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Sodium fluoride

RTECS #: WB0350000

CAS #: 7681-49-4


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 41.99 MF: FNa


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Alcoa sodium fluoride
  2. Antibulit
  3. Cavi - trol
  4. Chemifluor
  5. Credo
  6. Disodium difluoride
  7. F1 - Tabs
  8. FDA 0101
  9. Floridine
  10. Florocid
  11. Flozenges
  12. Fluor - O - kote
  13. Fluoral
  14. Fluorident
  15. Fluoride, sodium
  16. Fluorid sodny (Czech)
  17. Fluorigard
  18. Fluorineed
  19. Fluorinse
  20. Fluoritab
  21. Fluorocid
  22. Fluorol
  23. Fluorure de sodium (French)
  24. Flura
  25. Flura drops
  26. Flura - gel
  27. Flura - loz
  28. Flurcare
  29. Flursol
  30. Fungol B
  31. GEL II
  32. Gelution
  33. Gleem
  34. Iradicav
  35. Kari - rinse
  36. Karidium
  1. Karigel
  2. Lea - Cov
  3. Lemoflur
  4. Luride
  5. Luride lozi - tabs
  6. Luride - SF
  7. NCI - C55221
  8. Na frinse
  9. NaFpak
  10. Nafeen
  11. Natrium fluoride
  12. Nufluor
  13. Ossalin
  14. Ossin
  15. Pediaflor
  16. Pedident
  17. Pennwhite
  18. Pergantene
  19. Phos - Flur
  20. Point two
  21. Predent
  22. Rafluor
  23. Rescue squad
  24. Roach salt
  25. SO - Flo
  26. Sodium fluoride cyclic dimer
  27. Sodium fluorure (French)
  28. Sodium hydrofluoride
  29. Sodium monofluoride
  30. Stay - Flo
  31. Studafluor
  32. Super - dent
  33. T - Fluoride
  34. Thera - flur
  35. Thera - flur - N
  36. Trisodium trifluoride


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
20 mg/24 hour moderate 28ZPAK -,20,1972


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis cattle other cell types 10 mg/L AEHLAU 29,230,1974
cytogenetic analysis domestic animal other cell types 25 mg/L AEHLAU 29,230,1974
cytogenetic analysis hamster embryo 50 mg/L CNREA8 44,938,1984
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 25 mg/L CYTOAN 52,889,1987
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 50 mg/L MUREAV 223,191,1989
cytogenetic analysis human fibroblast 20 mg/L MUREAV 139,193,1984
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 20 mg/L MUTAEX 2,497,1987
cytogenetic analysis human other cell types 952 mol/L TIVIEQ 5,353,1991
cytogenetic analysis mammal (species unspecified) lung 300 mol/L HKXUDL 3,94,1983
cytogenetic analysis mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 4 mmol/L MUREAV 301,183,1993
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
mouse
10 mg/kg CARYAB 40,79,1987
cytogenetic analysis oral
mouse
1 ppm/3 week- continuous FLUOA4 15,110,1982
cytogenetic analysis mouse other cell types 200 mg/L AEHLAU 29,230,1974
cytogenetic analysis subcutaneous
mouse
40 mg/kg CARYAB 40,79,1987
cytogenetic analysis rat bone marrow 100 nmol/L MUREAV 343,67,1995
cytogenetic analysis rat other cell types 500 mol/L MUREAV 368,7,1996
DNA damage rat liver 1 mmol/L MUREAV 368,59,1996
DNA inhibition human fibroblast 100 mg/L MUREAV 279,109,1992
DNA inhibition human lung 100 mg/L MUREAV 279,109,1992
DNA repair Bacillus subtilis 86 mg/L WATRAG 14,1613,1980
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster other cell types 200 mg/L MUREAV 140,43,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster embryo 10 mg/L CNREA8 44,938,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis human fibroblast 100 mg/L MUREAV 139,193,1984
unscheduled DNA synthesis rat liver 36 mg/L MUREAV 172,77,1986
mutation in microorganisms mouse lymphocyte 300 g/L (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 187,165,1987
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 1 mg/plate (+enzymatic activation step) CYGEDX 16(6),41,1982
micronucleus test hamster ovary 1 mmol/L MUREAV 367,99,1996
micronucleus test oral
mouse
40 mg/kg ICHUDW 8(5),39,1986
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
10 mg/kg CARYAB 40,79,1987
mutation in mammalian somatic cells human lymphocyte 440 mg/L MUREAV 196,61,1988
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 20 mg/L/16 hour MUTAEX 1,157,1986
morphological transform hamster embryo 25 mg/L TIVIEQ 2,103,1988
other mutation test systems hamster lung 100 mg/L MUREAV 279,109,1992
other mutation test systems subcutaneous
rat
200 mmol/L EXPEAM 35,71,1979
sister chromatid exchange hamster embryo 80 mg/L CNREA8 44,938,1984
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 66,700 g/L NTPTR* NTP-TR-393,1990
sister chromatid exchange mammal (species unspecified) lung 3 mmol/L HKXUDL 3,94,1983
sister chromatid exchange intraperitoneal
mouse
40 mg/kg ICHUDW 8(5),39,1986
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
5 pph/24 hour FLUOA4 6,113,1973
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction multiple
Drosophila melanogaster
60 g/L GNAMAP 15,36,1976
sperm morphology intraperitoneal
mouse
10 mg/kg/5 day- continuous CARYAB 40,79,1987


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9 mg/kg (10-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
AOBIAR 17,371,1972
intratesticular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 g/kg (1 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
REPTED 5,505,1991
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,240 mg/kg (8 week male/8 week prior to copulation-5 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Female fertility index (e.g., # females pregnant per # sperm positive females; # females pregnant per # females mated)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Stillbirth
JONUAI 103,1319,1973
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 620 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Other measures of fertility JONUAI 103,1319,1973
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 5,600 g/kg (14 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Skin and skin appendages 32XPAD -,83,1975
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 300 ng/kg (30 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
FLUOA4 25,71,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg (30 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
JEBIDP 13,55,1992
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 221 mg/kg (1-20 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) JONUAI 101,525,1971
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg (11-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system NIPOAC 73,1900,1969
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 128 mg/kg (85 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral CHPLAB 18,290,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 255 mg/kg (85 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system CHPLAB 18,290,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Maternal- fetal exchange WDZAEK 7,121,1993
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12.9 mg/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects FCTOD7 39,601,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3.4 mg/kg (multigeneration)) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system FCTOD7 39,867,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 28 mg/kg (multigeneration)) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system FCTOD7 39,867,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg (6-19 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Other developmental abnormalities

Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina
NETEEC 23,197,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.52 gm/kg (6-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
FCTOD7 40,1781,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 680 mg/kg (6-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic FCTOD7 40,551,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 680 mg/kg (6-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Behavioral
FCTOD7 40,1781,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,520 mg/kg (6-22 day pregnant/21 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic FCTOD7 40,551,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 210 mg/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
HETOEA 24,79,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg (28 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count) REPTED 22,606,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg (60 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Other effects on male
TOXID9 -,233,2008
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 8,800 mg/kg (125 week male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct JRPFA4 92,353,1991
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 90 mg/kg (10-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
AOBIAR 17,371,1972


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 14 mg/kg/43 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 140 mg/kg/43 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 4,200 mg/kg/30 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 2,190 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 4,217 mg/kg/30 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 4,242 mg/kg/30 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 4,368 mg/kg/30 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 87 gm/kg/97 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Skin and Appendages: Tumors
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12,617 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Endocrine: Thyroid tumors

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-393,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,570.5 mg/kg/103 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Musculoskeletal: Tumors
NTIS** PB91-178137


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intradermal
human
lowest published toxic dose: 14 g/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Paresthesia

Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response
RMLIAC 12,408,1957
intraperitoneal
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kg N/R XEURAQ UR-154,1951
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 38 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose : 151 mg/kg N/R JTCTDW 39,349,2001
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 22 mg/kg N/R XEURAQ UR-154,1951
intravenous
monkey
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 26,600 g/kg N/R APTOA6 22,99,1965
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50,830 g/kg Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Liver: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes
IMEMDT 27,237,1982
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 26 mg/kg Olfaction: Tumors

Eye: Other eye effects

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXAPA9 3,278,1961
oral
wild bird
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 110 mg/kg N/R AECTCV 16,483,1987
oral
child
lowest published lethal dose: 8 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1409,2001
oral
domestic animal
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NEZTAF 30,199,1982
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 214 g/kg Behavioral: Headache

Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea
RMLIAC 12,408,1957
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 71 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
85KYAH 11,1361,1989
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 32 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1409,2001
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 3.57 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Changes in structure or function of salivary glands

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Gastrointestinal: Other changes
HBPTO* 2,1409,2001
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 0.7 mg/kg Cardiac: Arrythmias (indlucing changes in conduction)

Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
VCVN5* -,355,1993
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 1,662 mg/kg Cardiac: EKG changes not diagnostic of above

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JAMAAP 222,816,1972
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 44 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1409,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 8.4 g/kg Gastrointestinal: Decreased motility or constipation ETPAEK 57,59,2005
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 34 g/kg Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea ETPAEK 57,59,2005
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 31 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 2,1409,2001
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kg N/R JEENAI 61,751,1968
oral
woman
lowest published lethal dose: 90 mg/kg Behavioral: Fluid intake

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JAMAAP 81,811,1923
oral
woman
lowest published lethal dose: 360 mg/kg Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
JAMAAP 100,97,1933
oral
woman
lowest published toxic dose: 7 mg/kg Eye: Ptosis

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
BMJOAE 1,886,1936
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9 mg/kg Endocrine: Hyperglycemia

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Hepatic microsomal mixed oxidase (dealkylation, hydroxylation, etc.)
VCVN5* -,354,1993
parenteral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 35 mg/kg Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Urine volume increased

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Glycolytic
VCVN5* -,355,1993
subcutaneous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 14 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1349,1935
subcutaneous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 155 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1349,1935
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 448 mg/kg N/R CRSBAW 124,133,1937
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1349,1935
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 115 g/kg N/R NYKZAU 68(3),55P-74P,1972
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 175 mg/kg N/R OYYAA2 2,411,1968
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kg N/R HBAMAK 4,1349,1935
skin
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kg N/R AEPPAE 183,427,1936


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3/5 hour/17 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Liver: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures
VCVN5* -,355,1989
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/kg/5 hour/17 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
GTPZAB 24(1),15,1980
intramuscular
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,520 mg/kg/38 day- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 40,1781,2002
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes in urine composition

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
TOLED5 7,463,1981
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 3,500 mg/kg/50 day- continuous Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Anorexia (human)
ETOPFR 13,199,2003
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 2,240 mg/kg/16 day- continuous Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning ETOPFR 13,199,2003
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 1,960 mg/kg/1 week- continuous Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Liver: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
ETOPFR 13,199,2003
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 4,200 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
ETOPFR 13,199,2003
oral
chicken
lowest published toxic dose: 2,100 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases ETOPFR 13,199,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 160 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-393,1990
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 21,840 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-393,1990
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 402 mg/kg/35 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TOLED5 44,21,1988
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 30 mg/kg/30 day- continuous Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
WDZAEK 9,139,1995
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TXCYAC 191,19,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 480 mg/kg/120 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
TOLED5 147,229,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
FCTOD7 46,1138,2008
oral
pig
lowest published toxic dose: 20,000 mg/kg/50 day- intermittent Liver: Multiple effects

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
ARTODN 80,74,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 639 mg/kg/30 week- continuous Liver: Other changes TXCYAC 146,161,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/6 week- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
NETEEC 17,169,1995
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5 day- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
TXAPA9 3,290,1961
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 603 mg/kg/26 week- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases
GISAAA 39(1),17,1974
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 mg/kg/60 day- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport
BECTA6 37,70,1986
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 527.1 mg/kg/21 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain TJADAB 49,417,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,260 mg/kg/10 week- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake FCTOD7 39,601,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,617 mg/kg/10 week- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 39,601,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9.2 gm/kg/47 week- continuous Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FCTOD7 39,867,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18.8 gm/kg/47 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain FCTOD7 39,867,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.2 gm/kg/60 day- intermittent Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase
ETOPFR 6,187,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg/10 day- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTIS** #PB95-110193
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 580 mg/kg/29 day- intermittent Endocrine: Androgenic

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
REPTED 16,385,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 580 mg/kg/29 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Spermatogenesis (including genetic material, sperm morphology, motility, and count)

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
REPTED 16,385,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 580 mg/kg/29 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Catalases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases
REPTED 16,385,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 580 mg/kg/29 day- intermittent Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
REPTED 16,385,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain FCTOD7 40,1781,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal) FCTOD7 40,1781,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 15,200 mg/kg/38 day- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Endocrine: Hypoglycemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: K
FCTOD7 40,1781,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,520 mg/kg/38 day- intermittent Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Na

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: K
FCTOD7 40,551,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 366 mg/kg/122 day- continuous Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
NETEEC 24,751,2002
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 630 mg/kg/210 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 200,169,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,100 mg/kg/210 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TXCYAC 200,169,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2.8 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
TXCYAC 204,219,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5.6 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), zonal

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in both tubules and glomeruli

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
TXCYAC 204,219,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1.238 gm/kg/8 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 160,69,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,237.6 mg/kg/8 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
TOLED5 160,69,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 8.7 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Reproductive: Maternal effects: Uterus, cervix, vagina TXCYAC 231,215,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,820 mg/kg/13 week- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Lipids including transport

Musculoskeletal: Other changes
BCLPT* 92,162,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Endocrine: Androgenic

Endocrine: Other changes

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct
REPTED 22,606,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 560 mg/kg/28 day- intermittent Endocrine: Change in LH

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands
REPTED 22,606,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 280 mg/kg/8 week- intermittent Reproductive: Other effects on male

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on mitochondrial function
TXAPA9 230,352,2008
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 5,460 mg/kg/78 week- intermittent Gastrointestinal: Malabsorption

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
ENVRAL 62,14,1993
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 6,930 mg/kg/99 week- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: P
ARTODN 67,573,1993
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 3,650 mg/kg/1 year- intermittent Blood: Pigmented or nucleated red blood cells

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
BECTA6 30,388,1983
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 1,327 mg/kg/30 day- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Dehydrogenases

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other transferases
JJATDK 5,11,1985
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 406 mg/kg/14 day- continuous Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Behavioral: Fluid intake

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
NTIS** #PB94-142684
unreported route
domestic animal
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/10 week- continuous Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
IVEJAC 66,1089,1989


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3 DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 27,237,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 27,237,1982
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMSUDL 7,208,1987
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ADVPA3 4,263,1966
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
AMSSAQ 400,5,1963
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FNSCA6 2,67,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
IMSUAI 19,535,1950
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 39,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,342,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,124,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
REPTED 25,192,2008


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Supported RBREV* -,278,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3 DTLVS* 3,116,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, FEB 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 2 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 2.5 mg(F)/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 1 mg(F)/m3 (inhalable), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, short term exposure limit 10 mg(F)/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 2.5 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 0.6 mg(F)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 1 mg(HF)/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 3 mg(HF)/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA time-weighted average 0.2 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 1 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 2 mg(F)/m3, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 1 mg(F)/m3,KZG- week 4 mg(F)/m3, Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3, 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO FLUORIDES, INORGANIC-air 10 hour time-weighted average 2.5 mg(F)/m3 NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 84425;
Number of Industries 50;
Total Number of Facilities 3,763;
Number of Occupations 50;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 25,059
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 84425;
Number of Industries 83;
Total Number of Facilities 3,970;
Number of Occupations 69;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 84,776;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 26,602


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: D melanogaster-whole sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster-nondisjunction; N crassa-aneuploidy
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vivo SCE-nonhuman; S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster-partial sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used in chemical cleaning, for fluoridation of drinking water, as fungicide, insecticide
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (water);equivocal evidence:rat
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (water);no evidence:mouse


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

28ZPAK "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J.V., Institut Pro Vychovu Vedoucicn Pracovniku Chemickeho Prumyclu Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1972
32XPAD "Teratology," Berry, C.L., and D.E. Poswillo, eds., New York, Springer, 1975
85KYAH "Merck Index; an Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals", 11th ed., Rahway, NJ 07065, Merck & Co., Inc. 1989
ADVPA3 Advances in Pharmacology. (New York, NY) V.1-6, 1962-68. For publisher information, see AVPCAQ.
AECTCV Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 070944) V.1- 1973-
AEHLAU Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1960-
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AMSSAQ Acta Medica Scandinavica, Supplement. (Almqvist & Wiksell, POB 45150, S-10430 Stockholm, Sweden) No.1-730, 1921-88.
AOBIAR Archives of Oral Biology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1959-
APTOA6 Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. (Copenhagen, Denmark) V.1-59, 1945-86. For publisher information, see PHTOEH
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
BCLPT* Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology (Copenhagen, Denmark : Nordic Pharmacological Society Oxford, UK : Distributed by Blackwell Munksgaard) V.94- 2004-
BECTA6 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1966-
BMJOAE British Medical Journal. (British Medical Assoc., BMA House, Tavistock Sq., London WC1H 9JR, UK) V.1- 1857-
CARYAB Caryologia. (Via G. LaPira 4, 50121 Florence, Italy) V.1- 1948-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CHPLAB Zhonghua Binglixue Zazhi. (China International Book Trading Corporation, POB 2820, Beijing, The Peoples Republic of China) V.1-10, 1955-66. (Suspended 1967-81); V.11- 1982-
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
CRSBAW Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.1- 1849-
CYGEDX Cytology and Genetics (English Translation). Translation of TGANAK. (Allerton Press Inc., 150 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10011) V.8- 1974-
CYTOAN Cytologia. (Japan Pub. Trading Co. (USA), 1255 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103) V.1- 1929-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
ENVRAL Environmental Research. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1967-
ETOPFR Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology (Elsevier Science, P.O.Box 7247-7682,Philadelphia,PA 19170 -7682,USA OR Elsevier Science B.V.,P.O.Box 1270,1000 BG Amsterdam,The Netherlands) V.1- Feb.1996-
ETPAEK Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. (Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena, Postfach 100537, D-07705 Jena, Germany) V.44- 1992-
EXPEAM Experientia. (Birkhaeuser Verlag, POB 133, CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1945-
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
FLUOA4 Fluoride. (International Soc. for Fluoride Research, Inc., POB 692, Warren, MI 48090) V.3- 1970-
FNSCA6 Forensic Science. (Lausanne, Switzerland) V.1-11, 1972-78. For pub lisher information, see FSINDR.
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GNAMAP Gigiena Naselennykh Mest. Hygiene in Populated Places. (Izdatel'stvo Zdorov'ya, Kiev, USSR) V.7- 1967-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HBAMAK "Abdernalden's Handbuch der Biologischen Arbeitsmethoden." (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.)
HBPTO* Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Robert Krieger ed, Academic press, 2001
HETOEA Human & Experimental Toxicology. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Brunel Road, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG21 2XS, UK) V.9- 1990-
HKXUDL Huanjing Kexue Xuebao. Environmental Sciences Journal. (China International Book Trading Corp., POB 2820, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1981-
ICHUDW Yichuan. Heredity. (China International Book Trading Corp., POB 2820, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1979-
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
IMSUAI Industrial Medicine and Surgery. (Northbrook, IL) V.18-42, 1949-73. For publisher information, see IOHSA5.
IMSUDL IARC Monographs, Supplement. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) No.1- 1979-
IVEJAC Indian Veterinary Journal. (Dr. R. Krishnamurti, G.M.V.C., 8 Avenue Rd., Madras 600 034, India) V.1- 1924-
JAMAAP JAMA, Journal of the American Medical Association. (AMA, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610) V.1- 1883-
JEBIDP Journal of Environmental Biology. (Academy of Environmental Biology, India, 657/5, Civil Lines (South), Muzaffarnagar, 251001, India) V.1- 1980-
JEENAI Journal of Economic Entomology. (Entomological Soc. of America, 4603 Calvert Rd., College Park, MD 20740) V.1- 1908-
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JONUAI Journal of Nutrition. (Subscription Dept., 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20014) V.1- 1928-
JRPFA4 Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. (Biochemical Soc. Book Depot, POB 32, Commerce Way, Colchester, Essex CO2 8HP, UK) V.1- 1960-
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NETEEC Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987-
NEZTAF New Zealand Veterinary Journal. (New Zealand Veterinary Assoc., POB 524, Wellington, 1, New Zealand) V.1- 1952-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NIPOAC Nippon Shonika Gakkai Zasshi. Journal of the Japanese Pediatrics Society. (Nippon Shonika Gakkai, 1-29-8 Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan) V.55- 1951-
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
NYKZAU Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. (Nippon Yakuri Gakkai, c/o Kyoto Daigaku Igakubu Yakurigaku Kyoshitsu, Konoe-cho, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606, Japan) V.40- 1944-
OYYAA2 Oyo Yakuri. Pharmacometrics. (Oyo Yakuri Kenkyukai, CPO Box 180, Sendai 980-91, Japan) V.1- 1967-
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
REPTED Reproductive Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
RMLIAC Revue Medicale de Liege. (c/o Institute de Medicine, Rue Alex Bouvy, 13, 4020, Liege, Liege, Belgium) V.1- 1946-
TIVIEQ Toxicology In Vitro. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1987-
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VCVN5* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov V-VII groopp" (Hazardous substances. Inornanic substances containing V-VII group elements), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1989.
WATRAG Water Research. (Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 0BW, UK) V.1- 1967-
WDZAEK Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi. Journal of Health Toxicology. (Weisheng Dulixue Zazhi Bianjibu, Dongdaqiao, Chaoyang Menwai, Beijing, Peop. Rep. China) V.1- 1987
XEURAQ U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, University of Rochester, Research and Development Reports. (Rochester, NY)

Used in chemical cleaning, for fluoridation of drinking water, as fungicide, insecticide

NIOSH PROFILE (ALUMINUM REDUCTION PLANTS), FIRL, 4/78

NIOSH PROFILE (LITHIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS), SRC, 4/78

FDA-over the counter drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Drug
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

ALT CAS #: 39287-69-9
Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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