No. 2, April 2005
State Plan Index: A Tool for Assessing the Quality of State Public Health Plans
Frances D. Butterfoss, PhD, Diane O. Dunĕt, PhD, MPA
Suggested citation for this article: Butterfoss FD, Dunět DO. State Plan Index: a tool for assessing the quality of state public health plans. Prev Chronic Dis [serial online] 2005 Apr [date cited]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2005/
The State Plan Index is an evaluation instrument that uses a Likert scale to assess 60 indicators of the quality of state public health plans. The State Plan Index was needed to enable evaluation of plans that were developed using a variety of public health planning models.
Federal, state, and academic partners participated in developing and testing the instrument. The authors conducted a literature review, interviews with experts, and several rounds of formative evaluation to assess item inclusion, coverage, weighting, organization of items, and content validity. In two rounds of field testing, public health practitioners at the
federal and state levels rated 10
state public health plans for obesity prevention.
Field-test raters took an average of two hours to rate a plan and indicated that the State Plan Index was “easy to use,” “comprehensive,” and “fair.” Mean
Cronbach a for components of the State Plan Index was 0.88 (median 0.93). Component scores among the 10 plans rated ranged from 0.2 to 4.8, indicating that raters made distinctions in quality among the components and
the plans they rated. Correlations between component scores and overall scores were statistically significant (P < .001), except for one component.
Public health professionals at the
federal and state levels found the State Plan Index to be a useful tool for evaluating public health plans that were developed
by states using various planning approaches. After the field tests, state staff reported adapting the State Plan Index for use as a planning tool, an evaluation tool for local plans, and a self-assessment tool for drafts of state plans. In addition, the State Plan Index can be
revised easily for use in other chronic disease areas.
Back to top
Many professionals encourage public health planning as a key step in addressing complex issues such as chronic disease (1). This is especially true when problems require long-term strategies and multiple approaches, such as changes in policy, the environment, or individual behavior. Yet despite the widely held assumption that planning is important and
despite the investment of substantial resources in
planning at state and community levels, a key question lingers: Do better plans lead to better health outcomes?
In the last 25 years, an array of public health community planning, health education, and program development models have been developed, including PRECEDE–PROCEED (PRECEDE = Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational/Ecological Diagnosis and Evaluation, and PROCEED = Policy, Regulatory, and Organizational Constructs in Educational and Environmental Development) (2); MAPP (Mobilizing Action through Planning and Partnership) (3); PATCH (Planned Approach To Community Health) (4); CHIP (Community Health Improvement Program) (5); and the Six-Step Program Development Chain Model (6). Other public health planning models address particular public health strategies, such as the CDCynergy model for planning, managing, and evaluating public health communication
programs (7) and Intervention Mapping for designing theory- and evidence-based health promotion programs (8). Still others are focused on planning for a particular public health problem, such as planning for Comprehensive Cancer Control (9) and Getting to Outcomes for substance abuse prevention (10).
The availability of different models provides public health practitioners with the flexibility not only to match the appropriate model with the intended goal but also to use a model that fits within the norms and expectations of an organization and that meets with acceptance in the community involved. A plan also may be designed using more than one model; Breckon
et al assert that “model elements can be mixed or matched depending on what fits or is acceptable
[italics added]” (11). The possibility of combining elements from different models offers greater flexibility in plan design but also creates a greater need for an evaluation instrument that remains reliable across a diverse and expanding body of public health plans.
Planning models generally prescribe a planning process rather than articulate desired attributes of a finished plan that is the outcome of such a process. To date, evaluation instruments have focused on assessment of planning processes (9,12,13) and methods to inventory or describe the content of community plans (14,15). Criteria to assess plan quality could be derived by implication
from the concepts contained in each of the various planning models. However, this task is difficult and time-consuming for practitioners, who need to assess the quality of written plans regardless of the planning process(es) or model(s) used.
Although evaluation instruments for state plans are limited, tools to generally assess public health infrastructure or capacity have been developed and widely disseminated (16-18). For example, the School Health Index developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (17) provides comprehensive questionnaires that schools can use as self-assessment and planning tools to improve
the effectiveness of their health and safety policies and programs. On a larger scale, the National Public Health Performance Standards provide a framework for assessment of state and local public health systems (18).
The State Plan Index (SPI) was developed as part of the evaluation of the CDC’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Program to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases (Obesity Prevention Program)
and is available from
The CDC Obesity Prevention Program provides planning support and other assistance to states for obesity prevention and reduction. The SPI
was needed to evaluate state plans that were developed by state public health
practitioners and their community partners using a variety of public health planning models. In addition, to understand the relationship between plan quality and health outcomes in the long term, an evaluation instrument was needed to assess baseline plan quality. As described below, the SPI development process drew upon a wide array of existing public health planning models, tools, and
Back to top
Development of the SPI began in June 2002. The authors reviewed published professional public health literature on planning, community-based planning, plan assessment, and recommended planning methods, including but not limited to the references cited here. Key elements were gleaned from these public health planning models. In addition, planning processes that were considered critical across
the models were identified. Other relevant published and unpublished materials were reviewed, including the CDC Obesity Prevention Program guidelines, reports, and existing state plans. One of the authors also conducted in-person key informant interviews with planning experts throughout the CDC’s National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion from the Divisions of
Adolescent and School Health, Adult and Community Health, Cancer Prevention and Control, Diabetes Translation, Nutrition and Physical Activity, Oral Health, and Reproductive Health; the Office on Smoking and Health; and in the CDC’s National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention.
The authors then developed a set of key indicators of plan quality, intentionally incorporating the concept that a high-quality written plan should reflect both plan attributes as well as evidence of planning processes that experts had identified as critical. The list of key indicators was shared with state-level public health professionals who provided further suggestions for indicators and
additional documents for review. State plans for comprehensive cancer control, cardiovascular health, and diabetes that were recommended as exemplary by practitioners were reviewed by the authors to identify common characteristics as potential SPI items. Through an iterative process, the State Plan Index evolved into a set of indicators grouped within major components.
In June 2003, telephone interviews were conducted by one of the authors with seven nationally recognized academic experts in strategic planning, public health, instrument development, and psychometrics. Federal and state public health practitioners and experts also participated in a formal review process to assess the SPI items proposed for inclusion, as well as in a formative evaluation
process to recommend whether SPI items and components should be weighted equally. SPI items were also examined for coverage, overlap, weighting, and content validity. In total, approximately 100 public health representatives in federal, state, and academic settings provided suggestions for item inclusion and reviewed and commented on several preliminary drafts of the SPI. A list of the SPI
components with the rationale for including each is presented in
Sample, measures, testing, and refinement
A pilot-test version of the SPI, finalized in July 2003, consisted of 55 items grouped within nine components. A 5-point Likert
scale was provided for each item, from 1 = low quality to 5 = high quality, with an additional “Not Addressed” option for each item. A similar Likert scale was provided to rate each component and the quality of the plan as a whole.
“Not Addressed” was scored as 0 in the analyses described below. The authors conducted a pilot test of the instrument by independently rating two state plans. Based on this pilot test, wording of SPI items was clarified, and an assessment was made of the approximate time that would be needed to read and rate a plan.
The first of two field tests was conducted in July and August 2003
(Table 1). Nineteen raters participated in the first field test: 10 staff members from states funded through the CDC’s Obesity Prevention Program, five staff members from other states who were members of the Association of State and Territorial Nutrition Directors, a paid independent public health consultant who rated all
10 plans, and three CDC staff members who rated five or 10 plans each. Raters were provided written instructions and a telephone orientation conducted by the authors to provide background information for the field test. No formal training was provided to raters, because the SPI was developed with the intention that it could be used by practitioners without the need for special training.
At the time of field testing, only 10 states had developed comprehensive plans for obesity prevention; nine of the 10 plans rated were from states funded through the CDC’s Obesity Prevention Program. The plans were provided to the CDC or downloaded from
Web sites. As summarized in Table 1, each plan had four or five raters who provided a score for each item, each
component, and the overall plan quality. Each plan was to have five raters, but two raters did not complete all ratings within the time allotted, resulting in a total of 46 rather than 50 ratings. Raters were assigned plans based on suggestions from the CDC Obesity Prevention Program staff members, who matched state plans with raters who were most likely to be unfamiliar with obesity prevention
efforts in that state. Raters were requested to provide both numeric scores for each item as well as written feedback for each SPI component. In addition, written comments were solicited from the raters, and telephone debriefings were held with them to discuss any difficulties encountered in the rating process and to obtain suggestions for further refinements in the instrument.
Based upon the results of Field Test 1, minor changes in wording were made to the SPI, and five items were subdivided. To ensure that the changes to the SPI did not affect rating outcomes, Field Test 2 was conducted in November 2003 with a subset of the plans. Three plans were chosen to represent high-, low-, and average-scoring plans. The final 60-item version of the
SPI was used by two raters — the same paid public health expert consultant from Field Test 1 and one new rater from the CDC Obesity Prevention Program who did not participate in Field Test 1.
Cronbach α was calculated for each component to assess whether
items grouped within the component reliably measured the same dimension. Face validity for SPI
items was determined by repeated review by federal, state, and academic planning
and public health experts. Because no gold standard exists in the area of
criterion validity (20), raters’ overall plan scores were used as a proxy
measure for criterion validity. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated between raters’ component scores and the overall score they assigned for each plan in Field Test 1. Although raters scored individual items before assigning an overall plan quality score, SPI instructions direct: “The [overall] score does not need to be an average of the [component]
scores.” Thus, raters were free to assign quality scores for each component and for the overall plan independently of their item-by-item ratings. To assess the consistency of plan ratings among raters while taking into account differences in plan quality, the interclass correlation coefficient (Shrout–Fleiss) was calculated for the overall plan score.
Back to top
The final version of the SPI contains nine components: (A) Involvement of Stakeholders; (B) Presentation of Data on Disease Burden and Existing Efforts to Control Obesity; (C) Goals; (D) Objectives; (E) Selecting Population(s) and Strategies for Intervention; (F) Integration of Strategies with Other Programs and Implementation of Plan; (G) Resources for Implementation of Plan; (H)
Evaluation; and (I) Accessibility of Plan. The Appendix provides a brief rationale for each component. A 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = low to 5 = high is used to score each item, each component, and the overall quality of a plan. A rating option of “Not Addressed” is also provided. Items are weighted equally, as are the nine SPI components.
The results of Field Test 1 showed a wide range of average score by component (0.2 to 4.8 on a 5.0 scale), indicating that raters made distinctions in quality among the components and among the plans rated. Raters took an average of 2.0 hours to review a plan and complete the SPI, compared to an average of 1.3 hours in the pilot test spent by the authors who had developed the SPI. The plans
reviewed contained an average of 40 pages and generally included graphics and illustrative tables that noticeably reduced the volume of text. Thus, 2.0 hours was judged to be a reasonable length of time
to review and rate a plan.
Overall, comments from field testers were very positive; raters commented that the SPI was “easy to use,” “comprehensive,” and “user-friendly” and that it “seemed fair” and made them “look at plans in a new and more systematic way.” The most commonly reported problem was that raters were somewhat uncomfortable assigning a very low
score when a plan had little detail. For example, several plans lacked detail regarding the development of financial or other resources for plan implementation.
However, raters reported that states may have addressed resource issues even though detail was not provided in the plan reviewed.
Table 2 shows the coefficient of reliability (Cronbach α), calculated to assess whether items grouped within each component measured the same dimension. The average
Cronbach α was 0.88, higher than the 0.8 level generally considered acceptable for social science data (21).
Table 2 also provides the Spearman rank correlation coefficient for each component, which indicates the correlation between component scores and overall plan scores that raters assigned in Field Test 1. All correlations were statistically significant at P
< .001, except for Component G (Resources), a component that lacked detail in nearly all of the plans examined.
Moderate to strong correlations were found between component scores and the overall plan quality score. The interclass correlation coefficient (Shrout–Fleiss) for Overall Plan Scores was 0.78 (skewed downward by low scores in the Resources component). The authors judged this to be an acceptable level of agreement among raters who rated the same plan. Data analyses were repeated for Field Test 2
with very similar results (data not shown).
During debriefing telephone conferences, raters were asked to comment further on their impressions of Component G (Resources) and their experience with the SPI ratings for plans that lacked detail. Some state staff reflected on their own plans, commenting that they had indeed addressed resources but were reluctant to reveal information about funding and resources outside of the planning group.
They expressed concern that others might be inspired to tap into new resources and creative arrangements that planners had struggled to build.
Despite these concerns, state and federal staff who participated in the debriefing agreed that the items in the SPI component for resources were appropriate and should be retained, especially if the SPI were to be translated from an evaluation tool into a guide
The authors also queried raters about whether they felt comfortable checking “Not Addressed” if an item was merely mentioned in a plan but inadequately addressed. Some raters noted their preference to provide written recommendations for improving a component or item, arguing that concrete suggestions were more important than “grades.” However, other raters
who checked some SPI boxes for low scores or “Not Addressed” noted that “grade inflation” could mask opportunities to strengthen a plan. To address this issue, future orientation sessions for SPI raters should stress the importance of using the SPI scoring system as a tool for providing clear feedback so that weak areas can be easily identified by states and
Back to top
The final SPI includes 60 items organized within nine components. The SPI can be used to evaluate plans developed using different public health planning models, thus providing a useful means of judging the quality of plans themselves. Moreover, although the SPI was developed for the CDC Obesity Prevention Program, most items can be easily adapted to other chronic disease areas.
SPI pilot testers reported that the instrument was easy to use and consistent with the judgments they apply as public health professionals in assessing state plans. After the SPI field tests, some state staff, on their own initiative, used the SPI to self-assess their current plan and
to guide development of action steps to address SPI items noted as weaknesses.
Although the SPI was judged as useful by experts in state, federal, and academic settings, several limitations remain. First, the concept of plan quality rests on the assumptions inherent in the public health models and literature reviewed. Second, because only 10 states had developed an obesity plan at the time of the SPI field testing, only these 10 plans were reviewed. Third, all testing
was conducted on state obesity plans. Fourth, although the analyses generally showed high correlations between the component scores and the overall plan scores to corroborate criterion validity (except for Component G [Resources] that had missing data, as discussed above), the effect may be lessened because raters assigned their overall ratings after assessing individual items. Further, although
the SPI is designed to help assess the quality of a written plan, even well-conceived plans may fail during implementation.
Public health promotion models assume that quality planning will result in better health outcomes. Research in this area has been hampered by the lack of a useful instrument to measure plan quality at the state level. The proliferation of public health planning models and tools provides ideas to suit different planning groups and situations. If the widely held assumption that public health
plans make a difference to health outcomes is correct, evaluation of the quality of the end product of planning (a written plan) is an important checkpoint. The SPI is grounded in theory, public health practice, and empirical field testing as well as in the expert opinions of state, federal, and academic collaborators.
Use of a systematic evaluation instrument also promotes the application of consistent standards in assessing state plans. Consistency has been embraced in the objective review panel process where written applications for federal funding are assessed against a detailed set of criteria. The SPI provides an evaluation tool that can be applied no matter who participated in the planning process or
what planning approach was used.
Besides its use as an evaluation tool, the SPI has been adapted by state staff for use as a self-assessment tool. After participating in the CDC SPI field testing, one state staff member reported to
the CDC that the state’s obesity planning steering committee subsequently used the SPI to reassess its current written plan. Based on this review, the committee planned actions they
would take to address potential weaknesses, such as adding faith-based organizations and consumers as stakeholders, restating plan objectives in measurable and time-based terms, and identifying ways to integrate obesity efforts with other chronic disease areas as well as across systems and agencies.
In an era of limited resources and increased accountability, linking public health efforts to health outcomes is more critical than ever. The SPI fills the need for an evaluation tool that can be used to systematically evaluate the quality of state plans. This assessment can ultimately be used to better understand the return on investment of resources devoted to planning.
Perhaps most importantly, the SPI provides straightforward, succinct guidance to public health practitioners embarking on a new planning process. Many of the practitioners who participated in the pilot test remarked that the SPI would have been very helpful to them if it had been available when their obesity program planning efforts were launched. As public health practitioners continue to
engage in planning to address the growing burden of chronic disease in the United States, we hope that the SPI will prove a useful tool to guide and evaluate planning.
Back to top
The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Robin Hamre and Sarah Kuester and the project officers of the CDC Obesity Prevention Program for their support, guidance, and thoughtful review of drafts throughout the development of the SPI;
the CDC staff members throughout the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion who provided review and comment on several
drafts of the SPI and served as field testers; state health department staff members who also provided review and comment and served as field testers; members of the Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors who served as reviewers and field testers; and Susanne Gregory, who served as a rater for both rounds of field testing. The authors are especially grateful to the
academic experts who were interviewed as key informants: Vincent Francisco, Robert Goodman, Michelle Kegler, Sandra Quinn, Russell Schuh, John Stevenson, and Abe Wandersman.
We also acknowledge Cathleen Gillespie and David Freedman at the CDC, who
provided statistical expertise and support for the data analyses of the field
Any errors and omissions are the sole responsibility of the authors.
This project was undertaken while Dr. Butterfoss was under contract with the CDC through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) fellowship program.
Back to top
Corresponding Author: Frances D. Butterfoss, PhD, Professor and Head, Health
Promotion & Disease Prevention, Center for Pediatric Research, Eastern Virginia
Medical School, 855 W Brambleton Ave, Norfolk, VA 23510. Telephone: 757-668-6429. E-mail: email@example.com.
Author Affiliations: Diane O. Dunĕt, PhD, MPA, Health Scientist, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, Chronic Disease Nutrition Branch, Atlanta, Ga.
Back to top
- Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. The future of the public’s health in the 21st century. Washington
(DC): National Academies Press; 2002.
- Green LJ, Kreuter MW. The PRECEDE–PROCEED model. In: Health promotion planning: an educational approach. 3rd ed. Mountain View
(CA): Mayfield Publishing Company; 1999. p.32-43.
- naccho.org [homepage on the Internet]. Mobilizing for action through planning and partnerships (MAPP).
Washington (DC): National Organization of County and City Health Officials; 2004 [cited 28 June 2004]. Available from:
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Planned approach to community health (PATCH):
guide for the local coordinator [Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2000.
- Institute of Medicine. The CHIP model. In: The future of the public's health in the 21st century. Washington
(DC): National Academies Press; 2002. p. 409.
- Sussman S, editor. The six-step program development chain model. In: Handbook of program development for health behavior research and practice. Thousand Oaks
(CA): SAGE Publications; 2001. p. 13.
[Internet]. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2000
[reviewed 2004 Jan 22; cited 2004 Jun 28].
- Bartholomew LK, Parcel GS, Kok G, Bottlieb NH. Intervention mapping: designing theory-and evidence-based health promotion programs. Mountain View
(CA): Mayfield Publishing Company; 2001.
- Abed J, Reilley B, Butler MO, Kean T, Wong F, Hohman K.
Developing a framework for comprehensive cancer prevention and control in the United States: an initiative of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. J Public Health Manag Pract 2000;6(2):67-78.
- Chinman M, Imm P, Wandersman A. Gettting to outcomes 2004: promoting accountability through methods and tools for planning, implementation and evaluation. Washington
(DC): Rand Corporation (sponsored by the U. S. Department of Health and Human
Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention); 2004 Jan (Report
TR-101-CDC). Available from: URL: http://www.rand.org/publications/TR/TR101/*.
- Breckon DJ, Harvey JR, Lancaster RB. Community health education: settings, roles, and skills for the 21st century. 4th
ed. Gaithersburg (MD): Aspen Publishers; 1998, p. 153.
- Linney J, Wandersman A. Prevention Plus III: Assessing alcohol and other drug prevention programs at the school and community level: a four-step guide to useful program assessment. Rockville
(MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Substance Abuse Prevention; 1991.
- Valdiserri RO, Aultman TV, Curran JW.
a national strategy to improve HIV prevention programs. J Community Health 1995;20(2):87-100.
- Butterfoss FD, Goodman RM, Wandersman A, Valois R, Chinman M. The plan quality index: an empowerment research, consultation and feedback tool. In: Fetterman D, Kafterian S, Wandersman A, editors. Empowerment
evaluation: knowledge and tools for self-assessment and accountability. Thousand Oaks
(CA): SAGE Publications; 1995. pp. 304-31.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of HIV prevention
community planning. Atlanta (GA): U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV,
STD, TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Program Evaluation
Research Branch; 2002.
- naccho.org [homepage on the Internet]. Assessment protocol for excellence in
public health (APEXPH). Washington (DC): National Organization of County and City Health Officials. c1991 [cited 28 June 2004]. Available from:
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
[Internet]. Atlanta (GA): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2004 [reviewed 2004
Apr 22; cited 2004 Jun 28].
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
National public health performance standards program
[Internet]. Atlanta (GA): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2000 [reviewed 2004 Feb 20; cited
2004 Jun 28].
- The community toolbox [Internet]. Lawrence (KS): The University of Kansas;
1995 [cited 2004 Jun 28]. Available from: URL: http://ctb.ku.edu/index.jsp*.
- AGREE Collaboration.
Development and validation of an international appraisal instrument for assessing the quality of clinical practice guidelines: the AGREE project. Qual Saf Health Care 2003;12:18-23.
- UCLA Academic Technology Services. What does Cronbach’s Alpha mean?
[Internet]. Los Angeles (CA): University of California Los Angeles [cited 2004
Jul 16]. Available from: URL: http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/faq/alpha.html*.
Back to top