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Pyridine

RTECS #: UR8400000

CAS #: 110-86-1


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 79.11 MF: C5H5N


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  5. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  6. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  7. REVIEWS:
  8. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  9. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  10. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  11. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. Azabenzene
  2. Azine
  3. NCI - C55301
  4. Piridina (Italian)
  1. Pirydyna (Polish)
  2. Pyridin (German)
  3. Pyridine (ACGIH:OSHA)
  4. RCRA waste number U196


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
skin
rabbit
500 mg/24 hour mild 85JCAE -,839,1986


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
mouse
700 mg/kg JJATDK 20,389,2000
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 6 mmol/L/2 hour (-enzymatic activation step) CNREA8 39,4152,1979
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Saccharomyes cerevisiae 10,900 ppm MUREAV 163,23,1986


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
N/R
N/R N/R N/R


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25,480 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-470,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25,480 mg/kg/104 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTIS** PB2000-106687
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 11,025 mg/kg/105 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTIS** PB2000-106687
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 24,024 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Bladder tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-470,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 17,472 mg/kg/104 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
NTIS** PB2000-106687
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 7,350 mg/kg/105 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
NTIS** PB2000-106687
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 26,208 mg/kg/104 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Reproductive: Tumorigenic effects: Testicular tumors
NTIS** PB2000-106687


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 10 gm/m3 N/R GTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 870 mg/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JPHYA7 17,272,1894
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 950 mg/kg N/R PBPHAW 1,542,1965
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 866 mg/kg N/R NTIS** PB195-158
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 15 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage)

Behavioral: General anesthetic
JIDIAQ 42,473,1928
intravenous
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 880 mg/kg Cardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
TXCYAC 4,165,1975
intravenous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 420 mg/kg Behavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
PLRCAT 5,341,1973
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 360 mg/kg Behavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
PLRCAT 5,341,1973
oral
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 4 gm/kg Behavioral: General anesthetic

Behavioral: Tremor

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes
JPHYA7 17,272,1894
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,500 mg/kg N/R GTPZAB 32(10),25,1988
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,500 mg/kg Behavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
PLRCAT 5,341,1973
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Coma
JJATDK 20,389,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 1,000 mg/kg Liver: Hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis), diffuse

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
JJATDK 20,389,2000
parenteral
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 870 mg/kg N/R 85IXA4 -,695,1948
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,250 mg/kg Behavioral: Sleep

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
PLRCAT 5,341,1973
subcutaneous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 866 mg/kg N/R CTOXAO 4,185,1971
subcutaneous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kg N/R 85IXA4 -,695,1948
skin
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1 gm/kg N/R 85JCAE -,839,1986


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 mg/m3/24 hour/60 day- continuous Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other proteins
GISAAA 31(11),3,1966
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 494 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
TOLED5 85,173,1996
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,329 ng/kg/3 day- intermittent Liver: Other changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Cytochrome oxidases (indlucing oxidative phosphrylation)
TOLED5 144,55,2003
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 420 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight NTPTR* NTP-TR-470,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,730 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain NTPTR* NTP-TR-470,2000
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25 mg/kg/14 week- intermittent Blood: Change in clotting factors

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
GISAAA 23(7),30,1958


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 1 ppm DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 77,564,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 77,564,2000
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 77,564,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
PAREAQ 4,1,1952
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 39,69,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 654,114,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,49,2004


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3) DTLVS* 3,220,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3) CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3) CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - ARAB Republic of Egypt time-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 5 ppm (16 mg/m3), JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 5 ppm (16 mg/m3), MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3), OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - EC time-weighted average 15 mg/m3 (5 mL/m3)
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3), short term exposure limit 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 5 ppm (15 mg/m3), VLE 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 16 mg/m3 (5 mL/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 15 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 60 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3), 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 0.9 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 5 ppm (16 mg/m3), JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - NORWAY time-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3), JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 5 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 5 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 30 mg/me, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 5 mg/m3, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 2 ppm (7 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 3 ppm (10 mg/m3), JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 5 ppm (15 mg/m3),KZG- week 10 ppm (30 mg/m3), DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 5 ppm (15 mg/m3), JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 5 ppm (16 mg/m3);
short term exposure limit 10 ppm (33 mg/m3), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed animal carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed animal carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO PYRIDINE-air 10 hour time-weighted average 5 ppm NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 65080;
Number of Industries 22;
Total Number of Facilities 1,103;
Number of Occupations 18;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 29,286
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 65080;
Number of Industries 32;
Total Number of Facilities 1,558;
Number of Occupations 42;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 42,908;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 10,568


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

ATSDR TOXICOLOGY PROFILE (NTIS** PB/93/110831/AS)
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive/dose response: In vitro SCE-nonhuman
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULE FEREAC 47,26992,82
Used as intermediate for pesticide production, in pharmaceuticals, and as solvent
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Pyridine, 1613
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1996: Pyridine, 1613
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (water);clear evidence:mouse
NTP Carcinogenesis studies (drinking water);some evidence:rat NTPTR* NTP-TR-470,2000
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (water);equivocal evidence:rat


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

85IXA4 "Structure et Activite Pharmacodyanmique des Medicaments du Systeme Nerveux Vegetatif," Bovet, D., and F. Bovet-Nitti, New York, S. Karger, 1948
85JCAE "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
CTOXAO Clinical Toxicology. (New York, NY) V.1-18, 1968-81. For publisher information, see JTCTDW.
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
JIDIAQ Journal of Infectious Diseases. (Univ. of Chicago Press, Journals Div., POB 37005, Chicago, IL 60637) V.1- 1904-
JJATDK JAT, Journal of Applied Toxicology. (John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, W. Sussex PO19 1UD, UK) V.1- 1981-
JPHYA7 Journal of Physiology. (Cambridge Univ. Press, 32 E. 57th St., New York, NY 10022) V.1- 1878-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
PAREAQ Pharmacological Reviews. (Williams & Wilkins, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1949-
PBPHAW Progress in Biochemical Pharmacology. (S. Karger AG, Postfach CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland) V.1- 1965-
PLRCAT Pharmacological Research Communications. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1969-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-

Used as intermediate for pesticide production, in pharmaceuticals, and as solvent

NIOSH PROFILE (PYRIDINE), SRC, 4/81

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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