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Hydroquinone

RTECS #: MX3500000

CAS #: 123-31-9


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 110.12 MF: C6H6O2


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. 1,4 - Benzenediol
  2. 1,4 - Dihydroxy - benzeen (Dutch)
  3. 1,4 - Dihydroxybenzen (Czech)
  4. 1,4 - Dihydroxybenzene
  5. 1,4 - Dihydroxy - benzol (German)
  6. 1,4 - Diidrobenzene (Italian)
  7. Arctuvin
  8. Benzene, p - dihydroxy -
  9. Benzohydroquinone
  10. Benzoquinol
  11. Black and white bleaching cream
  12. Dihydroxybenzene
  13. Dihydroxybenzene (OSHA)
  14. Eldopaque
  15. Eldoquin
  16. Hydrochinon (Czech, Polish)
  17. Hydroquinol
  18. Hydroquinole
  1. Hydroquinone (ACGIH:OSHA)
  2. Idrochinone (Italian)
  3. NCI - C55834
  4. Phiaquin
  5. Pyrogentistic acid
  6. Quinol
  7. Tecquinol
  8. Tenox HQ
  9. Tequinol
  10. USAF EK - 356
  11. alpha - Hydroquinone
  12. beta - Quinol
  13. p - Benzenediol
  14. p - Dihydroxybenzene
  15. p - Dioxobenzene
  16. p - Dioxybenzene
  17. p - Hydroquinone
  18. p - Hydroxyphenol


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
skin
human
2% mild ARDEAC 93,589,1966
skin
human
5% severe ARDEAC 93,589,1966
skin
human
3% VCVGK* -,230,1994


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 20 mg/L EMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
cytogenetic analysis hamster embryo 30 Ámol/L MUREAV 373,113,1997
cytogenetic analysis hamster lung 80 Ámol/L/2 hour (-enzymatic activation step) MUTAEX 18,491,2003
cytogenetic analysis human leukocyte 2 Ámol/L/48 hour CRNGDP 21,1485,2000
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 50 Ámol/L/48 hour EMMUEG 45,388,2005
cytogenetic analysis human other cell types 20 Ámol/L/48 hour MUREAV 577S,1,2005
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 20 Ámol/L/48 hour MUREAV 577S,1,2005
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 5 Ámol/L/48 hour EMS37* -,444,2006
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 5 Ámol/L EMS37* -,444,2006
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
mouse
40 mg/kg MUREAV 263,223,1991
DNA adduct human bone marrow 500 Ámol/L CRNGDP 12,1181,1991
DNA damage hamster ovary 2.5 mg/L/3 hour MUREAV 537,151,2003
DNA damage human lung 800 Ámol/L CBINA8 81,197,1992
DNA damage human lymphocyte 100 Ámol/L EMMUEG 26,305,1995
DNA damage human other cell types 20 Ámol/L/48 hour MUREAV 577S,1,2005
DNA damage human lymphocyte 20 Ámol/L/48 hour MUREAV 577S,1,2005
DNA damage human other cell types 66 mg/kg/48 hour MUREAV 649,54,2008
DNA damage other microorganisms 1 mmol/L MUREAV 368,235,1996
DNA damage rat liver 400 Ámol/L CALEDQ 63,47,1992
DNA inhibition hamster lung 500 Ámol/L CRTOEC 4,151,1991
DNA inhibition human HeLa cell 100 Ámol/L MUREAV 92,427,1982
DNA inhibition mouse lymphocyte 10 Ámol/L MOPMA3 28,560,1985
unscheduled DNA synthesis hamster embryo 1 Ámol/L MUREAV 373,113,1997
unscheduled DNA synthesis oral
rat
8 gm/kg JJIND8 74,1283,1985
mutation in microorganisms Escherichia coli 100 Ág/plate (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 467,41,2000
mutation in microorganisms mouse lymphocyte 2,500 Ág/L (+enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 11,91,1988
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 2 Ámol/plate (+enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 90,91,1981
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 750 nmol/plate (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 371,293,1996
micronucleus test hamster lung 17,500 nmol/L EVHPAZ 82,81,1989
micronucleus test human lymphocyte 75 Ámol/L MUREAV 249,201,1991
micronucleus test human lymphocyte 40 Ámol/L/3 hour EMMUEG 43,258,2004
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
20 mg/kg MUREAV 341,29,1994
micronucleus test subcutaneous
mouse
240 mg/kg/6 day- continuous CBINA8 39,129,1982
micronucleus test intraperitoneal
mouse
3 mg/kg/6 day TOLED5 121,15,2001
micronucleus test oral
mouse
80 mg/kg MUREAV 208,61,1988
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Aspergillus nidulans 1 mmol/L MUTAEX 2,235,1987
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster embryo 10 Ámol/L MUREAV 373,113,1997
mutation in mammalian somatic cells mouse lymphocyte 1,250 Ág/L EMMUEG 11,91,1988
morphological transform hamster embryo 3 Ámol/L MUREAV 373,113,1997
morphological transform mouse fibroblast 10 Ág/L/21 day (-enzymatic activation step) EMMUEG 37,231,2001
other mutation test systems hamster embryo 2 mg/L MUREAV 287,47,1993
other mutation test systems human lymphocyte 5 Ámol/L CNREA8 45,2471,1985
other mutation test systems oral
mouse
120 mg/kg MUREAV 343,157,1995
other mutation test systems mouse lymphocyte 10 Ámol/L TOLED5 29,161,1985
other mutation test systems mouse other cell types 25 Ámol/L CBTOE2 2,231,1986
other mutation test systems rabbit bone marrow 6 Ámol/L CBINA8 50,203,1984
sister chromatid exchange hamster embryo 1 Ámol/L MUREAV 373,113,1997
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 500 Ág/L EMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
sister chromatid exchange hamster lung 20 Ámol/L EVHPAZ 82,81,1989
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 5 Ámol/L CNREA8 45,2471,1985
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 80 Ámol/L/3 hour EMMUEG 43,258,2004
sister chromatid exchange intravenous
mouse
600 mg/kg/3 day VCVGK* -,230,1994
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction Aspergillus nidulans 1 mmol/L MUREAV 215,187,1989
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
6 pph MUREAV 469,215,2000
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction hamster embryo 1,250 Ág/L MUREAV 287,47,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction human lymphocyte 6 mg/L MUREAV 287,57,1993
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction human lymphocyte 75 Ámol/L MUREAV 322,9,1994
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction intraperitoneal
mouse
80 mg/kg MUTAEX 4,208,1989
specific locus test hamster lung 6 Ámol/L/3 day FCTOD7 44,1940,2006
specific locus test rat kidney 25 Ámol/L/4 hour MOCAE8 31,37,2001


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,500 mg/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) AJANA2 110,29,1962
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 667 mg/kg (11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Post- implantation mortality (e.g., dead and/or resorbed implants per total number of implants) TJADAB 41,43,1990
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg (11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth) TJADAB 41,43,1990
oral
rabbit
lowest published toxic dose: 1,950 mg/kg (6-18 day pregnant) Behavioral: Ataxia

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system
NTIS** OTS0571419
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5 mg/kg (1 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Ovaries, fallopian tubes ENDOAO 57,466,1955
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 550 mg/kg (11 day prior to copulation) Reproductive: Maternal effects: Menstrual cycle changes or disorders ENDOAO 57,466,1955
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 5,100 mg/kg (51 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct

Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Male fertility index (e.g., # males impregnating females per # males exposed to fertile nonpregnant females)
SSZBAC 12,491,1965


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25,750 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-366,1989
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 699 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
JJCREP 82,1211,1991
oral
mouse
toxic dose : 26 gm/kg/2 year- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors
FCTOD7 30,737,1992
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 174,720 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors

Liver: Tumors
CALEDQ 143,71,1999
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 174,720 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Tumorigenic: Facilitates action of known carcinogens

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Tumors
CALEDQ 143,71,1999
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 25,750 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Liver: Tumors

Endocrine: Thyroid weight (goiter)
NTIS** PB90-240389
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 25,750 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
NTPTR* NTP-TR-366,1989
oral
rat
toxic dose : 256 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
EPASR* 8EHQ-0491-1210
oral
rat
toxic dose : 349 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
JJCREP 82,1211,1991
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12,875 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Neoplastic by RTECS criteria

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Kidney tumors
NTIS** PB90-240389
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 12,875 mg/kg/103 week- intermittent Tumorigenic: Carcinogenic by RTECS criteria

Blood: Leukemia
NTIS** PB90-240389


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 200 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,229,1994
intraperitoneal
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,229,1994
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 170 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,229,1994
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 125 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,229,1994
intravenous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 80 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,229,1994
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 115 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement
FEPRA7 8,348,1949
intravenous
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 115 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,229,1994
intravenous
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kg N/R AGSOA6 3,311,1962
oral
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 50 mg/kg N/R NTIS** OTS0555537
oral
cat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 42 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VCVGK* -,229,1994
oral
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
FEPRA7 8,348,1949
oral
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VCVGK* -,229,1994
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 550 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement
FEPRA7 8,348,1949
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 550 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VCVGK* -,229,1994
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 29 mg/kg N/R 34ZIAG -,321,1969
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 170 mg/kg Behavioral: Coma

Cardiac: Pulse rate increased without fall in BP

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Cyanosis
AMILAN 7,79,1927
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 480 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
TPKVAL 15,136,1979
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 245 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 38(8),6,1973
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg/12 hour Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above MUREAV 208,61,1988
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 350 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VCVGK* -,229,1994
oral
pigeon
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 300 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Behavioral: Excitement

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting
FEPRA7 8,348,1949
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 302 mg/kg N/R NTIS** OTS0555537
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 320 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VCVGK* -,229,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 100 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor FCTOD7 45,70,2007
oral
rat
lethal dose : 345 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Blood: Other changes
FCTOD7 45,70,2007
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 367.3 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Blood: Other changes
FCTOD7 45,70,2007
oral
rat
lethal dose : 285 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold
FCTOD7 45,70,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning FCTOD7 45,70,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay) FCTOD7 45,70,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 96 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Recording from peripheral motor nerve

Cardiac: Change in rate

Vascular: BP lowering not characterized in autonomic section
TPKVAL 15,136,1979
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)

Behavioral: Ataxia
TPKVAL 15,136,1979
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kg N/R IPSTB3 3,93,1976
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 550 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Behavioral: Tetany

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Dyspnea
VCVGK* -,229,1994
parenteral
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 190 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold

Cardiac: Other changes
AEPPAE 166,437,1932
subcutaneous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kg Behavioral: Tremor

Vascular: Regional or general arteriolar or venous dilation

Blood: Methemoglobinemia- Carboxhemoglobinemia
AEXPBL 72,241,1913
subcutaneous
cat
lowest published lethal dose: 50 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,229,1994
subcutaneous
dog
lowest published lethal dose: 100 mg/kg N/R AEPPAE 183,319,1936
subcutaneous
frog
lowest published lethal dose: 190 mg/kg N/R HBTXAC 1,160,1955
subcutaneous
guinea pig
lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,229,1994
subcutaneous
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 182 mg/kg N/R ZGIMAL 2,333,1947
subcutaneous
rat
lowest published lethal dose: 300 mg/kg N/R VCVGK* -,229,1994
skin
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph Skin: After topical application: Dermatitis, allergic AJCDE* 13,125,2002
skin
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 5,970 mg/kg N/R GISAAA 45(10),16,1980
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >2,000 mg/kg/24 hour N/R FCTOD7 45,70,2007
unreported route
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 150 mg/kg N/R BJCAAI 6,160,1952
unreported route
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 720 mg/kg N/R GTPPAF 8,145,1972


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
rat
lowest published toxic concentration: 10 mg/m3/4 hour/17 week- intermittent Blood: Normocytic anemia

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Blood: Changes in erythrocyte (RBC) count
GTPZAB 22(9),35,1978
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg/5 day- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other oxidoreductases

Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair
BPBLEO 30,2031,2007
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 650 mg/kg/17 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Blood: Changes in leukocyte (WBC) count
TXCYAC 220,126,2006
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 800 mg/kg/22 day- intermittent Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Increased immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 241,47,2007
intravenous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in spleen VCVGK* -,230,1994
oral
cat
lowest published toxic dose: 220 mg/kg/14 day- intermittent Behavioral: Ataxia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Other changes

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AEPPAE 183,319,1936
oral
cat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,596 mg/kg/6 week- continuous Skin and Appendages: Other: Hair VCVGK* -,230,1994
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 13 gm/kg/13 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-366,1989
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 32,500 mg/kg/65 week- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Changes in brain weight

Liver: Changes in liver weight

Blood: Changes in cell count (unspecified)
NTPTR* NTP-TR-366,1989
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 3 gm/kg/14 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field NTPTR* NTP-TR-366,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 236 gm/kg/9 week- continuous Gastrointestinal: Ulceration or bleeding from stomach

Blood: Changes in bone marrow not included in above

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
PSEBAA 84,684,1953
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 13 gm/kg/13 week- intermittent Liver: Changes in liver weight

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
NTPTR* NTP-TR-366,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6 gm/kg/14 day- intermittent Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field NTPTR* NTP-TR-366,1989
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Other enzymes
FAATDF 23,391,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 250 mg/kg/1 week- intermittent Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Phosphatases FAATDF 23,397,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,500 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FAATDF 23,397,1994
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,802,500 mg/kg/103 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
PSEBAA -,684,1953
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 18,200 mg/kg/26 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain VCVGK* -,230,1994
oral
rat
: 640 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent Behavioral: Tremor FCTOD7 45,70,2007
oral
rat
: 1,920 mg/kg/6 week- intermittent Behavioral: Tremor FCTOD7 45,70,2007
oral
rat
: 4,000 mg/kg/4 week- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
FCTOD7 45,70,2007
oral
rat
: 1,000 mg/kg/1 week- intermittent Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
FCTOD7 45,70,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,275 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Liver: Other changes FCTOD7 45,1620,2007
skin
human
lowest published toxic concentration: 1 pph/48 hour- continuous Skin: After topical application: Dermatitis, allergic AJCDE* 13,59,2002
skin
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 150 mg/kg/3 day- intermittent Skin: After topical application: Cutaneous sensitization (experimental)

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 212,69,2005


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 2 mg/m3 DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Confirmed animal carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Limited Evidence IMEMDT 71,691,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 15,155,1977
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human No Adequate Data IMEMDT 15,155,1977
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 71,691,1999
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Group 3 IMEMDT 71,691,1999
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 566,99,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 47,75,1978
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 488,151,2001
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 140-141,53,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,201,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
EMMUEG 43,143,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 627,10,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,555,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 584,1,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BCLPT* 96,131,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 658,215,2008


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 2 mg/m3 DTLVS* 3,133,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 2 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 2 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 2 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 2 mg/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 2 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 2 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK ceiling concentration 2 mg/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 2 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 4 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 2 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 2 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 2 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 2 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 2 mg/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 2 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 2 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 4 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - RUSSIA short term exposure limit 1 mg/m3, Skin, JUN2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWEDEN time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 1.5 mg/m3, Sen, JUN2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 2 mg/m3,KZG- week 2 mg/m3, Skin, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 2 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 0.5 mg/m3, 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Confirmed animal carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Confirmed animal carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO HYDROQUINONE-air ceiling concentration 2 mg/m3/15 minute NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: M0747;
Number of Industries 143;
Total Number of Facilities 24,380;
Number of Occupations 88;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 116,192
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: M0747;
Number of Industries 177;
Total Number of Facilities 40,917;
Number of Occupations 136;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 442,749;
Total Number of Female Employees Exposed 144,063


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
EPA TSCA 8(a) PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT INFORMATION, FINAL RULE FEREAC 47,26992,82
Used as an industrial chemical, chemical intermediate, pharmaceutical and veterinary drug
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: Hydroquinone, 5004
NTP Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);some evidence:mouse,rat NTPTR* NTP-TR-366,1989
NCI Carcinogenesis Studies (gavage);equivocal evidence:mouse,rat


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

34ZIAG "Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals," Deichmann, W.B., New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1969
AEPPAE Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Berlin, Ger.) V.110-253, 1925-66. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AEXPBL Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. (Leipzig, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1-109, 1873-1925. For publisher information, see NSAPCC.
AGSOA6 Agressologie. Revue Internationale de Physio-Biologie et de Pharmacologie Appliquees aux Effets de l'Agression. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.1- 1960-
AJANA2 American Journal of Anatomy. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1-192, 1901-91.
AJCDE* American Journal of Contact Dermatitis: Official Journal of the American Contact Dermatitis Society (Philadelphia, PA : W.B. Saunders, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich) V.1-14 1990-2003.
AMILAN Annales de Medecine Legale. Criminologie, Police Scientifique et Toxicologie. (Paris, France) V.1, 1920-51; V.39-47, 1958-67. For publisher information, see MLDCAS.
ARDEAC Archives of Dermatology. (AMA, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610) V.82- 1960-
BCLPT* Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology (Copenhagen, Denmark : Nordic Pharmacological Society Oxford, UK : Distributed by Blackwell Munksgaard) V.94- 2004-
BJCAAI British Journal of Cancer. (Macmillan Press Ltd., Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hants. RG21 2XS, UK) V.1- 1947-
BPBLEO Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. (Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 2-12-15-201 Shibuya Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan) V.16- 1993-
CALEDQ Cancer Letters (Shannon, Ireland). (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1975-
CBINA8 Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1969-
CBTOE2 Cell Biology and Toxicology. (Princeton Scientific Pub., Inc., 301 N. Harrison St., CN 5279, Princeton, NJ 08540) V.1- 1984-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CNREA8 Cancer Research. (Public Ledger Building, Suit 816, 6th & Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia, PA 19106) V.1- 1941-
CRNGDP Carcinogenesis (London). (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1980-
CRTOEC Chemical Research in Toxicology. (American Chemical Soc., Distribution Office Dept. 223, POB 57/36, West End Station, Washington, DC 20037) V.1- 1988-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
EMS37*
ENDOAO Endocrinology (Baltimore). (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21203) V.1- 1917-
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
EPASR* United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M St., SW, Washington, DC 20460) History unknown.
EVHPAZ EHP, Environmental Health Perspectives. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) No.1- 1972-
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FEPRA7 Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-46, 1942-87.
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
GTPPAF Gigiena Truda i Professional'naya Patologiya v Estonskoi SSR. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Pathology in the Estonian SSR. (Institut Eksperimental'noi i Klinicheskoi Meditsiny Ministerstva Zdravookhraneniya Estonskoi SSR, Tallinn, USSR) V.8- 1972-
GTPZAB Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. Labor Hygiene and Occupational Diseases. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1-36, 1957-1992. For publisher information, see MTPEEI
HBTXAC "Handbook of Toxicology," 4 vols., Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co., 1956-59
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
IPSTB3 International Polymer Science and Technology. (Rapra Technology Ltd., Shawbury, Shrewsbury, Shropshire SY4 4NR, UK)
JJCREP Japanese Journal of Cancer Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. BV, POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.76- 1985-
JJIND8 JNCI, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. (Washington, DC) V.61-79, 1978-87. For publisher information, see JNCIEQ.
MOCAE8 Molecular Carcinogenesis. (John Wiley & Sons, 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158) V.1- 1988-
MOPMA3 Molecular Pharmacology. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1965-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTPTR* National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series. (Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) No.206-
PSEBAA Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1903/04-
SSZBAC Sbornik Vysoke Skoly Zemedelske v Brne, Rada B: Spisy Veterinarni. Publications of the Agricultural University in Brno, Series B: Works of the Faculty of Vetinerary Science. (Brno, Czechoslovakia) 1953-66. For publisher information, see AUAAB7.
TJADAB Teratology, The International Journal of Abnormal Development. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1968-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TPKVAL Toksikologiya Novykh Promyshlennykh Khimicheskikh Veshchestv. Toxicology of New Industrial Chemical Substances. For English translation, see TNICS*. (Izdatel'stvo Meditsina, Moscow, USSR) No.1- 1961-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VCVGK* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia". (Hazardous substances. Galogen and oxygen containing substances), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1994.
ZGIMAL Zeitschrift fuer die Gesamte Innere Medizin und Ihre Grenzgebiete. (Buchexport, Postfach 160, Leipzig DDR-7010, Ger. Dem. Rep.) V.1- 1946-

Used as an industrial chemical, chemical intermediate, pharmaceutical and veterinary drug

FDA-over the counter drug

RTECS Compound Description:
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Natural Product
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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