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Acetic acid, (2,4 - dichlorophenoxy) -

RTECS #: AG6825000

CAS #: 94-75-7


UPDATE: May 2009 MW: 221.04 MF: C8H6Cl2O3


NOTE:

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
  1. SYNONYMS:
  2. SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA:
  3. MUTATION DATA:
  4. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA:
  5. TUMORIGENIC DATA:
  6. ACUTE TOXICITY DATA:
  7. OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA:
  8. REVIEWS:
  9. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:
  10. NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:
  11. STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:
  12. REFERENCES:

SYNONYMS:

  1. (2,4 - Dichloor - fenoxy) - azijnzuur (Dutch)
  2. (2,4 - Dichlor - phenoxy) - essigsaeure (German)
  3. 2,4 - D
  4. 2,4 - D (ACGIH:OSHA)
  5. 2,4 - D acid
  6. 2,4 - Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid
  7. 2,4 - Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
  8. 2,4 - Dichlorphenoxyacetic acid
  9. 2,4 - Dwuchlorofenoksyoctowy kwas (Polish)
  10. Acide 2,4 - dichloro phenoxyacetique (French)
  11. Acido (2,4 - dicloro - fenossi) - acetico (Italian)
  12. Acme LV 4
  13. Agrotect
  14. Amidox
  15. Amoxone
  16. Aqua - Kleen
  17. B - Selektonon
  18. BH 2,4 - D
  19. Barrage
  20. Brush - rhap
  21. Chipco turf herbicide D
  22. Chloroxone
  23. Citrus fix
  24. Crop rider
  25. DMA - 4
  26. Debroussaillant 600
  27. Deherban
  28. Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
  29. Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (OSHA)
  30. Dicopur
  31. Dormone
  32. ENT 8,538
  33. Emulsamine BK
  34. Emulsamine E - 3
  35. Envert 171
  36. Envert DT
  37. Estone
  38. Farmco
  39. Fernimine
  1. Fernoxone
  2. Ferxone
  3. Foredex 75
  4. Hedonal (the herbicide)
  5. Herbidal
  6. Hivol - 44
  7. Ipaner
  8. Kwas 2,4 - dwuchlorofenoksyoctowy (Polish)
  9. Kwasu 2,4 - dwuchlorofenoksyoctowego (Polish)
  10. Kyselina 2,4 - dichlorfenoxyoctova (Czech)
  11. Lawn - keep
  12. Macrondray
  13. Miracle
  14. Moxone
  15. NSC 423
  16. Netagrone
  17. Netagrone 600
  18. Pennamine
  19. Pennamine D
  20. Phenox
  21. Pielik
  22. Plantgard
  23. RCRA waste number U240
  24. Rhodia
  25. Superormone concentre
  26. U 46DP
  27. U - 5043
  28. Vergemaster
  29. Verton 2D
  30. Vidon 638
  31. Weed TOX
  32. Weed - Ag - Bar
  33. Weed - rhap
  34. Weedar - 64
  35. Weedatul
  36. Weedez Wonder BAR
  37. Weedone LV4
  38. Weedtrol


SKIN AND EYE IRRITATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
eye
rabbit
750 µg/24 hour severe 28ZPAK -,279,1972
skin
rabbit
500 mg/24 hour mild 28ZPAK -,279,1972


MUTATION DATA AND REFERENCES:

SYSTEM TEST ROUTE/
ORGANISM/
TISSUE
DOSE REFERENCE
cytogenetic analysis cattle kidney 1 ppm ITCSAF 8,416,1973
cytogenetic analysis hamster ovary 2,400 mg/L EMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 20 µg/L CYGEDX 8(3),6,1974
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 0.4 mg/L/24 hour (+/-enzymatic activation step) TXAPA9 197,235,2004
cytogenetic analysis human lymphocyte 0.4 mg/L/48 hour (+/-enzymatic activation step) TXCYAC 200,39,2004
cytogenetic analysis oral
mouse
100 mg/kg CYGEDX 8(3),6,1974
cytogenetic analysis oral
mouse
9.9 mg/kg/3 day MUREAV 494,1,2001
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
mouse
3.5 mg/kg ARTODN 74,560,2000
cytogenetic analysis intraperitoneal
rat
100 µg/kg CYTOAN 52,275,1987
DNA adduct Escherichia coli 20 µmol/L MUREAV 89,95,1981
DNA damage human Ascites tumor 4 mmol/L/36 hour FCTOD7 41,385,2003
DNA damage human fibroblast 10.9 mmol/L/1 hour TOLED5 147,35,2004
DNA damage mammal (species unspecified) lymphocyte 1 mmol/L PYTCAS 11,3135,1972
DNA damage oral
rat
0.14 mg/kg/2 week- intermittent TXAPA9 197,202,2004
DNA damage salmon sperm 1 mmol/L PYTCAS 11,3135,1972
DNA inhibition hamster ovary 1 mmol/L TOLED5 29,137,1985
DNA inhibition oral
mouse
200 mg/kg MUREAV 55,197,1978
DNA repair Bacillus subtilis 5 mg/disc NTIS** PB80-133226
DNA repair Escherichia coli 5 mg/disc NTIS** PB80-133226
unscheduled DNA synthesis human fibroblast 1 µmol/L MUREAV 42,161,1977
mutation in microorganisms other microorganisms 1 gm/L (-enzymatic activation step) MILEDM 5,103,1977
mutation in microorganisms Salmonella typhimurium 250 µg/plate (-enzymatic activation step) MUREAV 204,615,1988
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 150 mg/L (-enzymatic activation step) ECBUDQ 27,193,1978
mutation in microorganisms Saccharomyes cerevisiae 4 mmol/L/4 hour ARTODN 74,560,2000
micronucleus test human lymphocyte 5 µmol/L/48 hour MUREAV 521,165,2002
micronucleus test human lymphocyte 0.4 mg/L/48 hour (+/-enzymatic activation step) TXCYAC 200,39,2004
gene conversion and mitotic recombination Aspergillus nidulans 4 µmol/L MUREAV 204,615,1988
mutation in mammalian somatic cells hamster lung 10 µmol/L CBINA8 19,369,1977
sister chromatid exchange hamster ovary 167 mg/L EMMUEG 10(Suppl 10),1,1987
sister chromatid exchange human lymphocyte 10 mg/L JOHEA8 73,224,1982
sister chromatid exchange oral
mouse
100 mg/kg FCTOD7 39,941,2001
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction oral
Drosophila melanogaster
25 ppm ECBUDQ 27,190,1978
sex chromosome loss and nondisjunction unreported route
Drosophila melanogaster
1,000 ppm/15 day ECBUDQ 27,182,1978
specific locus test oral
Drosophila melanogaster
5 mmol/L MUREAV 319,237,1993
specific locus test multiple
Drosophila melanogaster
10 ppb EMMUEG 25,148,1995
sperm morphology oral
mouse
33 mg/kg MUREAV 494,1,2001


REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,600 mg/kg (9-25 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 18,691,1996
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 600 mg/kg (9-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NETEEC 18,691,1996
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg (15-24 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic NETEEC 18,691,1996
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg (9-15 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) NETEEC 25,607,2003
intraperitoneal
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1,700 mg/kg (9-25 day after birth) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
NETEEC 25,607,2003
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg (90 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Testes, epididymis, sperm duct FEREAC 70,43309,2005
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg (7-11 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth) BECTA6 6,559,1971
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 20 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) FEREAC 67,10624,2002
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system FEREAC 67,10624,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 707 mg/kg (11-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
AECTCV 6,33,1977
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg (6-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear
NTIS** PB223-160
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 438 mg/kg (8-12 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) TCMUD8 7,7,1987
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 715 mg/kg (6-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TXCYAC 165,39,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 7,150 mg/kg (6-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Immune and reticuloendothelial system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Other postnatal measures or effects
TXCYAC 165,39,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 407 mg/kg (6-16 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain) VHTODE 42,129,2000
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg (14-18 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Live birth index (Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured after birth) EMMUEG 42,37,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 220 µg/kg (1-22 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Blood and lymphatic systems (including spleen and marrow) GISAAA 50(10),76,1985
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 1 gm/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death
TXAPA9 22,14,1972
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 125 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system FCTXAV 9,801,1971
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 500 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Urogenital system
FCTXAV 9,801,1971
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 80 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Musculoskeletal system CKSCDN 24,29,1998
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,150 mg/kg (16-22 day pregnant/23 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NRTXDN 24,149,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 400 mg/kg (7-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Other effects to embryo or fetus
GISAAA 40,102,1975
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg (multigenerations) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
NRTXDN 24,149,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 2,100 mg/kg (16-22 day pregnant/23 day after birth) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
NRTXDN 24,149,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 70 mg/kg (multigeneration) Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Delayed effects
NRTXDN 24,149,2003
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 240 mg/kg (16 day after birth) Reproductive: Other effects on female

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Growth statistics (e.g., reduced weight gain)

Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Biochemical and metabolic
FCTOD7 44,8,2006
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 750 mg/kg (6-15 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on newborn: Weaning or lactation index (e.g., # alive at weaning per # alive at day 4) FEREAC 69,75066,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,200 mg/kg (31 day male) Reproductive: Paternal effects: Prostate, seminal vesicle, Cowper's gland, accessory glands

Reproductive: Other effects on male
TOXID9 -,18,2008
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 882 mg/kg (6-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetal death

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Central nervous system

Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Extra embryonic structures (e.g., placenta, umbilical cord)
NTIS** PB223-160
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg (6-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on embryo or fetus: Fetotoxicity (except death, e.g., stunted fetus)

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Eye, ear

Reproductive: Specific developmental abnormalities: Craniofacial (including nose and tongue)
NTIS** PB223-160
subcutaneous
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 900 mg/kg (6-14 day pregnant) Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Pre- implantation mortality (e.g., reduction in number of implants per female; total number of implants per corpora lutea)

Reproductive: Effects on fertility: Litter size (e.g., # fetuses per litter; measured before birth)
NTIS** PB223-160


TUMORIGENIC DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 32,850 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Tumorigenic: Equivocal tumorigenic agent by RTECS criteria

Brain and Coverings: Tumors
FEREAC 67,10624,2002


ACUTE TOXICITY DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
inhalation
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1.79 gm/m3/4 hour N/R FEREAC 67,10625,2002
inhalation
rat
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): >1.8 gm/m3/4 hour N/R FEREAC 69,75066,2004
inhalation
rabbit
lethal concentration (50 percent kill): 1,800 mg/m3 N/R PESFO* -,253,1998
intraperitoneal
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 666 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Coma
JIHTAB 29,85,1947
intraperitoneal
mouse
lowest published lethal dose: 125 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 23,288,1972
intraperitoneal
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 666 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Coma
JIHTAB 29,85,1947
intraperitoneal
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Coma
JIHTAB 29,85,1947
intravenous
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 400 mg/kg Peripheral Nerve and Sensation: Spastic paralysis with/without sensory change

Behavioral: Muscle weakness

Behavioral: Coma
JIHTAB 29,85,1947
oral
wild bird
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 200 mg/kg N/R PESFO* -,253,1998
oral
chicken
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 541 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Gastritis

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Liver: Fatty liver degeneration
AJVRAH 15,622,1954
oral
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kg Behavioral: Stiffness

Behavioral: Coma
AEHLAU 7,202,1963
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
JTCTDW 38,747,2000
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Behavioral: Muscle contraction or spasticity

Gastrointestinal: Hypermotility, diarrhea

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Changes in: Ca
JTCTDW 38,747,2000
oral
dog
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 100 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* -,569,2005
oral
guinea pig
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 469 mg/kg N/R AJVRAH 15,622,1954
oral
hamster
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 500 mg/kg N/R TXAPA9 48,A192,1979
oral
human
lowest published lethal dose: 80 mg/kg Gastrointestinal: Nausea or vomiting

Behavioral: Coma

Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)
ARPAAQ 94,270,1972
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 66 mg/kg N/R HBPTO* 1,60,2001
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 694.4 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
DRSAEA 5,,1990
oral
human
lowest published toxic dose: 66 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Behavioral: Coma

Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning
HBPTO* 1,60,2001
oral
mammal (species unspecified)
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 375 mg/kg N/R SCIEAS 165,465,1969
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 2 gm/kg Behavioral: Coma

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
ARTODN 66,518,1992
oral
man
lowest published toxic dose: 5,714 mg/kg Behavioral: Coma

Cardiac: Change in rate

Lung, Thorax, or Respiration: Respiratory depression
ARTODN 66,518,1992
oral
man
lowest published lethal dose: 93 mg/kg Behavioral: Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold PAREAQ 14,225,1962
oral
mouse
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 347 mg/kg N/R RPZHAW 31,373,1980
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg Behavioral: Somnolence (general depressed activity)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Body temperature decrease
FCTOD7 39,941,2001
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 3,670 mg/kg/18 hour N/R TOIZAG 19,356,1972
oral
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >300 mg/kg N/R ENTOX* -,569,2005
oral
rabbit
lowest published lethal dose: 800 mg/kg N/R AMPMAR 12,26,1951
oral
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 699 mg/kg N/R PESFO* -,253,1998
skin
rat
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,500 mg/kg N/R WRPCA2 9,119,1970
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): 1,400 mg/kg Behavioral: Ataxia

Skin: After topical application: Primary irritation
AFDOAQ 16,3,1952
skin
rabbit
lethal dose (50 percent kill): >2,000 mg/kg N/R FEREAC 69,75066,2004
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 227 mg/kg Behavioral: Muscle weakness FEREAC 67,10624,2002
unreported route
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 227 mg/kg N/R FEREAC 70,43298,2005


OTHER MULTIPLE DOSE DATA AND REFERENCES:

ROUTE/
ORGANISM
DOSE
EFFECT

REFERENCE
intravenous
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 300 mg/kg/6 day- intermittent Musculoskeletal: Changes in teeth and supporting structures

Skin: After systemic exposure: Dermatitis, other

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
JIHTAB 29,85,1947
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 700 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in other cell count (unspecified)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Death in the "MULTIPLE DOSE" data type field
AMIHBC 7,61,1953
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 1,820 mg/kg/52 week- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Liver: Other changes

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)
FAATDF 29,78,1996
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Behavioral: Food intake (animal)

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in testicular weight
FEREAC 70,43298,2005
oral
dog
lowest published toxic dose: 270 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol) FEREAC 70,43298,2005
oral
hamster
lowest published toxic dose: 50,400 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) JTPAE7 29,440,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 91 gm/kg/2 year- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in bladder weight
FAATDF 33,166,1996
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 18,144 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
JTPAE7 29,440,2001
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 23.4 mg/kg/9 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 177,143,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 630 mg/kg/9 day- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Interstitial nephritis

Immunological Including Allergic: Increase in cellular immune response

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 177,143,2002
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10,950 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
FEREAC 69,75066,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 10,950 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight FEREAC 69,75066,2004
oral
mouse
lowest published toxic dose: 1,000 mg/kg/10 day- intermittent Blood: Other changes

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Effect on inflammation or mediation of inflammation
TXCYAC 237,104,2007
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 54,600 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Liver: Changes in liver weight

Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Transaminases
FAATDF 33,166,1996
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 13,650 mg/kg/13 week- continuous Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain FAATDF 9,423,1987
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 200 mg/kg/5 week- intermittent Behavioral: Muscle weakness NTOTDY 5,331,1983
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 54,750 mg/kg/1 year- continuous Eye: Retinal changes pigmentary deposition, retinitis, other)

Behavioral: Change in motor activity (specific assay)
TOXID9 15,23,1995
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 3,780 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis)

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in kidney weight
JTPAE7 29,440,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 418.3 mg/kg/12 week- intermittent Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Changes in tubules (including acute renal failure, acute tubular necrosis) JTPAE7 29,440,2001
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,000 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Liver: Multiple effects

Kidney, Ureter, and Bladder: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FEREAC 69,75066,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 54,750 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Blood: Changes in serum composition (e.g. TP, bilirubin, cholesterol)

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: Multiple enzyme effects
FEREAC 69,75066,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 54,750 mg/kg/2 year- continuous Endocrine: Changes in thyroid weight

Blood: Normocytic anemia

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FEREAC 69,75066,2004
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 9,000 mg/kg/90 day- intermittent Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Blood: Other changes

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain
FEREAC 70,43298,2005
oral
rat
: 2,500 mg/kg/25 day- intermittent Brain and Coverings: Other degenerative changes

Biochemical: Enzyme inhibition, induction, or change in blood or tissue levels: True cholinesterase

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
ENTOX* -,721,2005
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 75 mg/kg/5 day- continuous Behavioral: Alteration of classical conditioning TXCYAC 247,73,2008
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 105 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Endocrine: Change in gonadotropins

Biochemical: Metabolism (intermediary): Other
TXCYAC 247,73,2008
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 175 mg/kg/7 day- continuous Biochemical: Neurotransmitters or modulators (putative): Dopamine at other sites TXCYAC 247,73,2008
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 930 mg/kg/31 day- intermittent Endocrine: Evidence of thyroid hypofunction

Endocrine: Other changes
TOXID9 -,18,2008
oral
rat
lowest published toxic dose: 6,200 mg/kg/31 day- intermittent Endocrine: Change in LH

Nutritional and Gross Metabolic: Weight loss or decreased weight gain

Related to Chronic Data: Changes in prostate weight
TOXID9 -,18,2008


REVIEWS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value Not classifiable as human carcinogen DTLVS* TLV/BEI,2007
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Human Limited Evidence IMEMDT 41,357,1986
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Cancer Review Animal Inadequate Evidence IMEMDT 15,111,1977
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 32,233,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
TOLED5 127,101,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
RREVAH 56,107,1975
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ECMAAI 14,141,1973
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
BIOGAL 40(2),44,1974
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HYSAAV 31(7-9),383,1966
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JACTDZ 11,5,1992
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTCTDW 38,111,2000
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,227,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 567,109,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 32,233,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUTAEX 21,93,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,721,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ENTOX* -,569,2005
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
CRTXB2 32,233,2002
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 7,1,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTEHD6 7,267,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FEREAC 73,6867,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FEREAC 72,52013,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FEREAC 72,31221,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FEREAC 73,6867,2008
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FEREAC 72,52013,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
FEREAC 72,31221,2007
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
JTPAE7 19,1,2006
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
ITODC* -,327,2004
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HUTOX* -,551,1996
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
MUREAV 543,251,2003
TOXICOLOGY REVIEW
HTOPA* 1,501,2002


STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD
REFERENCE

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1988 PESTICIDE SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION OR RE-REGISTRATION FEREAC 54,7740,1989
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) 1998 STATUS OF PESTICIDES: Supported RBREV* -,70,1998
Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) STANDARD - air time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 DTLVS* 3,67,1971
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (General Industry) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1910.1000,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Construction) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1926.55,1994
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Shipyards) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 CFRGBR 29,1915.1000,1993
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (Federal Contractors) 8 hour time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 CFRGBR 41,50-204.50,1994
Occupational Exposure Limit - AUSTRALIA time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JUL2008
Occupational Exposure Limit - BELGIUM time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, MAR2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - DENMARK time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, OCT 2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - FINLAND time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, Skin, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - FRANCE VME 10 mg/m3, FEB2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - GERMANY MAK 1 mg/m3 (inhalable), 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit - HUNGARY time-weighted average 1 mg/m3, short term exposure limit 4 mg/m3, Skin, SEP2000
Occupational Exposure Limit - KOREA time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, 2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - MEXICO time-weighted average 10 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, 2004
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE NETHERLANDS MAC-TGG 10 mg/m3, 2003
Occupational Exposure Limit - NEW ZEALAND time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JAN2002
Occupational Exposure Limit - THE PHILIPPINES time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - POLAND MAC(time-weighted average) 7 mg/m3, MAC(short term exposure limit) 20 mg/m3, JAN1999
Occupational Exposure Limit - SWITZERLAND MAK- week 1 mg/m3,KZG- week 8 mg/m3, DEC2006
Occupational Exposure Limit - THAILAND time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - TURKEY time-weighted average 10 mg/m3, JAN1993
Occupational Exposure Limit - UNITED KINGDOM time-weighted average 10 mg/m3;
short term exposure limit 20 mg/m3, 2005
Occupational Exposure Limit IN ARGENTINA, BULGARIA, COLOMBIA, JORDAN American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value;

Not classifiable as human carcinogen
Occupational Exposure Limit IN SINGAPORE, VIETNAM American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value
Not classifiable as human carcinogen


NIOSH DOCUMENTATION AND SURVEILLANCE:

ORGANIZATION STANDARD or SURVEY
REFERENCE

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Recommended Exposure Level TO 2,4-D-air 10 hour time-weighted average 10 mg/m3 NIOSH* DHHS #92-100,1992
National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey 1974: Hazard Code: 24270;
Number of Industries 6;
Total Number of Facilities 1,132;
Number of Occupations 8;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 6,266
National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey 1983: Hazard Code: 24270;
Number of Industries 1;
Total Number of Facilities 94;
Number of Occupations 1;
Total Number of Employees Exposed 471


STATUS IN FEDERAL AGENCIES:

ORGANIZATION
REFERENCE

EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vivo cytogenetics-nonhuman bone marrow
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: In vitro cytogenetics-human lymphocyte
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: B subtilis rec assay; E coli polA without S9
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: V79 cell culture-gene mutation
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Positive: S cerevisiae gene conversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster-whole sex chrom. loss
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster-nondisjunction
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: Histidine reversion-Ames test
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: D melanogaster Sex-linked lethal
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: In vitro UDS-human fibroblast; TRP reversion
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Negative: S cerevisiae-homozygosis
EPA GENETOX PROGRAM 1988, Inconclusive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat; Mammalian micronucleus
EPA TSCA Section 8(b) CHEMICAL INVENTORY
Used as a defoliant and herbicide
EPA TSCA Section 8(d) unpublished health/safety studies
On EPA IRIS database
EPA TSCA TEST SUBMISSION (TSCATS) DATA BASE, JANUARY 2001
NIOSH Analytical Method, 1994: 2,4-D, 5001
NTP Carcinogenesis studies; test completed (peer review), October 2000


REFERENCES:

CODEN
REFERENCE

28ZPAK "Sbornik Vysledku Toxixologickeho Vysetreni Latek A Pripravku," Marhold, J.V., Institut Pro Vychovu Vedoucicn Pracovniku Chemickeho Prumyclu Praha, Czechoslovakia, 1972
AECTCV Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 070944) V.1- 1973-
AEHLAU Archives of Environmental Health. (Heldref Pub., 4000 Albemarle St., NW, Washington, DC 20016) V.1- 1960-
AFDOAQ Quarterly Bulletin--Association of Food and Drug Officials of the United States. (Denver, CO) V.3-38, 1939-74.
AJVRAH American Journal of Veterinary Research. (American Veterinary Medical Assoc., 930 N. Meacham Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60196) V.1- 1940-
AMIHBC AMA Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. (Chicago, IL) V.2-10, 1950-54. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
AMPMAR Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale. (SPPIF, B.P.22, F-41353 Vineuil, France) V.7- 1946-
ARPAAQ Archives of Pathology. (Chicago, IL) V.5(3)-50(3), 1928-50; V.70-99, 1960-75. For publisher information, see APLMAS.
ARTODN Archives of Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Pl. 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.32- 1974-
BECTA6 Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1966-
BIOGAL Biologico. (Instituto Biologica, Av. Cons. Rodriques Alves, 1252, CEP 04014, Sao Paulo, Brazil) V.1- 1935-
CBINA8 Chemico-Biological Interactions. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1969-
CFRGBR Code of Federal Regulations. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402)
CKSCDN Zhonghua Minguo Shouyi Xuehui Zashi. (Chinese Society of Veterinary Science, c/o Kuo Li Tai-wan Ta Hsueh, 142 Chou Shan Lu, Taipei, 106, Taiwan) V.1- 1975-
CRTXB2 CRC Critical Reviews in Toxicology. (CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431) V.1- 1971-
CYGEDX Cytology and Genetics (English Translation). Translation of TGANAK. (Allerton Press Inc., 150 Fifth Ave., New York, NY 10011) V.8- 1974-
CYTOAN Cytologia. (Japan Pub. Trading Co. (USA), 1255 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103) V.1- 1929-
DRSAEA Drug Safety. (Adis International Ltd., Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, Auckland 10, New Zealand) V.5- 1990-
DTLVS* The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs) booklet issues by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, OH, 1996
ECBUDQ Ecological Bulletins. (Editorial Service of FRN, Box 6710, S-11385, Stockholm, Sweden) No.19- 1975-
ECMAAI Economie et Medecine Animales. (Paris, France) V.1-17, 1960-76. Discontinued.
EMMUEG Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.10- 1987-
ENTOX* Encyclopedia of Toxicology: Reference Book, Elsevier, 2005
FAATDF Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1-40, 1981-97. For publisher information, see TOSCF2
FCTOD7 Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982-
FCTXAV Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. (London, UK) V.1-19, 1963-81. For publisher information, see FCTOD7.
FEREAC Federal Register. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Supt. of Documents, Washington, DC 20402) V.1- 1936-
GISAAA Gigiena i Sanitariya. For English translation, see HYSAAV. (V/O Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, 113095 Moscow, USSR) V.1- 1936-
HBPTO* Handbook of pesticide toxicology. Robert Krieger ed, Academic press, 2001
HTOPA*
HUTOX*
HYSAAV Hygiene and Sanitation (USSR). English translation of GISAAA. (Springfield, VA) 1964-71. Discontinued.
IMEMDT IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. (WHO Publications Centre USA, 49 Sheridan Ave., Albany, NY 12210) V.1- 1972-
ITCSAF In Vitro. (Rockville, MD) V.1-20, 1965-85. For publisher information, see ICDBEO.
ITODC*
JACTDZ Journal of the American College of Toxicology. (Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 10128) V.1-12, 1982-1993. Discontinued.
JIHTAB Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU.
JOHEA8 Journal of Heredity. (American Genetic Assoc., 818 18th St., NW, Washington, DC 20006) V.5- 1914-
JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. (Marcel Dekker, 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016) V.19- 1982-
JTEHD6 Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. (Hemisphere Pub., 1025 Vermont Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1975/76-
JTPAE7 Journal of Toxicologic Pathology. (Nihon Dokusei Byori Gakkai, editor, 3-25-8 Nishi- shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan) V.1- 1988
MILEDM Microbios Letters. (Faculty Press, 88 Regent St., Cambridge, UK) V.1- 1976-
MUREAV Mutation Research. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1964-
MUTAEX Mutagenesis. (Oxford Univ. Press, Pinkhill House, Southfield Road, Eynsham, Oxford OX8 1JJ, UK) V.1- 1986-
NETEEC Neurotoxicology and Teratology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.9- 1987-
NIOSH* National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Reports and Memoranda.
NRTXDN Neurotoxicology. (Intox Press, Inc., POB 34075, Little Rock, AR 72203) V.1- 1979-
NTIS** National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information.
NTOTDY Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. (Fayetteville, NY) V.3-8, 1981-86. For publisher information, see NETEEC.
PAREAQ Pharmacological Reviews. (Williams & Wilkins, 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1949-
PESFO* TA:Pesticide residues in food - 1997. Toxicological evaluations
PYTCAS Phytochemistry. An International Journal of Plant Biochemistry. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.1- 1961-
RBREV* Status of Pesticides in Registration, Reregistration, and Special Review (Rainbow Report), Special Review and Reregistration Division Office of Pesticide Programs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M. Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460, Spring 1998
RPZHAW Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny. (Ars Polona, POB 1001, 00-068 Warsaw 1, Poland) V.1- 1950-
RREVAH Residue Reviews. (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., Service Center, 44 Hartz Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) V.1- 1962-
SCIEAS Science. (American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, 1333 H St., NW, Washington, DC 20005) V.1- 1895-
TCMUD8 Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. (Alan R. Liss, Inc., 41 E. 11th St., New York, NY 10003) V.1- 1980-
TOIZAG Toho Igakkai Zasshi. Journal of Medical Society of Toho University. (Toho Daigaku Igakkai, 21-16, Omori-nishi, 5-chome, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143, Japan) V.1- 1954-
TOLED5 Toxicology Letters. (Elsevier Science Pub. B.V., POB 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands) V.1- 1977-
TOXID9 Toxicologist. (Soc. of Toxicology, Inc., 475 Wolf Ledge Parkway, Akron, OH 44311) V.1- 1981-
TXAPA9 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959-
TXCYAC Toxicology. (Elsevier Scientific Pub. Ireland, Ltd., POB 85, Limerick, Ireland) V.1- 1973-
VHTODE Veterinary and Human Toxicology. (American College of Veterinary and Comparative Toxicology, Publication Office, Comparative Toxicology, Manhattan, KS 66506) V.19- 1977-
WRPCA2 World Review of Pest Control. (London, UK) V.1-10, 1962-71. Discontinued.

Used as a defoliant and herbicide

RTECS Compound Description:
   Agricultural Chemical
   Tumorigen
   Mutagen
   Reproductive Effector
   Human Data
   Primary Irritant

Click Here for Additional Information about RTECS

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