHPV228 -,-,2001
intraperitoneal/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 963 mg/kgEVHPAZ 61,321,1985
intraperitoneal/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3600 µg/kgPHMGBN 2,27,1969
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.4 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites
PSCHDL 169,60,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 gm/kgBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatumNEROEW 28,939,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.25 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)NEROEW 28,2124,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kgBehavioral: SleepTOSCF2 73,270,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
EJPHAZ 484,241,2004
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgTaste: Change in functionPSCHDL 167,130,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsEJPHAZ 462,115,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3500 mg/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: DehydrogenasesFATOAO 51,92,1988
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.45 gm/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)JPETAB 299,698,2001
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
EKFAE9 59,38,1996
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2700 mg/kgBehavioral: AtaxiaPSCHDL 194,139,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decreasePSCHDL 197,409,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
PSCHDL 197,67,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2800 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesPSCHDL 201,261,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2500 mg/kgEndocrine: Change in LH

Endocrine: Androgenic

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
HPV112 -,-,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Anticonvulsant
JPHPH* 58,641,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 46,1739,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningNETEEC 29,23,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3000 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
TOLED5 169,253,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kgBehavioral: Muscle weaknessNRTXDN 27,1064,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2000 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
NRTXDN 27,1064,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
JPETAB 319,1366,2006
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kgBehavioral: Food intake (animal)EJPHAZ 519,96,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2000 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
EJPHAZ 520,51,2005
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.25 gm/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningJOPSEQ 17,293,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
JOPSEQ 17,293,2003
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgBehavioral: AnalgesiaPSCHDL 171,204,2004
intraspinal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.436 mL/kgSpinal Cord: Demyelination

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NRTXDN 32,864,2011
intravenous/cat lowest published lethal dose: 3945 mg/kgHBTXAC 1,130,1955
intravenous/cat lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Eye: Other eye effects
TXAPA9 243,348,2010
intravenous/chicken lowest published lethal dose: 8216 mg/kgVascular: Other changesJPETAB 60,312,1937
intravenous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 1600 mg/kgBehavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
TXAPA9 18,60,1971
intravenous/human lowest published toxic dose: 1.6 gm/kg/6HBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): OtherCLPTAT 67,591,2000
intravenous/human lowest published toxic dose: 0.89 mL/kgVascular: Regional or general arteriolar constriction

Vascular: Measurement of regional blood flow
JKMSEH 19,51,2004
intravenous/man lowest published toxic dose: 0.571 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesPSCHDL 191,975,2007
intravenous/man lowest published toxic dose: 0.57 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsNEROEW 29,1527,2004
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kgBehavioral: SleepJPETAB 302,257,2002
intravenous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kgBehavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Tolerance
JPETAB 302,257,2002
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2.8 mL/kgHPV228 -,-,2001
intravenous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1973 mg/kgENTOX* ,706,2005
intravenous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEGPHREP* 57,61,2005
intravenous/rabbit lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Behavioral: Ataxia
PHREP* 58,890,2006
intravenous/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 2374 mg/kgEVHPAZ 61,321,1985
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgCardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
FCTOD7 50,2622,2012
intravenous/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1440 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: DyspneaTXAPA9 18,60,1971
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNSNEROEW 29,530,2004
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.72 gm/kg/10MSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
BJPCBM 158,806,2009
intravenous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1.03 gm/kg/40MSpinal Cord: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Tolerance
BJPCBM 158,806,2009
multiple/man lowest published toxic dose: 3660 mg/kgEndocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunctionPSCHDL 170,213,2003
multiple/non-mammalian species lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/30MBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)NETEEC 32,84,2010
oral/cat lowest published lethal dose: 6000 mg/kgHPV112 -,-,2008
oral/cat lowest published lethal dose: 6 gm/kgGastrointestinal: Gastritis

Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis
JPETAB 56,117,1936
oral/child lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Blood: Other changes
ATXKA8 17,183,1958
oral/child lowest published toxic dose: 14400 mg/kg/30M- intermittentBehavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
APSVAM 74,977,1985
oral/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 5500 mg/kgHPV112 -,-,2008
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsTOXID9 66,263,2002
oral/guinea pig lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5560 mg/kgHPV112 -,-,2008
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsJOPSEQ 17,379,2003
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPSCHDL 172,68,2004
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 0.1 gm/kgBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferasesNSAPCC 369(Suppl 1),R106,2004
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kgCardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JTCTDW 42,761,2004
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 gm/kg/10MBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsJOPSEQ 19,627,2005
oral/human lowest published lethal dose: 1400 mg/kgBehavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NPIRI* 1,44,1974
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NEROEW 28,371,2003
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 1.4 gm/kgBehavioral: Euphoria

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
NEROEW 28,740,2003
oral/infant lowest published toxic dose: 11712 µL/kgBehavioral: General anesthetic

Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
JOUOD4 9,53,1987
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 4000 mg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in humoral immune response
TOXID9 44,184,2005
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 625 mg/kgCardiac: Pulse rate decreased with fall in BP

Cardiac: Change in rate

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature increase
ECPPH* 2,53,1994
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 0.45 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsALCOH* 4,293,1987
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 650 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
NRTXDN 27,1064,2006
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 22500 mg/kg/4W- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
CLECAP 25,143,1986
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
JPETAB 56,117,1936
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 1430 µg/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Antipsychotic
JPETAB 197,488,1976
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 3371 µL/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Behavioral: Excitement

Behavioral: Coma
VHTODE 21,272,1979
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Changes in surface EEG

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NEROEW 28,747,2003
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 1.14 mL/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsNEROEW 28,1366,2003
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kgCardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Endocrine: Other changes
NEROEW 25,537,2001
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 0.6 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Endocrine: Other changes
NEROEW 29,1156,2004
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 0.8 gm/kgBehavioral: Euphoria

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
JPETAB 300,236,2002
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 mg/kgBehavioral: AbuseJPETAB 301,993,2002
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 102 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPSCHDL 170,1,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5000 mg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
TOXID9 44,184,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6000 mg/kgBlood: Changes in spleenTOXID9 44,184,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5000 mg/kgLiver: Other changesTOXID9 44,213,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kgBehavioral: AggressionPSCHDL 172,255,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6000 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseTOXID9 60,28,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXAPA9 223,225,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1.5 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningACPSI* 24,1137,2003
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 10.5 mL/kgHPV228 -,-,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3.08 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomachPYTOEY 9,125,2002
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6000 mg/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TOXID9 -,237,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kgBehavioral: SleepJPHSC* 106,361,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 -,276,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 gm/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXCYAC 252,86,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6.45 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
BPBLEO 31,1351,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Aggression
PSCHDL 157,131,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 6 gm/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
TOXID9 72,202,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in spleen

Immunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune response
TOXID9 72,172,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kgLiver: Changes in liver weightTOXID9 72,98,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kgBlood: Other changesTOXID9 72,99,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Vascular: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
JPETAB 298,737,2001
oral/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3450 mg/kgGISAAA 32(3),31,1967
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3 mL/kgLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 50,363,2012
oral/pigeon lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsJPETAB 293,551,2000
oral/rabbit lethal dose (50 percent kill): 6300 mg/kgHPV112 -,-,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on active transport
PYTOEY 12,264,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.57 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
PYTOEY 9,515,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1000 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPBBHAU 89,179,2008
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 15010 mg/kgBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Gastritis
HPV112 -,-,2008
oral/rat lowest published lethal dose: 7000 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depressionHPV112 -,-,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kgBehavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)BJMRDK 41,782,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12800 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
FCTOD7 47,134,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3.9 gm/kgGastrointestinal: Gastritis

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
MUREAV 579,214,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kgCardiac: Change in rate

Cardiac: Cardiac output

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
JPETAB 324,368,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
BPBLEO 29,1973,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
BPBLEO 29,2206,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Other changesBPBLEO 29,2206,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4300 mg/kgVascular: Measurement of regional blood flowTXCYAC 235,141,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6000 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): OtherTXCYAC 235,141,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.4 gm/kgBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sitesPSCHDL 191,679,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.44 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
PHREP* 57,481,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10.5 gm/kg/2HBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 78,380,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kgBehavioral: AnticonvulsantARTODN 79,610,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.72 gm/kgBehavioral: Abuse

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity
BJMRDK 37,1511,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6 gm/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
PSCHDL 175,189,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5000 mg/kgBehavioral: General anestheticTOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6000 mg/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsTOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5000 mg/kgEndocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)
TOXID9 44,184,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kgLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
TXAPA9 197,206,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kgBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningTOXID9 44,224,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5000 mg/kgImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseTOXID9 44,184,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach
FCLPH* 16,311,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4800 mg/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomachFATOAO 51,82,1988
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10 mL/kgGastrointestinal: GastritisJPETAB 303,1301,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8000 mg/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Cardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Liver: Multiple effects
FATOAO 50,52,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kgBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
FATOAO 44,319,1981
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)FATOAO 44,319,1981
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6000 mg/kgBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial functionFATOAO 55,18,1992
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 33,444,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6.4 gm/kgGastrointestinal: Alteration in gastric secretion

Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach
LIFSAK 70,17,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1500 mg/kgBehavioral: AtaxiaVCVGK* -,93,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5.25 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases
TOXID9 72,128,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1600 mg/kgBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 41,1551,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 0.5 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesTOLED5 133,255,2002
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7 gm/kgUSXXAM #6696575
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5250 mg/kgNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNETEEC 26,451,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2.375 mL/kgGastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomachJOETD7 134,904,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kgGastrointestinal: Other changesJOETD7 135,603,2011
oral/rat lethal dose (50 percent kill): 7060 mg/kgLung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changesTXAPA9 16,718,1970
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 256 gm/kg/12WBehavioral: Hallucinations, distorted perceptions

Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle
JAMAAP 238,2143,1977
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 1200 mg/kg/3HEndocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Endocrine: Other changes

Blood: Other changes
ACRSDM 7,289,1983
oral/woman lowest published toxic dose: 0.7 gm/kgBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsJOPSEQ 16,379,2002
parenteral/frog lowest published lethal dose: 36 gm/kgPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
AIPTAK 50,296,1935
skin/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 20000 mg/kgHPV112 -,-,2008
subcutaneous/chicken lowest published lethal dose: 5 gm/kgFDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous/Dog lowest published lethal dose: 6 gm/kgHBTXAC 1,130,1955
subcutaneous/frog lowest published lethal dose: 7100 mg/kgHBTXAC 1,128,1955
subcutaneous/infant lowest published lethal dose: 19440 mg/kgBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Coma

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
AJCPAI 5,466,1935
subcutaneous/mouse lethal dose (50 percent kill): 8285 mg/kgFAONAU 48A,99,1970
subcutaneous/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5 gm/kgLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonalTOXID9 66,119,2002
subcutaneous/pigeon lowest published lethal dose: 5 gm/kgFDWU** -,-,1931
subcutaneous/rabbit lowest published lethal dose: 20 gm/kgYAKUD5 22,651,1980
subcutaneous/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7900 mg/kgReproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disordersHPV112 -,-,2008
Tank with water/Zebrafish Lowest published lethal concentration: 1 gm/L/144HTIVIEQ 102,162,2011
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.01 gm/L/144HBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
TIVIEQ 102,162,2011
Tank with water/Zebrafish lowest published toxic concentration: 0.5 pph/7DNRTXDN 32,871,2011
unreported route/mouse lowest published lethal dose: 2 gm/kgJTSCDR 32,421,2007
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 gm/kgLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
FCTOD7 50,485,2012
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kgBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 150,325,2004

Other Multiple Dose Data and References

Route/OrganismDoseEffectReference
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 8000 mg/m3/4H/17W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
VCVGK* -,93,1994
inhalation/mouse lowest published toxic concentration: 22000 mg/m3/20D- intermittentBlood: ThrombocytopeniaHPV112 -,-,2008
inhalation/rabbit lowest published toxic concentration: 8000 mg/m3/4H/17W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
VCVGK* -,93,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 8000 mg/m3/4H/17W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Decreased immune response
VCVGK* -,93,1994
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 6130 ppm/4W- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in thymus weightJAPTO* 25,193,2005
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 6130 ppm/4W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Cardiac: Changes in heart weight

Endocrine: Hyperglycemia
JAPTO* 25,193,2005
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 6130 ppm/4W- intermittentBiochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): OtherJAPTO* 25,193,2005
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 4930 mg/m3/4D- intermittentPeripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 4930 mg/m3/8D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningTPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 4930 mg/m3/14D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)TPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 1110 mg/m3/14D- intermittentVascular: Other changesTPKVAL 15,76,1979
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 22.4 gm/m3/5D- intermittentBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sitesPSCHDL 193,495,2007
inhalation/rat lowest published toxic concentration: 25000 mg/m3/14D- intermittentBlood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in spleen

Blood: Other changes
HPV112 -,-,2008
intramuscular/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 42 gm/kg/14D- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Liver: Other changes
FATOAO 46,103,1983
intramuscular/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 63 gm/kg/21D- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Liver function tests impaired
FATOAO 46,103,1983
intramuscular/rat lowest published toxic dose: 420 gm/kg/6W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
JPETAB 299,832,2001
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningBJPCBM 138,9,2003
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg/8D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
PSCHDL 176,50,2004
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 37.8 mg/kg/21D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
PSCHDL 192,39,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 12.6 mg/kg/21D- intermittentBehavioral: TolerancePSCHDL 192,39,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 14000 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)PSCHDL 197,361,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8000 mg/kg/4D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
PSCHDL 195,103,2007
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 13.2 gm/kg/6D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNRTXDN 30,459,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 26.4 gm/kg/6D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NRTXDN 30,459,2009
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16000 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)PSCHDL 201,249,2008
intraperitoneal/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 48000 mg/kg/8D- intermittentBehavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)PSCHDL 201,249,2008
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 5400 mg/kg/2D- intermittentBehavioral: TolerancePSCHDL 194,139,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 gm/kg/19D- intermittentBehavioral: Tolerance

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
BJMRDK 40,1517,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16 gm/kg/19D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decreaseBJMRDK 40,1517,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg/3D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningPSCHDL 191,909,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7000 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 29,23,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7000 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsNETEEC 29,23,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7000 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests
NETEEC 29,23,2007
intraperitoneal/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4.8 mg/kg/4D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)PSCHDL 160,48,2002
oral/Dog lowest published toxic dose: 560 mL/kg/10W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Cardiac: Other changes

Liver: Other changes
PSEBAA 128,1021,1968
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 204 gm/kg/68D- continuousReproductive: Other effects on femaleJPETAB 308,644,2004
oral/guinea pig lowest published toxic dose: 180 gm/kg/45D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
NETEEC 32,164,2010
oral/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 512 mg/kg/30D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
CBCPAI 129,285,2001
oral/hamster lowest published toxic dose: 559 mg/kg/30D- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
CBCPAI 129,285,2001
oral/human lowest published toxic dose: 149 units/kg/4Y- intermittentSkin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, otherBJDEAZ 155,195,2006
oral/mammal (species unspecified) lowest published toxic dose: 112000 mg/kg/28D- intermittentImmunological Including Allergic: Decrease in cellular immune responseTOXID9 44,184,2005
oral/man lowest published toxic dose: 4623 gm/kg/12Y- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesDADEDV 65,159,2002
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 210 gm/kg/5W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degenerationJTSCDR 8,243,1983
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 260 gm/kg/2Y- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Aggression
PSCHDL 165,1,2002
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 32.5 gm/kg/90D- intermittentCardiac: Change in ratePSCHDL 192,183,2007
oral/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 13500 gm/kg/72W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degenerationHPV112 -,-,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 657000 mg/kg/90D- intermittentCardiac: Changes in heart weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
HPV112 -,-,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 25200 mg/kg/7D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldHPV112 -,-,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 284.4 gm/kg/45D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on Na-K pump
SIMEJ* 47,864,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1344 gm/kg/8W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 252,64,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 84 gm/kg/5W- continuousCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Cardiac: Other changes

Cardiac: Changes in heart weight
NSAPCC 375(Suppl 1),60,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 84 gm/kg/5W- continuousVascular: Relaxation (isolated tissue)NSAPCC 375(Suppl 1),60,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 470220 mg/kg/51D- continuousMusculoskeletal: OsteoporosisTXAPA9 220,302,2007
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 284.4 gm/kg/45D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCLPH* 20,129,2006
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 72 mL/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
FCTOD7 46,1503,2008
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 284.4 gm/kg/45D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
HETOEA 22,149,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 95200 mg/kg/4W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake
NTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 78400 mg/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
NTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 496000 mg/kg/80W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2920000 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Tumors

Liver: Changes in liver weight
NTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 5256000 mg/kg/2Y- intermittentLiver: TumorsNTPTR* TR-510
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 35 gm/kg/5W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 215,234,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15000 mg/kg/2D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TOXID9 60,41,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 24000 mL/kg/120D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine compositionTOXID9 72,195,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 36000 mL/kg/180D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 72,195,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 36000 mL/kg/180D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 72,195,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 3500 gm/kg/10W- continuousReproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)JPETAB 225,479,1983
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2100 gm/kg/5W- continuousReproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)JPETAB 225,479,1983
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1750 gm/kg/5W- continuousReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)JPETAB 225,479,1983
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 448 gm/kg/4W- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intakeNTIS** #PB85118651
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1120 gm/kg/4W- intermittentBlood: Changes in spleen

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOSCF2 73,72,2003
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 98800 mg/kg/13D- continuousBehavioral: Withdrawal

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
EJPHAZ 499,285,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 480000 mg/kg/60D- continuousGastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of exocrine pancreasTOXID9 44,318,2005
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 396 gm/kg/198D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Porphyrin including bile pigments
TOXID9 78,14,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 396 gm/kg/198D- continuousLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Fe

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 78,14,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 295.2 gm/kg/10W- intermittentCardiac: Cardiomyopathy including infarction

Cardiac: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
TOXID9 78,167,2004
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 40 gm/kg/8D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 48,1632,2010
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 194 gm/kg/6W- continuousNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainJPETAB 331,23,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 298 gm/kg/8W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JPETAB 331,23,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 298 gm/kg/8W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)JPETAB 331,23,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2070 gm/kg/0.5Y- continuousLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JPETAB 331,23,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 2070 gm/kg/0.5Y- continuousLiver: Other changes

Endocrine: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphokinase
JPETAB 331,23,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 672000 mg/kg/12W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Cardiac: Changes in heart weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOLED5 187,149,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 1440 gm/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)
HPV228 -,-,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 28000 mg/kg/7D- continuousLiver: Other changesTOXID9 -,339,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 56000 mg/kg/7D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: TransaminasesTOXID9 -,339,2009
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 25200 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
HPV228 -,-,2001
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 18 gm/kg/2D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 50,2964,2012
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 gm/kg/2D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JOETD7 136,168,2011
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 15 gm/kg/2D- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXCYAC 276,64,2010
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 44 gm/kg/11D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldFCTOD7 50,1986,2012
oral/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 56 gm/kg/14D- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 50,1986,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1386 gm/kg/24W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis, fibrous (cirrhosis, post- necrotic scarring)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
FCTOD7 50,1992,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 168 gm/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 50,2149,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 126 gm/kg/3W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainFCTOD7 50,2149,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 112 gm/kg/4W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 50,2149,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 gm/kg/2D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TXCYAC 279,108,2011
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 369.6 gm/kg/28D- continuousCardiac: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TIHEEC 25,385,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 114 gm/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FCTOD7 50,135,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 360 gm/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
FCTOD7 50,1194,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 217 gm/kg/4W- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Liver: Changes in liver weight
FCTOD7 50,1377,2012
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 16 gm/kg/5D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
CTOXAO 47,730,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 522 gm/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
HPV228 -,-,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 360 gm/kg/90D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
HPV228 -,-,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 540000 mg/kg/45D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TOXID9 -,237,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 112000 mg/kg/4W- continuousEndocrine: Other changesTOXID9 -,281,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 963.2 gm/kg/16W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTPAE7 22,65,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 gm/kg/12W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
CBINA8 180,31,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 336 gm/kg/12W- continuousVascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Vascular: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
HETOEA 26,427,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 56.25 gm/kg/90D- continuousGastrointestinal: Gastritis

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JAPTO* 28,591,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 175 mL/kg/10W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
BCLPT* 101,320,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 213.15 gm/kg/15D- continuousBehavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Withdrawal
FCLPH* -,1,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 355.5 gm/kg/45D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Renal function tests depressed
FCLPH* 21,355,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 gm/kg/60D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Peptidases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
FCLPH* 21,507,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 gm/kg/60D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on Na-K pump
FCTOD7 47,1958,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1512 gm/kg/90D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 47,2666,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 96 gm/kg/16D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainNETEEC 31,303,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42 gm/kg/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 32,158,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 355.5 gm/kg/9W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
FTRPAE 81,1239,2010
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 70 gm/kg/10W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
PAINDB 145,129,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 355.5 gm/kg/45D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
FCLPH* 21,621,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 469 gm/kg/12W- intermittentGastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JPETAB 329,952,2009
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 168 gm/kg/12W- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOXID9 78,168,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 270 gm/kg/90D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ARTODN 78,276,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 54 gm/kg/9D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
TOXID9 78,280,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 54 gm/kg/9D- intermittentEndocrine: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Musculoskeletal: Osteoporosis
TOXID9 78,280,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 273000 mg/kg/21D- continuousMusculoskeletal: OsteoporosisTOXID9 44,354,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1428000 mg/kg/14D- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Liver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency
DCTODJ 26,191,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 875 gm/kg/35D- continuousLiver: Liver function tests impairedTXAPA9 197,206,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 42 gm/kg/7D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsNETEEC 27,55,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 25000 mg/kg/5D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of operant conditioningPSCHDL 171,204,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 420 gm/kg/10W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 199,161,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 48000 mg/kg/12W- intermittentCardiac: Other changes

Vascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TOXID9 44,46,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 41.6 gm/kg/4D- continuousBehavioral: AnalgesiaLIFSAK 73,3351,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 130 gm/kg/10D- continuousBehavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Withdrawal
LIFSAK 73,3351,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 36000 mg/kg/6D- continuousBehavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
NETEEC 26,35,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 gm/kg/10D- intermittentBehavioral: AbusePSCHDL 168,208,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300 gm/kg/12W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 42,429,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 27000 mg/kg/6D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesNETEEC 26,353,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 31500 mg/kg/6D- intermittentCardiac: Change in rateNETEEC 26,451,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 108 gm/kg/4W- intermittentBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Liver: Other changes
FCTOD7 42,2045,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 10400 mg/kg/13D- intermittentEndocrine: EstrogenicBJCAAI 90,2225,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 875 mg/kg/10W- intermittentKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on Na-K pump
LIFSAK 71,2881,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21000 mg/kg/7D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
BJPCBM 138,1376,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15 gm/kg/15D- intermittentEndocrine: AndrogenicREPTED 17,641,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 gm/kg/15D- intermittentEndocrine: EstrogenicREPTED 17,641,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 90 gm/kg/15D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm ductREPTED 17,641,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 65 gm/kg/13D- continuousEndocrine: Other changesENDOAO 138,389,1997
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 900 mL/kg/62D- continuousBehavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 24,275,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 240000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentReproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)FATOAO 47,82,1984
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 62.5 gm/kg/5D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Endocrine: Effect on menstrual cycle

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins
BIREBV 37,1089,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 62.5 gm/kg/6D- continuousEndocrine: Effect on menstrual cycleBIREBV 37,1089,1987
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 45 gm/kg/30D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological testsGISAAA -,64,1993
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1825 gm/kg/1Y- continuousLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
DDSCDJ 25,587,1980
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 19 gm/kg/21D- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)TOLED5 12,265,1982
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 280 gm/kg/5W- intermittentCardiac: Changes in heart weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
JTSCDR 8,243,1983
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 851 gm/kg/10W- continuousBiochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
APTOA6 38,260,1976
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 7 mL/kg/7D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Effect on specific coenzyme: B vitamins including folate
JDGRAX 10(1-2),25,1978
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6300 mg/kg/9W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
GISAAA 64(1),46,1999
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 8 mg/kg/4D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOXID9 72,127,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 9660 gm/kg/56W- intermittentCardiac: Change in resting or action potential

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 189,196,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 240 gm/kg/60D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
TOXIA6 42,367,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 12 gm/kg/20D- continuousBehavioral: Tolerance

Behavioral: Alteration of operant conditioning
EJPHAZ 477,129,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 210 gm/kg/10W- continuousBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 41,1551,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 4500 gm/kg/24W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Cardiac: Change in force of contraction

Endocrine: Differential effect of sex or castration on observed toxicity
TXAPA9 179,111,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 84 gm/kg/4W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Endocrine: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes
BJMRDK 36,125,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 14 gm/kg/7D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesBJMRDK 36,503,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 28 gm/kg/7D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
BJMRDK 36,503,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 35000 mg/kg/7D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gainEKFAE9 59,44,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 115000 mg/kg/23D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningEKFAE9 59,44,1996
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 67.5 mg/kg/15D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Xanthine, purine or nucleotides including urate

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
JPETAB 296,857,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 93.8 mL/kg/2W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
JJATDK 22,207,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 882 gm/kg/75D- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Other changesJPETAB 301,1132,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 72 gm/kg/7D- continuousKidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases
TOXID9 72,315,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 908 mg/kg/4W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
JAPTO* 22,207,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1372 gm/kg/20W- continuousBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Vascular: Regional or general arteriolar constriction

Vascular: Other changes
CEXPB9 29,707,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 60 gm/kg/30D- intermittentBiochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Catecholamine levels in CNS

Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine in striatum
BJMRDK 37,1839,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50 gm/kg/10D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
PSCHDL 182,58,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 600000 mg/kg/75D- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
TOXID9 60,388,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 354000 mg/kg/30D- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
TOXID9 60,388,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 462000 mg/kg/6W- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Other changesTOXID9 60,388,2001
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 31.5 gm/kg/6D- intermittentBehavioral: Change in psychophysiological tests

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NETEEC 27,815,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 126 gm/kg/12W- continuousVascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic sectionJPETAB 306,271,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 400 gm/kg/8W- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS

Behavioral: Withdrawal
JPETAB 307,566,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 6650 mL/kg/10W- continuousLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
CBCPAI 131,161,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 52800 mg/kg/6D- intermittentBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Withdrawal

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
TOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 52800 mg/kg/6D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 52800 mg/kg/6D- intermittentRelated to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type fieldTOVEFN (5),13,2002
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 30 gm/kg/3D- continuousBiochemical: Effect on specific coenzyme: Proportion of isoenzymes

Liver: Other changes
ACPSI* 24,831,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 195 gm/kg/30D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changesACPSI* 24,930,2003
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 420000 mg/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
TXCYAC 219,11,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 210 gm/kg/6W- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
BPBLEO 27,1636,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 315 gm/kg/9W- intermittentVascular: BP elevation not characterized in autonomic section

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
CEXPB9 33,183,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 151.2 gm/kg/21D- intermittentBehavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Abuse
FCLPH* 18,693,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50.4 gm/kg/7D- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Abuse
BJPCBM 143,455,2004
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 300000 mg/kg/12W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Conditioned vitamin deficiency
FCTOD7 45,1478,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 216000 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FCTOD7 45,1333,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 355.5 gm/kg/45D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
FCTOD7 46,1627,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1814.4 gm/kg/12W- continuousVascular: Measurement of regional blood flow

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 46,1940,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 980 gm/kg/8W- continuousLiver: Changes in liver weight

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
FCTOD7 46,1378,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 140 mL/kg/2W- continuousBrain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
PHREP* 58,876,2006
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 980 gm/kg/14W- intermittentBehavioral: Food intake (animal)

Cardiac: Cardiac output

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in blood vessels or in circulation of kidney
JTEHF8 68,797,2005
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 1050 gm/kg/70D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
ALCOH* 41,591,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 188 gm/kg/25D- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
INJPD2 39,43,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 665 mL/kg/6W- continuousVascular: Contraction (isolated tissue)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
BJPCBM 153,468,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 665 mL/kg/6W- continuousVascular: Contraction (isolated tissue)

Vascular: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
BJPCBM 153,468,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 324000 mg/kg/90D- intermittentLiver: Fatty liver degeneration

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)
HPV112 -,-,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 355.5 gm/kg/45D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
SIMEJ* 48,311,2007
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 13920 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningNETEEC 30,256,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 15000 mg/kg/3D- intermittentBrain and Coverings: Changes in brain weightNETEEC 30,228,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 21 gm/kg/3W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
FCTOD7 46,2658,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 252000 mg/kg/90D- intermittentEndocrine: Changes in thymus weightHPV112 -,-,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 2016 gm/kg/36W- intermittentBlood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
HPV112 -,-,2008
oral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 35 gm/kg/1W- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
HPV112 -,-,2008
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 336000 mg/kg/4W- intermittentMusculoskeletal: Osteoporosis

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
TOXID9 -,193,2009
parenteral/rat lowest published toxic dose: 50000 mg/kg/50D- intermittentLiver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
TOXID9 44,15,2005
subcutaneous/mouse : 5000 mg/kg/20D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
FCTOD7 44,588,2006
unreported route/monkey lowest published toxic dose: 261000 mg/kg/90D- intermittentEndocrine: Change in LH

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in ovarian weight

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in uterine weight
HPV112 -,-,2008
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 8 gm/kg/4D- intermittentNutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTSCDR 32,421,2007
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16 gm/kg/8D- intermittentLiver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTSCDR 32,421,2007
unreported route/mouse lowest published toxic dose: 16 gm/kg/8D- intermittentBlood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JTSCDR 32,421,2007
unreported route/rat lowest published toxic dose: 20 gm/kg/10D- intermittentBehavioral: Alteration of classical conditioningNETEEC 32,503,2010

Reviews

OrganizationStandardReference
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-short term exposure limit 1000 ppmDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Threshold Limit Value-Confirmed animal carcinogenDTLVS* TLV/BEI,2013
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)Cancer Review:Animal Inadequate EvidenceIMEMDT 44,35,1988
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWIRXPAT 11,177,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAEMBAP 56,291,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAICMA2 44,874,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMAEPBU 6,81,1972
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCTXAV 8,433,1970
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCLCHAU 19,361,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPAREAQ 4,1,1952
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWSCIEAS 209,353,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJAMAAP 235,1458,1976
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEJMAG 342,186,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJFSCAS 45,7,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJKMSEH 17,236,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 23,519,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCRTXB2 33,407,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,155,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 140-141,161,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPSCHDL 172,352,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPBBHAU 55,501,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTJADAB 21,157,1980
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 24,55,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 22,196,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTJADAB 16,53,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 127,197,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOLED5 134,3,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPSCHDL 174,539,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARPTDI 44,27,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARPTDI 44,87,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 19,421,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 24,41,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 24,266,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 24,151,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 24,456,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEMMUEG 45,271,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJAPTO* 23,289,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 613,17,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETOX* 26,521,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEJCCER 41,956,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJPETAB 312,875,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 19,251,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEJPHAZ 526,113,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWEJPHAZ 526,163,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJOPSEQ 20,143,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAINCM* 7,63,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBIPHEX 58,84,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCHHSA* 9,6,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,62,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDIMON* 39,678,1993
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 628,67,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJPETAB 318,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,742,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,263,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWENTOX* -,387,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETEEC 29,425,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWALCOH* 41,399,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWALCOH* 41,479,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPHREP* 57,23,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPSBUL* 35,89,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPSBUL* 35,66,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPSBUL* 37,64,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWJTPAE7 19,111,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 23,125,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWITODC* -,327,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,493,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,577,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHUTOX* -,623,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTPHSDY 29,109,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPTPAD4 113,229,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPTPAD4 116,306,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAGVBE* 8,155,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBPRCR* 17,877,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWAEMED3 53,439,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLREV* 3,71,1989
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWBLREV* 4,226,1990
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCOCPH* -,701,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWCOCPH* -,701,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWHETOEA 26,251,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWDERCL* 27,289,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 682,94,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWARTODN 83,519,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 22,91,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWPYTOEY 16,638,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 15,711,1997
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNCLNA* 16,503,1998
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 18,215,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 18,695,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNCLNA* 16,107,1998
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,321,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,377,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNEUCL* 23,397,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 5,1,1981
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWOSMPR* 103,e20,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNETEEC 32,4,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,265,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,617,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,641,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,711,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,727,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNTAPM* -,753,1995
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCLPH* 22(Suppl 1),82,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWTOVEFN -,6,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNBREV* 11,107,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 26,231,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 31,319,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWFCLPH* 23(Suppl 1),51,2009
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 727,55,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 723,77,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 32,235,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 31,562,2010
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 728,88,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 728,118,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 717,67,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWREPTED 35,165,2013
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 32,563,2011
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 33,605,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWNRTXDN 33,530,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUTAEX 27,275,2012
TOXICOLOGY REVIEWMUREAV 741-742,44,2013

Standards and Regulations

OrganizationStandardReference
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATIONFEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDESRED CompletedRBREV* -,290,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD-airtime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3)DTLVS* 3,103,1971
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN check ACGIH TLV;
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM check ACGIH TLV
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRALIAtime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1880 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit-AUSTRIAMAK-TMW 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3);KZW 2000 ppm (3800 mg/m3), 2007
Occupational Exposure Limit-BELGIUMtime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1907 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-DENMARKtime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), MAY2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FINLANDtime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 1300 ppm (2500 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-FRANCEVME 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), VLE 5000 ppm (9500), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-GERMANYMAK 500 ppm (960 mg/m3), 2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-HUNGARYtime-weighted average 1900 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 7600 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit-ICELANDtime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), NOV2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-KOREAtime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit-MEXICOtime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit-NEW ZEALANDtime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1880 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit-NORWAYtime-weighted average 500 ppm (950 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-PERUtime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1884 mg/m3), JUL2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-POLANDMAC(time-weighted average) 1000 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 3000 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit-RUSSIAtime-weighted average 1000 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 2000 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWEDENtime-weighted average 500 ppm (1000 mg/m3);short term exposure limit 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit-SWITZERLANDMAK-week 500 ppm (960 mg/m3), KZG-week 1000 ppm (1920 mg/m3), JAN2011
Occupational Exposure Limit-THAILANDtime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE NETHERLANDSMAC-TGG 1000 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit-THE PHILIPPINEStime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-TURKEYtime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit-UNITED KINGDOMtime-weighted average 1000 ppm (1920 mg/m3), OCT2007
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction)8H time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors)8H time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3)CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry)8H time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards)8H time-weighted average 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3)CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993

NIOSH Documentation and Surveillance

OrganizationStandardReference
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ETHYL ALCOHOL-air10H time-weighted average 1000 ppmNIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983Hazard Code 31500; Number of Industries 334; Total Number of Facilities 86077; Number of Occupations 222; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2069125; Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 1014002
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974Hazard Code 31500; Number of Industries 430; Total Number of Facilities 157709; Number of Occupations 242; Total Number of Employees Exposed 2088926

Status in Federal Agencies

OrganizationReference
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative/limited: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Aspergillus-forward mutation; SHE-clonal assay
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat embryo
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro cytogenetics-nonhuman; Mammalian micronucleus
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro SCE-human lymphocytes; In vitro SCE-human
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro SCE-nonhuman; Sperm morphology-mouse
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: N crassa-aneuploidy; Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: Rodent dominant lethal
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Alcohols I, 1400
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Ethanol in blood, 8002
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; on test (two year studies), October 2000
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #100
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