Skip Navigation Links
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
 CDC Home Search Health Topics A-Z

Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice and Policy

View Current Issue
Issue Archive
Archivo de números en español








Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal
MMWR


 Home 

Volume 8: No. 1, January 2011

ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Mortality of Urban Aboriginal Adults in Canada, 1991–2001*


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Translation available Este artículo en español
Print this article Print this article
E-mail this article E-mail this article:



Send feedback to editors Send feedback to editors
Syndicate this content Syndicate this content
Comment on this article Comment on this article
Download this article as a PDF Download this article as a PDF (144K)

You will need Adobe Acrobat Reader to view PDF files.


Navigate This Article
Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Acknowledgments
Author Information
References
Tables
Appendices



Icon indicating a podcastA Conversation with Michael Tjepkema, Senior Research Analyst at Statistics Canada (MP3–11Mb)
[A transcript of this interview is also available.]

M. Tjepkema, MPH (1); R. Wilkins, MUrb (1,2); S. Senécal, PhD (3,4); É. Guimond, PhD (3,4); C. Penney, MA (3)

* This article is part of a joint publication initiative between Preventing Chronic Disease and Chronic Diseases in Canada. Preventing Chronic Disease is the secondary publisher, while Chronic Diseases in Canada is the primary publisher.
 
Author References
1. Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario
2. Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario
3. Strategic Research and Analysis Directorate, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Gatineau, Quebec
4. Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario

Suggested citation for this article: The primary publication can be found at: Tjepkema M, Wilkins R, Senécal S, Guimond É, Penney C. Mortality of urban Aboriginal adults in Canada, 1991–2001. Chronic Dis Can. 2010;31(1):4-21:A06. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/cdic-mcc/31-1/ar-03-eng.php.

PEER REVIEWED

Abstract

Objective
To compare mortality patterns for urban Aboriginal adults with those of urban non-Aboriginal adults.

Methods
Using the 1991–2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study, our study tracked mortality to December 31, 2001, among a 15% sample of adults, including 16 300 Aboriginal and 2 062 700 non-Aboriginal persons residing in urban areas on June 4, 1991. The Aboriginal population was defined by ethnic origin (ancestry), Registered Indian status and/or membership in an Indian band or First Nation, since the 1991 census did not collect information on Aboriginal identity.

Results
Compared to urban non-Aboriginal men and women, remaining life expectancy at age 25 years was 4.7 years and 6.5 years shorter for urban Aboriginal men and women, respectively. Mortality rate ratios for urban Aboriginal men and women were particularly elevated for alcohol-related deaths, motor vehicle accidents and infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS. For most causes of death, urban Aboriginal adults had higher mortality rates compared to other urban residents. Socio-economic status played an important role in explaining these disparities.

Conclusion
Results from this study help fill a data gap on mortality information of urban Aboriginal people of Canada.

Keywords
Aboriginal people, First Nations, Métis, Inuit, North American Indians, age-standardized mortality rates, mortality rate, life expectancy

Back to top

Introduction

The number of Aboriginal people (First Nations, Métis and Inuit) living in urban Canada has increased dramatically over the last half-century; in 1950, about 7% resided in urban Canada,1 but by 2006 that figure had risen to 54%.2 However, the amount of health research on urban Aboriginal people is not proportional to their weight in the total population;3,4 nor does it reflect their increasing proportion within the total Aboriginal population.

Aboriginal people choose to live in urban areas for various reasons, including family reasons, employment opportunities, education, training and health (for example, to be closer to medical services);5,6 they face different challenges to their rural counterparts, such as finding adequate housing and locating existing services and support to assist them in the transition.5,7

Although it is widely known that, compa­red to other Canadians, Aboriginal people experience a disproportionate burden of death and disease,8-12 specific infor­mation for those residing in urban areas is less well known.13 Similarly, while overall life expectancy for First Nations, Métis and Inuit is considerably shorter than that of the general population,14-18 mortality indicators for Aboriginal people residing in urban Canada are difficult to estimate because Aboriginal identifiers are not reported on death registrations in most provinces. Mortality patterns for Registered Indians living in Manitoba and British Columbia have been analysed and provide results for sub-provincial regions including Winnipeg19 and Vancouver.20 However, these studies only show part of the picture, as they exclude First Nations not registered under the Indian Act, as well as Métis and Inuit, and they provide no information specific to Aboriginal people living in other urban areas of Canada.

The 1991–2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study provides an opportunity to examine patterns of mortality for a reasonably large number of Aboriginal people living in urban areas at the beginning of the follow-up period in all provinces and territories, regardless of whether they were registered under the Indian Act.

The objectives of this study are (1) to determine to what extent urban Aboriginal adults may be at risk of premature mortality; (2) to calculate life expectancy and probability of survival to age 75 years; and (3) to identify the causes of death with the highest risk.

Back to top

Methods

Data sources

The Canadian census mortality follow-up study consists of a 15% sample (n = 2 735 152) of the non-institutionalized population of Canada aged 25 years or older, all of whom were enumerated via the 1991 census long‑form questionnaire. This cohort was tracked for mortality from June 4, 1991, to December 31, 2001. Briefly, the creation of the census mortality database required two linkages because the electronic files of census data contained no names, but names were needed to find the corresponding deaths. Using common variables such as date of birth, postal code, plus spousal date of birth (if applicable), the census file was first probabilistically linked to an encrypted name file abstracted from non-financial tax-filer data. Then this census plus encrypted name file was matched to the Canadian Mortality Database using probabilistic record linkage methods21—an approach similar to that used for other mortality follow-up studies at Statistics Canada.22 Complete details of the construction and contents of the linked file are reported elsewhere.16

Eligibility

Only people who were enumerated by the 1991 census long-form questionnaire, were 25 years old by census day, and were Canadian residents were eligible to be part of the cohort. Data quality reports estimated that the 1991 census missed 3.4% of Canadian residents of all ages. The missed individuals were more likely to be young, mobile, low income, of Aboriginal ancestry23, 24 or homeless. Only cohort members living in urban areas (defined below) on census day were in the scope of this study. The long-form census questionnaire is usually given to one in five Canadian households, to all residents of Indian Reserves, to all residents of many remote and northern communities and to all residents of non-institutional collective dwellings. In addition, it was necessary to obtain encrypted names from tax filer data (the name file), as only tax filers could be followed for mortality. However, there were no major differences in demographic and socio-economic characteristics between eligible census respondents and those successfully linked to the name file (Appendix Tables A, B and C).

Analytical techniques

For each member of the cohort, we calculated person-days of follow-up from the beginning of the study (June 4, 1991) to the date of death or emigration (ascertained from the name file and known for 1991 only) or the end of study (December 31, 2001). To calculate person-years at risk, we divided person-days of follow-up by 365.25.

Using the total Aboriginal cohort population structure (person-years at risk) as the standard population, we used age- and sex-specific mortality rates by 5-year age groups (at baseline) to calculate age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs) for subgroups of the population. We calculated corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the ASMRs as described by Carrière and Roos,25 and used a similar method to calculate CIs for the ASMR ratios (RRs).

For age-specific analyses, cohort members were categorized by 10-year age groups at baseline from 25-to-34 to 65-to-74, and 75 or older. Most analyses used age baseline (June 4, 1991), while life table analyses used age at the beginning of each year of follow-up.

Based on Chiang’s method,26 we calculated period life tables for each sex, with corresponding standard errors and 95% CIs. We calculated these after converting from age at baseline to age at the beginning of each year of follow-up, and then calculated deaths and person-years at risk separately for each year (or partial year) of follow-up. We then pooled deaths and person-years at risk by age at the beginning of each year of follow-up, before calculating the life tables.

We calculated Cox proportional mortality hazard ratios by sex, first controlling for age (in years) and then controlling for place of residence (metropolitan areas, smaller urban centres), lone parent (yes, no), education (less than high school diploma, high school diploma, post-secondary diploma, university degree), income quintile (1–5), occupation skill level (professional, managerial, skilled-technical-supervisory, semiskilled, unskilled, no occupation), work status (employed, unemployed, not in labour force) and place of birth (Canada or elsewhere). Place of birth was included in the models to reduce the "healthy immigrant effect" among non-Aboriginal cohort members. Note that detailed definitions of these variables (all ascertained only at baseline) have been previously described.16 We interpreted differences in excess mortality between the age-adjusted model and the fully adjusted model as estimates of the effect of the socio-economic variables (place of residence, lone parent, education, etc., as listed above) on the extent of the disparities between urban Aboriginal adults and urban non-Aboriginal adults. The proportion of excess mortality attributed to the socio-economic variables was calculated as follows: the difference between age-adjusted and fully adjusted hazard ratios for Aboriginal person (yes/no), divided by the age-adjusted hazard ratio minus 1.

The underlying cause of death of those who died in the period 1991 through 1999 was coded based on the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9)27 and those who died in 2000 or 2001 based on the Tenth Revision (ICD-10).28 For analyses by cause of death, deaths were grouped by ICD-9 chapter, categories within chapters, and by risk factors (smoking-related, alcohol-related, drug-related, or amenable to medical intervention).29,30 This data is presented in Appendix Table D.

Anyone who indicated North American Indian, Métis or Inuit ancestry, Registered Indian status or membership in a North American Indian band or First Nation in the long-form census questionnaire—see Definitions.

Definitions

The 1991 census did not collect information on self-identification with an Aboriginal group (North American Indian, Métis or Inuit). For our analysis, we defined this population on the basis of two questions, offering three distinct dimensions of Aboriginality:

  1. Ancestry: Question 15 from the long-form census questionnaire asked respondents to check from a list of 15 the ethnic or cultural group(s) their ancestors belonged to, including North American Indian, Métis and Inuit/Eskimo.31 Respondents were instructed to specify as many as applicable.
  2. Registered Indian status: Question 16 from the long-form census questionnaire asked, "Is this person a Registered Indian as defined by the Indian Act of Canada?" (Yes, No).
  3. Indian band/First Nation membership: Question 16 also asked respondents to write down the name of the Indian band or First Nation to which they belonged.

For our study, a person was considered Aboriginal if they reported a single Aboriginal—and no other—ancestry or two or more Aboriginal ancestries (with or without any non-Aboriginal ancestry), or if they reported that they were a Registered Indian or member of an Indian band or First Nation. Based on an analysis of 1996 census data where ethnic origins were cross-classified by Aboriginal identity,32 over 94% of 1996 census
participants who met these ancestry-based definitions self-identified as Aboriginal. The number of Aboriginal people (especially Métis) would be underestimated in our study since persons reporting one Aboriginal ancestry but at least one non-Aboriginal ancestry were considered as non-Aboriginal (unless they indicated being a registered Indian or member of an Indian band or First Nation).

"Urban areas" can be defined differently depending on the research question and data availability,33 and our definition differs from the standard census definition.31 We defined "urban areas" as any census metropolitan area ("metropolitan
areas," with a population of ≥ 100 000) or census agglomeration ("smaller urban centres," with a population of ≥ 10 000), excluding reserves or other Aboriginal settlements within those areas. Other urban areas were out of the scope of this study.

Cohort members, linkage rates, deaths and person-years at risk

Appendix Table A shows that there were 2.6 million eligible census respondents in urban areas of Canada, including 25 500 Aboriginal adults. Linkage rates to the name file (comparing cohort members to long-form census respondents) for urban Aboriginal people (61% for men and 66% for women) were lower than for the urban non-Aboriginal population (80% for men and 76% for women). Despite the lower linkage rate, the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of urban Aboriginal cohort members were generally similar to those of all eligible (in-scope) urban Aboriginal adults in the weighted census population, with the following exceptions: persons who were employed, those with higher household income adequacy, and those who were married were slightly more likely to be successfully linked (a similar finding to that for non-Aboriginal cohort members), suggesting that our sample of urban Aboriginal people was not biased with respect to those characteristics (Appendix Tables B and C).

Based on deaths in 1991, which could be identified independently in the Canadian Mortality Database and/or the name file, we estimated that ascertainment of deaths in the cohort followed for mortality (1991–2001) was about 97% overall and about 95% to 96% among Aboriginal people.

Overall, the cohort followed for mortality included 16 300 urban Aboriginal adults who accounted for 166 570 person-years at risk and 1126 deaths during the 11-year follow-up period (Appendix Table A).

Back to top

Results

According to the 1991 census, there were an estimated 259 800 Aboriginal persons aged 25 or older, representing 1.5% of the total adult population of Canada. About 45% lived in urban areas (30% in metropolitan areas, 15% in smaller urban centres). In comparison, 78% of non-Aboriginal persons lived in urban areas (62% in metropolitan areas, 16% in smaller urban centres). In all urban areas taken together, 69% of the Aboriginal population were First Nations (40% Registered Indians, 29% non-status Indians), 28% Métis and 3% Inuit.

There were 16 300 Aboriginal cohort members residing in either a metropolitan area or a smaller urban centre at the beginning of the follow-up period (June 4, 1991). Table 1 shows the demographic and socio-economic characteristics for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cohort members residing in urban Canada. Almost three-quarters of Aboriginal cohort members were aged 25 to 44 years compared to 54% for non-Aboriginal adults. About 44% of Aboriginal adults had less than a high school diploma (31% for non-Aboriginal adults) and 61% were in the two lowest income adequacy quintiles (36% for non-Aboriginal adults).

Remaining life expectancy at age 25 years and probability of survival from ages 25 to 75 years

For urban Aboriginal adults of both sexes, remaining life expectancy at age 25 years (conditional on surviving to age 25 years) was substantially shorter compared to urban non-Aboriginal adults. Table 2 shows that life expectancy at age 25 years for urban Aboriginal men was 48.1 years (95% CI: 47.1-49.1), compared to 52.8 years (95% CI: 52.8-52.9) for urban non-Aboriginal men, a difference of 4.7 years. Life expectancy at age 25 years for urban Aboriginal women was longer than that for urban Aboriginal men, but the gap between the life expectancy of urban Aboriginal women (52.7 years; 95% CI: 51.7-53.7) and urban non-Aboriginal women (59.2 years; 95% CI: 59.2-59.3) was larger (6.5 years). Life expectancy for Aboriginal adults residing in metropolitan areas was similar to that for Aboriginal adults residing in smaller urban centres.

Table 2 also shows the probability of sur­vival to age 75 years, conditional on survival to age 25 years, for urban cohort members. About 52% (95% CI: 48-56) of urban Aboriginal men were expected to survive to age 75 years compared to 65% (95% CI: 64-65) of urban non-Aboriginal men, a difference of 12 percentage points. For urban Aboriginal women, 63% (95% CI: 59-66) were expected to survive to age 75 years, compared to 80% (95% CI: 79-80) for urban non-Aboriginal women, a difference of 17 percentage points.

Age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates

Table 3 shows age-specific and age-standardized mortality rate ratios (RRs) for urban Aboriginal adults compared to urban non-Aboriginal adults. Overall, rate ratios were significantly higher for urban Aboriginal men (RR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.43-1.70) and women (RR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.78-2.11) compared to urban non-Aboriginal men and women. For urban Aboriginal adults of both sexes, rate ratios were highest in the younger age groups and diminished with advancing age.

Causes of death

Table 4 shows ASMRs by major causes of death for urban Aboriginal cohort members while Table 5 shows ASMRs by major causes of death for urban non-Aboriginal cohort members. Among urban Aboriginal men, the most common causes of death were circulatory system diseases (accounting for 33% of the total ASMR), followed by all cancers (23%) and external causes (16%)—a similar ranking to that for urban non-Aboriginal men. For urban Aboriginal women, the most common causes of death were circulatory system diseases (29% of the total ASMR), followed by all cancers (26%), external causes (10%) and digestive system diseases (9%); for urban non-Aboriginal women, cancer was the most common cause of death (42%), followed by circulatory system diseases (29%), respiratory system diseases (6%) and external causes (6%).

Table 5 shows age-standardized rate ratios (RRs) by major causes of death. (The corresponding number of deaths and ASMRs are shown in Table 4 and Appendix Table D.) Rate ratios for urban Aboriginal men were substantially elevated for deaths due to circulatory system diseases (RR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.29-1.74) such as ischemic heart disease (RR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.26-1.83), but not for all cancers combined (RR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.92-1.30); however, the rate ratio was elevated for deaths due to trachea, bronchus and lung cancer (RR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.08-1.88) especially for Aboriginal men living in metropolitan areas at the beginning of the follow-up period. Rate ratios for urban Aboriginal men were particularly elevated for digestive system diseases (RR = 3.00; 95% CI: 2.09-4.30), all external causes of death (RR = 2.80; 95% CI: 2.29-3.43)—notably motor vehicle accidents (RR = 3.51; 95% CI: 2.32-5.32) and, to a lesser extent, suicides (RR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.04-2.38)—as well as for deaths due to infectious diseases (RR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.33-3.11) including HIV/AIDS (RR = 2.03, CI: 1.22-3.39). With some exceptions (such as endocrine system diseases and suicide), rate ratios for Aboriginal men residing in metropolitan areas were similar to rate ratios for Aboriginal men residing in smaller urban centres.

Rate ratios for urban Aboriginal women were elevated for almost all major causes of death except breast cancer. For example, rate ratios were elevated for circulatory system diseases (RR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.64-2.28) and all cancers combined (RR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03-1.42), the two most common causes of death. Rate ratios were particularly elevated for deaths due to infectious diseases (RR = 5.76; 95% CI: 3.68-9.01) including HIV/AIDS (RR = 10.65; 95% CI: 4.56-24.88), digestive system diseases (RR = 4.82; 95% CI: 3.67-6.34), external causes (RR = 3.37; 95% CI: 2.59-4.37)—notably motor vehicle accidents (RR = 4.13; 95% CI: 2.46-6.93)—and endocrine system diseases such as diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.61; 95% CI: 1.73-3.94). With some exceptions, rate ratios for Aboriginal women residing in metropolitan areas were higher than for Aboriginal women residing in smaller urban centres.

In Table 5, deaths are also categorized as smoking-related, alcohol-related, drug-related or amenable to medical care.28,29 Compared to urban non-Aboriginal men and women, rates for smoking-related causes (accounting for 15% and 7% of the total ASMR among urban Aboriginal men and women respectively) were elevated for urban Aboriginal men (RR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.17-1.82) and women (RR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.04-1.78). Rates for alcohol-related causes were considerably higher for urban Aboriginal men (RR = 4.55; 95% CI: 3.14-6.61) and women (RR = 11.44; 95% CI: 8.02-16.34), and rates for drug-related deaths were also significantly higher for Aboriginal men (RR = 3.71; 95% CI: 2.22-6.22) and women (RR = 6.43; 95% CI: 4.26-9.73). Rates of premature death (before the age of 75 years) due to causes considered amenable to medical intervention (for example, those due to breast and cervical cancer, infectious diseases, cerebrovascular disease, pneumonia or influenza) were also significantly higher for urban Aboriginal adults of both sexes.

Within the urban Aboriginal adult population, men were more likely than women to die from smoking-related causes (ASMR = 130 per 100 000 person-years at risk versus 58), but less likely to die from causes amenable to medical care (69 versus 92), a similar pattern to that of the non-Aboriginal population. The risks of dying from alcohol-related causes were slightly elevated for urban Aboriginal men compared to urban Aboriginal women (42 versus 34), a different pattern than for the non-Aboriginal population, where men had a much higher risk than did women (9 versus 3) (Table 4, Appendix Table D).

Table 6 shows unadjusted and adjusted all-cause mortality hazard ratios that compare urban Aboriginal adults to their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Urban Aboriginal men and women both had elevated hazard ratios (1.60 and 2.00, respectively); after controlling for community size, lone parenthood, educational attainment, income adequacy, occupation skill level, work status, and immigration, the hazard ratios were reduced to 1.22 and 1.68, respectively, suggesting that 63% (for men) and 32% (for women) of the differences in hazard ratios could be explained by those socio-economic variables.

Back to top

Discussion

This is the first in-depth study to examine mortality patterns for a large number of Aboriginal adults living in urban Canada. It is important to stress that place of residence and all demographic and socio-economic characteristics were measured only at baseline (June 4, 1991) and do not necessarily reflect the situation later in the follow-up period. Research shows that the Aboriginal population tends to move more frequently than the non-Aboriginal population.6 For example, about 70% of the Aboriginal population (all ages) residing in metropolitan areas changed residences between 1991 and 1996, with 45% moving within the same community.6

In this cohort, urban Aboriginal adults had higher mortality rates, shorter life expectancy and lower probability of survival to age 75 years compared to urban non-Aboriginal adults. This pattern of higher mortality is consistent with that previously observed for Registered Indians residing in Winnipeg,19 Vancouver20 and Canada as a whole.14

The higher mortality rates for Aboriginal people are thought to be the product of a wide range of social determinants, experienced from early childhood to old age, that influence health in complex and dynamic ways.34,35 Our study demonstrates that socio-economic variables were an important contributor to the elevated mortality rates of urban Aboriginal adults, especially for urban Aboriginal men.

Results by major causes of death revealed different patterns of risks. Compared to urban non-Aboriginal cohort members, rate ratios for urban Aboriginal adults were particularly elevated for some causes of death such as digestive system diseases, motor vehicle collisions, alcohol- and drug-related diseases and HIV/AIDS, while rate ratios for other causes, such as all cancers combined, were either similar or only slightly elevated. In such cases, rate ratios were generally similar between Aboriginal adults living in metropolitan areas and those living in smaller urban centres.

Circulatory system diseases were the most common cause of death among urban Aboriginal adults aged 25 years or older, accounting for 32% and 29% of all deaths for urban Aboriginal men and women, respectively. The majority of these deaths were due to ischemic heart disease. The relative risk of deaths due to circulatory system diseases were elevated for urban Aboriginal adults, as was found for Registered Indians in British Columbia.20 A study of Ontario First Nations found that the rate of hospital admission for ischemic heart disease rose dramatically from 1981 to 1997;36 some participants in that study may have moved to cities to obtain the use of specialized health care services that were not available in rural or remote settings.

All cancer deaths represented about one in four deaths among urban Aboriginal adults. Compared to urban non-Aboriginal adults, rate ratios for all-cancer mortality were not elevated for urban Aboriginal men and only slightly elevated for urban Aboriginal women, a similar finding to that for Registered Indians in British Columbia.20 However, grouping of all cancers together might mask important differences, as previous research has shown that Aboriginal people are at increased risk for certain cancers but not for others.37-41 Limited sample size prevented a detailed analysis of all types of cancer in this study, but our results show that the risk of cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung was higher among urban Aboriginal adults, specifically those residing in metropolitan areas. Smoking prevalence, a risk factor for lung and other cancers, was more than twice as high among urban Aboriginal people aged 15 years or older compared to that of urban non-Aboriginal persons (43% versus 21%).42

Other studies have shown that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is particularly acute among Aboriginal people, especially among the young.20,43 Results from our study agree: rate ratios for HIV/AIDS mortality were more than twice for Aboriginal men and more than 10 times for Aboriginal women. Among Registered Indians in British Columbia, the rate of deaths due to HIV disease more than doubled from 1993 to 2006.20

The risk of dying from external injuries such as motor vehicle accidents and suicide was higher among urban Aboriginal adults than among urban non-Aboriginal adults. Other studies have also shown that Registered Indians and Aboriginal people in general are more likely to die from these causes than are other Canadians.20, 44, 45 A detailed breakdown of the different types of external causes of deaths was not possible due to the relatively small number of urban Aboriginal adults in the cohort, but the risk of dying from an external cause appeared greater for urban Aboriginal adults living in metropolitan areas than for those living in smaller urban centres. External causes of death accounted for a smaller proportion of all-cause mortality in this study compared to other studies, in part because our cohort followed people aged 25 years or older, whereas external injury deaths are most common among younger people.44,45 Because our study excluded the population under the age of 25 years, suicide rates reported in this study also failed to demonstrate the full extent of this problem as the mean age of deaths due to suicide was 27 years among Aboriginal people in Manitoba compared to 45 years for other Manitobans.46

The risk of dying from smoking-related diseases was higher among urban Aboriginal cohort members but the relative risk was not as high as for some other causes of death. In comparison, the relative risk of dying from alcohol-related diseases was considerably higher among urban Aboriginal adults (especially women) compared to urban non-Aboriginal adults. Other studies have shown that Registered Indians have a higher relative risk of dying of alcohol-related diseases compared to non-Aboriginal people.17,20,47 Despite this increased relative risk, deaths among urban Aboriginal adults due to alcohol-related diseases accounted for a smaller proportion of all deaths than did deaths due to smoking-related diseases.

Deaths prior to age 75 years that were amenable to medical care were elevated for urban Aboriginal adults compared to urban non-Aboriginal adults. Although the cause for this increased risk is not known, a 2004 study found that the proportion of persons who reported having a regular doctor did not vary between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal persons living in urban Canada, but that urban Aboriginal people were more likely to report unmet health care needs than their non-Aboriginal counterparts.42

Strengths and limitations

The large size of the Canadian census mortality follow-up study provides an opportunity to examine mortality patterns for urban Aboriginal adults. However, to be eligible for the study, and to be successfully linked, a person must have been enumerated by the 1991 long-form census and must have been a tax filer for the year 1990 or 1991. Thus any individual who did not file a tax return (under Section 87 of the Indian Act, Registered Indians are entitled to a tax exemption for income earned or considered to be earned on a reserve48) or who was in a long-term care facility, senior’s residence or prison could not be included in the cohort. Despite this limitation, we found no major differences in demographic and socio-economic characteristics between eligible census respondents and those successfully linked to the name file.

Compared to life tables for all Canada (for 1995–1997), at age 25 years the entire cohort had remaining life expectancy 1 year longer for men, and 2 years longer for women.

Ascertainment of deaths was estimated to be slightly lower among Aboriginal persons (95% to 96%) compared to the cohort as a whole (97%). This would result in a slight downward bias in calculated mortality rates for the urban Aboriginal population, so the true extent of the disparities compared to the non-Aboriginal cohort could be slightly larger than indicated in this study.

Since a question on Aboriginal self-identity was not part of the 1991 census, this study defined the urban Aboriginal population on the basis of Aboriginal ancestry, Registered Indian status and/or membership in an Indian band or First Nation. This definition undoubtedly excluded many persons who would have self-identified as Aboriginal. According to the 1996 census results concerning self-identification with an Aboriginal group, about 8% of the self-identifying Aboriginal population did not report any Aboriginal ancestry,32 although some of the latter may have been Registered Indians or members of an Indian band or First Nation.

Studies have shown differences in health indicators for First Nations, Inuit and Métis.10 Since this study grouped First Nations, Inuit and Métis together, intra-group differences were obscured. Moreover, the results may not be reflective of Inuit living in urban areas since Inuit made up only 3% of the Aboriginal cohort.

Back to top

Conclusion

Until this study, only limited information on the mortality of the urban Aboriginal people of Canada was available. We found that mortality rates were higher for urban Aboriginal adults compared to urban non-Aboriginal adults. Circulatory system disease deaths and cancer deaths were the most common cause of death for urban Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults. However, relative risks were particularly elevated for some causes of death such as digestive system diseases, motor vehicle collisions, alcohol- and drug-related diseases and HIV/AIDS. In agreement with other research, our results also demonstrated that socio-economic status played an important role in explaining these disparities.

Back to top

Acknowledgments

Major funding for this study was provided by the Canadian Population Health Initiative, part of the Canadian Institute for Health Information. We would also like to acknowledge the key importance of Canada’s provincial and territorial registrars of vital statistics, who provide the death data for the Canadian Mortality Data Base.

The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the above-named organizations or of the institutions with which they are affiliated.

Back to top

Author Information

Correspondence: Michael Tjepkema, Health Analysis Division Statistics Canada, R.H. Coats Building, 24th Floor, 100 Tunney’s Pasture Driveway, Ottawa Ontario K1A 0T6; Tel.: (613) 951-3896; Fax: (613) 951-3959; Email: michael.tjepkema@statcan.gc.ca

Back to top

References

  1. Kalbach WE. Growth and distribution of Canada’s ethnic populations, 1871-1981. In: Dreidgder L, editor. Ethnic Canada: identities and inequalities. Toronto (ON): Copp Clark Pitman; 1987. p.82-110.
  2. Statistics Canada. Aboriginal peoples in Canada in 2006: Inuit, Métis and First Nations, 2006 Census. 97-558-XIE. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2008.
  3. Wilson K, Young TK. An overview of Aboriginal health research in the social sciences: current trends and future directions. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2008;67(2-3):179-89.
  4. Young TK. Review of research on aboriginal populations in Canada: relevance to their health needs. BMJ. 2003;327(7412):419-22.
  5. Institute of Urban Studies. First Nations/Métis/Inuit Mobility Study: final report. Winnipeg (MB): University of Winnipeg; 2004.
  6. Norris MJ, Clatworthy S. Aboriginal mobility and migration within urban Canada: outcomes, factors and implications. In: Newhouse D, Peters EJ, editors. Not strangers in these parts: urban Aboriginal peoples. Ottawa (ON): Policy Research Initiative; 2003. p.51-78.
  7. Newhouse D, Peters EJ. Introduction. In: Newhouse D, Peters EJ, editors. Not strangers in these parts: urban Aboriginal peoples. Ottawa (ON): Policy Research Initiative; 2003. p.5-13.
  8. Gracey M, King M. Indigenous health part 1: determinants and disease patterns. Lancet. 2009;374(9683):65-75.
  9. Waldram JB, Herring DA, Young TK. Aboriginal health in Canada: historical, cultural, and epidemiological perspectives, 2nd ed. Toronto (ON): University of Toronto Press; 2006.
  10. Canadian Institute of Health Information. Improving the health of Canadians. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Institute of Health Information; 2004.
  11. Adelson N. The embodiment of inequity: health disparities in aboriginal Canada. Can J Public Health. 2005;96 Suppl 2:S45-S61.
  12. Health Council of Canada. The health status of Canada’s First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples. Toronto (ON): Health Council of Canada; 2005.
  13. Browne AJ, McDonald H, Elliot D. First Nations urban Aboriginal health research discussion paper: a report for the First Nations Centre, National Aboriginal Health Organization. Ottawa ON): National Aboriginal Health Organization; 2009.
  14. Indian and Northern Affairs of Canada. Basic departmental data, 2004. Ottawa (ON): Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development; 2005. Catalogue no.: R12-7/2003E.
  15. Wilkins R, Uppal S, Fines P, Senecal S, Guimond E, Dion R. Life expectancy in the Inuit-inhabited areas of Canada, 1989 to 2003. Health Rep. 2008;19(1):7-19.
  16. Wilkins R, Tjepkema M, Mustard C, Choiniere R. The Canadian census mortality follow-up study, 1991 through 2001. Health Rep. 2008;19(3):25-43.
  17. MacMillan HL, MacMillan AB, Offord DR, Dingle JL. Aboriginal health. CMAJ. 1996; 155(11):1569-78.
  18. Trovato F. Canadian Indian mortality during the 1980s. Soc Biol. 2000;47(1-2):135-45.
  19. Martens PJ, Sanderson D, Jebamani LS. Mortality comparisons of First Nations to all other Manitobans: a provincial population-based look at health inequalities by region and gender. Can J Public Health. 2005;96 Suppl1:S33-8.
  20. British Columbia Provincial Health Officer. Pathways to health and healing: 2nd report on the health and well-being of Aboriginal people in British Columbia. Provincial Health Officer’s Annual Report 2007. Victoria (BC): Ministry of Healthy Living and Sport; 2009.
  21. Fair ME. Generalized record linkage system: Statistics Canada’s record linkage software. Austrian Journal of Statistics. 2004; 33(1&2):37-53.
  22. Fair ME, Carpenter M, Aylwin H. Occupational and environmental health research projects: a descriptive catalogue 1978 to 2005. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2006. Catalogue no.: 82-581-XIE.
  23. Statistics Canada Coverage. Census Technical Reports series. Catalogue 92-341. Ottawa (ON): Minister of Industry, Science and Technology; 1994.
  24. Statistics Canada. The 1991 Aboriginal peoples survey microdata file: user’s guide. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada 1995.
  25. Carriere KC, Roos LL. A method of comparison for standardized rates of low-incidence events. Med Care. 1997;35(1):57-69.
  26. Chiang CL. The life table and its applications. Malabar (Fl): Krieger; 1984.
  27. World Health Organization. Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death. Ninth Revision. Geneva (CH): World Health Organization; 1977.
  28. World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision. Geneva (CH): World Health Organization; 1992.
  29. Mackenbach JP, Stirbu I, Roskam AJ, Schaap MM, Menvielle G, Leinsalu M Kunst AE; European Union Working Group on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(23):2468-81.
  30. Deaths related to drug poisoning: England and Wales, 1999-2003. Health Stat Q. 2005 Spring;(25):52-9.
  31. Statistics Canada. 1991 Census Dictionary. 92-301E. Ottawa (ON): Supply and Services Canada; 1992.
  32. Guimond E. Fuzzy definitions and population explosion: changing identities of Aboriginal groups in Canada. In: Newhouse D, Peters E, editors. Not strangers in these parts: urban Aboriginal peoples. Ottawa (ON): Policy Research Initiative; 2003. p.35-49.
  33. Puderer HA. Urban perspectives and measurement [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Statistics Canada; 2009 May 1 [cited 2009 Nov 23]. Available from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/92f0138m/92f0138m2009001-eng.htm
  34. Reading J. A life course approach to the social determinants of health for Aboriginal peoples. Ottawa (ON): Senate Sub-Committee on Population Health; 2009.
  35. Reading CL, Wien F. Health inequalities and social determinants of Aboriginal peoples’ health. Prince George (BC): National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health; 2009.
  36. Shah BR, Hux JE, Zinman B. Increasing rates of ischemic heart disease in the native population of Ontario, Canada. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(12):1862-66.
  37. Band PR, Gallagher RP, Threlfall WJ, Hislop TG, Deschamps M, Smith J. Rate of death from cervical cancer among native Indian women in British Columbia. CMAJ. 1992;147(12):1802-4.
  38. Young TK, Kliewer E, Blanchard J, Mayer T. Monitoring disease burden and preventive behavior with data linkage: cervical cancer among aboriginal people in Manitoba, Canada. Am J Public Health. 2000; 90(9):1466-1468.
  39. Marrett LD, Chaudhry M. Cancer incidence and mortality in Ontario First Nations, 1968-1991 (Canada). Cancer Causes Control.
    2003;14(3):259-68.
  40. Tjepkema M, Wilkins R, Senecal S, Guimond E, Penney C. Mortality of Métis and Registered Indian adults in Canada: an 11-year follow-up study. Health Rep. 2009; 20(4):31-51.
  41. Mahoney MC, Michalek AM. A meta-analysis of cancer incidence in United States and Canadian native populations. Int
    J Epidemiol. 1991;20(2):323-7.
  42. Tjepkema M. The health of the off-reserve Aboriginal population. Health Rep. 2002;13 Suppl:73-88.
  43. Public Health Agency of Canada. State of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Ottawa (ON): PHAC; 2005.
  44. Allard YE, Wilkins R, Berthelot JM. Premature mortality in health regions with high aboriginal populations. Health Rep. 2004;15(1):51-60.
  45. Health Canada. Unintentional and intentional injury profile for Aboriginal people in Canada 1990-1999. H35-4/8-1999. Ottawa (ON): Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada; 2001.
  46. Malchy B, Enns MW, Young TK, Cox BJ. Suicide among Manitoba’s aboriginal people, 1988 to 1994. CMAJ. 1997;156(8):1133-1138.
  47. Mao Y, Moloughney BW, Semenciw RM, Morrison HI. Indian Reserve and registered Indian mortality in Canada. Can J Public Health. 1992;83(5):350-3.
  48. Canadian Revenue Agency. Information for Status Indians [Internet]. Ottawa (ON): Canadian Revenue Agency; 2009 [cited 2009 Nov 23]. Available from: http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/brgnls/stts-eng.html

Back to top

 



 

Tables

Return to your place in the textTable 1 Characteristics of urban Aboriginal and urban non-Aboriginal cohort members by place of residence and sex, non-institutional population aged 25 years or older at baseline, Canada, 1991
  Aboriginal Non-Aboriginal
All urban areas Metropolitan areasa Smaller urban centresb All urban areas Metropolitan areasa Smaller urban centresb
Both sexes
Number 16 300 10 400 5 900 2 062 700 1 633 600 429 100
Age 25-44 (%) 73 73 73 54 55 53
Age 65+ (%) 5 5 5 15 15 17
Married or common law (%) 62 60 67 73 72 76
Lone parent (%) 14 14 14 5 5 5
Less than high school diploma (%) 44 42 46 31 30 36
University degree (%) 5 6 3 16 17 10
Employed (%) 56 57 55 67 67 64
Two lowest income quintiles (%) 61 61 62 36 37 36
Activity limitation (%) 15 15 15 10 10 12
Men
Number 6 900 4 400 2 500 1 013 300 799 800 213 400
Age 25-44 (%) 71 72 71 54 54 52
Age 65+ (%) 5 4 5 14 14 16
Married or common law (%) 67 64 73 79 78 82
Lone parent (%) 3 3 4 2 2 2
Less than high school diploma (%) 45 43 47 31 29 36
University degree (%) 5 7 2 18 19 12
Employed (%) 65 66 64 74 75 71
Two lowest income quintiles (%) 57 56 58 33 34 33
Activity limitation (%) 16 16 16 10 10 12
Women
Number 9 400 6 000 3 400 1 049 400 833 700 215 700
Age 25-44 (%) 74 74 74 55 55 55
Age 65+ (%) 5 5 6 17 16 18
Married or common law (%) 59 56 63 68 67 70
Lone parent (%) 22 23 22 8 8 8
Less than high school diploma (%) 43 42 45 32 31 36
University degree (%) 5 6 3 13 15 9
Employed (%) 50 51 49 60 61 57
Two lowest income quintiles (%) 65 64 65 39 39 39
Activity limitation (%) 14 14 14 10 10 11

Source: 1991–2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study.
a Population ≥ 100 000
b Population ≥ 10 000

Return to your place in the textTable 2 Remaining life expectancy at age 25 years and probability of survival to age 75 years (conditional on surviving to age 25 years) for urban Aboriginal adults and urban non-Aboriginal adults by place of residence and sex, non-institutional population aged 25 years or older at baseline, Canada, 1991–2001
Total 95% CI Men 95% CI Women 95% CI
Life expectancy at age 25 years (years)
Aboriginal
All urban areas 50.4 (49.7-51.1) 48.1 (47.1-49.1) 52.7 (51.7-53.7)
Metropolitan areasa 50.3 (49.4-51.2) 48.2 (46.9-49.5) 52.4 (51.1-53.7)
Smaller urban centresb 50.9 (49.8-52.0) 48.2 (46.6-49.8) 53.6 (52.1-55.0)
Non-Aboriginal
All urban areas 56.0 (56.0-56.1) 52.8 (52.8-52.9) 59.2 (59.2-59.3)
Metropolitan areasa 56.2 (56.1-56.2) 53.0 (52.9-53.1) 59.3 (59.3-59.4)
Smaller urban centresb 55.5 (55.4-55.6) 52.2 (52.1-52.4) 58.8 (58.7-59.0)
Probability of survival to age 75 years (%)
Aboriginal
All urban areas 57.5 (54.8-60.1) 52.2 (48.2-56.3) 62.7 (59.2-66.2)
Metropolitan areasa 55.4 (52.0-58.7) 52.5 (47.5-57.6) 58.2 (53.6-62.7)
Smaller urban centresb 61.3 (57.1-65.6) 51.8 (44.9-58.6) 70.9 (65.5-76.3)
Non-Aboriginal
All urban areas 72.0 (71.8-72.2) 64.5 (64.3-64.8) 79.5 (79.3-79.7)
Metropolitan areasa 72.4 (72.2-72.5) 65.0 (64.7-65.3) 79.7 (79.5-79.9)
Smaller urban centresb 70.7 (70.3-71.0) 62.9 (62.4-63.4) 78.5 (78.0-78.9)

Source: 1991–2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study.
Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval.
a Population ≥ 100 000
b Population ≥ 10 000

Return to your place in the textTable 3 Deaths and mortality rate ratios, by age group at baseline, sex and place of residence, for urban Aboriginal adults compared to urban non-Aboriginal adults, non-institutional population aged 25 years or older at baseline, Canada, 1991–2001
Sex and age group at baseline All urban areas Metropolitan areasa Smaller urban centresb
Deaths RR 95% CI Deaths RR 95% CI Deaths RR 95% CI
Men
Total, 25 + years 563 1.56 (1.43-1.70) 354 1.59 (1.43-1.77) 209 1.45 (1.26-1.66)
25 to 34 67 2.17 (1.71-2.77) 42 2.14 (1.58-2.91) 25 2.16 (1.45-3.22)
35 to 44 78 1.77 (1.41-2.21) 55 1.96 (1.50-2.56) 23 1.41 (0.93-2.13)
45 to 54 123 1.94 (1.62-2.32) 81 2.04 (1.64-2.54) 42 1.68 (1.24-2.28)
55 to 64 122 1.43 (1.20-1.71) 78 1.49 (1.19-1.86) 44 1.29 (0.96-1.74)
65 to 74 103 1.31 (1.08-1.58) 63 1.23 (0.96-1.58) 40 1.41 (1.03-1.93)
75+ 70 1.27 (1.01-1.61) 35 1.27 (0.91-1.77) 35 1.23 (0.89-1.72)
Women
Total, 25 + years 563 1.94 (1.78-2.11) 377 2.10 (1.89-2.32) 186 1.68 (1.44-1.97)
25 to 34 72 3.19 (2.52-4.04) 52 3.71 (2.81-4.89) 20 2.25 (1.43-3.53)
35 to 44 100 2.55 (2.09-3.11) 70 2.87 (2.27-3.64) 30 1.96 (1.36-2.83)
45 to 54 112 2.39 (1.98-2.88) 80 2.72 (2.18-3.39) 32 1.78 (1.25-2.53)
55 to 64 93 1.71 (1.39-2.10) 65 1.87 (1.46-2.39) 28 1.38 (0.95-2.00)
65 to 74 115 1.61 (1.34-1.94) 76 1.80 (1.44-2.26) 39 1.31 (0.95-1.79)
75+ 71 1.13 (0.90-1.43) 34 0.92 (0.66-1.29) 37 1.41 (1.02-1.95)

Source: 1991–2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study.
Note: The rate ratio for all ages combined has been age standardized.
Reference population (person-years at risk) for age standardization was taken from the Aboriginal age distribution (5-year age groups).
Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; RR, rate ratio.
a Population ≥ 100 000
b Population ≥ 10 000

Return to your place in the textTable 4 Deaths and age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 person-years at risk for urban Aboriginal adults by sex and place of residence, non-institutional population aged 25 years or older at baseline, Canada, 1991–2001
  All urban areas Metropolitan areasa Smaller urban centresb
Deaths ASMR 95% CI Deaths ASMR 95% CI Deaths ASMR 95% CI
Men
All causes 563 875.4 (804.5-952.4) 354 880.9 (791.0-981.1) 209 860.0 (749.9-986.3)
Infectious diseases 22 31.8 (20.9-48.5) 17 39.3 (24.2-63.8) 5 19.3 (8.0-46.3)
  HIV/AIDS 15 21.3 (12.8-35.4)
  Other infectious diseases 7 10.5 (4.9-22.4)
Cancer 132 203.8 (171.5-242.3) 79 197.9 (157.7-248.4) 53 215.6 (164.3-282.9)
  Trachea/bronchus/lung cancers 51 79.8 (60.4-105.4) 32 83.5 (58.2-119.8) 19 76.7 (48.7-120.9)
  Other cancers 81 124.1 (99.6-154.6) 47 114.4 (85.5-153.1) 34 138.9 (99.0-194.9)
Endocrine diseases 16 24.2 (14.7-39.7) 7 16.5 (7.8-34.9) 9 36.1 (18.7-69.9)
Circulatory system 178 285.1 (245.6-331.0) 107 279.5 (229.6-340.3) 71 299.3 (236.5-378.9)
  Ischemic heart disease 116 185.0 (153.8-222.5) 71 189.1 (148.6-240.8) 45 193.0 (143.6-259.4)
  Other circulatory diseases 62 100.1 (77.7-128.9) 36 90.4 (64.5-126.7) 26 106.3 (72.0-157.0)
Respiratory diseases 39 67.5 (49.1-92.7) 22 63.4 (41.0-98.0) 17 71.0 (43.8-115.1)
Digestive system diseases 37 60.2 (42.0-86.2) 28 73.5 (49.5-109.1) 9 33.8 (17.5-65.3)
External causes 97 138.3 (113.3-168.8) 64 142.4 (111.4-182.0) 33 132.9 (94.4-187.1)
  Suicide 23 32.3 (21.4-48.6) 17 37.0 (23.0-59.6) 6 23.7 (10.6-52.8)
  Motor vehicle 23 33.2 (22.0-50.0) 14 31.7 (18.8-53.6) 9 37.0 (19.2-71.4)
  Other external causes 51 72.9 (55.4-95.9) 33 73.7 (52.4-103.7) 18 72.1 (45.4-114.6)
All other causes 42 64.5 (47.5-87.6) 30 68.5 (47.8-98.2) 12 51.9 (29.3-91.9)
Smoking-related diseases 81 130.3 (104.4-162.5) 51 137.6 (103.3-183.1) 30 122.4 (85.3-175.8)
Alcohol-related diseases 29 41.7 (28.8-60.3) 20 44.8 (28.7-70.0) 9 36.0 (18.7-69.5)
Drug-related diseases 15 20.6 (12.4-34.2)
Amenable to medical intervention (< 75 years) 48 68.6 (51.7-91.1) 30 66.3 (46.4-94.9) 18 72.7 (45.7-115.7)
Women
All causes 563 615.9 (566.2-670.0) 377 657.3 (593.0-728.7) 186 559.4 (478.9-653.5)
Infectious diseases 20 20.9 (13.5-32.4) 12 20.0 (11.4-35.3) 8 23.6 (11.7-47.2)
  HIV/AIDS 6 6.1 (2.8-13.6)
  Other infectious diseases 14 14.8 (8.7-25.0)
Cancer 153 162.9 (139.0-190.9) 98 166.9 (136.8-203.6) 55 158.5 (121.5-206.8)
  Trachea/bronchus/lung cancers 36 38.6 (27.9-53.6) 26 45.9 (31.2-67.5) 10 27.3 (14.6-50.9)
  Breast cancers 26 27.1 (18.4-39.8) 14 23.1 (13.7-39.1) 12 34.7 (19.7-61.2)
  Other cancers 91 97.2 (79.1-119.4) 58 97.9 (75.6-126.7) 33 96.5 (68.4-136.1)
Endocrine 23 25.2 (16.7-37.9) 17 28.6 (17.7-46.0) 6 18.6 (8.4-41.6)
Circulatory system 154 178.4 (151.4-210.3) 108 197.3 (162.3-240.0) 46 158.2 (111.3-224.9)
  Ischemic heart disease 72 83.5 (65.7-106.2) 50 89.0 (67.2-117.8) 22 78.9 (47.7-130.7)
  Other circulatory diseases 82 94.9 (75.8-119.0) 58 108.3 (82.6-142.2) 24 79.3 (48.6-129.4)
Respiratory diseases 34 37.9 (26.8-53.5) 23 41.5 (27.3-62.9) 11 30.0 (16.6-54.3)
Digestive system diseases 53 55.9 (42.7-73.2) 38 62.6 (45.5-86.1) 15 43.5 (26.2-72.5)
External causes 58 59.9 (46.3-77.5) 43 70.5 (52.2-95.1) 15 42.6 (25.7-70.8)
  Suicide 14 14.3 (8.5-24.1)
  Motor vehicle 15 15.6 (9.4-26.0) 11 18.1 (10.0-32.6) 4 11.4 (4.3-30.4)
  Other external (excluding suicide) 29 30.0 (20.8-43.1)
  Other external (including suicide) 43 44.2 (32.8-59.7) 32 52.4 (37.0-74.1) 11 31.2 (17.3-56.5)
All other causes 68 74.9 (58.8-95.3) 38 70.0 (50.1-97.8) 30 84.3 (58.9-120.8)
Smoking-related diseases 54 57.8 (44.3-75.6) 36 62.5 (45.0-86.8) 18 49.1 (30.8-78.0)
Alcohol-related diseases 33 34.2 (24.3-48.1) 24 39.3 (26.4-58.7) 9 25.4 (13.2-48.9)
Drug-related diseases 24 24.5 (16.4-36.6) 17 27.5 (17.1-44.3) 7 19.6 (9.3-41.1)
Amenable to medical intervention (< 75 years) 86 92.1 (74.5-113.8) 60 101.5 (78.8-130.8) 26 77.0 (52.4-113.4)

Source: 1991–2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study.
Abbreviations: —, suppressed due to disclosure rules or not applicable; AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome; ASMR, age-standardized mortality rates; CI, confidence interval; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus.
Reference population (person-years at risk) for age standardization was taken from the Aboriginal age distribution (5-year age groups).
a Population ≥ 100 000
b Population ≥ 10 000

Return to your place in the textTable 5 Age-adjusted rate ratios by major causes of death and by sex, for urban Aboriginal adults compared to urban non-Aboriginal adults in same urban classification, non-institutional population aged 25 years or older at baseline, Canada, 1991–2001
  All urban areas Metropolitan areasa Smaller urban centresb
RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI
Men
All causes 1.56 (1.43-1.70) 1.59 (1.43-1.77) 1.45 (1.26-1.66)
Infectious diseases 2.04 (1.33-3.11) 2.19 (1.34-3.56) 2.89 (1.19-7.03)
  HIV/AIDS 2.03 (1.22-3.39)
  Other infectious diseases 2.04 (0.96-4.37)
Cancer 1.09 (0.92-1.30) 1.07 (0.85-1.34) 1.11 (0.85-1.46)
  Trachea/bronchus/lung cancers 1.42 (1.08-1.88) 1.53 (1.06-2.19) 1.26 (0.80-1.99)
  Other cancers 0.95 (0.76-1.18) 0.88 (0.66-1.18) 1.04 (0.74-1.46)
Endocrine diseases 1.42 (0.86-2.33) 0.98 (0.46-2.08) 2.00 (1.03-3.89)
Circulatory system 1.50 (1.29-1.74) 1.51 (1.24-1.84) 1.45 (1.14-1.83)
  Ischemic heart disease 1.52 (1.26-1.83) 1.59 (1.25-2.03) 1.46 (1.08-1.96)
  Other circulatory diseases 1.47 (1.14-1.89) 1.36 (0.97-1.91) 1.43 (0.96-2.11)
Respiratory diseases 1.72 (1.25-2.37) 1.68 (1.08-2.59) 1.62 (1.00-2.64)
Digestive system diseases 3.00 (2.09-4.30) 3.67 (2.47-5.45) 1.68 (0.86-3.25)
External causes 2.80 (2.29-3.43) 3.04 (2.37-3.89) 2.26 (1.60-3.20)
  Suicide 1.57 (1.04-2.38) 1.91 (1.18-3.08) 0.96 (0.43-2.16)
  Motor vehicle 3.51 (2.32-5.32) 3.67 (2.16-6.23) 2.96 (1.51-5.78)
  Other external causes 3.76 (2.84-4.96) 3.92 (2.78-5.54) 3.32 (2.07-5.33)
All other causes 1.47 (1.08-2.00) 1.57 (1.09-2.25) 1.18 (0.66-2.09)
Smoking-related diseases 1.46 (1.17-1.82) 1.59 (1.19-2.11) 1.24 (0.86-1.78)
Alcohol-related diseases 4.55 (3.14-6.61) 4.81 (3.06-7.55) 4.22 (2.16-8.24)
Drug-related diseases 3.71 (2.22-6.22)
Amenable to medical intervention (< 75 years) 1.80 (1.35-2.39) 1.65 (1.15-2.37) 2.39 (1.49-3.82)
Women
All causes 1.94 (1.78-2.11) 2.10 (1.89-2.32) 1.68 (1.44-1.97)
Infectious diseases 5.76 (3.68-9.01) 5.25 (2.95-9.32) 8.08 (3.91-16.69)
  HIV/AIDS 10.65 (4.56-24.88)
  Other infectious diseases 4.84 (2.84-8.24)
Cancer 1.21 (1.03-1.42) 1.25 (1.02-1.52) 1.16 (0.88-1.51)
  Trachea/bronchus/lung cancers 1.33 (0.96-1.85) 1.61 (1.10-2.38) 0.86 (0.46-1.61)
  Breast cancers 0.91 (0.62-1.34) 0.77 (0.46-1.31) 1.21 (0.68-2.14)
  Other cancers 1.29 (1.05-1.58) 1.30 (1.00-1.69) 1.26 (0.89-1.78)
Endocrine 2.61 (1.73-3.94) 3.00 (1.86-4.85) 1.83 (0.82-4.12)
Circulatory system 1.93 (1.64-2.28) 2.19 (1.80-2.67) 1.56 (1.10-2.22)
  Ischemic heart disease 1.73 (1.36-2.21) 1.89 (1.43-2.50) 1.52 (0.91-2.52)
  Other circulatory diseases 2.15 (1.71-2.69) 2.53 (1.93-3.32) 1.61 (0.98-2.63)
Respiratory diseases 1.91 (1.35-2.71) 2.15 (1.41-3.26) 1.39 (0.77-2.52)
Digestive system diseases 4.82 (3.67-6.34) 5.41 (3.92-7.46) 3.73 (2.23-6.27)
External causes 3.37 (2.59-4.37) 4.12 (3.04-5.58) 2.09 (1.25-3.50)
  Suicide 2.46 (1.45-4.19)  
  Motor vehicle 4.13 (2.46-6.93) 5.24 (2.87-9.59) 2.22 (0.82-6.06)
  Other external (excluding suicide) 3.65 (2.53-5.28)
  Other external (including suicide) 3.16 (2.33-4.28) 3.84 (2.70-5.46) 2.04 (1.12-3.73)
All other causes 2.63 (2.06-3.36) 2.43 (1.74-3.40) 3.10 (2.15-4.46)
Smoking-related diseases 1.36 (1.04-1.78) 1.50 (1.08-2.08) 1.07 (0.67-1.71)
Alcohol-related diseases 11.44 (8.02-16.34) 12.87 (8.49-19.50) 9.38 (4.70-18.73)
Drug-related diseases 6.43 (4.26-9.73) 7.40 (4.53-12.08) 4.65 (2.14-10.10)
Amenable to medical intervention (< 75 years) 1.99 (1.61-2.47) 2.20 (1.71-2.85) 1.65 (1.11-2.43)

Source: 1991–2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study.
Abbreviations: —, suppressed due to disclosure rules or not applicable; AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome; ASMR, age-standardized mortality rates; CI, confidence interval; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus.
Reference population (person-years at risk) for age standardization was taken from the Aboriginal age distribution (5-year age groups).
a Population ≥ 100 000
b Population ≥ 10 000

Return to your place in the textTable 6 Adjusted and unadjusted all-cause mortality hazard ratios for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults residing in all urban areas, by sex, non-institutional population aged 25 years or older at baseline, Canada, 1991–2001
Characteristic at baseline Men Women
Unadjusted Adjusted Unadjusted Adjusted
Hazard ratio 95% CI Hazard ratio  95% CI Hazard ratio  95% CI Hazard ratio  95% CI
Aboriginal
Yes 1.60 (1.47-1.73) 1.22 (1.13-1.33) 2.00 (1.84-2.17) 1.68 (1.55-1.83)
No (ref) 1.00 ... 1.00 ... 1.00 ... 1.00 ...
Age (years) 1.10 (1.10-1.10) 1.09 (1.09-1.09) 1.10 (1.10-1.10) 1.09 (1.09-1.09)
Lone parent
Yes ... 1.04 (0.99-1.08) ... 1.10 (1.07-1.13)
No (ref) ... 1.00 ... ... 1.00 ...
Place of residence
Metropolitan areasa ... 1.01 (1.00-1.03) ... 0.99 (0.98-1.01)
Smaller urban centresb ... 1.00 ... ... 1.00 ...
Highest educational attainment
Less than high school diploma ... 1.35 (1.32-1.39) ... 1.24 (1.19-1.28)
High school diploma ... 1.22 (1.19-1.25) ... 1.15 (1.11-1.19)
Post-secondary diploma ... 1.09 (1.06-1.13) ... 1.07 (1.03-1.11)
University degree (ref) ... 1.00 ... ... 1.00 ...
Income adequacy quintile
Quintile 1 - lowest ... 1.41 (1.38-1.44) ... 1.30 (1.27-1.33)
Quintile 2 ... 1.18 (1.16-1.20) ... 1.13 (1.10-1.15)
Quintile 3 ... 1.10 (1.07-1.12) ... 1.08 (1.05-1.11)
Quintile 4 ... 1.04 (1.01-1.06) ... 1.04 (1.01-1.07)
Quintile 5 - highest (ref) ... 1.00 ... ... 1.00 ...
Occupation - skill-based categories
Professional (ref) ... 1.00 ... ... 1.00 ...
Managerial ... 0.99 (0.95-1.03) ... 1.07 (0.99-1.15)
Skilled/Technical/Supervisory ... 1.09 (1.05-1.13) ... 1.10 (1.04-1.16)
Semi-skilled ... 1.19 (1.14-1.23) ... 1.11 (1.05-1.17)
Unskilled ... 1.27 (1.22-1.33) ... 1.18 (1.11-1.26)
No occupation ... 1.29 (1.24-1.34) ... 1.29 (1.22-1.36)
Work status
Unemployed (ref) ... 1.00 ... ... 1.00 ...
Employed ... 0.82 (0.79-0.85) ... 0.89 (0.84-0.94)
Not in labour force ... 1.16 (1.11-1.20) ... 1.09 (1.03-1.16)
Place of birth
Canada (ref) ... 1.00 ... ... 1.00 ...
Overseas ... 0.74 (0.73-0.75) ... 0.84 (0.83-0.86)

Source: 1991-2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study.
Abbreviations: ..., not applicable; CI, confidence interval; ref, reference.
a Population ≥ 100 000
b Population ≥ 10 000

Back to top

Appendices

Return to your place in the textTable A Long-form census respondents, cohort members, linkage rate to name file, deaths ascertained, and person-years at risk, non-institutional population aged 25 years or older at baseline, 1991
  Census respondents (n) Study cohort (n) Linkage rate to name file (%) Deaths ascertained (n) Person years
Aboriginal population
All urban areas
Total 25 500 16 300 64 1 126 166 570
Men 11 300 6 900 61 563 69 580
Women 14 200 9 400 66 563 96 990
Metropolitan areasa
Total 15 800 10 400 66 731 106 030
Men 7 000 4 400 63 354 44 610
Women 8 800 6 000 68 377 61 410
Smaller urban centresb
Total 9 700 5 900 61 395 60 540
Men 4 300 2 500 58 209 24 970
Women 5 400 3 400 64 186 35 570
Non-Aboriginal
All urban areas
Total 2 644 400 2 062 700 78 192 932 20 844 280
Men 1 270 400 1 013 300 80 111 126 10 145 220
Women 1 373 900 1 049 400 76 81 806 10 699 060
Metropolitan areasa
Total 2 098 600 1 633 600 78 148 482 16 528 930
Men 1 007 700 799 800 79 84 836 8 022 930
Women 1 090 900 833 700 76 63 646 8 506 000
Smaller urban centresb
Total 545 800 429 100 79 44 450 4 315 350
Men 262 700 213 400 81 26 290 2 122 290
Women 283 000 215 700 76 18 160 2 193 060

Source: 1991–2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study.
Note: Census population counts rounded to nearest 100, person years rounded to the nearest 10.
a Population ≥ 100 000
b Population ≥ 10 000

Return to your place in the textTable B Demographic and socio-economic characteristics at baseline of the in-scope (eligible) urban Aboriginal census respondents compared to urban Aboriginal cohort members, by sex and place of residence, non-institutional population aged 25 years or older at baseline, 1991
  All urban areas Metropolitan areasa Smaller urban centresb
In-scope % Cohort % Ratio In-scope % Cohort % Ratio In-scope % Cohort % Ratio
Men
Number 49 100 6 900 33 100 4 400 16 000 2 500
Age group (years)
25 to 34 43 42 0.97 43 42 0.97 42 41 0.98
35 to 44 28 30 1.04 28 30 1.04 28 29 1.05
45 to 54 16 16 1.04 16 16 1.03 15 16 1.07
55 to 64 8 8 0.95 8 8 0.97 9 8 0.91
65 to 74 3 3 1.01 3 3 1.05 3 3 0.93
75 + 2 1 0.79 1 1 0.78 2 2 0.78
Marital status
Single (never married) 26 23 0.88 28 25 0.90 21 18 0.84
Common-law 19 17 0.93 18 16 0.90 21 20 0.96
Married 42 50 1.17 41 48 1.17 45 53 1.17
Previously married 13 10 0.79 13 11 0.82 13 10 0.74
Lone parent
Yes 96 97 1.01 96 97 1.01 96 96 1.01
No 4 3 0.83 4 3 0.79 4 4 0.87
Educational attainment
Less than high school diploma 47 45 0.94 45 43 0.96 51 47 0.91
High school diploma 38 40 1.05 38 39 1.03 38 41 1.09
Post-secondary diploma 9 10 1.08 10 11 1.06 8 9 1.15
University degree 5 5 1.00 6 7 1.03 2 2 1.01
Labour force status
Employed 61 65 1.06 62 66 1.05 59 64 1.09
Unemployed 17 16 0.94 15 14 0.92 19 18 0.95
Not in labour force 22 20 0.88 22 20 0.91 22 18 0.81
Income quintile
Quintile 1 - lowest 39 34 0.88 39 34 0.89 38 33 0.86
Quintile 2 21 23 1.06 21 21 1.01 22 25 1.16
Quintile 3 17 19 1.12 17 19 1.12 16 18 1.11
Quintile 4 14 16 1.07 14 16 1.10 14 15 1.02
Quintile 5 - highest 9 9 1.03 9 9 1.07 9 9 0.97
Activity limitation
Not stated 2 1 0.59 2 1 0.72 2 1 0.39
No 82 83 1.02 82 83 1.01 82 84 1.02
Yes 17 16 0.96 17 16 0.96 16 16 0.95
Women
Number 65 500 9 400 43 700 6 000 21 800 3 400
Age group (years)
25 to 34 42 44 1.04 43 44 1.03 41 44 1.05
35 to 44 29 30 1.03 29 30 1.01 28 30 1.07
45 to 54 15 15 0.99 15 15 1.00 15 14 0.97
55 to 64 8 7 0.85 8 7 0.91 8 6 0.75
65 to 74 4 4 0.85 4 4 0.86 5 4 0.83
75 + 2 1 0.75 1 1 0.82 2 2 0.65
Marital status
Single (never married) 20 19 0.95 21 20 0.95 18 17 0.95
Common-law 16 16 1.01 15 15 0.97 17 17 1.06
Married 40 43 1.08 38 41 1.08 42 46 1.08
Previously married 25 22 0.91 25 23 0.93 24 20 0.86
Lone parent
Yes 23 22 0.95 23 23 0.96 23 22 0.93
No 77 78 1.01 77 77 1.01 77 78 1.02
Educational attainment
Less than high school diploma 46 43 0.93 45 42 0.93 50 45 0.92
High school diploma 34 36 1.05 35 37 1.05 32 35 1.07
Post-secondary diploma 15 16 1.08 15 16 1.06 15 17 1.12
University degree 5 5 1.07 5 6 1.12 3 3 0.99
Labour force status
Employed 46 50 1.10 47 51 1.08 43 49 1.14
Unemployed 11 11 0.98 10 10 0.97 13 13 0.98
Not in labour force 43 39 0.90 43 40 0.92 44 38 0.87
Income quintile
Quintile 1 - lowest 47 43 0.93 47 44 0.93 46 42 0.92
Quintile 2 20 21 1.05 20 20 1.03 21 23 1.08
Quintile 3 15 16 1.06 14 15 1.06 15 16 1.05
Quintile 4 11 12 1.08 11 12 1.11 11 11 1.04
Quintile 5 - highest 8 8 1.08 8 8 1.09 7 8 1.08
Activity limitation
Not stated 1 0 0.54 1 0 0.51 1 0 0.60
No 84 85 1.02 84 85 1.02 84 86 1.02
Yes 15 14 0.91 15 14 0.92 16 14 0.90

Source: 1991 census and 1991–2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study.
a Population ≥ 100 000
b Population ≥ 10 000

Return to your place in the textTable C Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the in-scope (eligible) urban non-Aboriginal census respondents compared to urban non-Aboriginal cohort members, by sex and place of residence, non-institutional population aged 25 years or older at baseline, 1991
  All urban areas Metropolitan areasa Smaller urban centresb
In-scope % Cohort % Ratio In-scope % Cohort % Ratio In-scope % Cohort % Ratio
Men
Number 6 470 600 1 013 300 5 159 500 799 800 1 311 100 213 400
Age group (years)
25 to 34 29 28 0.95 30 28 0.94 27 26 0.97
35 to 44 26 26 1.02 26 26 1.01 26 26 1.03
45 to 54 18 18 1.03 18 18 1.03 17 18 1.02
55 to 64 14 14 1.03 13 14 1.04 14 14 1.01
65 to 74 9 10 1.04 9 10 1.05 11 11 1.01
75 + 5 5 0.97 4 4 0.97 6 5 0.93
Marital status
Single (never married) 16 14 0.84 17 15 0.84 13 11 0.85
Common-law 7 7 0.90 7 6 0.90 8 7 0.88
Married 67 72 1.08 66 72 1.08 70 75 1.07
Previously married 9 7 0.81 9 7 0.80 9 8 0.81
Lone parent
Yes 98 98 1.00 98 98 1.00 98 98 1.00
No 2 2 0.86 2 2 0.86 2 2 0.85
Educational attainment
Less than high school diploma 32 31 0.97 30 29 0.97 38 36 0.96
High school diploma 38 38 1.01 37 37 1.00 40 40 1.02
Post-secondary diploma 13 14 1.03 14 14 1.02 12 12 1.04
University degree 17 18 1.03 19 19 1.03 11 12 1.05
Labour force status
Employed 72 74 1.02 73 75 1.02 69 71 1.03
Unemployed 6 6 0.91 6 6 0.90 7 6 0.93
Not in labour force 21 20 0.96 20 20 0.96 24 23 0.95
Income quintile
Quintile 1 - lowest 16 14 0.87 17 14 0.87 15 13 0.88
Quintile 2 20 19 0.99 20 19 0.99 19 19 0.99
Quintile 3 21 21 1.02 21 21 1.02 21 22 1.03
Quintile 4 21 22 1.04 21 22 1.04 22 23 1.04
Quintile 5 - highest 22 23 1.05 22 23 1.05 22 23 1.03
Activity limitation
Not stated 1 0 0.77 1 0 0.74 1 1 0.88
No 89 89 1.01 89 90 1.01 86 87 1.01
Yes 11 10 0.96 10 10 0.97 13 12 0.94
Women
Number 6 983 500 1 049 400 1.00 5 574 600 833 700 1.00 1 408 900 215 700 1.00
Age group (years)
25 to 34 27 29 1.04 28 29 1.03 26 28 1.09
35 to 44 25 26 1.08 25 26 1.07 24 26 1.10
45 to 54 16 17 1.01 16 17 1.01 16 16 1.00
55 to 64 13 12 0.89 13 12 0.90 14 12 0.85
65 to 74 11 10 0.91 11 10 0.92 12 11 0.86
75 + 7 6 0.89 7 6 0.90 8 7 0.89
Marital status
Single (never married) 12 13 1.01 13 13 1.00 9 10 1.07
Common-law 6 6 1.00 6 6 1.00 6 6 1.01
Married 61 62 1.02 60 61 1.02 63 63 1.00
Previously married 21 20 0.95 21 20 0.94 21 21 0.97
Lone parent
Yes 91 92 1.00 91 92 1.00 92 92 1.00
No 9 8 0.96 9 8 0.95 8 8 0.99
Educational attainment
Less than high school diploma 35 32 0.91 34 31 0.91 40 36 0.89
High school diploma 34 36 1.03 34 35 1.03 34 36 1.04
Post-secondary diploma 18 19 1.08 18 19 1.07 18 19 1.10
University degree 12 13 1.08 14 15 1.07 8 9 1.14
Labour force status
Employed 55 60 1.09 56 61 1.08 51 57 1.12
Unemployed 5 5 1.01 5 5 1.01 5 6 1.03
Not in labour force 40 35 0.88 39 34 0.88 44 38 0.86
Income quintile
Quintile 1 - lowest 21 20 0.92 21 19 0.91 22 20 0.94
Quintile 2 21 20 0.96 21 20 0.97 20 19 0.94
Quintile 3 20 20 1.02 20 20 1.02 20 20 1.02
Quintile 4 19 20 1.05 19 20 1.05 19 20 1.04
Quintile 5 - highest 19 20 1.07 19 20 1.06 19 20 1.07
Activity limitation
Not stated 1 0 0.89 1 0 0.87 0 0 0.97
No 88 89 1.01 89 90 1.01 87 88 1.02
Yes 11 10 0.90 11 10 0.91 13 11 0.89

Source: 1991 census and 1991–2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study.
a Population ≥ 100 000
b Population ≥ 10 000

Return to your place in the textTable D Deaths and age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 person-years at risk for urban non-Aboriginal adults by sex and place of residence, non-institutional population aged 25 years or older at baseline, Canada, 1991–2001
  All urban areas Metropolitan areasa Smaller urban centresb
Deaths ASMR 95% CI Deaths ASMR 95% CI Deaths ASMR 95% CI
Men
All causes 111 126 561.7 (558.1-565.4) 84 836 553.2 (549.1-557.3) 26 290 592.8 (584.6-601.0)
Infectious diseases 1 875 15.6 (14.9-16.4) 1 654 18.0 (17.0-19.0) 221 6.7 (5.7-7.8)
  HIV/AIDS 919 10.5 (9.8-11.2) 876 12.6 (11.7-13.5) 43 2.4 (1.8-3.3)
  Other infectious diseases 956 5.1 (4.8-5.5) 778 5.4 (5.0-5.8) 178 4.2 (3.6-5.0)
Cancer 37 073 186.7 (184.7-188.8) 28 544 184.8 (182.5-187.1) 8 529 194.1 (189.5-198.7)
  Trachea/bronchus/lung cancers 11 315 56.0 (54.9-57.1) 8 624 54.7 (53.5-55.9) 2 691 60.7 (58.3-63.3)
  Other cancers 25 758 130.7 (129.0-132.5) 19 920 130.1 (128.1-132.1) 5 838 133.3 (129.6-137.2)
Endocrine diseases 3 463 17.1 (16.4-17.7) 2 647 16.8 (16.1-17.5) 816 18.0 (16.7-19.5)
Circulatory system 40 955 190.0 (188.0-192.0) 30 951 185.2 (183.0-187.4) 10 004 207.1 (202.6-211.6)
  Ischemic heart disease 25 856 121.7 (120.1-123.3) 19 645 118.7 (117.0-120.5) 6 211 132.5 (128.9-136.2)
  Other circulatory diseases 15 099 68.3 (67.1-69.5) 11 306 66.5 (65.2-67.8) 3 793 74.6 (72.0-77.2)
Respiratory diseases 9 390 39.2 (38.3-40.0) 6 971 37.8 (36.9-38.7) 2 419 43.8 (42.0-45.7)
Digestive system diseases 3 886 20.1 (19.4-20.8) 3 004 20.0 (19.3-20.8) 882 20.2 (18.7-21.7)
External causes 5 710 49.3 (47.9-50.8) 4 279 46.9 (45.3-48.4) 1 431 58.8 (55.5-62.4)
  Suicide 2 063 20.5 (19.6-21.5) 1 547 19.4 (18.4-20.5) 516 24.6 (22.4-27.0)
  Motor vehicle 1 031 9.4 (8.8-10.1) 746 8.7 (8.0-9.4) 285 12.5 (11.0-14.3)
  Other external causes 2 616 19.4 (18.6-20.3) 1 986 18.8 (17.9-19.8) 630 21.7 (19.8-23.8)
All other causes 8 774 43.8 (42.8-44.8) 6 786 43.7 (42.6-44.9) 1 988 44.1 (41.9-46.5)
Smoking-related diseases 18 829 89.4 (88.0-90.8) 14 182 86.8 (85.3-88.3) 4 647 98.9 (95.8-102.0)
Alcohol-related diseases 1 433 9.2 (8.6-9.7) 1 145 9.3 (8.7-9.9) 288 8.5 (7.5-9.7)
Drug-related diseases 513 5.1 (5.6-5.1) 410 5.6 (5.1-6.2) 103 5.4 (4.4-6.6)
Amenable to medical intervention (< 75 years) 5 540 38.1 (37.0-39.2) 4 473 40.1 (38.8-41.4) 1 067 30.4 (28.5-32.5)
Women
All causes 81 806 317.6 (314.9-320.2) 63 646 313.6 (310.7-316.6) 18 160 332.5 (326.6-338.6)
Infectious diseases 834 3.6 (3.3-4.0) 685 3.8 (3.5-4.2) 149 2.9 (2.4-3.6)
  HIV/AIDS 54 0.6 (0.4-0.8) 51 0.7 (0.5-0.9) 3 0.2 (0.1-0.6)
  Other infectious diseases 780 3.1 (2.8-3.3) 634 3.1 (2.9-3.5) 146 2.7 (2.2-3.3)
Cancer 27 256 134.3 (132.5-136.2) 21 495 133.6 (131.5-135.7) 5 761 137.2 (133.1-141.5)
  Trachea/bronchus/lung cancers 5 687 29.1 (28.2-29.9) 4 433 28.4 (27.5-29.4) 1 254 31.7 (29.8-33.8)
  Breast cancers 5 158 29.7 (28.8-30.6) 4 111 29.9 (28.9-31.0) 1 047 28.8 (26.8-30.9)
  Other cancers 16 411 75.5 (74.2-76.9) 12 951 75.2 (73.7-76.8) 3 460 76.7 (73.7-79.9)
Endocrine 2 696 9.6 (9.2-10.1) 2 110 9.5 (9.0-10.0) 586 10.2 (9.2-11.2)
Circulatory system 30 369 92.4 (91.1-93.6) 23 298 90.0 (88.6-91.3) 7 071 101.4 (98.6-104.3)
  Ischemic heart disease 16 007 48.2 (47.3-49.0) 12 328 47.1 (46.2-48.1) 3 679 52.0 (50.1-54.0)
  Other circulatory diseases 14 362 44.2 (43.3-45.1) 10 970 42.8 (41.9-43.8) 3 392 49.3 (47.3-51.4)
Respiratory diseases 6 421 19.8 (19.2-20.4) 4 953 19.3 (18.7-20.0) 1 468 21.6 (20.3-22.9)
Digestive system diseases 3 070 11.6 (11.1-12.1) 2 376 11.6 (11.0-12.1) 694 11.7 (10.6-12.8)
External causes 2 995 17.8 (17.0-18.6) 2 273 17.1 (16.3-18.0) 722 20.4 (18.6-22.4)
  Suicide 610 5.8 (5.3-6.3) 490 5.8 (5.3-6.4) 120 5.8 (4.8-7.0)
  Motor vehicle 491 3.8 (3.4-4.2) 356 3.4 (3.1-3.9) 135 5.1 (4.2-6.2)
  Other external (excluding suicide) 1 894 8.2 (7.7-8.7) 1 427 7.9 (7.3-8.4) 467 9.5 (8.4-10.7)
  Other external (including suicide) 2 504 14.0 (13.3-14.7) 1 917 13.6 (12.9-14.4) 587 15.3 (13.8-17.0)
All other causes 8 165 28.5 (27.7-29.2) 6 456 28.8 (27.9-29.7) 1 709 27.2 (25.6-28.9)
Smoking-related diseases 9 530 42.6 (41.6-43.6) 7 430 41.8 (40.7-42.9) 2 100 45.8 (43.6-48.2)
Alcohol-related diseases 484 3.0 (2.7-3.3) 382 3.1 (2.7-3.4) 102 2.7 (2.2-3.4)
Drug-related diseases 413 3.8 (3.4-4.2) 326 3.7 (3.3-4.2) 87 4.2 (3.4-5.3)
Amenable to medical intervention (< 75 years) 6 595 46.2 (45.0-47.4) 5 230 46.0 (44.7-47.4) 1 365 46.8 (44.2-49.6)

Source: 1991–2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study.
Abbreviations: —, not applicable; AIDS, acquired immune deficiency syndrome; ASMR, age-standardized mortality rates; CI, confidence interval; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus.
Reference population (person-years at risk) for age standardization was taken from the Aboriginal age distribution (5-year age groups).
a Population ≥ 100 000
b Population ≥ 10 000

Back to top

Icon of a comment balloon
Comment on this article at PCD Dialogue
Learn more about PCD's commenting policy

 




 



The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


 Home 

Privacy Policy | Accessibility

CDC Home | Search | Health Topics A-Z

This page last reviewed March 22, 2013

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
 HHS logoUnited States Department of
Health and Human Services