No. 2, April 2004
SPECIAL TOPICS IN PUBLIC HEALTH
ORIGINAL RESEARCH: FEATURED
ABSTRACT FROM THE 18TH NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CHRONIC DISEASE
PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Lessons Learned From Global
Reviews of Mass Media Campaigns Designed to Reduce Smoking and Exposure to Secondhand
EH Schar, KK Gutierrez
Suggested citation for this article: Schar EH,
Gutierrez KK. Lessons learned from global reviews of mass media campaigns
designed to reduce smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke [abstract]. Prev Chronic Dis
[serial online] 2004 Apr [date cited]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2004/
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is conducting
reviews of mass media campaigns to determine the kinds of campaign
elements that contribute most to success. The purpose of the reviews is to aid
states and other countries in developing their own campaigns to reduce
smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. The first 2 reviews (of campaigns
to promote adult smoking cessation and youth tobacco use prevention) have
been completed. Preliminary findings for the third review (of campaigns to
reduce exposure to secondhand smoke) are available.
Media campaigns are an effective component of a comprehensive tobacco
control program. Programs must determine ways to make their limited funds
work most efficiently to change attitudes and behaviors related to smoking
secondhand smoke via media campaigns.
Data and results were solicited through a variety of channels, including
CDC networks, GLOBALink, and the World Health Organization. Qualitative and
quantitative data as well as published and unpublished data were analyzed to understand both study results and insights into target
audiences. Key measurements used to determine campaign effectiveness
included changes in awareness, relevant knowledge, attitudes, and behavior.
Each campaign review produced unique findings on the following effective campaign elements: 1) a carefully
targeted audience; 2) an effective message or combination of messages; 3) appropriate tone and format, including the use of
emotion; 4) publicity and promotion through news media coverage; 5)
sufficient media presence (reach, frequency, and duration); 6) thorough
evaluation (formative, process, and outcome); and 7) synergy
between the campaign and other elements of a comprehensive tobacco control
Differences exist between the strategies and tactics needed for campaigns
focused on individual change and campaigns focused on
institutional or policy change.
The complete reviews illustrate key findings with examples of
advertisements used in countries around the world.
Although limited by the incomplete and imperfect data collected globally,
findings provide a clear sense of direction to readers planning campaigns to
encourage adult smoking cessation and youth tobacco use prevention and to
reduce exposure to secondhand smoke.
Corresponding Author: Elizabeth Schar, President, Healthcare POV,
5961 Masters Blvd, Orlando, FL 32819. Telephone: 513-703-5887. E-mail:
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