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Acetaldehyde

RTECS #: AB1925000

CAS #: 75-07-0


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 44.06 MF: C2H4O


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Acetaldehyd (German)
  2. Acetaldehyde (ACGIH:OSHA)
  3. Acetic aldehyde
  4. Acetylaldehyde
  5. Aldehyde acetique (French)
  1. Aldeide acetica (Italian)
  2. Ethanal
  3. NCI - C56326
  4. Octowy aldehyd (Polish)
  5. RCRA waste number U001


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
human
50 ppm/15 minute N/R JIHTAB 28,262,1946
eye
rabbit
40 mg severe ENTOX* -,15,2005
skin
rabbit
500 mg open irritation test mild UCDS** 12/13/1963
skin
rabbit
500 mg mild ENTOX* -,15,2005


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster embryo 40 ppm MUTAEX 3,207,1988
cytogenetic analysis human leukocyte 1,000 ppm/72 hour- continuous TSITAQ 20,421,1978
cytogenetic analysis rat fibroblast 100 µmol/L MUREAV 101,237,1982
cytogenetic analysis Saccharomyes cerevisiae 850 mmol/L MUREAV 326,165,1995
DNA damage human lymphocyte 1,560 µmol/L MUREAV 337,9,1995
DNA damage human other cell types 3 mmol/L CRNGDP 15,985,1994
DNA damage mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 1 mole/L/30 minute MUREAV 58,115,1978
DNA damage rat liver 200 mmol/L TOLED5 42,183,1988
DNA damage inhalation
rat
1,000 ppm/6 hour/5 day- continuous FAATDF 6,541,1986
DNA damage rat other cell types 500 mmol/L FAATDF 6,541,1986
DNA inhibition human other cell types 30 mmol/L CNREA8 45,2522,1985
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 10 mmol/L CRNGDP 13,2389,1992
DNA inhibition rat fibroblast 1 mmol/L JTEHD6 6,811,1980
DNA repair Escherichia coli 7,880 µg/plate EVHPAZ 21,79,1977
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 7,880 µg/plate (+enzymatic activation step) EVHPAZ 21,79,1977
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 44,060 µg/L (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 21,180,1993
micronucleus test human liver 0.9 mmol/L/24 hour TXCYAC 198,315,2004
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
95 mg/kg MUREAV 389,3,1997
micronucleus test oral
mouse
1,400 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent JTSCDR 33,31,2008
micronucleus test multiple
mouse
500 ppm/14 day- continuous JTSCDR 33,31,2008
micronucleus test rat fibroblast 500 µmol/L MUREAV 101,237,1982
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
rat
125 mg/kg MUTAEX 17,15,2002
mutation in mammalian somatic cells human fibroblast 5 mmol/L CRNGDP 15,985,1994
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 4 mmol/L MUTAEX 3,193,1988
mutation in mammalian somatic cells oral
mouse
1,400 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent JTSCDR 33,31,2008
morphological transform mouse embryo 10 mg/L ENMUDM 4,331,1982
morphological transform rat kidney 3 mmol/L/3 hour EJCODS 22,671,1986
morphological transform rat fibroblast 100 µmol/L JTEHD6 6,811,1980
other mutation test systems human other cell types 30 mmol/L CNREA8 45,2522,1985
other mutation test systems rat other cell types 12,500 µmol/L TXAPA9 83,86,1986
other mutation test systems rat fibroblast 1 mmol/L JTEHD6 6,811,1980
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
hamster
500 µg/kg MUREAV 88,389,1981
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 30 µmol/L MUREAV 171,169,1986
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 1,200 µmol/L ANYAA9 543,369,1988
sister chromatid exchange human fibroblast 40 µmol/L EXPEAM 34,195,1978
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
mouse
15 ng/kg MUREAV 68,291,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Aspergillus nidulans 250 ppm MUREAV 215,187,1989
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction parenteral
Drosophila melanogaster
22,500 ppm ENMUDM 7,677,1985
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction hamster embryo 20 ppm MUTAEX 3,207,1988
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 13 mmol/L EMMUEG 21,180,1993
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
180 µmol/L/48 hour MUREAV 222,359,1989
specific locus test mouse other cell types 50 mg/L MUTAEX 15,45,2000


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3 (60 day prior to copulation/1-10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
VCVGK* -,361,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 5 mg/m3 (60 day prior to copulation/11-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
VCVGK* -,361,1994
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 640 µg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system TJADAB 27,231,1983
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg (8-13 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral TJADAB 36,31A,1987
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 50 mg/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
DADEDV 9,339,1982
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg (12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Homeostasis DADEDV 9,339,1982
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg (8-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
SEIJBO 23,13,1983
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg (8-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue) SEIJBO 23,13,1983
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 120 mg/kg (7-9 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)
JOANAY 128,65,1979
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 4 gm/kg (6 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system
JOANAY 132,107,1981
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 4,800 mg/kg (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Respiratory system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Hepatobiliary system
AKYIDF 27,334,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,040 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Endocrine system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
AKYIDF 27,334,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,040 mg/kg (1-21 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) AKYIDF 27,334,1992
unreported route
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/kg (10 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities
VCVGK* -,360,1994


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,040 ppm/7 hour/52 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
EJCODS 18,13,1982
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 735 ppm/6 hour/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
TXCYAC 41,213,1986
inhalation
rat
toxic concentration (other than lowest) : 1,410 ppm/6 hour/65 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Olfaction: Tumors
TXCYAC 31,123,1984


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
cat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,000 mg/m3/7 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cough

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VCVGK* -,359,1984
inhalation
cat
lowest published lethal concentration: 20,000 mg/m3/1 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Acute pulmonary edema

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVGK* -,359,1984
inhalation
hamster
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 17,000 ppm/4 hour N/R PEXTAR 24,162,1979
inhalation
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 134 ppm/30 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes JAMAAP 165,1908,1957
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 20,100 mg/m3 Eye: Other eye effects

Behavioral: Excitement

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
GTPZAB 19(7),54,1975
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published lethal concentration: 10,000 mg/m3 N/R VCVGK* -,359,1984
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 13,000 mg/m3/60 minute Cardiac: Other changes VCVGK* -,359,1984
inhalation
man
lowest published toxic concentration: 100,000 mg/m3/30 minute Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Cardiac: Other changes
VCVGK* -,360,1984
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 23 gm/m3/4 hour N/R CUTOEX 1,47,1993
inhalation
mouse
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 20,300 mg/m3/2 hour N/R VCVGK* -,359,1984
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 5,000 ppm/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea TOXID9 90,162,2006
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,000 ppm/5 minute Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity) JTSCDR 30,329,2005
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,000 ppm/20 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression JTSCDR 30,329,2005
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,000 ppm/4 hour Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease JTSCDR 30,329,2005
inhalation
mouse
lowest published lethal concentration: 5,000 ppm/3 hour N/R JTSCDR 30,329,2005
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,000 ppm/20 minute Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Ataxia

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
JTSCDR 30,329,2005
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 5,000 ppm/4 hour Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
JTSCDR 30,329,2005
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 13,300 ppm/4 hour Behavioral: Excitement

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
NTIS** OTS0534485
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 600 mg/m3/10 minute Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression VCVGK* -,359,1984
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 25,000 mg/m3 N/R FATOAO 51,83,1988
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 13,300 ppm/4 hour N/R ENTOX* -,15,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kg N/R IMEMDT 36,101,1985
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 567 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
TOXID9 78,199,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 170 mg/kg Behavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
PSCHDL 177,84,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 560 mg/kg N/R PSCHDL 177,84,2004
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 556 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea JTSCDR 30,315,2005
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 515 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
JTSCDR 30,315,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 500 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JBCHA3 152,41,1944
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg Taste: Change in function

Behavioral: Ataxia
PSCHDL 167,130,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 560 mg/kg Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex) PSCHDL 167,130,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
EJPHAZ 520,51,2005
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Amino acids (including renal excretion)
TOLED5 169,253,2007
intratracheal
hamster
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 96 mg/kg N/R PEXTAR 24,162,1979
intravenous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic

Cardiac: Other changes

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JPETAB 30,429,1927
intravenous
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 6.25 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Histamines (including liberation not immunochemical in origin)
BJPCBM 144,422,2005
intravenous
human
lowest published toxic dose: 10.6 mg/kg Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
VCVGK* -,360,1984
intravenous
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 350 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic VCVGK* -,359,1984
intravenous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 10 mg/kg Brain and Coverings: Recordings from specific areas of CNS NEROEW 29,530,2004
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JPETAB 30,429,1927
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 900 mg/kg N/R GTPZAB 25(11),57,1981
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 661 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Altered sleep time (including change in righting reflex)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
AGACBH 4,125,1974
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg Liver: Other changes

Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
VCVGK* -,359,1984
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mL/kg Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
VCVGK* -,359,1984
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,930 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* -,15,2005
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 560 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic APTOA6 6,299,1950
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 560 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,359,1984
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 640 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic APTOA6 6,299,1950
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 1,200 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JPETAB 30,429,1927
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,540 mg/kg N/R UCDS** 12/13/1963
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 0.3 mL/kg Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes VCVGK* -,359,1984


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
hamster
lowest published toxic concentration: 4,560 ppm/6 hour/90 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Structural or functional change in trachea or bronchi

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
AEHLAU 30,449,1975
inhalation
mouse
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,500 mg/m3/2 hour/2 week- intermittent Liver: Liver function tests impaired

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
VCVGK* -,360,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,217 ppm/6 hour/4 week- intermittent Olfaction: Tumors

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume decreased or anuria

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 23,293,1982
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 750 mg/m3/6 hour/52 week- intermittent Olfaction: Deviated nasal septum

Olfaction: Other olfaction effects
VCVGK* -,360,1994
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 2,500 mg/m3/8 hour/10 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FATOAO 51,83,1988
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12,600 mg/kg/9 week- intermittent Endocrine: Other changes

Endocrine: Changes in adrenal weight
NTIS** PB234-882
oral
guinea pig
lowest published toxic dose: 1,540 mg/kg/22 week- continuous Blood: Eosinophilia NTIS** PB234-882
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,540 mg/kg/22 week- continuous Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) NTIS** PB234-882
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18,900 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Other changes
FCTOD7 26,447,1988
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,659 mL/kg/15 week- continuous Liver: Other changes PSEBAA 121,681,1966
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/4 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake
VCVGK* -,360,1994
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Plasma proteins not involving coagulation
VCVGK* -,360,1994


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value ceiling concentration 25 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 36,101,1985
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Sufficient Evidence IMEMDT 71,319,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 36,101,1985
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 71,319,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 2B IMEMDT 71,319,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EVHPAZ 11,163,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,83,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,151,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AINCM* 7,63,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,15,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
DIMON* 46,551,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 636,178,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 23,428,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 659,68,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 657,3,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,649,1996


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 100 ppm (180 mg/m3) DTLWS* 3,10,1973
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 200 ppm (360 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 200 ppm (360 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 200 ppm (360 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 200 ppm (360 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 100 ppm (180 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 20 ppm (36 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 50 ppm (91 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 25 ppm (46 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK ceiling concentration 25 ppm (45 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 50 ppm (90 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 75 ppm (135 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 100 ppm (180 mg/m3), continuous3 Carcinogen, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 91 mg/m3 (50 mL/m3) , 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 25 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 25 mg/m3, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - INDIA time-weighted average 100 ppm (180 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 150 ppm (270 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - JAPAN Occupational Exposure Limit- continuous 50 ppm (90 mg/m3), 2B carcinogen, APR2007
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 100 ppm (180 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 150 ppm (270 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO peak 25 ppm (45 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 180 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 20 ppm, short term exposure limit 50 ppm, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 200 ppm (360 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 10 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 5 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 25 ppm (45 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 50 ppm (90 mg/m3), Carcinogen,JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 50 ppm (90 mg/m3);
KZG- week 50 ppm (90 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 200 ppm (360 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 20 ppm (37 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 50 ppm, 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed animal carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed animal carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO ACETALDEHYDE-air Carcinogen (18 ppm LOQ) NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 01038;
Number of Industries 4;
Total Number of Facilities 85;
Number of Occupations 10;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 1,745
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 01038;
Number of Industries 85;
Total Number of Facilities 7,801;
Number of Occupations 95;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 216,533;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 97,770


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: E coli polA without S9; In vitro SCE-nonhuman
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vitro SCE-human lymphocytes
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vitro SCE-human
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in the manufacture of ACETIC ACID, ACETIC ANHYDRIDE, BUTANOL and other compounds
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH CURRENT INTELLIGENCE BULLETIN #55, September 1991
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Acetaldehyde by GC, 2538; by HPLC, 3507
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Aldehydes, screening, 2539
NTP 10th Report on Carcinogens,2002:Reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen
OSHA ANALYTICAL METHOD #ID-68


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

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Used in the manufacture of ACETIC ACID, ACETIC ANHYDRIDE, BUTANOL and other compounds

NIOSH PROFILE (ALDEHYDES), SRC, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (ALDEHYDES), SRI, 2/77

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Natural Product
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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