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Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal


Volume 3: No. 2, April 2006

Diffusing a Research-based Physical Activity Promotion Program for Seniors Into Diverse Communities:  CHAMPS III

In this logic model, Inputs flows into Planning Activities, and Planning Activities flow into Planning Outputs. Together, Planning Activities and Planning Outputs flow into Implementation Activities; Implementation Activities flow into Initial Outcomes; Initial Outcomes lead to Intermediate Outcomes, which lead to Long-term Outcomes; and Long-term Outcomes lead to Goals.  Influential Factors have an impact on Planning Activities and Planning Outputs, Implementation Activities, Initial Outcomes and Intermediate Outcomes. Details follow.

Inputs include investments or resources:

  • Grant funding of $35,000 per organization ($20,000, $10,000, $5,000 in years 1 through 3)
  • In-kind funds from organizations
  • Existing resources (such as staff and facilities)

Planning Activities includes conducting focus groups, planning meetings, and advisory groups to:

  • Adapt CHAMPS II program components
  • Design outreach approach including medical screening
  • Train staff/volunteers/interns
  • Develop new physical activity (PA) resources if needed
  • Develop evaluation plan

Planning Outputs include:

  • Preliminary adapted program procedures, components, and materials
  • Trained staff and volunteers
  • Outreach strategies
  • Evaluation plan and materials

Implementation Activities include:

  • Conduct outreach and recruitment
  • Offer program
  • Develop new PA resources as needed

A feedback loop allows for modification of program and procedures between the three implementation activities just named and the following two:

  • Enrollment progress
  • Informal feedback

Initial Factors include the surrounding environment in which program exists, including:

  • Varying amounts of physical activity (PA) resources and facilities
  • Community support for PA through media, policy
  • Competing priorities of organizations’ staff
  • Difficulties finding organizations’ staff or volunteers with qualifications and/or time for program
  • Reduction in state/city funding to two organizations, resulting in staff cuts
Initial Outcomes include:
  • Adapted program procedures, components, and materials
  • Number of people enrolled

Intermediate Outcomes, which are measured at the end of the intervention, include three levels:

  • Organization Level: number of program events offered; staff administrator evaluation of program and its impact on organization
  • Participant Level: changes in PA; evaluation of program
  • Community Level: new PA resources; media attention

Long-term Outcomes, which are measure 1.5 years post-grant include sustained community-level changes and sustained programs.

Goals are to increase PA of minority and lower-income seniors and leave program in place at each organization.



Figure 1. Logic model for evaluating diffusion of Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) II to reach racial and ethnic minority and lower-income seniors (CHAMPS III).

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The opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors’ affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.


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