No. 2, April 2006
Chronic Kidney Disease: A Public Health Problem That Needs a Public Health Action Plan
Anton C. Schoolwerth, MD, MSHA, Michael M. Engelgau, MD, Thomas H. Hostetter, MD, Kathy H. Rufo, MPH, Dolph Chianchiano, JD, MPA, William M. McClellan, MD, MPH,
David G. Warnock, MD, Frank Vinicor, MD
Suggested citation for this article: Schoolwerth AC, Engelgau MM, Hostetter TH, Rufo KH, Chianchiano D, McClellan WM, et al. Chronic kidney disease: a
public health problem that needs a public health action plan. Prev Chronic Dis [serial online] 2006 Apr [date cited]. Available from: URL:
For a health problem or condition to be considered a public health issue, four criteria must be met: 1) the health condition
must place a large burden on society, a burden that
is getting larger despite existing control efforts; 2) the burden must be distributed unfairly (i.e., certain segments of the population are unequally affected); 3)
there must be evidence that upstream preventive strategies could
substantially reduce the burden of the condition; and 4) such preventive
strategies are not yet in place. Chronic kidney disease meets these criteria for a public health issue. Therefore, as a complement to clinical approaches to
controlling it, a broad and coordinated public health approach will be necessary
to meet the burgeoning
health, economic, and societal challenges of chronic kidney disease.
Back to top
Chronic Kidney Disease: A Public Health Problem?
Health problems or conditions become public health issues when four criteria
are met (1,2). First, the disease burden is high (i.e., it affects many
people, has increased recently, and will likely increase in the future). This burden is experienced in terms of mortality and morbidity, quality of life, and cost
and is perceived as a threat by the public; that is, there is a sense of fear that the disease is out of control. Second, the problem is distributed unfairly (i.e., it does not
affect all people the same but affects minorities and disadvantaged individuals to a greater extent).
Third, there is evidence that upstream preventive strategies — strategies
that target economic, political, and environmental factors that affect a
population’s health — could
substantially reduce the burden of the condition; and fourth, evidence shows that such preventive strategies are not yet in place.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) meets these criteria for consideration as a
public health issue. For the first criterion, there are now more than 385,000 people in the United States with end-stage renal
disease (ESRD) (3), the form of CKD in which life can be sustained only by dialysis or transplantation. Milder forms of CKD that do not yet require renal replacement
therapy are even more common than ESRD. The total number of Americans living with CKD is now estimated to be 19.2 million, representing 11% of the adult U.S.
population; the 0.22% of the population estimated to have ESRD (4) comes from
this large group of individuals with early CKD.
The burden of CKD is growing. During the past three decades, the incidence and prevalence of ESRD have risen progressively. For example, annual new cases of ESRD
increased from approximately 14,500 in 1978 to 100,359 in 2002; during the same period, the number of individuals
on dialysis and with kidney transplants increased from 42,000 to 431,000 (3,5). Estimates for 1993 to 1995 were that 2% of white men, 1.7% of white women, 5.5% of black men, and
6.3% of black women would develop ESRD during their lifetime (6). Five years later, however, these estimates had increased to 2.5% of white men, 1.8% of white women,
7.3% of black men, and 7.8% of black women (7). Projections to the year 2010 estimate an annual 4.1% increase in incident ESRD cases, although recent data from the
U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS) indicate that the rate of increase is lessening
(5,8). By 2030, it is estimated that the annual number of people with new onset of ESRD will exceed 450,000, and those
receiving dialysis or who have had kidney transplants will exceed 2 million (9).
CKD causes premature morbidity and mortality and lowers quality of life; it is also expensive. Yearly death rates of ESRD patients are approximately 20%. CKD
patients have a risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is 10 to 30 times that of people without kidney disease (10). Recently, data from several large, diverse
populations have shown that progressive decreases in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were associated with increased risks of death, cardiovascular events, and
hospitalization; these risks were fewer than those reported in ESRD patients
(11,12). Deaths caused by CKD were estimated at 71,000 in 2000 and are expected
to increase to 352,000 in 2030 (9). Recently, using data from death
certificates, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) listed kidney
disease as the ninth
leading cause of death in the United States (13). However, this statistic underestimates the burden of kidney disease because it does not
reflect the high
rates of comorbidity in the CKD population. Indeed, CKD patients have a greater likelihood of dying from comorbidities of kidney disease than of progressing to ESRD
(14,15). In addition to reducing lifespan, CKD substantially reduces quality of life, and yet it is often not recognized as a serious health problem
in the United States.
Treating ESRD imposes a large economic burden on patients, the health care system, and society. Although people with kidney failure represent less than 1% of the
Medicare population (individuals with kidney failure, regardless of age, are eligible for Medicare funding), their care consumes 6.4% of the health care expenditures
by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. In 2001, total expenditures (Medicare plus private payers) exceeded $22 billion, of which approximately two thirds
was provided by Medicare (5). In addition, recent data from a large HMO and from the USRDS indicate that the
total health care resources used for CKD
patients are 1.6 to 2.4 times (or more) those resources used by the ESRD
population (16). The fact that one in nine Americans is estimated to have CKD and another
20 million are at risk for developing it has resulted in fear that the disease is
out of control.
CKD also meets the second criterion of a public health issue: it
disproportionately affects racial and ethnic minorities, among whom worse
outcomes and higher costs of treatment are common. African Americans and
American Indians are at especially increased risk (17). International data
suggest that CKD is a worldwide public health problem (17). Age alone is a key
predictor of CKD, and 11% of people in the United States aged 65 years or older (without
diabetes or hypertension) have moderately to severely decreased kidney function (4). Currently diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure, now accounting
for nearly one half of new cases of ESRD, and by 2006 it is expected to surpass all other causes of new cases combined (i.e., hypertension, glomerulonephritis, and
The third and fourth criteria are also satisfied by CKD: it is feasible to act on the condition at the community and public health levels.
tremendous burden of CKD, there is good news — we have the requisite knowledge to prevent or at least delay its onset, its progression, and the comorbidities
that accompany it. Upstream preventive strategies are not yet in place but if implemented effectively could reduce the burden of CKD.
Back to top
Potential for Prevention of CKD
Fortunately, the large burden of CKD does not appear to be inevitable; there are many reasons to believe it can be reduced substantially. A key will be the
early identification of individuals who are at risk. There is evidence that earlier stages of CKD can be detected and treated and that adverse outcomes of CKD can be
prevented or delayed (17).
Clinical diagnosis of CKD has become simplified. The most sensitive test for early CKD is urine albumin.
The earliest stage of low-grade albumin leakage into urine is called microalbuminuria. Current recommendations call for annual
urine testing of people with diabetes (18-20). Although recommendations for testing
risk groups have not been established, testing for proteinuria, at least with simple dipstick methods, has been calculated to be cost effective in
people with hypertension (21). Also, the GFR (the major kidney function test) can be reasonably estimated from serum creatinine using an equation validated in a large number of
subjects with CKD in combination with the variables of age, sex, and race (18). Thus, a determination of serum creatinine
level and a spot urine sample for albumin–creatinine ratio are sufficient to detect CKD.
Current preventive care practices include maintaining stringent control of blood pressure to a target of 130/80 mm Hg, using angiotensin-converting enzyme
inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in both diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathies, maintaining careful glycemic control in individuals
with diabetes, and following a low-protein diet (21). Additional reports indicate that treating dyslipidemia, losing weight, quitting smoking, and managing anemia
may also help to delay progression of early CKD; however, some of these results must be tempered by the fact that relatively few patients were enrolled in these
The benefits of treating early kidney disease may extend beyond the kidney itself. Indeed, a recent publication indicated that in the general population, the
presence of albuminuria (a key indicator of kidney disease) predicted both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality (23). It has been suggested that in many
cases, microalbuminuria is simply the renal manifestation of a generalized abnormality of vascular function (24). A recent report showed that using fosinopril (an
ACEI) to treat individuals who were identified from screening as having microalbuminuria led to a reduction in both albuminuria
and cardiovascular events (25),
the latter the major cause of death in patients with CKD (10). However, these results
were obtained from a relatively small sample size with lack of statistical
significance of the cardiovascular events, so confirmatory results from a larger trial are needed.
Several studies have demonstrated the potential for preventing or delaying the initial onset of diabetic kidney disease by treating patients who have diabetes
with ACEIs. ACEIs prevent the development of microalbuminuria. In the early
stages of diabetes, patients may have heightened renal
function, which manifests itself as a high GFR, sometimes called hyperfiltration. Such a state may precede the development of microalbuminuria in diabetes (21).
Unfortunately, many patients with CKD still receive suboptimal care (26-28). The disease is both underdiagnosed and undertreated. The reasons for this suboptimal
care are likely complex, but people at risk because of diabetes or hypertension are often unaware that CKD can be caused by these conditions. In addition, screening
with quantitative urinary albumin measurements is inadequately performed in patients with diabetes. Also, the usual clinical index of kidney function, the serum
creatinine concentration, is often poorly interpreted by clinicians.
Back to top
A Public Health Problem That Needs a Public Health Approach
CKD is not being detected early enough to initiate treatment regimens and
reduce death and disability (17). In addition, many interventions are being
delivered too late to improve population-based outcomes. Finally, most individuals with CKD are unaware that they have this disorder
(17,29). Thus, the issue of CKD extends beyond a clinical problem addressed only by health care providers to a major public health issue requiring multilevel
efforts. Initiatives should be undertaken to make health care providers and the general population more aware of the seriousness of CKD, its risk factors, and
opportunities for screening. People identified with CKD should be provided appropriate educational materials to explain the treatment regimens and the benefits of
undertaking therapy. We must work with health care delivery organizations to ensure access to high-quality care, and we must provide data and information to health
care policy makers so that their decisions will effectively address CKD.
The USRDS collects, analyzes, and distributes information on ESRD patients (3,5).
Currently, however, there is no data surveillance system for tracking patients
with CKD in stages before dialysis or transplantation, unless they are aged 65 years or older and covered by Medicare (and thus can be tracked by the Centers for
Medicare and Medicaid Services). CDC has a national surveillance system in place for
diabetes (available from www.cdc.gov/diabetes), and there are national
surveillance efforts with the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), National Health
Interview Survey (NHIS), and National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), among others, to
assess cardiovascular disease. However, data are scant for CKD.
Clearly, to get a better understanding of the nature and extent of the CKD burden and to inform policy decisions, national surveillance data on this disorder need to
be made available.
Additional public health efforts to address CKD are sorely needed, but some
important first steps have been taken. These include publication of clinical practice guidelines for CKD by the National Kidney
Foundation–Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF–K/DOQI) (17), a meeting of stakeholders
to assess priorities (30), and the establishment of the National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) (31). Sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and
Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NKDEP was created to reduce morbidity and mortality from kidney disease and its complications. Through public education and
system-level initiatives such as improving the reporting by clinical laboratories of kidney function, NKDEP aims to raise awareness that kidney disease is
serious, that it is important to test people at risk, and that treatment is available to prevent entirely or slow the progression of the disease (31).
Several additional elements are needed to address CKD effectively. A comprehensive effort will require patient education, professional education, and the
involvement of payers (Medicare, Medicaid, and the health insurance industry). In addition, the involvement or cooperation of business, the community, and government
will be required; national, state, and local initiatives will all be needed. More research efforts will be needed to measure and track the CKD burden, identify
populations at risk, and target program efforts.
Back to top
The burden of CKD, in terms of human suffering and economic costs, is exploding as we move through the early years of the 21st century, making it a major public
health issue. We know how to prevent or delay the onset of CKD and to limit its progression. Unfortunately, the extent to
which we have applied this knowledge, which can effectively reduce the burden of CKD, is disappointing. A comprehensive public health approach will be needed to
effectively address this major health problem.
Back to top
Corresponding Author: Anton C. Schoolwerth, MD, MSHA, Section of Hypertension/Nephrology, Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical
Center, One Medical Center Dr, 2M, Lebanon, NH
03756. Telephone: 603-653-3830. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Dr Schoolwerth is also affiliated with the Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga.
Author Affiliations: Michael M. Engelgau, MD, Kathy H. Rufo, MPH, Frank Vinicor, MD, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
Atlanta, Ga; Thomas H. Hostetter, MD, National Kidney Disease Education Program, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National
Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md; Dolph Chianchiano, JD, MPA, National Kidney Foundation, New York, NY; William M. McClellan, MD, MPH, Department of Epidemiology,
Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Ga; David G. Warnock,
MD, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Ala.
Back to top
- Vinicor F.
Is diabetes a public-health disorder? Diabetes Care 1994;17(Suppl 1):22-7.
- Saaddine JB, Narayan KM, Vinicor F.
Vision loss: a public health problem? Ophthalmology 2003;110(2):253-4.
- US Renal Data System. USRDS 2004
Annual Data Report. Atlas of end-stage renal disease in the United States. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes
of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2004.
Available from: URL: http://www.usrds.org/atlas_2004.htm*.
- Coresh J, Astor BC, Greene T, Eknoyan G, Levey AS.
Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population: Third
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Kidney Dis 2003;41(1):1-12.
- US Renal Data System. USRDS
2003 Annual Data Report. Atlas of end-stage renal disease in the United States. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes
of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases;
2003. Available from: URL: http://www.usrds.org/atlas_2003.htm*.
- Merrill RM, Kessler LG, Udler JM, Rasband GC, Feuer EJ.
Comparison of risk estimates for selected diseases and causes of death. Prev Med 1999;28(2):179-93.
- Kiberd BA, Clase CM.
Cumulative risk for developing end-stage renal disease in the US population. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002;13(6):1635-44.
- Xue JL, Ma JZ, Louis TA, Collins AJ.
Forecast of the number of patients with end-stage renal disease in the United States to the year 2010. J Am Soc Nephrol
- Gilbertson D, Solid C, Xue JL, Collins AJ. Projecting the U.S. ESRD
population by 2030. US Renal Data System: Data presented at the 2003 American Society
of Nephrology Annual Meeting. Available from: URL: http://www.usrds.org/2003/
- Sarnak MJ, Levey AS, Schoolwerth AC, Coresh J, Culleton B, Hamm LL, et al.
Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a
statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and
Prevention. Circulation 2003;108(17):2154-69.
- Manjunath G, Tighiouart H, Coresh J, Macleod B, Salem DN, Griffith JL, et al.
Level of kidney function as a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes in the
elderly. Kidney Int 2003;63(3):1121-9.
- Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, McCulloch CE, Hsu CY.
Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. N Engl J Med
- Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL.
Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000.
[Published erratum in: JAMA 2005 Jan 19;293(3):293-4].
- Keith DS, Nichols GA, Gullion CM, Brown JB, Smith DH.
Longitudinal follow-up and outcomes among a population with chronic kidney disease in a large
managed care organization. Arch Intern Med 2004;164(6):659-63.
- Menon V, Sarnak MJ.
The epidemiology of chronic kidney disease stages 1 to 4 and cardiovascular disease: a high-risk combination. Am J Kidney Dis
- Hunsicker LG.
The consequences and costs of chronic kidney disease
before ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15(5):1363-4.
- National Kidney Foundation.
K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease:
evaluation, classification and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis
2002;39(2 Suppl 1):S1-266.
- Molitch ME, DeFronzo RA, Franz MJ, Keane WF, Mogensen CE, Parving HH, et
Nephropathy in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27(Suppl 1):S79-83.
- Eknoyan G, Hostetter T, Bakris GL, Hebert L, Levey AS, Parving HH, et al.
Proteinuria and other markers of chronic kidney disease: A position statement of
the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). Am J Kidney Dis 2003;42(4):617-22.
- Boulware LE, Jaar BG, Tarver-Carr ME, Brancati FL, Powe NR.
Screening for proteinuria in US adults: a cost-effectiveness analysis. JAMA
- de Jong PE, Brenner BM.
From secondary to primary prevention of progressive renal disease:
the case for screening for albuminuria. Kidney Int
- Gouva C, Nikolopoulos P, Ioannidis JP, Siamopoulos KC.
Treating anemia early in renal failure patients slows the decline of renal function: a randomized
controlled trial. Kidney Int 2004;66(2):753-60.
- Hillege HL, Fidler V, Diercks GF, van Gilst WH, de Zeeuw D, van Veldhuisen DJ, et al.
Urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular and noncardiovascular
mortality in general population. Circulation 2002;106(14):1777-82.
- Jensen JS, Borch-Johnsen K, Jensen G, Feldt-Rasmussen B.
Microalbuminuria reflects a generalized transvascular albumin leakiness in clinically healthy
subjects. Clin Sci (Lond) 1995;88(6):629-33.
- Asselbergs FW, Diercks GF, Hillege HL, van Boven AJ, Janssen WM, Voors AA, et al.
Effects of fosinopril and pravastatin on cardiovascular events in subjects
with microalbuminuria. Circulation 2004;110(18):2809-16.
- McClellan WM, Knight DF, Karp H, Brown WW.
Early detection and treatment of renal disease in hospitalized diabetic and hypertensive patients: important
differences between practice and published guidelines. Am J Kidney Dis 1997;29(3):368-75.
- Obrador GT, Ruthazer R, Arora P, Kausz AT, Pereira BJ.
Prevalence of and factors associated with suboptimal care before initiation of dialysis in the United
States. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999;10(8):1793-800.
- Nissenson AR, Collins AJ, Hurley J, Petersen H, Pereira BJ, Steinberg EP.
Opportunities for improving the care of patients with chronic renal insufficiency:
current practice patterns. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001;12(8):1713-20.
- Coresh J, Byrd-Holt D, Astor BC, Briggs JP, Eggers PW, Lacher DA, et al.
Chronic kidney disease awareness, prevalence, and trends among U.S. adults, 1999 to
2000. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005;16(1):180-8.
- Parker TF 3rd, Blantz R, Hostetter T, Himmelfarb J, Kliger A, Lazarus M, et al.
The chronic kidney disease initiative. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004;15(3):708-16.
- Hostetter TH, Lising M.
National Kidney Disease Education Program. J Natl Med Assoc 2002;94(8 Suppl):72S-5.
Back to top
*URLs for nonfederal organizations are provided solely as a
service to our users. URLs do not constitute an endorsement of any organization
by CDC or the federal government, and none should be inferred. CDC is
not responsible for the content of Web pages found at these URLs.