Skip Navigation LinksSkip Navigation Links
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Safer Healthier People
Blue White
Blue White
bottom curve
CDC Home Search Health Topics A-Z spacer spacer
Blue curve MMWR spacer

Persons using assistive technology might not be able to fully access information in this file. For assistance, please send e-mail to: Type 508 Accommodation and the title of the report in the subject line of e-mail.

Appendix A

Public Health Action Steps from the International Agency for Research on Cancer

  1. Protection of the skin from solar damage ideally involves various actions that include wearing tightly woven protective clothing that adequately covers the arms, trunk, and legs and a hat that provides adequate shade to the whole of the head; seeking shade whenever possible; avoiding outdoor activities during periods of peak insolation; and using sunscreens. Sunscreens should not be used as the sole agent for protection against the sun.
  2. Sunscreens should not be used as a means of extending the duration of solar exposure (e.g., prolonging sunbathing) and it should not be used as a substitute for clothing on sites that are usually unexposed (e.g., the trunk and buttocks).
  3. Daily use of sunscreen with a high sun protection factor (>15) on exposed skin is recommended for residents of areas of high insolation who work outdoors or enjoy regular outdoor recreation. Daily use of a sunscreen can reduce the cumulative solar exposure that causes actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma.
  4. Adequate solar protection is more important during childhood than any other time in life, and parents and school managers should assiduously apply the first two recommendations.

Source: The International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group on the Evaluation of Cancer-Preventive Agents. Sunscreens. In: IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention. Vol 5. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2001.

Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

References to non-CDC sites on the Internet are provided as a service to MMWR readers and do not constitute or imply endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CDC is not responsible for the content of pages found at these sites. URL addresses listed in MMWR were current as of the date of publication.

Disclaimer   All MMWR HTML versions of articles are electronic conversions from ASCII text into HTML. This conversion may have resulted in character translation or format errors in the HTML version. Users should not rely on this HTML document, but are referred to the electronic PDF version and/or the original MMWR paper copy for the official text, figures, and tables. An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402-9371; telephone: (202) 512-1800. Contact GPO for current prices.

**Questions or messages regarding errors in formatting should be addressed to

Page converted: 4/11/2002


Safer, Healthier People

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Rd, MailStop E-90, Atlanta, GA 30333, U.S.A


Department of Health
and Human Services

This page last reviewed 4/11/2002