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Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance --- United States, 2007

Danice K. Eaton, PhD,1 Laura Kann, PhD,1 Steve Kinchen,1 Shari Shanklin, MS,1 James Ross, MS,2 Joseph Hawkins, MA,3 William A. Harris, MM,1 Richard Lowry, MD,1 Tim McManus, MS,1 David Chyen, MS,1 Connie Lim, MPA,1 Nancy D. Brener, PhD,1 Howell Wechsler, EdD1
1
Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC
2Macro International Inc., Calverton, Maryland
3Westat, Rockville, Maryland

Corresponding author: Danice K. Eaton, PhD, Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, MS K-33, 4770 Buford Hwy, NE, Atlanta, GA 30341. Telephone: 770-488-6143; Fax: 770-488-6156; E-mail: dhe0@cdc.gov.

Abstract

Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable.

Reporting Period Covered: January--December 2007.

Description of the System: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma. YRBSS includes a national school-based survey conducted by CDC and state and local school-based surveys conducted by state and local education and health agencies. This report summarizes results from the national survey, 39 state surveys, and 22 local surveys conducted among students in grades 9--12 during 2007.

Results: In the United States, 72% of all deaths among persons aged 10--24 years result from four causes: motor-vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that many high school students engaged in behaviors that increased their likelihood of death from these four causes. Among high school students nationwide during 2007, 11.1% had never or rarely worn a seat belt when riding in a car driven by someone else. During the 30 days before the survey, 29.1% of high school students had ridden in a car or other vehicle driven by someone who had been drinking alcohol, 18.0% had carried a weapon, and 5.5% had not gone to school because they felt they would be unsafe at school or on their way to or from school. During the 12 months before the survey, 6.9% of high school students had attempted suicide. In addition, 75.0% of high school students had ever drunk alcohol, and 4.4% had ever used methamphetamines. Substantial morbidity and social problems among youth also result from unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV infection. Results from the 2007 survey indicated that 47.8% of students had ever had sexual intercourse, 35.0% of high school students were currently sexually active, and 38.5% of currently sexually active high school students had not used a condom during last sexual intercourse. Among U.S. adults aged >25 years, 59% of all deaths result from two causes: cardiovascular disease and cancer. Results from the 2007 national YRBS indicated that risk behaviors associated with these two causes of death were present during adolescence. Among high school students nationwide during 2007, 20.0% had smoked cigarettes during the 30 days before the survey, 35.4% had watched television 3 or more hours per day on an average school day, and 13.0% were obese. During the 7 days before the survey, 78.6% of high school students had not eaten fruits and vegetables five or more times per day, 33.8% had drunk soda or pop at least one time per day, and 65.3% had not met recommended levels of physical activity.

Interpretation: Since 1991, the prevalence of many health-risk behaviors among high school students nationwide has decreased. However, many high school students continue to engage in behaviors that place them at risk for the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. The prevalence of most risk behaviors does not vary substantially among cities and states.

Public Health Action: YRBS data are used to measure progress toward achieving 15 national health objectives for Healthy People 2010 and three of the 10 leading health indicators, to assess trends in priority health-risk behaviors among high school students, and to evaluate the impact of broad school and community interventions at the national, state, and local levels. More effective school health programs and other policy and programmatic interventions are needed to reduce risk and improve health outcomes among youth.

Introduction

In the United States, 72% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10--24 years result from four causes: motor-vehicle crashes (30%), other unintentional injuries (15%), homicide (15%), and suicide (12%) (1). Substantial morbidity and social problems also result from the approximately 757,000 pregnancies among women aged 15--19 years (2), the estimated 9.1 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among persons aged 15--24 years (3), and the estimated 5,089 cases of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among persons aged 15--24 years (4) that occur annually. Among adults aged >25 years, 59% of all deaths in the United States result from cardiovascular disease (36%) and cancer (23%) (1). These leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States are related to six categories of priority health-risk behaviors: behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and STDs, including HIV infection; unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. These behaviors frequently are interrelated and are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood.

To monitor priority health-risk behaviors in each of these six categories and obesity and asthma among youth and young adults, CDC developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) (5). YRBSS includes national, state, and local school-based surveys of students in grades 9--12. National, state, and local surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 (Box).

This report summarizes results from the 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and trends during 1991--2007 in selected risk behaviors. Data from the 39 state and 22 local surveys with weighted data for the 2007 YRBSS cycle also are included (Figure 1) in this report. Data from the remaining five state surveys with unweighted data are not included. The national survey, 37 weighted state surveys, and 22 weighted local surveys were conducted during spring 2007, and two of the weighted state surveys were conducted during fall 2007.

Methods

Detailed information about the local, state, and national YRBSs has been described elsewhere (5). Information also is available at http://www.cdc.gov/yrbs.

Sampling

National Youth Risk Behavior Survey

The sampling frame for the 2007 national YRBS consisted of all public and private schools with students in at least one of grades 9--12 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The sampling frame was obtained from the Quality Education Data (QED), Inc., database (6). The QED database includes information on both public and private schools and the most recent data from the Common Core of Data from the National Center for Education Statistics (7). A three-stage cluster sample design produced a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9--12 who attend public and private schools. The first-stage sampling frame consisted of 1,268 primary sampling units (PSUs), consisting of counties, subareas of large counties, or groups of smaller, adjacent counties. The 1,268 PSUs were categorized into 16 strata according to their metropolitan statistical area (MSA) status (i.e., urbanicity) and the percentages of black* and Hispanic students in the PSUs. From the 1,268 PSUs, 57 were selected with probability proportional to overall school enrollment size for the PSU.

In the second stage of sampling, 195 schools with any of grades 9--12 were selected with probability proportional to school enrollment size. The third stage of sampling consisted of randomly selecting, in each chosen school and in each of grades 9--12, one or two classrooms from either a required subject (e.g., English or social studies) or a required period (e.g., homeroom or second period). All students in selected classes were eligible to participate. Schools, classes, and students that refused to participate were not replaced.

To enable a separate analysis of data for black and Hispanic students, three strategies were used to oversample these students: 1) larger sampling rates were used to select PSUs that are in high-black and high-Hispanic strata; 2) a modified measure of size was used that increased the probability of selecting schools with a disproportionately high minority enrollment; and 3) two classes per grade, rather than one, were selected in schools with a high minority enrollment.

State and Local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

In 2007, each state and local school-based survey used a two-stage cluster sample design to produce a representative sample of public school students in grades 9--12 in their jurisdiction. In the first sampling stage, schools with any of grades 9--12 were selected with probability proportional to school enrollment size in 37 states and five cities; all schools with any of grades 9--12 were selected in two states and 17 cities. In the second sampling stage, intact classes from either a required subject (e.g., English or social studies) or a required period (e.g., homeroom or second period) were selected randomly, and all students in selected classes were eligible to participate in 38 states and 22 cities; all students in selected schools were eligible to participate in one state.

Data Collection Procedures and Questionnaires

Survey procedures for the national, state, and local surveys were designed to protect students' privacy by allowing for anonymous and voluntary participation. Before survey administration, local parental permission procedures were followed. Students completed the self-administered questionnaire during one class period and recorded their responses directly on a computer-scannable booklet or answer sheet. CDC's Institutional Review Board approved the protocol for the national YRBS.

The core questionnaire contained 87 questions. States and cities could add or delete questions from the core questionnaire. For the national questionnaire, 11 questions were added to the core questionnaire. Skip patterns were not included in any YRBS questionnaire to protect students' privacy by ensuring all students took about the same amount of time to complete the survey. For state and local surveys, only data from core questions are presented in this report. Information about the reliability of the core questionnaire has been published elsewhere (8).

Data Processing Procedures and Response Rates

For the 2007 national YRBS, 14,103 questionnaires were completed in 157 schools. The national data set was cleaned and edited for inconsistencies. Missing data were not statistically imputed. Of the 14,103 completed questionnaires from the national YRBS, 62 failed quality control§ and were excluded from analysis, leaving 14,041 usable questionnaires (Table 1). The school response rate was 81%; the student response rate was 84%; the overall response rate was 68% (Table 1).

In 2007, a total of 39 state and 22 local surveys had weighted data. Data from each state and local data set were cleaned and edited for inconsistencies with the same procedures used for the national data set. The number of completed questionnaires that failed quality control checks and were excluded from analysis from the state and local surveys ranged from 0 to 117 (median: six). The student sample sizes ranged from 1,118 to 13,439 (Table 1). School response rates ranged from 69% to 100%; student response rates ranged from 60% to 92%; and overall response rates ranged from 60% to 90%.

Race/ethnicity was computed from two questions: 1) "Are you Hispanic or Latino?" (response options were "yes" or "no"), and 2) "What is your race?" (response options were "American Indian or Alaska Native," "Asian," "black or African American," "Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander," or "white"). For the second question, students could select more than one response option. For this report, students were classified as "Hispanic/Latino" if they answered "yes" to the first question, regardless of how they answered the second question. Students were classified as "black" if they answered "no" to the first question and selected only "black or African American" to the second question. Students were classified as "white" if they answered "no" to the first question and selected only "white" to the second question. Students were classified as "other" if they answered "no" to the first question and selected "American Indian or Alaska Native," "Asian," and/or "Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander" or selected more than one response to the second question. Race/ethnicity was classified as missing for students who did not answer the first question and for students who answered "no" to the first question but did not answer the second question. Throughout this report, students who self-identified as "Hispanic/Latino" are referred to as "Hispanic" and students who self-identified as "black or African American" are referred to as "black."

Students were classified as obese or overweight based on their body mass index (kg/m2) (BMI), which was calculated from self-reported height and weight. The BMI values were compared with sex- and age-specific reference data from the 2000 CDC growth charts (9). Obese was defined as a BMI of >95th percentile for age and sex. Overweight was defined as a BMI of >85th percentile and <95th percentile for age and sex. Previous YRBS reports used the terms "overweight" to describe youth with a BMI >95th percentile for age and sex and "at risk for overweight" for those with a BMI >85th percentile and <95th percentile. However, this report uses the terms "obese" and "overweight" in accordance with the 2007 recommendations from the Expert Committee on the Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity convened by the American Medical Association (AMA) and cofunded by AMA in collaboration with the Health Resources and Services Administration and CDC (10). These classifications are not intended to diagnose obesity or overweight in individual students, rather to provide estimates of obesity and overweight for the population of students surveyed.

Weighting

For the national YRBS, a weight based on student sex, race/ethnicity, and grade was applied to each record to adjust for school and student nonresponse and oversampling of black and Hispanic students. The overall weights were scaled so that the weighted count of students equals the total sample size, and the weighted proportions of students in each grade match the national population proportions. Therefore, weighted estimates are representative of all students in grades 9--12 attending public and private school in the United States.

State and local surveys that had a representative sample of students, appropriate documentation, and an overall response rate of 60% or higher were weighted. A weight was applied to each record to adjust for student nonresponse and the distribution of students by grade, sex, and race/ethnicity in each jurisdiction. Therefore, weighted state and local estimates are representative of all students in grades 9--12 attending public schools in each jurisdiction.

Analytic Methods

Statistical analyses were conducted on weighted data using SAS® (11) and SUDAAN (12) software to account for the complex sampling designs. Prevalence estimates and confidence intervals were computed for all variables and all data sets. In addition, for the national YRBS data, t tests were used to determine pairwise differences between subpopulations and temporal changes during 2005--2007 (13). Differences between prevalence estimates were considered statistically significant if the t test p value was <0.05 for main effects (sex, race/ethnicity, and grade), for interactions (sex by race/ethnicity, sex by grade, race/ethnicity by sex, and grade by sex), and for changes over time. Only statistically significant differences in prevalence estimates are reported in the results section in the following order: sex, sex by race/ethnicity, sex by grade, race/ethnicity, race/ethnicity by sex, grade, and grade by sex.

For the national YRBS data, temporal changes from the earliest year of data collection to 2007 were analyzed using logistic regression analyses that controlled for sex, grade, and race/ethnicity and that simultaneously assessed linear and quadratic time effects (13). Quadratic trends indicate a significant but nonlinear trend in the data over time. Trends that include significant linear and quadratic components demonstrate nonlinear variation (e.g., leveling off or change in direction) in addition to an overall increase or decrease over time. Trends are described only for variables with significant temporal changes from the earliest year of data collection to 2007 or during 2005--2007.

Results

Behaviors that Contribute to Unintentional Injuries

Seat Belt Use

Nationwide, 11.1% of students had rarely or never worn a seat belt when riding in a car driven by someone else (Table 2). Overall, the prevalence of having rarely or never worn a seat belt was higher among male (13.6%) than female (8.5%) students; higher among white male (13.0%), black male (14.7%), and Hispanic male (14.3%) than white female (7.3%), black female (10.0%), and Hispanic female (11.4%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (15.1%), 10th-grade male (13.2%), 11th-grade male (12.2%), and 12th-grade male (13.8%) than 9th-grade female (9.2%), 10th-grade female (8.3%), 11th-grade female (8.9%), and 12th-grade female (7.3%) students, respectively. Prevalence of having rarely or never worn a seat belt ranged from 6.0% to 19.4% across state surveys (median: 11.2%) and from 5.6% to 25.1% across local surveys (median: 9.6%) (Table 3).

Bicycle Helmet Use

Among the 66.8% of students nationwide who had ridden a bicycle during the 12 months before the survey, 85.1% had rarely or never worn a bicycle helmet (Table 2). Overall, the prevalence of having rarely or never worn a bicycle helmet was higher among male (87.4%) than female (82.2%) students; higher among white male (85.6%) than white female (79.5%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (86.4%), 10th-grade male (88.1%), and 11th-grade male (88.1%) than 9th-grade female (80.1%), 10th-grade female (83.0%), and 11th-grade female (83.0%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having rarely or never worn a bicycle helmet was higher among black (94.2%) and Hispanic (88.7%) than white (82.9%) students; higher among black (94.2%) than Hispanic (88.7%) students; higher among black female (93.0%) and Hispanic female (86.6%) than white female (79.5%) students; higher among black female (93.0%) than Hispanic female (86.6%) students; higher among black male (95.0%) and Hispanic male (90.3%) than white male (85.6%) students; and higher among black male (95.0%) than Hispanic male (90.3%) students. Prevalence of having rarely or never worn a bicycle helmet among students who had ridden a bicycle during the 12 months before the survey ranged from 57.6% to 94.8% across state surveys (median: 87.8%) and from 69.7% to 96.4% across local surveys (median: 88.8%) (Table 3).

Motorcycle Helmet Use

Among the 24.3% of students nationwide who had ridden a motorcycle during the 12 months before the survey, 33.9% had rarely or never worn a motorcycle helmet (Table 4). Overall, the prevalence of having rarely or never worn a motorcycle helmet was higher among male (38.1%) than female (27.1%) students; higher among white male (30.8%) and black male (52.4%) than white female (19.2%) and black female (36.0%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (41.4%), 11th-grade male (38.1%), and 12th-grade male (36.5%) than 9th-grade female (29.8%), 11th-grade female (24.9%), and 12th-grade female (24.8%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having rarely or never worn a motorcycle helmet was higher among black (46.0%) and Hispanic (51.3%) than white (26.3%) students; higher among black female (36.0%) and Hispanic female (49.6%) than white female (19.2%) students; and higher among black male (52.4%) and Hispanic male (52.4%) than white male (30.8%) students.

Rode with a Driver Who Had Been Drinking Alcohol

During the 30 days before the survey, 29.1% of students nationwide had ridden one or more times in a car or other vehicle driven by someone who had been drinking alcohol (Table 5). The prevalence of having ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol was higher among 11th-grade male (31.4%) than 11th-grade female (26.8%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol was higher among Hispanic (35.5%) than white (27.9%) and black (27.4%) students; higher among Hispanic female (35.1%) than white female (28.0%) and black female (26.9%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (36.0%) than white male (27.8%) and black male (28.1%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol was higher among 12th-grade (31.5%) than 9th-grade (27.6%) students and higher among 11th-grade male (31.4%) and 12th-grade male (32.5%) than 10th-grade male (27.1%) students. The prevalence of having ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol ranged from 14.8% to 35.6% across state surveys (median: 27.4%) and from 18.0% to 38.4% across local surveys (median: 27.0%) (Table 6).

Drove When Drinking Alcohol

During the 30 days before the survey, 10.5% of students nationwide had driven a car or other vehicle one or more times when they had been drinking alcohol (Table 5). Overall, the prevalence of having driven when they had been drinking alcohol was higher among male (12.8%) than female (8.1%) students; higher among white male (13.9%), black male (7.5%), and Hispanic male (13.0%) than white female (9.3%), black female (3.9%), and Hispanic female (7.7%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (6.8%), 11th-grade male (13.7%), and 12th-grade male (23.6%) than 9th-grade female (4.1%), 11th-grade female (9.1%), and 12th-grade female (13.1%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having driven when they had been drinking alcohol was higher among white (11.6%) and Hispanic (10.3%) than black (5.7%) students; higher among white female (9.3%) and Hispanic female (7.7%) than black female (3.9%) students; and higher among white male (13.9%) and Hispanic male (13.0%) than black male (7.5%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having driven when they had been drinking alcohol was higher among 10th-grade (8.7%), 11th-grade (11.5%), and 12th-grade (18.3%) than 9th-grade (5.5%) students; higher among 11th-grade (11.5%) and 12th-grade (18.3%) than 10th-grade (8.7%) students; higher among 12th-grade (18.3%) than 11th-grade (11.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (7.3%), 11th-grade female (9.1%), and 12th-grade female (13.1%) than 9th-grade female (4.1%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (13.1%) than 10th-grade female (7.3%) and 11th-grade female (9.1%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (10.0%), 11th-grade male (13.7%), and 12th-grade male (23.6%) than 9th-grade male (6.8%) students; higher among 11th-grade male (13.7%) and 12th-grade male (23.6%) than 10th-grade male (10.0%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (23.6%) than 11th-grade male (13.7%) students. The prevalence of having driven a car when they had been drinking alcohol ranged from 4.7% to 18.7% across state surveys (median: 10.4%) and from 2.8% to 12.9% across local surveys (median: 6.6%) (Table 6).

Behaviors that Contribute to Violence

Carried a Weapon

Nationwide, 18.0% of students had carried a weapon (e.g., a gun, knife, or club) on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey (Table 7). Overall, the prevalence of having carried a weapon was higher among male (28.5%) than female (7.5%) students; higher among white male (30.3%), black male (24.6%), and Hispanic male (28.2%) than white female (6.1%), black female (10.0%), and Hispanic female (9.0%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (31.0%), 10th-grade male (29.3%), 11th-grade male (27.7%), and 12th-grade male (25.0%) than 9th-grade female (8.9%), 10th-grade female (8.1%), 11th-grade female (6.0%), and 12th-grade female (6.2%) students, respectively. The prevalence of having carried a weapon was higher among black female (10.0%) and Hispanic female (9.0%) than white female (6.1%) students; and higher among white male (30.3%) than black male (24.6%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having carried a weapon was higher among 9th-grade (20.1%) than 11th-grade (16.7%) and 12th-grade (15.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade (18.8%) than 12th-grade (15.5%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (8.9%) than 11th-grade female (6.0%) and 12th-grade female (6.2%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (31.0%) and 10th-grade male (29.3%) than 12th-grade male (25.0%) students. The prevalence of having carried a weapon ranged from 12.0% to 27.5% across state surveys (median: 18.5%) and from 8.6% to 21.7% across local surveys (median: 16.3%) (Table 8).

Carried a Gun

Nationwide, 5.2% of students had carried a gun on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey (Table 7). Overall, the prevalence of having carried a gun was higher among male (9.0%) than female (1.2%) students; higher among white male (7.8%), black male (11.2%), and Hispanic male (10.4%) than white female (0.8%), black female (1.3%), and Hispanic female (2.1%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (8.9%), 10th-grade male (9.8%), 11th-grade male (8.1%), and 12th-grade male (9.2%) than 9th-grade female (1.4%), 10th-grade female (1.1%), 11th-grade female (1.2%), and 12th-grade female (0.9%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having carried a gun was higher among black (6.2%) and Hispanic (6.2%) than white (4.3%) students; higher among Hispanic female (2.1%) than white female (0.8%) students; and higher among black male (11.2%) and Hispanic male (10.4%) than white male (7.8%) students. Prevalence of having carried a gun ranged from 3.5% to 11.7% across state surveys (median: 6.5%) and from 2.1% to 8.9% across local surveys (median: 5.5%) (Table 8).

In a Physical Fight

Nationwide, 35.5% of students had been in a physical fight one or more times during the 12 months before the survey (Table 9). Overall, the prevalence of having been in a physical fight was higher among male (44.4%) than female (26.5%) students; higher among white male (41.9%), black male (50.3%), and Hispanic male (47.3%) than white female (21.5%), black female (39.4%), and Hispanic female (33.5%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (49.6%), 10th-grade male (45.1%), 11th-grade male (46.3%), and 12th-grade male (34.3%) than 9th-grade female (31.8%), 10th-grade female (27.2%), 11th-grade female (23.5%), and 12th-grade female (21.8%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having been in a physical fight was higher among black (44.7%) and Hispanic (40.4%) than white (31.7%) students; higher among black (44.7%) than Hispanic (40.4%) students; higher among black female (39.4%) and Hispanic female (33.5%) than white female (21.5%) students; higher among black female (39.4%) than Hispanic female (33.5%) students; and higher among black male (50.3%) and Hispanic male (47.3%) than white male (41.9%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having been in a physical fight was higher among 9th-grade (40.9%) than 10th-grade (36.2%), 11th-grade (34.8%), and 12th-grade (28.0%) students; higher among 10th-grade (36.2%) and 11th-grade (34.8%) than 12th-grade (28.0%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (31.8%) than 10th-grade female (27.2%), 11th-grade female (23.5%), and 12th-grade female (21.8%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (27.2%) than 11th-grade female (23.5%) and 12th-grade female (21.8%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (49.6%), 10th-grade male (45.1%), and 11th-grade male (46.3%) than 12th-grade male (34.3%) students. Prevalence of having been in a physical fight ranged from 24.0% to 37.1% across state surveys (median: 30.3%) and from 22.8% to 45.0% across local surveys (median: 33.6%) (Table 10).

Injured in a Physical Fight

Nationwide, 4.2% of students had been in a physical fight one or more times during the 12 months before the survey in which they were injured and had to be treated by a doctor or nurse (Table 9). Overall, the prevalence of having been injured in a physical fight was higher among male (5.5%) than female (2.9%) students; higher among white male (4.1%) and Hispanic male (7.6%) than white female (2.0%) and Hispanic female (5.1%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (6.7%), 10th-grade male (5.4%), 11th-grade male (4.6%), and 12th-grade male (4.4%) than 9th-grade female (4.3%), 10th-grade female (2.1%), 11th-grade female (2.5%), and 12th-grade female (2.3%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having been injured in a physical fight was higher among black (5.3%) and Hispanic (6.3%) than white (3.0%) students; higher among black female (4.2%) and Hispanic female (5.1%) than white female (2.0%) students; and higher among black male (6.5%) and Hispanic male (7.6%) than white male (4.1%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having been injured in a physical fight was higher among 9th-grade (5.6%) than 10th-grade (3.7%), 11th-grade (3.5%), and 12th-grade (3.3%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (4.3%) than 10th-grade female (2.1%), 11th-grade female (2.5%), and 12th-grade female (2.3%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (6.7%) than 11th-grade male (4.6%) and 12th-grade male (4.4%) students. The prevalence of having been injured in a physical fight ranged from 2.2% to 6.0% across state surveys (median: 3.8%) and from 3.3% to 9.6% across local surveys (median: 4.6%) (Table 10).

Dating Violence

During the 12 months before the survey, 9.9% of students nationwide had been hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend (i.e., dating violence) (Table 11). Overall, the prevalence of dating violence was higher among male (11.0%) than female (8.8%) students and higher among 9th-grade male (10.5%) and 12th-grade male (14.1%) than 9th-grade female (6.3%) and 12th-grade female (10.1%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of dating violence was higher among black (14.2%) and Hispanic (11.1%) than white (8.4%) students; higher among black (14.2%) than Hispanic (11.1%) students; higher among black female (13.2%) and Hispanic female (10.1%) than white female (7.4%) students; higher among black female (13.2%) than Hispanic female (10.1%) students; and higher among black male (15.2%) than white male (9.3%) students. Overall, the prevalence of dating violence was higher among 11th-grade (10.6%) and 12th-grade (12.1%) than 9th-grade (8.5%) and 10th-grade (8.9%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (10.2%) and 12th-grade female (10.1%) than 9th-grade female (6.3%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (14.1%) than 9th-grade male (10.5%) and 10th-grade male (9.1%) students. Prevalence of dating violence ranged from 7.2% to 15.7% across state surveys (median: 11.8%) and from 6.6% to 17.4% across local surveys (median: 12.0%) (Table 12).

Forced to Have Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, 7.8% of students had ever been physically forced to have sexual intercourse when they did not want to (Table 11). Overall, the prevalence of having been forced to have sexual intercourse was higher among female (11.3%) than male (4.5%) students; higher among white female (11.0%), black female (13.3%), and Hispanic female (11.4%) than white male (3.2%), black male (7.8%), and Hispanic male (6.2%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (9.2%), 10th-grade female (13.1%), 11th-grade female (12.0%), and 12th-grade female (10.9%) than 9th-grade male (4.1%), 10th-grade male (3.4%), 11th-grade male (5.0%), and 12th-grade male (5.7%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having been forced to have sexual intercourse was higher among black (10.5%) and Hispanic (8.8%) than white (7.0%) students and higher among black male (7.8%) and Hispanic male (6.2%) than white male (3.2%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having been forced to have sexual intercourse was higher among 11th-grade (8.5%) and 12th-grade (8.3%) than 9th-grade (6.6%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (13.1%) than 9th-grade female (9.2%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (5.0%) and 12th-grade male (5.7%) than 10th-grade male (3.4%) students. Prevalence of having been forced to have sexual intercourse ranged from 6.3% to 14.0% across state surveys (median: 9.1%) and from 5.6% to 12.2% across local surveys (median: 8.5%) (Table 12).

Carried a Weapon on School Property

Nationwide, 5.9% of students had carried a weapon (e.g., a gun, knife, or club) on school property on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey (Table 13). Overall, the prevalence of having carried a weapon on school property was higher among male (9.0%) than female (2.7%) students; higher among white male (8.5%), black male (8.4%), and Hispanic male (10.4%) than white female (2.1%), black female (3.5%), and Hispanic female (4.1%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (8.7%), 10th-grade male (8.8%), 11th-grade male (8.6%), and 12th-grade male (9.8%) than 9th-grade female (3.1%), 10th-grade female (2.6%), 11th-grade female (2.4%), and 12th-grade female (2.3%) students, respectively. The prevalence of having carried a weapon on school property was higher among black female (3.5%) and Hispanic female (4.1%) than white female (2.1%) students. Prevalence of having carried a weapon on school property ranged from 3.6% to 11.4% across state surveys (median: 5.6%) and from 2.6% to 9.9% across local surveys (median: 5.2%) (Table 14).

Threatened or Injured with a Weapon on School Property

During the 12 months before the survey, 7.8% of students nationwide had been threatened or injured with a weapon (e.g., a gun, knife, or club) on school property one or more times (Table 13). Overall, the prevalence of having been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property was higher among male (10.2%) than female (5.4%) students; higher among white male (9.2%), black male (11.2%), and Hispanic male (12.0%) than white female (4.6%), black female (8.1%), and Hispanic female (5.4%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (11.4%), 10th-grade male (10.4%), 11th-grade male (10.5%), and 12th-grade male (8.1%) than 9th-grade female (6.8%), 10th-grade female (6.3%), 11th-grade female (3.2%), and 12th-grade female (4.5%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property was higher among black (9.7%) and Hispanic (8.7%) than white (6.9%) students; higher among black female (8.1%) than white female (4.6%) and Hispanic female (5.4%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (12.0%) than white male (9.2%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property was higher among 9th-grade (9.2%) and 10th-grade (8.4%) than 11th-grade (6.8%) and 12th-grade (6.3%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (6.8%) and 10th-grade female (6.3%) than 11th-grade female (3.2%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (11.4%) and 11th-grade male (10.5%) than 12th-grade male (8.1%) students. Prevalence of having been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property ranged from 5.2% to 11.4% across state surveys (median: 8.1%) and from 5.8% to 12.8% across local surveys (median: 9.1%) (Table 14).

In a Physical Fight on School Property

Nationwide, 12.4% of students had been in a physical fight on school property one or more times during the 12 months before the survey (Table 15). Overall, the prevalence of having been in a physical fight on school property was higher among male (16.3%) than female (8.5%) students; higher among white male (14.5%), black male (20.0%), and Hispanic male (18.5%) than white female (5.9%), black female (15.2%), and Hispanic female (12.4%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (22.3%), 10th-grade male (15.0%), 11th-grade male (14.8%), and 12th-grade male (11.1%) than 9th-grade female (11.4%), 10th-grade female (8.3%), 11th-grade female (7.3%), and 12th-grade female (6.2%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having been in a physical fight on school property was higher among black (17.6%) and Hispanic (15.5%) than white (10.2%) students; higher among black female (15.2%) and Hispanic female (12.4%) than white female (5.9%) students; and higher among black male (20.0%) and Hispanic male (18.5%) than white male (14.5%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having been in a physical fight on school property was higher among 9th-grade (17.0%) than 10th-grade (11.7%), 11th-grade (11.0%), and 12th-grade (8.6%) students; higher among 10th-grade (11.7%) and 11th-grade (11.0%) than 12th-grade (8.6%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (11.4%) than 10th-grade female (8.3%), 11th-grade female (7.3%), and 12th-grade female (6.2%) students; higher among 9th-grade male (22.3%) than 10th-grade male (15.0%), 11th-grade male (14.8%), and 12th-grade male (11.1%) students; and higher among 10th-grade male (15.0%) and 11th-grade male (14.8%) than 12th-grade male (11.1%) students. Prevalence of having been in a physical fight on school property ranged from 7.0% to 16.9% across state surveys (median: 11.3%) and from 8.1% to 21.2% across local surveys (median: 14.5%) (Table 16).

Had Property Stolen or Damaged on School Property

Nationwide, 27.1% of students had had their property (e.g., car, clothing, or books) stolen or deliberately damaged on school property one or more times during the 12 months before the survey (Table 15). Overall, the prevalence of having property stolen or damaged on school property was higher among male (30.4%) than female (23.7%) students; higher among white male (29.3%), black male (32.8%), and Hispanic male (32.0%) than white female (22.6%), black female (25.6%), and Hispanic female (26.0%) students, respectively; and higher among 11th-grade male (32.1%) and 12th-grade male (27.2%) than 11th-grade female (19.7%) and 12th-grade female (18.8%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having property stolen or damaged on school property was higher among black (29.3%) and Hispanic (29.0%) than white (25.9%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having property stolen or damaged on school property was higher among 9th-grade (30.6%) than 11th-grade (25.9%) and 12th-grade (22.9%) students; higher among 10th-grade (27.6%) than 12th-grade (22.9%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (28.8%) and 10th-grade female (25.8%) than 11th-grade female (19.7%) and 12th-grade female (18.8%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (32.2%) than 12th-grade male (27.2%) students. Prevalence of having property stolen or deliberately damaged on school property ranged from 19.8% to 34.0% across state surveys (median: 27.2%) and from 22.8% to 36.6% across local surveys (median: 27.4%) (Table 16).

Did Not Go to School Because of Safety Concerns

Nationwide, 5.5% of students had not gone to school on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey because they felt they would be unsafe at school or on their way to or from school (Table 17). Overall, the prevalence of having not gone to school because of safety concerns was higher among black (6.6%) and Hispanic (9.6%) than white (4.0%) students; higher among Hispanic (9.6%) than black (6.6%) students; higher among black female (6.3%) and Hispanic female (9.7%) than white female (4.2%) students; higher among Hispanic female (9.7%) than black female (6.3%) students; higher among black male (6.8%) and Hispanic male (9.6%) than white male (3.7%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (9.6%) than black male (6.8%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having not gone to school because of safety concerns was higher among 9th-grade (6.6%) than 11th-grade (4.7%) and 12th-grade (4.8%) students; and higher among 9th-grade female (7.4%) and 10th-grade female (6.0%) than 11th-grade female (3.9%) and 12th-grade female (4.3%) students. Prevalence of having not gone to school because of safety concerns ranged from 3.8% to 9.0% across state surveys (median: 5.8%) and from 5.4% to 14.4% across local surveys (median: 9.1%) (Table 18).

Felt Sad or Hopeless

During the 12 months before the survey, 28.5% of students nationwide had felt so sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 or more weeks in a row that they stopped doing some usual activities (Table 19). Overall, the prevalence of having felt sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 or more weeks in a row was higher among female (35.8%) than male (21.2%) students; higher among white female (34.6%), black female (34.5%), and Hispanic female (42.3%) than white male (17.8%), black male (24.0%), and Hispanic male (30.4%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (34.8%), 10th-grade female (37.7%), 11th-grade female (34.5%), and 12th-grade female (35.9%) than 9th-grade male (22.1%), 10th-grade male (20.3%), 11th-grade male (19.5%), and 12th-grade male (22.6%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having felt sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 or more weeks in a row was higher among black (29.2%) and Hispanic (36.3%) than white (26.2%) students; higher among Hispanic (36.3%) than black (29.2%) students; higher among Hispanic female (42.3%) than white female (34.6%) and black female (34.5%) students; higher among black male (24.0%) and Hispanic male (30.4%) than white male (17.8%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (30.4%) than black male (24.0%) students. Prevalence of having felt sad or hopeless almost every day for 2 or more weeks ranged from 17.1% to 32.5% across state surveys (median: 26.1%) and from 24.8% to 32.2% across local surveys (median: 27.8%) (Table 20).

Seriously Considered Attempting Suicide

Nationwide, 14.5% of students had seriously considered attempting suicide during the 12 months before the survey (Table 21). Overall, the prevalence of having seriously considered attempting suicide was higher among female (18.7%) than male (10.3%) students; higher among white female (17.8%), black female (18.0%), and Hispanic female (21.1%) than white male (10.2%), black male (8.5%), and Hispanic male (10.7%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (19.0%), 10th-grade female (22.0%), 11th-grade female (16.3%), and 12th-grade female (16.7%) than 9th-grade male (10.8%), 10th-grade male (9.3%), 11th-grade male (10.7%), and 12th-grade male (10.2%) students, respectively. The prevalence of having seriously considered attempting suicide was higher among Hispanic female (21.1%) than white female (17.8%) students. The prevalence of having seriously considered attempting suicide was higher among 10th-grade female (22.0%) than 11th-grade female (16.3%) and 12th-grade female (16.7%) students. Prevalence of having seriously considered attempting suicide ranged from 10.4% to 19.3% across state surveys (median: 14.5%) and from 9.7% to 15.0% across local surveys (median: 12.7%) (Table 22).

Made a Suicide Plan

During the 12 months before the survey, 11.3% of students nationwide had made a plan about how they would attempt suicide (Table 21). Overall, the prevalence of having made a suicide plan was higher among female (13.4%) than male (9.2%) students; higher among white female (12.8%), black female (12.0%), and Hispanic female (15.2%) than white male (8.8%), black male (7.1%), and Hispanic male (10.4%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (13.4%) and 10th-grade female (16.1%) than 9th-grade male (9.2%) and 10th-grade male (8.9%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having made a suicide plan was higher among Hispanic (12.8%) than white (10.8%) and black (9.5%) students; higher among Hispanic female (15.2%) than white female (12.8%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (10.4%) than black male (7.1%) students, respectively. The prevalence of having made a suicide plan was higher among 10th-grade female (16.1%) than 11th-grade female (11.6%) and 12th- grade female (11.7%) students. Prevalence of having made a suicide plan ranged from 8.1% to 17.8% across state surveys (median: 11.5%) and from 8.0% to 14.7% across local surveys (median: 10.9%) (Table 22).

Attempted Suicide

Nationwide, 6.9% of students had attempted suicide one or more times during the 12 months before the survey (Table 23). Overall, the prevalence of having attempted suicide was higher among female (9.3%) than male (4.6%) students; higher among white female (7.7%), black female (9.9%), and Hispanic female (14.0%) than white male (3.4%), black male (5.5%), and Hispanic male (6.3%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (10.5%), 10th-grade female (11.2%), 11th-grade female (7.8%), and 12th-grade female (6.5%) than 9th-grade male (5.3%), 10th-grade male (4.9%), 11th-grade male (3.7%), and 12th-grade male (4.2%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having attempted suicide was higher among black (7.7%) and Hispanic (10.2%) than white (5.6%) students; higher among Hispanic (10.2%) than black (7.7%) students; higher among Hispanic female (14.0%) than white female (7.7%) and black female (9.9%) students; and higher among black male (5.5%) and Hispanic male (6.3%) than white male (3.4%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having attempted suicide was higher among 9th-grade (7.9%) and 10th-grade (8.0%) than 11th-grade (5.8%) and 12th-grade (5.4%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (10.5%) than 12th-grade female (6.5%) students; and higher among 10th-grade female (11.2%) than 11th-grade female (7.8%) and 12th-grade female (6.5%) students. Prevalence of having attempted suicide ranged from 4.8% to 14.3% across state surveys (median: 7.9%) and from 5.1% to 13.3% across local surveys (median: 9.0%) (Table 24).

Suicide Attempt Treated by a Doctor or Nurse

During the 12 months before the survey, 2.0% of students nationwide had made a suicide attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or an overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse (Table 23). Overall, the prevalence of having made a suicide attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or an overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse was higher among female (2.4%) than male (1.5%) students; higher among white female (2.1%) and Hispanic female (3.9%) than white male (0.9%) and Hispanic male (1.8%) students, respectively; and higher among 10th-grade female (3.1%) than 10th-grade male (1.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having made a suicide attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or an overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse was higher among Hispanic (2.9%) than white (1.5%) students; higher among Hispanic female (3.9%) than white female (2.1%) and black female (2.1%) students; and higher among black male (2.5%) and Hispanic male (1.8%) than white male (0.9%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having made a suicide attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or an overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse was higher among 9th-grade (2.3%) than 12th-grade (1.7%) students and higher among 10th-grade female (3.1%) than 11th-grade female (1.7%) students. Prevalence of having made a suicide attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or an overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse ranged from 1.5% to 4.8% across state surveys (median: 2.6%) and from 1.4% to 4.7% across local surveys (median: 2.9%) (Table 24).

Tobacco Use

Lifetime Cigarette Use

Nationwide, 50.3% of students had ever tried cigarette smoking (even one or two puffs) (i.e., lifetime cigarette use) (Table 25). Overall, the prevalence of lifetime cigarette use was higher among male (51.8%) than female (48.8%) students; higher among white male (51.7%) than white female (48.3%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (46.0%) than 9th-grade female (39.2%) students. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime cigarette use was higher among 10th-grade (48.8%), 11th-grade (53.4%), and 12th-grade (59.3%) than 9th-grade (42.7%) students; higher among 11th-grade (53.4%) and 12th-grade (59.3%) than 10th-grade (48.8%) students; and higher among 12th-grade (59.3%) than 11th-grade (53.4%) students. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime cigarette use was higher among 10th-grade female (48.7%), 11th-grade female (51.4%), and 12th-grade female (58.5%) students than 9th-grade female (39.2%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (58.5%) than 10th-grade female (48.7%) and 11th-grade female (51.4%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (55.4%) and 12th-grade male (60.1%) than 9th-grade male (46.0%) and 10th-grade male (48.8%) students. Prevalence of lifetime cigarette use ranged from 24.9% to 62.2% across state surveys (median: 51.9%) and from 36.5% to 57.6% across local surveys (median: 43.6%) (Table 26).

Lifetime Daily Cigarette Use

Nationwide, 12.4% of students had ever smoked at least one cigarette every day for 30 days (i.e., lifetime daily cigarette use) (Table 25). The prevalence of lifetime daily cigarette use was higher among black male (7.3%) than black female (5.0%) students and higher among 9th-grade male (10.3%) than 9th-grade female (6.3%) students. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime daily cigarette use was higher among white (15.4%) than black (6.2%) and Hispanic (8.0%) students; higher among white female (14.9%) than black female (5.0%) and Hispanic female (7.1%) students; and higher among white male (15.8%) than black male (7.3%) and Hispanic male (8.9%) students. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime daily cigarette use was higher among 10th-grade (12.0%), 11th-grade (13.8%), and 12th-grade (16.8%) than 9th-grade (8.3%) students; higher among 12th-grade (16.8%) than 10th-grade (12.0%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (12.4%), 11th-grade female (14.0%), and 12th-grade female (15.8%) than 9th-grade female (6.3%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (15.8%) than 10th-grade female (12.4%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (18.0%) than 9th-grade male (10.3%), 10th-grade male (11.7%), and 11th-grade male (13.4%) students. Prevalence of lifetime daily cigarette use ranged from 4.6% to 21.1% across state surveys (median: 13.3%) and from 4.0% to 9.1% across local surveys (median: 6.0%) (Table 26).

Current Cigarette Use

Nationwide, 20.0% of students had smoked cigarettes on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey (i.e., current cigarette use) (Table 27). Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette use was higher among male (21.3%) than female (18.7%) students and higher among black male (14.9%) and Hispanic male (18.7%) than black female (8.4%) and Hispanic female (14.6%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette use was higher among white (23.2%) than black (11.6%) and Hispanic (16.7%) students; higher among Hispanic (16.7%) than black (11.6%) students; higher among white female (22.5%) than black female (8.4%) and Hispanic female (14.6%) students; higher among Hispanic female (14.6%) than black female (8.4%) students; and higher among white male (23.8%) than black male (14.9%) and Hispanic male (18.7%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette use was higher among 10th-grade (19.6%), 11th-grade (21.6%), and 12th-grade (26.5%) than 9th-grade (14.3%) students; higher among 12th-grade (26.5%) than 10th-grade (19.6%) and 11th-grade (21.6%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (19.1%), 11th-grade female (19.6%), and 12th-grade female (25.5%) than 9th-grade female (12.3%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (25.5%) than 10th-grade female (19.1%) and 11th-grade female (19.6%) students; higher among 11th-grade male (23.4%) and 12th-grade male (27.4%) than 9th-grade male (16.2%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (27.4%) than 10th-grade male (20.0%) students. Prevalence of current cigarette use ranged from 7.9% to 27.6% across state surveys (median: 20.0%) and from 6.2% to 15.3% across local surveys (median: 11.4%) (Table 28).

Current Frequent Cigarette Use

Nationwide, 8.1% of students had smoked cigarettes on 20 or more days during the 30 days before the survey (i.e., current frequent cigarette use) (Table 27). Overall, the prevalence of current frequent cigarette use was higher among male (8.7%) than female (7.4%) students and higher among black male (5.8%) than black female (2.1%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current frequent cigarette use was higher among white (10.4%) than black (3.9%) and Hispanic (4.2%) students; higher among white female (10.2%) than black female (2.1%) and Hispanic female (3.3%) students; and higher among white male (10.6%) than black male (5.8%) and Hispanic male (5.1%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current frequent cigarette use was higher among 10th-grade (7.0%), 11th-grade (10.1%), and 12th-grade (12.2%) than 9th-grade (4.3%) students; higher among 11th-grade (10.1%) and 12th-grade (12.2%) than 10th-grade (7.0%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (6.8%), 11th-grade female (9.7%), and 12th-grade female (11.3%) than 9th-grade female (3.3%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (11.3%) than 10th-grade female (6.8%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (10.5%) and 12th-grade male (13.1%) than 9th-grade male (5.4%) and 10th-grade male (7.2%) students. Prevalence of current frequent cigarette use ranged from 2.5% to 14.4% across state surveys (median: 8.1%) and from 1.8% to 5.8% across local surveys (median: 3.0%) (Table 28).

Smoked More than 10 Cigarettes per Day

Among the 20.0% of students nationwide who currently smoked cigarettes, 10.7% of students had smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day on the days they smoked during the 30 days before the survey (Table 29). Overall, the prevalence of having smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day was higher among male (13.8%) than female (7.1%) students; higher among white male (15.7%) and black male (8.6%) than white female (8.0%) and black female (1.7%) students, respectively; higher among 10th-grade male (12.6%) and 12th-grade male (19.2%) than 10th-grade female (5.3%) and 12th-grade female (7.8%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day was higher among white (11.9%) than black (6.1%) and Hispanic (6.8%) students; higher among white female (8.0%) than black female (1.7%) students; and higher among white male (15.7%) than black male (8.6%) and Hispanic male (8.4%) students. The prevalence of having smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day was higher among 12th-grade male (19.2%) than 11th-grade male (9.9%) students. The prevalence of having smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day ranged from 4.1% to 20.3% across state surveys (median: 9.7%) and from 1.9% to 12.8% across local surveys (median: 7.4%) (Table 30).

Tried to Quit Smoking Cigarettes

Among the 20.0% of students nationwide who currently smoked cigarettes, 49.7% had tried to quit smoking cigarettes during the 12 months before the survey (Table 29). Overall, the prevalence of having tried to quit smoking cigarettes was higher among female (55.1%) than male (45.1%) students; higher among white female (55.6%) and black female (67.5%) than white male (43.8%) and black male (53.6%) students, respectively; and higher among 11th-grade female (56.1%) and 12th-grade female (56.4%) than 11th-grade male (44.9%) and 12th-grade male (41.1%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having tried to quit smoking cigarettes was higher among black (58.4%) than white (49.4%) and Hispanic (48.3%) students; and higher among black female (67.5%) than white female (55.6%) and Hispanic female (47.2%) students. The prevalence of having tried to quit smoking cigarettes ranged from 43.4% to 62.5% across state surveys (median: 55.7%) and from 41.4% to 64.2% across local surveys (median: 55.5%) (Table 30).

Bought Cigarettes in a Store or Gas Station

Nationwide, 16.0% of the 16.1% of students who currently smoked cigarettes and were aged <18 years usually obtained their own cigarettes by buying them in a store (i.e., convenience store, supermarket, or discount store) or gas station during the 30 days before the survey (Table 31). Overall, the prevalence of having bought their own cigarettes in a store or gas station was higher among male (20.0%) than female (11.3%) students; higher among white male (20.4%) than white female (10.9%) students; and higher among 10th-grade male (20.2%), 11th-grade male (20.9%), and 12th-grade male (34.8%) than 10th-grade female (9.4%), 11th-grade female (13.6%), and 12th-grade female (17.0%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having bought their own cigarettes in a store or gas station was higher among 11th-grade (17.8%) and 12th-grade (25.6%) than 9th-grade (9.7%) students; higher among 12th-grade (25.6%) than 10th-grade (15.0%) and 11th-grade (17.8%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (13.6%) and 12th-grade female (17.0%) than 9th-grade female (7.0%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (20.2%), 11th-grade male (20.9%), and 12th-grade male (34.8%) than 9th-grade male (11.8%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (34.8%) than 10th-grade male (20.2%) and 11th-grade male (20.9%) students. Prevalence of having bought their own cigarettes in a store or gas station ranged from 3.0% to 27.0% across state surveys (median: 14.1%) and from 10.2% to 39.4% across local surveys (median: 23.2%) (Table 32).

Current Smokeless Tobacco Use

Nationwide, 7.9% of students had used smokeless tobacco (e.g., chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip) on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey (i.e., current smokeless tobacco use) (Table 31). Overall, the prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use was higher among male (13.4%) than female (2.3%) students; higher among white male (18.0%), black male (2.0%), and Hispanic male (6.7%) than white female (2.5%), black female (0.5%), and Hispanic female (2.7%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (10.4%), 10th-grade male (14.4%), 11th-grade male (13.3%), and 12th-grade male (15.9%) than 9th-grade female (2.0%), 10th-grade female (2.8%), 11th-grade female (2.0%), and 12th-grade female (2.2%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use was higher among white (10.3%) than black (1.2%) and Hispanic (4.7%) students; higher among Hispanic (4.7%) than black (1.2%) students; higher among white female (2.5%) and Hispanic female (2.7%) than black female (0.5%) students; higher among white male (18.0%) than black male (2.0%) and Hispanic male (6.7%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (6.7%) than black male (2.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use was higher among 10th-grade (8.7%) and 12th-grade (8.9%) than 9th-grade (6.3%) students; and higher among 10th-grade male (14.4%) and 12th-grade male (15.9%) than 9th-grade male (10.4%) students. Prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use ranged from 4.2% to 15.8% across state surveys (median: 8.6%) and from 1.0% to 7.2% across local surveys (median: 3.2%) (Table 32).

Current Cigar Use

Nationwide, 13.6% of students had smoked cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey (i.e., current cigar use) (Table 33). Overall, the prevalence of current cigar use was higher among male (19.4%) than female (7.6%) students; higher among white male (22.0%), black male (13.2%), and Hispanic male (16.3%) than white female (7.4%), black female (6.7%), and Hispanic female (9.0%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (13.5%), 10th-grade male (16.9%), 11th-grade male (23.2%), and 12th-grade male (26.2%) than 9th-grade female (6.1%), 10th-grade female (7.9%), 11th-grade female (7.6%), and 12th-grade female (9.2%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of current cigar use was higher among white (14.8%) than black (10.0%) and Hispanic (12.7%) students; higher among Hispanic (12.7%) than black (10.0%) students; and higher among white male (22.0%) than black male (13.2%) and Hispanic male (16.3%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current cigar use was higher among 11th-grade (15.5%) and 12th-grade (17.6%) than 9th-grade (9.9%) and 10th-grade (12.5%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (9.2%) than 9th-grade female (6.1%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (23.2%) and 12th-grade male (26.2%) than 9th-grade male (13.5%) and 10th-grade male (16.9% ) students. Prevalence of current cigar use ranged from 7.0% to 18.9% across state surveys (median: 14.5%) and from 4.5% to 16.9% across local surveys (median: 10.1%) (Table 34).

Current Tobacco Use

Nationwide, 25.7% of students had reported current cigarette use, current smokeless tobacco use, or current cigar use (i.e., current tobacco use) (Table 33). Overall, the prevalence of current tobacco use was higher among male (30.3%) than female (21.0%) students; higher among white male (35.3%), black male (19.9%), and Hispanic male (23.9%) than white female (24.3%), black female (12.1%), and Hispanic female (16.4%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (22.6%), 10th-grade male (28.5%), 11th-grade male (34.5%), and 12th-grade male (38.3%) than 9th-grade female (14.4%), 10th-grade female (21.0%), 11th-grade female (21.8%), and 12th-grade female (28.6%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of current tobacco use was higher among white (29.9%) than black (16.0%) and Hispanic (20.1%) students; higher among white female (24.3%) than black female (12.1%) and Hispanic female (16.4%) students; and higher among white male (35.3%) than black male (19.9%) and Hispanic male (23.9%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current tobacco use was higher among 10th-grade (24.8%), 11th-grade (28.2%), and 12th-grade (33.4%) than 9th-grade (18.6%) students; higher among 12th-grade (33.4%) than 10th-grade (24.8%) and 11th-grade (28.2%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (21.0%), 11th-grade female (21.8%), and 12th-grade female (28.6%) than 9th-grade female (14.4%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (28.6%) than 10th-grade female (21.0%) and 11th-grade female (21.8%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (28.5%), 11th-grade male (34.5%), and 12th-grade male (38.3%) than 9th-grade male (22.6%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (34.5%) and 12th-grade male (38.3%) than 10th-grade male (28.5%) students. Prevalence of current tobacco use ranged from 8.9% to 34.5% across state surveys (median: 25.8%) and from 10.3% to 20.3% across local surveys (median: 14.6%) (Table 34).

Alcohol and Other Drug Use

Lifetime Alcohol Use

Nationwide, 75.0% of students had had at least one drink of alcohol on at least 1 day during their life (i.e., lifetime alcohol use) (Table 35). The prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was higher among 12th-grade female (85.2%) than 12th-grade male (80.2%) students. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was higher among white (76.1%) and Hispanic (77.9%) than black (69.1%) students; higher among white female (76.4%) and Hispanic female (79.3%) than black female (70.0%) students; and higher among white male (75.8%) and Hispanic male (76.5%) than black male (68.4%) students. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was higher among 10th-grade (74.7%), 11th-grade (79.4%), and 12th-grade (82.8%) than 9th-grade (65.5%) students; higher among 11th-grade (79.4%) and 12th-grade (82.8%) than 10th-grade (74.7%) students; higher among 12th-grade (82.8%) than 11th-grade (79.4%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (74.6%), 11th-grade female (79.1%), and 12th-grade female (85.2%) than 9th-grade female (66.1%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (85.2%) than 10th-grade female (74.6%) and 11th-grade female (79.1%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (74.9%), 11th-grade male (79.7%), and 12th-grade male (80.2%) than 9th-grade male (65.0%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (79.7%) and 12th-grade male (80.2%) than 10th-grade male (74.9%) students. Prevalence of lifetime alcohol use ranged from 36.7% to 78.2% across state surveys (median: 73.5%) and from 53.2% to 74.8% across local surveys (median: 66.7%) (Table 36).

Current Alcohol Use

Nationwide, 44.7% of students had had at least one drink of alcohol on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey (i.e., current alcohol use) (Table 35). The prevalence of current alcohol use was higher among 11th-grade male (51.5%) than 11th-grade female (46.5%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current alcohol use was higher among white (47.3%) and Hispanic (47.6%) than black (34.5%) students; higher among white female (47.1%) and Hispanic female (47.5%) than black female (34.9%) students; and higher among white male (47.4%) and Hispanic male (47.7%) than black male (34.1%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current alcohol use was higher among 10th-grade (41.8%), 11th-grade (49.0%), and 12th-grade (54.9%) than 9th-grade (35.7%) students; higher among 11th-grade (49.0%) and 12th-grade (54.9%) than 10th-grade (41.8%) students; higher among 12th-grade (54.9%) than 11th-grade (49.0%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (46.5%) and 12th-grade female (54.2%) than 9th-grade female (37.2%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (54.2%) than 10th-grade female (42.3%) and 11th-grade female (46.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (41.4%), 11th-grade male (51.5%), and 12th-grade male (55.6%) than 9th-grade male (34.3%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (51.5%) and 12th-grade male (55.6%) than 10th-grade male (41.4%) students. Prevalence of current alcohol use ranged from 17.0% to 48.9% across state surveys (median: 42.9%) and from 22.3% to 44.3% across local surveys (median: 36.4%) (Table 36).

Episodic Heavy Drinking

Nationwide, 26.0% of students had had five or more drinks of alcohol in a row (i.e., within a couple of hours) on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey (i.e., episodic heavy drinking) (Table 37). Overall, the prevalence of episodic heavy drinking was higher among male (27.8%) than female (24.1%) students; higher among black male (14.5%) than black female (10.7%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (33.1%) and 12th-grade male (40.4%) than 11th-grade female (26.7%) and 12th-grade female (32.8%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of episodic heavy drinking was higher among white (29.8%) and Hispanic (26.8%) than black (12.5%) students; higher among white female (27.9%) and Hispanic female (25.3%) than black female (10.7%) students; and higher among white male (31.8%) and Hispanic male (28.3%) than black male (14.5%) students. Overall, the prevalence of episodic heavy drinking was higher among 10th-grade (23.7%), 11th-grade (29.9%), and 12th-grade (36.5%) than 9th-grade (17.0%) students; higher among 11th-grade (29.9%) and 12th-grade (36.5%) than 10th-grade (23.7%) students; higher among 12th-grade (36.5%) than 11th-grade (29.9%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (21.8%), 11th-grade female (26.7%), and 12th-grade female (32.8%) than 9th-grade female (17.2%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (32.8%) than 10th-grade female (21.8%) and 11th-grade female (26.7%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (25.5%), 11th-grade male (33.1%), and 12th-grade male (40.4%) than 9th-grade male (17.0%) students; higher among 11th-grade male (33.1%) and 12th-grade male (40.4%) than 10th-grade male (25.5%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (40.4%) than 11th-grade male (33.1%) students. Prevalence of episodic heavy drinking ranged from 11.7% to 32.7% across state surveys (median: 26.2%) and from 8.7% to 24.6% across local surveys (median: 18.5%) (Table 38).

Bought Alcohol in a Store

Nationwide, 5.2% of the 44.7% students who currently drank alcohol usually obtained the alcohol they drank by buying it in a store (e.g., liquor store, convenience store, supermarket, discount store, or gas station) during the 30 days before the survey (Table 37). Overall, the prevalence of having bought alcohol in a store was higher among male (7.6%) than female (2.7%) students; higher among white male (6.9%) and Hispanic male (9.8%) than white female (2.2%) and Hispanic female (3.6%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (5.1%), 11th-grade male (9.1%), and 12th-grade male (11.1%) than 9th-grade female (1.1%), 11th-grade female (2.0%), and 12th-grade female (5.0%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having bought alcohol in a store was higher among 12th-grade (8.0%) than 9th-grade (3.1%) students; higher among 11th-grade (5.6%) and 12th-grade (8.0%) than 10th-grade (3.6%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (5.0%) than 9th-grade female (1.1%) and 11th-grade female (2.0%) students; higher among 12th-grade male (11.1%) than 9th-grade male (5.1%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (9.1%) and 12th-grade male (11.1%) than 10th-grade male (4.6%) students. Prevalence of having bought alcohol in a store ranged from 1.8% to 10.0% across state surveys (median: 4.1%) and from 4.5% to 16.2% across local surveys (median: 9.0%) (Table 38).

Lifetime Marijuana Use

Nationwide, 38.1% of students had used marijuana one or more times during their life (i.e., lifetime marijuana use) (Table 39). Overall, the prevalence of lifetime marijuana use was higher among male (41.6%) than female (34.5%) students; higher among white male (41.8%), black male (44.5%), and Hispanic male (42.0%) than white female (34.1%), black female (35.0%), and Hispanic female (35.9%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (33.0%) and 11th-grade male (48.3%) than 9th-grade female (21.7%) and 11th-grade female (36.6%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime marijuana use was higher among 10th-grade (36.9%), 11th-grade (42.4%), and 12th-grade (49.1%) than 9th-grade (27.5%) students; higher among 11th-grade (42.4%) and 12th-grade (49.1%) than 10th-grade (36.9%) students; higher among 12th-grade (49.1%) than 11th-grade (42.4%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (34.5%), 11th-grade female (36.6%), and 12th-grade female (48.3%) than 9th-grade female (21.7%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (48.3%) than 10th-grade female (34.5%) and 11th-grade female (36.6%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (39.2%), 11th-grade male (48.3%), and 12th-grade male (49.9%) than 9th-grade male (33.0%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (48.3%) and 12th-grade male (49.9%) than 10th-grade male (39.2%) students. Prevalence of lifetime marijuana use ranged from 17.4% to 44.7% across state surveys (median: 36.1%) and from 22.8% to 50.8% across local surveys (median: 35.9%) (Table 40).

Current Marijuana Use

Nationwide, 19.7% of students had used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days before the survey (i.e., current marijuana use) (Table 39). Overall, the prevalence of current marijuana use was higher among male (22.4%) than female (17.0%) students; higher among white male (22.7%) and black male (26.0%) than white female (17.0%) and black female (17.1%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (16.9%), 10th-grade male (22.0%), 11th-grade male (25.2%), and 12th-grade male (27.8%) than 9th-grade female (12.5%), 10th-grade female (16.5%), 11th-grade female (17.5%), and 12th-grade female (22.6%) students, respectively. The prevalence of current marijuana use was higher among black male (26.0%) than Hispanic male (20.5%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current marijuana use was higher among 10th-grade (19.3%), 11th-grade (21.4%), and 12th-grade (25.1%) than 9th-grade (14.7%) students; higher among 12th-grade (25.1%) than 10th-grade (19.3%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (16.5%), 11th-grade female (17.5%), and 12th-grade female (22.6%) than 9th-grade female (12.5%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (22.6%) than 10th-grade female (16.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (22.0%), 11th-grade male (25.2%), and 12th-grade male (27.8%) than 9th-grade male (16.9%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (27.8%) than 10th-grade male (22.0%) students. Prevalence of current marijuana use ranged from 8.7% to 25.1% across state surveys (median: 19.0%) and from 11.4% to 26.8% across local surveys (median: 18.4%) (Table 40).

Lifetime Cocaine Use

Nationwide, 7.2% of students had used any form of cocaine (e.g., powder, crack,** or freebase††) one or more times during their life (i.e., lifetime cocaine use) (Table 41). Overall, the prevalence of lifetime cocaine use was higher among male (7.8%) than female (6.5%) students; higher among black male (2.8%) than black female (0.9%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (11.4%) than 12th-grade female (7.6%) students. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime cocaine use was higher among white (7.4%) than black (1.8%) students; higher among Hispanic (10.9%) than white (7.4%) and black (1.8%) students; higher among white female (6.9%) than black female (0.9%) students; higher among Hispanic female (10.2%) than white female (6.9%) and black female (0.9%) students; and higher among white male (7.9%) and Hispanic male (11.5%) than black male (2.8%) students. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime cocaine use was higher among 10th-grade (7.2%), 11th-grade (7.7%), and 12th-grade (9.5%) than 9th-grade (4.8%) students; higher among 12th-grade (9.5%) than 10th-grade (7.2%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (7.6%) than 9th-grade female (4.7%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (7.7%), 11th-grade male (8.0%), and 12th-grade male (11.4%) than 9th-grade male (5.0%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (11.4%) than 10th-grade male (7.7%) and 11th-grade male (8.0%) students. Prevalence of lifetime cocaine use ranged from 5.2% to 14.4% across state surveys (median: 7.4%) and from 0.9% to 12.6% across local surveys (median: 5.9%) (Table 42).

Current Cocaine Use

Nationwide, 3.3% of students had used any form of cocaine (e.g., powder, crack, or freebase) one or more times during the 30 days before the survey (i.e., current cocaine use) (Table 41). Overall, the prevalence of current cocaine use was higher among male (4.0%) than female (2.5%) students; higher among Hispanic male (6.7%) than Hispanic female (3.9%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (6.0%) than 12th-grade female (2.8%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current cocaine use was higher among white (3.0%) than black (1.1%) students; higher among Hispanic (5.3%) than white (3.0%) and black (1.1%) students; higher among white female (2.6%) and Hispanic female (3.9%) than black female (0.5%) students; higher among white male (3.4%) than black male (1.7%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (6.7%) than white male (3.4%) and black male (1.7%) students. Overall, the prevalence of current cocaine use was higher among 12th-grade (4.4%) than 9th-grade (2.7%) and 11th-grade (2.9%) students and higher among 12th-grade male (6.0%) than 9th-grade male (3.0%), 10th-grade male (3.7%), and 11th-grade male (3.5%) students. Prevalence of current cocaine use ranged from 1.7% to 6.6% across state surveys (median: 3.3%) and from 0.5% to 6.2% across local surveys (median: 2.9%) (Table 42).

Lifetime Illegal Injection-Drug Use

Nationwide, 2.0% of students had used a needle to inject any illegal drug into their body one or more times during their life (i.e., lifetime illegal injection-drug use) (Table 43). Overall, the prevalence of lifetime illegal injection-drug use was higher among male (2.6%) than female (1.3%) students; higher among white male (2.0%) and black male (2.8%) than white female (1.1%) and black female (0.8%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (2.7%) and 12th-grade male (4.1%) than 9th-grade female (1.3%) and 12th-grade female (0.7%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime illegal injection-drug use was higher among Hispanic (3.1%) than white (1.5%) and black (1.8%) students; higher among Hispanic female (2.5%) than white female (1.1%) and black female (0.8%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (3.6%) than white male (2.0%) students. The prevalence of lifetime illegal injection-drug use was higher among 10th-grade female (1.6%) and 11th-grade female (1.4%) than 12th-grade female (0.7%) students; higher among 9th-grade male (2.7%), 11th-grade male (2.3%), and 12th-grade male (4.1%) than 10th-grade male (1.3%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (4.1%) than 11th-grade male (2.3%) students. Prevalence of lifetime illegal injection-drug use ranged from 1.1% to 4.7% across state surveys (median: 2.6%) and from 0.5% to 5.5% across local surveys (median: 2.4%) (Table 44).

Lifetime Inhalant Use

Nationwide, 13.3% of students had sniffed glue, breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans, or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high one or more times during their life (i.e., lifetime inhalant use) (Table 43). Overall, the prevalence of lifetime inhalant use was higher among female (14.3%) than male (12.4%) students; higher among white female (15.6%) than white male (13.1%) students; and higher among 9th-grade female (17.2%) and 10th-grade female (16.6%) than 9th-grade male (13.0%) and 10th-grade male (12.5%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime inhalant use was higher among white (14.4%) and Hispanic (14.1%) than black (8.5%) students; higher among white female (15.6%) and Hispanic female (15.5%) than black female (7.9%) students; and higher among white male (13.1%) than black male (9.2%) students. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime inhalant use was higher among 9th-grade (15.0%), 10th-grade (14.6%), and 11th-grade (12.5%) than 12th-grade (10.2%) students and higher among 9th-grade female (17.2%) and 10th-grade female (16.6%) than 11th-grade female (12.4%) and 12th-grade female (9.7%) students. Prevalence of lifetime inhalant use ranged from 9.8% to 19.2% across state surveys (median: 12.8%) and from 6.9% to 17.4% across local surveys (median: 10.0%) (Table 44).

Lifetime Illegal Steroid Use

Nationwide, 3.9% of students had taken steroid pills or shots without a doctor's prescription one or more times during their life (i.e., lifetime illegal steroid use) (Table 45). Overall, the prevalence of lifetime illegal steroid use was higher among male (5.1%) than female (2.7%) students; higher among white male (5.3%) and black male (3.4%) than white female (2.8%) and black female (1.0%) students, respectively; and higher among 11th-grade male (4.4%) and 12th-grade male (5.6%) than 11th-grade female (1.9%) and 12th-grade female (1.9%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime illegal steroid use was higher among white (4.1%) and Hispanic (4.6%) than black (2.2%) students; higher among white female (2.8%) and Hispanic female (4.5%) than black female (1.0%) students; and higher among white male (5.3%) than black male (3.4%) students. The prevalence of lifetime illegal steroid use was higher among 9th-grade female (3.8%) than 11th-grade female (1.9%) and 12th-grade female (1.9%) students and higher among 10th-grade female (2.9%) than 11th-grade female (1.9%) students. Prevalence of lifetime illegal steroid use ranged from 1.8% to 6.1% across state surveys (median: 3.9%) and from 1.6% to 6.5% across local surveys (median: 3.0%) (Table 46).

Lifetime Hallucinogenic Drug Use

Nationwide, 7.8% of students had used hallucinogenic drugs (e.g., LSD, acid, PCP, angel dust, mescaline, or mushrooms) one or more times during their life (i.e., lifetime hallucinogenic drug use) (Table 45). Overall, the prevalence of lifetime hallucinogenic drug use was higher among male (9.5%) than female (6.1%) students; higher among white male (11.1%) and black male (4.0%) than white female (6.8%) and black female (0.9%) students, respectively; and higher among 10th-grade male (9.5%), 11th-grade male (9.5%), and 12th-grade male (14.0%) than 10th-grade female (6.4%), 11th-grade female (6.5%), and 12th-grade female (7.0%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime hallucinogenic drug use was higher among white (9.0%) and Hispanic (7.9%) than black (2.4%) students; higher among white female (6.8%) and Hispanic female (7.4%) than black female (0.9%) students; and higher among white male (11.1%) and Hispanic male (8.4%) than black male (4.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime hallucinogenic drug use was higher among 10th-grade (8.0%), 11th-grade (8.1%), and 12th-grade (10.4%) than 9th-grade (5.1%) students; higher among 12th-grade (10.4%) than 10th-grade (8.0%) and 11th-grade (8.1%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (9.5%), 11th-grade male (9.5%), and 12th-grade male (14.0%) than 9th-grade male (5.8%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (14.0%) than 10th-grade male (9.5%) and 11th-grade male (9.5%) students.

Lifetime Heroin Use

Nationwide, 2.3% of students had used heroin (also called "smack," "junk," or "China White") one or more times during their life (i.e., lifetime heroin use) (Table 47). Overall, the prevalence of lifetime heroin use was higher among male (2.9%) than female (1.6%) students; higher among black male (2.9%) than black female (0.7%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (2.4%) and 12th-grade male (4.0%) than 11th-grade female (1.2%) and 12th-grade female (1.3%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime heroin use was higher among Hispanic (3.7%) than white (1.7%) and black (1.8%) students; higher among Hispanic female (3.3%) than white female (1.3%) and black female (0.7%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (4.0%) than white male (2.1%) students. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime heroin use was higher among 12th-grade (2.6%) than 10th-grade (1.8%) students and higher among 12th-grade male (4.0%) than 10th-grade male (1.9%) students. Prevalence of lifetime heroin use ranged from 1.4% to 5.6% across state surveys (median: 3.0%) and from 0.6% to 5.4% across local surveys (median: 2.8%) (Table 48).

Lifetime Methamphetamine Use

Nationwide, 4.4% of students had used methamphetamines (also called "speed," "crystal," "crank," or "ice") one or more times during their life (i.e., lifetime methamphetamine use) (Table 47). The prevalence of lifetime methamphetamine use was higher among black male (3.0%) than black female (0.8%) students and higher among 12th-grade male (5.6%) than 12th-grade female (3.5%) students. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime methamphetamine use was higher among white (4.5%) and Hispanic (5.7%) than black (1.9%) students; higher among white female (4.5%) and Hispanic female (5.3%) than black female (0.8%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (6.1%) than black male (3.0%) students. The prevalence of lifetime methamphetamine use was higher among 11th-grade female (5.3%) than 12th-grade female (3.5%) students. Prevalence of lifetime methamphetamine use ranged from 3.0% to 8.6% across state surveys (median: 4.8%) and from 0.7% to 9.0% across local surveys (median: 3.8%) (Table 48).

Lifetime Ecstasy Use

Nationwide, 5.8% of students had used ecstasy (also called "MDMA") one or more times during their life (i.e., lifetime ecstasy use) (Table 49). Overall, the prevalence of lifetime ecstasy use was higher among male (6.7%) than female (4.8%) students; higher among white male (6.5%) and black male (5.1%) than white female (4.6%) and black female (2.4%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (5.9%) and 12th-grade male (9.6%) than 9th-grade female (3.3%) and 12th-grade female (5.6%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime ecstasy use was higher among white (5.6%) than black (3.7%) students; higher among Hispanic (7.4%) than white (5.6%) and black (3.7%) students; higher among white female (4.6%) than black female (2.4%) students; and higher among Hispanic female (6.9%) than white female (4.6%) and black female (2.4%) students. Overall, the prevalence of lifetime ecstasy use was higher among 12th-grade (7.6%) than 9th-grade (4.6%), 10th-grade (5.3%), and 11th-grade (5.6%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (5.6%) than 9th-grade female (3.3%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (9.6%) than 9th-grade male (5.9%), 10th-grade male (5.7%), and 11th-grade male (6.0%) students. Prevalence of lifetime ecstasy use ranged from 3.0% to 9.9% across state surveys (median: 6.6%) and from 2.5% to 10.3% across local surveys (median: 6.5%) (Table 50).

Age of Initiation of Risk Behaviors

Smoked a Whole Cigarette Before Age 13 Years

Nationwide, 14.2% of students had smoked a whole cigarette for the first time before age 13 years (Table 51). Overall, the prevalence of having smoked a whole cigarette before age 13 years was higher among male (16.4%) than female (11.9%) students; higher among white male (16.5%), black male (14.6%), and Hispanic male (16.8%) than white female (12.2%), black female (10.5%), and Hispanic female (11.9%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (19.2%), 11th-grade male (14.6%), and 12th-grade male (15.2%) than 9th-grade female (13.2%), 11th-grade female (9.2%), and 12th-grade female (11.5%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having smoked a whole cigarette before age 13 years was higher among 9th-grade (16.3%) than 11th-grade (12.0%) and 12th-grade (13.3%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (13.2%) and 10th-grade female (12.9%) than 11th-grade female (9.2%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (19.2%) than 10th-grade male (15.7%), 11th-grade male (14.6%), and 12th-grade male (15.2%) students. Prevalence of having smoked a whole cigarette before age 13 years ranged from 8.6% to 23.8% across state surveys (median: 14.1%) and from 8.0% to 17.4% across local surveys (median: 11.0%) (Table 52).

Drank Alcohol Before Age 13 Years

Nationwide, 23.8% of students had drunk alcohol (other than a few sips) for the first time before age 13 years (Table 51). Overall, the prevalence of having drunk alcohol before age 13 years was higher among male (27.4%) than female (20.0%) students; higher among white male (25.0%), black male (30.7%), and Hispanic male (33.6%) than white female (17.8%), black female (22.7%), and Hispanic female (24.2%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (34.5%), 10th-grade male (26.6%), 11th-grade male (25.1%), and 12th-grade male (21.2%) than 9th-grade female (27.1%), 10th-grade female (22.2%), 11th-grade female (13.8%), and 12th-grade female (14.8%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having drunk alcohol before age 13 years was higher among black (26.7%) and Hispanic (29.0%) than white (21.5%) students; higher among black female (22.7%) and Hispanic female (24.2%) than white female (17.8%) students; and higher among black male (30.7%) and Hispanic male (33.6%) than white male (25.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having drunk alcohol before age 13 years was higher among 9th-grade (30.9%) than 10th-grade (24.4%), 11th-grade (19.6%), and 12th-grade (18.0%) students; higher among 10th-grade (24.4%) than 11th-grade (19.6%) and 12th-grade (18.0%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (27.1%) than 10th-grade female (22.2%), 11th-grade female (13.8%), and 12th-grade female (14.8%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (22.2%) than 11th-grade female (13.8%) and 12th-grade female (14.8%) students; higher among 9th-grade male (34.5%) than 10th-grade male (26.6%), 11th-grade male (25.1%), and 12th-grade male (21.2%) students; and higher among 10th-grade male (26.6%) than 12th-grade male (21.2%) students. Prevalence of having drunk alcohol before age 13 years ranged from 13.0% to 30.7% across state surveys (median: 23.0%) and from 18.3% to 29.2% across local surveys (median: 24.4%) (Table 52).

Tried Marijuana Before Age 13 Years

Nationwide, 8.3% of students had tried marijuana for the first time before age 13 years (Table 53). Overall, the prevalence of having tried marijuana before age 13 years was higher among male (11.2%) than female (5.2%) students; higher among white male (10.0%), black male (14.2%), and Hispanic male (12.4%) than white female (4.4%), black female (4.9%), and Hispanic female (7.1%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (13.3%), 10th-grade male (11.7%), 11th-grade male (10.1%), and 12th-grade male (9.1%) than 9th-grade female (6.1%), 10th-grade female (5.7%), 11th-grade female (4.2%), and 12th-grade female (4.2%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having tried marijuana before age 13 years was higher among Hispanic (9.8%) than white (7.2%) students and higher among Hispanic female (7.1%) than white female (4.4%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having tried marijuana before age 13 years was higher among 9th-grade (9.8%) than 11th-grade (7.2%) and 12th-grade (6.6%) students; higher among 10th-grade (8.7%) than 12th-grade (6.6%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (6.1%) than 12th-grade female (4.2%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (13.3%) and 10th-grade male (11.7%) than 12th-grade male (9.1%) students. Prevalence of having tried marijuana before age 13 years ranged from 4.4% to 18.2% across state surveys (median: 8.7%) and from 5.5% to 16.1% across local surveys (median: 9.7%) (Table 54).

Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drug Use on School Property

Smoked Cigarettes on School Property

Nationwide, 5.7% of students had smoked cigarettes on school property on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey (Table 55). Overall, the prevalence of having smoked cigarettes on school property was higher among male (6.5%) than female (4.8%) students; higher among white male (7.1%) and black male (5.1%) than white female (5.6%) and black female (1.7%) students, respectively; and higher among 11th-grade male (7.2%) and 12th-grade male (8.9%) than 11th-grade female (4.7%) and 12th-grade female (5.9%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having smoked cigarettes on school property was higher among white (6.4%) and Hispanic (4.9%) than black (3.4%) students; and higher among white female (5.6%) and Hispanic female (4.2%) than black female (1.7%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having smoked cigarettes on school property was higher among 12th-grade (7.4%) than 9th-grade (4.2%) and 10th-grade (5.4%) students and higher among 12th-grade male (8.9%) than 9th-grade male (4.7%) and 10th-grade male (5.8%) students. Prevalence of having smoked cigarettes on school property ranged from 2.4% to 9.5% across state surveys (median: 6.3%) and from 2.2% to 5.8% across local surveys (median: 3.7%) (Table 56).

Used Smokeless Tobacco on School Property

Nationwide, 4.9% of students had used smokeless tobacco (e.g., chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip) on school property on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey (Table 55). Overall, the prevalence of having used smokeless tobacco on school property was higher among male (8.9%) than female (1.0%) students; higher among white male (11.3%), black male (1.5%), and Hispanic male (4.9%) than white female (1.0%), black female (0.2%), and Hispanic female (1.5%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (6.9%), 10th-grade male (10.4%), 11th-grade male (7.9%), and 12th-grade male (10.2%) than 9th-grade female (0.9%), 10th-grade female (1.3%), 11th-grade female (0.6%), and 12th-grade female (1.0%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having used smokeless tobacco on school property was higher among white (6.2%) than black (0.9%) and Hispanic (3.2%) students; higher among Hispanic (3.2%) than black (0.9%) students; higher among white female (1.0%) and Hispanic female (1.5%) than black female (0.2%) students; higher among white male (11.3%) than black male (1.5%) and Hispanic male (4.9%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (4.9%) than black male (1.5%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having used smokeless tobacco on school property was higher among 10th-grade (5.9%) than 9th-grade (4.0%) and 11th-grade (4.2%) students and higher among 10th-grade male (10.4%) than 9th-grade male (6.9%) students. Prevalence of having used smokeless tobacco on school property ranged from 1.9% to 10.6% across state surveys (median: 5.4%) and from 0.5% to 3.8% across local surveys (median: 1.9%) (Table 56).

Drank Alcohol on School Property

Nationwide, 4.1% of students had drunk at least one drink of alcohol on school property on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey (Table 57). Overall, the prevalence of having drunk alcohol on school property was higher among male (4.6%) than female (3.6%) students; higher among white male (3.8%) than white female (2.6%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (6.3%) than 12th-grade female (3.4%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having drunk alcohol on school property was higher among Hispanic (7.5%) than white (3.2%) and black (3.4%) students; higher among Hispanic female (7.1%) than white female (2.6%) and black female (3.2%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (7.8%) than white male (3.8%) and black male (3.7%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having drunk alcohol on school property was higher among 12th-grade (4.8%) than 9th-grade (3.4%) students and higher among 12th-grade male (6.3%) than 9th-grade male (3.4%) and 11th-grade male (4.5%) students. Prevalence of having drunk alcohol on school property ranged from 3.2% to 8.7% across state surveys (median: 4.8%) and from 3.1% to 10.9% across local surveys (median: 4.8%) (Table 58).

Used Marijuana on School Property

Nationwide, 4.5% of students had used marijuana on school property one or more times during the 30 days before the survey (Table 57). Overall, the prevalence of having used marijuana on school property was higher among male (5.9%) than female (3.0%) students; higher among white male (5.2%), black male (7.4%), and Hispanic male (6.9%) than white female (2.7%), black female (2.6%), and Hispanic female (3.9%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (5.2%), 10th-grade male (6.5%), 11th-grade male (5.3%), and 12th-grade male (6.6%) than 9th-grade female (2.7%), 10th-grade female (3.1%), 11th-grade female (2.7%), and 12th-grade female (3.7%) students, respectively. Prevalence of having used marijuana on school property ranged from 2.5% to 7.9% across state surveys (median: 4.2%) and from 2.7% to 8.4% across local surveys (median: 5.2%) (Table 58).

Offered, Sold, or Given an Illegal Drug on School Property

Nationwide, 22.3% of students had been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug by someone on school property during the 12 months before the survey (Table 59). Overall, the prevalence of having been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property was higher among male (25.7%) than female (18.7%) students; higher among white male (24.0%) and black male (25.1%) than white female (17.4%) and black female (13.4%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (25.0%), 10th-grade male (29.5%), 11th-grade male (25.7%), and 12th-grade male (22.4%) than 9th-grade female (17.2%), 10th-grade female (21.0%), 11th-grade female (19.8%), and 12th-grade female (16.8%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property was higher among Hispanic (29.1%) than white (20.8%) and black (19.2%) students; higher among white female (17.4%) than black female (13.4%) students; higher among Hispanic female (27.2%) than white female (17.4%) and black female (13.4%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (30.9%) than white male (24.0%) and black male (25.1%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property was higher among 10th-grade (25.3%) than 9th-grade (21.2%), 11th-grade (22.8%), and 12th-grade (19.6%) students; higher among 11th-grade (22.8%) than 12th-grade (19.6%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (21.0%) than 12th-grade female (16.8%) students; and higher among 10th-grade male (29.5%) than 9th-grade male (25.0%) and 12th-grade male (22.4%) students. Prevalence of having been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property ranged from 10.1% to 37.1% across state surveys (median: 25.1%) and from 13.5% to 39.2% across local surveys (median: 27.1%) (Table 60).

Sexual Behaviors that Contribute to Unintended Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Including HIV Infection

Ever Had Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, 47.8% of students had ever had sexual intercourse (Table 61). Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse was higher among male (49.8%) than female (45.9%) students; higher among black male (72.6%) and Hispanic male (58.2%) than black female (60.9%) and Hispanic female (45.8%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (38.1%) than 9th-grade female (27.4%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse was higher among black (66.5%) and Hispanic (52.0%) than white (43.7%) students; higher among black (66.5%) than Hispanic (52.0%) students; higher among black female (60.9%) than white female (43.7%) and Hispanic female (45.8%) students; higher among black male (72.6%) and Hispanic male (58.2%) than white male (43.6%) students; and higher among black male (72.6%) than Hispanic male (58.2%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse was higher among 10th-grade (43.8%), 11th-grade (55.5%), and 12th-grade (64.6%) than 9th-grade (32.8%) students; higher among 11th-grade (55.5%) and 12th-grade (64.6%) than 10th-grade (43.8%) students; higher among 12th-grade (64.6%) than 11th-grade (55.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (41.9%), 11th-grade female (53.6%), and 12th-grade female (66.2%) than 9th-grade female (27.4%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (53.6%) and 12th-grade female (66.2%) than 10th-grade female (41.9%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (66.2%) than 11th-grade female (53.6%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (45.6%), 11th-grade male (57.3%), and 12th-grade male (62.8%) than 9th-grade male (38.1%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (57.3%) and 12th-grade male (62.8%) than 10th-grade male (45.6%) students. Prevalence of having had sexual intercourse ranged from 36.2% to 59.5% across state surveys (median: 45.9%) and from 26.4% to 67.1% across local surveys (median: 50.6%) (Table 62).

Had First Sexual Intercourse Before Age 13 Years

Nationwide, 7.1% of students had had sexual intercourse for the first time before age 13 years (Table 61). Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse before age 13 years was higher among male (10.1%) than female (4.0%) students; higher among white male (5.7%), black male (26.2%), and Hispanic male (11.9%) than white female (3.1%), black female (6.9%), and Hispanic female (4.5%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (13.5%), 10th-grade male (9.1%), 11th-grade male (9.9%), and 12th-grade male (6.7%) than 9th-grade female (4.9%), 10th-grade female (4.7%), 11th-grade female (3.4%), and 12th-grade female (2.4%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse before age 13 years was higher among black (16.3%) and Hispanic (8.2%) than white (4.4%) students; higher among black (16.3%) than Hispanic (8.2%) students; higher among black female (6.9%) than white female (3.1%) and Hispanic female (4.5%) students; higher among black male (26.2%) and Hispanic male (11.9%) than white male (5.7%) students; and higher among black male (26.2%) than Hispanic male (11.9%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse before age 13 years was higher among 9th-grade (9.2%) than 10th-grade (6.9%), 11th-grade (6.6%), and 12th-grade (4.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade (6.9%) than 12th-grade (4.5%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (4.9%) and 10th-grade female (4.7%) than 12th-grade female (2.4%) students; higher among 9th-grade male (13.5%) than 10th-grade male (9.1%), 11th-grade male (9.9%), and 12th-grade male (6.7%) students; and higher among 10th-grade male (9.1%) than 12th-grade male (6.7%) students. Prevalence of having had sexual intercourse before age 13 years ranged from 3.0% to 13.3% across state surveys (median: 6.0%) and from 3.9% to 18.6% across local surveys (median: 10.3%) (Table 62).

Had Sexual Intercourse with Four or More Persons During Their Life

Nationwide, 14.9% of students had had sexual intercourse with four or more persons during their life (Table 63). Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse with four or more persons was higher among male (17.9%) than female (11.8%) students; higher among black male (37.6%) and Hispanic male (23.3%) than black female (18.1%) and Hispanic female (11.3%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (11.9%), 10th-grade male (16.7%), 11th-grade male (20.6%), and 12th-grade male (24.7%) than 9th-grade female (5.5%), 10th-grade female (10.2%), 11th-grade female (13.1%), and 12th-grade female (20.1%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse with four or more persons was higher among black (27.6%) and Hispanic (17.3%) than white (11.5%) students; higher among black (27.6%) than Hispanic (17.3%) students; higher among black female (18.1%) than white female (10.6%) and Hispanic female (11.3%) students; higher among black male (37.6%) and Hispanic male (23.3%) than white male (12.2%) students; and higher among black male (37.6%) than Hispanic male (23.3%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having had sexual intercourse with four or more persons was higher among 10th-grade (13.4%), 11th-grade (17.0%), and 12th-grade (22.4%) than 9th-grade (8.7%) students; higher among 11th-grade (17.0%) and 12th-grade (22.4%) than 10th-grade (13.4%) students; higher among 12th-grade (22.4%) than 11th-grade (17.0%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (10.2%), 11th-grade female (13.1%), and 12th-grade female (20.1%) than 9th-grade female (5.5%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (13.1%) and 12th-grade female (20.1%) than 10th-grade female (10.2%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (20.1%) than 11th-grade female (13.1%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (16.7%), 11th-grade male (20.6%), and 12th-grade male (24.7%) than 9th-grade male (11.9%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (20.6%) and 12th-grade male (24.7%) than 10th-grade male (16.7%) students. Prevalence of having had sexual intercourse with four or more persons ranged from 6.1% to 22.5% across state surveys (median: 13.8%) and from 6.5% to 29.6% across local surveys (median: 16.6%) (Table 64).

Currently Sexually Active

Nationwide, 35.0% of students had had sexual intercourse with at least one person during the 3 months before the survey (i.e., currently sexually active) (Table 63). The prevalence of being currently sexually active was higher among white female (35.1%) than white male (30.6%) students and higher among 9th-grade male (22.2%) and 12th-grade female (56.7%) than 9th-grade female (18.0%) and 12th-grade male (48.3%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of being currently sexually active was higher among black (46.0%) and Hispanic (37.4%) than white (32.9%) students; higher among black (46.0%) than Hispanic (37.4%) students; higher among black female (43.5%) than white female (35.1%) and Hispanic female (35.3%) students; higher among black male (48.7%) and Hispanic male (39.6%) than white male (30.6%) students; and higher among black male (48.7%) than Hispanic male (39.6%) students. Overall, the prevalence of being currently sexually active was higher among 10th-grade (30.6%), 11th-grade (41.8%), and 12th-grade (52.6%) than 9th-grade (20.1%) students; higher among 11th-grade (41.8%) and 12th-grade (52.6%) than 10th-grade (30.6%) students; higher among 12th-grade (52.6%) than 11th-grade (41.8%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (31.8%), 11th-grade female (41.5%), and 12th-grade female (56.7%) than 9th-grade female (18.0%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (41.5%) and 12th-grade female (56.7%) than 10th-grade female (31.8%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (56.7%) than 11th-grade female (41.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (29.4%), 11th-grade male (42.0%), and 12th-grade male (48.3%) than 9th-grade male (22.2%) students; higher among 11th-grade male (42.0%) and 12th-grade male (48.3%) than 10th-grade male (29.4%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (48.3%) than 11th-grade male (42.0%) students. Prevalence of being currently sexually active ranged from 23.6% to 45.3% across state surveys (median: 34.1%) and from 17.5% to 49.7% across local surveys (median: 36.6%) (Table 64).

Condom Use

Among the 35.0% of currently sexually active students nationwide, 61.5% reported that either they or their partner had used a condom during last sexual intercourse (Table 65). Overall, the prevalence of having used a condom during last sexual intercourse was higher among male (68.5%) than female (54.9%) students; higher among white male (66.4%), black male (74.0%), and Hispanic male (69.9%) than white female (53.9%), black female (60.1%), and Hispanic female (52.1%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (75.8%), 10th-grade male (73.2%), 11th-grade male (69.3%), and 12th-grade male (59.6%) than 9th-grade female (61.0%), 10th-grade female (59.5%), 11th-grade female (55.1%), and 12th-grade female (49.9%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having used a condom during last sexual intercourse was higher among black (67.3%) than white (59.7%) students and higher among black male (74.0%) than white male (66.4%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having used a condom during last sexual intercourse was higher among 9th-grade (69.3%) than 11th-grade (62.0%) and 12th-grade (54.2%) students; higher among 10th-grade (66.1%) and 11th-grade (62.0%) than 12th-grade (54.2%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (61.0%) and 10th-grade female (59.5%) than 12th-grade female (49.9%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (75.8%), 10th-grade male (73.2%), and 11th-grade male (69.3%) than 12th-grade male (59.6%) students. Prevalence of having used a condom during last sexual intercourse ranged from 54.2% to 69.2% across state surveys (median: 61.5%) and from 57.0% to 74.3% across local surveys (median: 68.1%) (Table 66).

Birth Control Pill Use

Among the 35.0% of currently sexually active students nationwide, 16.0% reported that either they or their partner had used birth control pills to prevent pregnancy before last sexual intercourse (Table 65). Overall, the prevalence of having used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse was higher among female (18.7%) than male (13.1%) students; higher among white female (24.0%) and black female (12.1%) than white male (17.0%) and black male (6.3%) students, respectively; and higher among 11th-grade female (18.9%) than 11th-grade male (11.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse was higher among white (20.8%) than black (9.1%) and Hispanic (9.1%) students; higher among white female (24.0%) than black female (12.1%) and Hispanic female (9.1%) students; and higher among white male (17.0%) than black male (6.3%) and Hispanic male (9.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse was higher among 11th-grade (15.0%) and 12th-grade (23.5%) than 9th-grade (8.7%) students; higher among 12th-grade (23.5%) than 10th-grade (11.6%) and 11th-grade (15.0%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (18.9%) and 12th-grade female (25.6%) than 9th-grade female (9.2%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (25.6%) than 10th-grade female (13.7%) and 11th-grade female (18.9%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (20.8%) than 9th-grade male (8.3%), 10th-grade male (9.5%), and 11th-grade male (11.0%) students. The prevalence of having used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse ranged from 12.2% to 36.1% across state surveys (median: 18.9%) and from 6.3% to 16.9% across local surveys (median: 9.2%) (Table 66).

Drank Alcohol or Used Drugs Before Last Sexual Intercourse

Among the 35.0% of currently sexually active students nationwide, 22.5% had drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse (Table 67). Overall, the prevalence of having drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse was higher among male (27.5%) than female (17.7%) students; higher among white male (30.5%), black male (19.8%), and Hispanic male (25.9%) than white female (19.8%), black female (12.9%), and Hispanic female (16.5%) students, respectively; and higher among 11th-grade male (28.3%) and 12th-grade male (29.1%) than 11th-grade female (14.8%) and 12th-grade female (17.3%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse was higher among white (24.8%) and Hispanic (21.4%) than black (16.4%) students; higher among white female (19.8%) than black female (12.9%) students; and higher among white male (30.5%) and Hispanic male (25.9%) than black male (19.8%) students. Prevalence of having drunk alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse ranged from 17.6% to 28.1% across state surveys (median: 22.5%) and from 12.2% to 25.5% across local surveys (median: 17.4%) (Table 68).

Were Taught in School About AIDS or HIV Infection

Nationwide, 89.5% of students had ever been taught in school about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (Table 67). Overall, the prevalence of having been taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection was higher among female (90.2%) than male (88.7%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having been taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection was higher among white (91.1%) and black (90.3%) than Hispanic (85.0%) students; higher among white female (91.7%) and black female (91.8%) than Hispanic female (84.8%) students; and higher among white male (90.5%) and black male (88.8%) than Hispanic male (85.1%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having been taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection was higher among 10th-grade (89.7%), 11th-grade (91.8%), and 12th-grade (90.0%) than 9th-grade (87.1%) students; higher among 11th-grade (91.8%) than 12th-grade (90.0%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (92.6%) and 12th-grade female (90.9%) than 9th-grade female (87.7%) students; and higher among 10th-grade male (89.2%) and 11th-grade male (91.0%) than 9th-grade male (86.4%) students. Prevalence of having been taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection ranged from 79.0% to 91.7% across state surveys (median: 87.5%) and from 76.7% to 92.3% across local surveys (median: 85.6%) (Table 68).

Tested for HIV

Nationwide, 12.9% of students had been tested for HIV, not counting tests done when donating blood (Table 69). Overall, the prevalence of HIV testing was higher among female (14.8%) than male (11.1%) students; higher among white female (12.0%) and black female (27.2%) than white male (9.4%) and black male (17.3%) students, respectively; and higher among 11th-grade female (16.2%) and 12th-grade female (22.9%) than 11th-grade male (11.5%) and 12th-grade male (14.9%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of HIV testing was higher among black (22.4%) than white (10.7%) and Hispanic (12.7%) students; higher among black female (27.2%) than white female (12.0%) and Hispanic female (13.8%) students; and higher among black male (17.3%) than white male (9.4%) and Hispanic male (11.5%) students. Overall, the prevalence of HIV testing was higher among 10th-grade (11.0%), 11th-grade (13.9%), and 12th-grade (18.9%) than 9th-grade (9.1%) students; higher among 12th-grade (18.9%) than 10th-grade (11.0%) and 11th-grade (13.9%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (16.2%) and 12th-grade female (22.9%) than 9th-grade female (9.9%) students; higher among 11th-grade female (16.2%) and 12th-grade female (22.9%) than 10th-grade female (11.6%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (22.9%) than 11th-grade female (16.2%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (14.9%) than 9th-grade male (8.3%), 10th-grade male (10.5%), and 11th-grade male (11.5%) students.

Dietary Behaviors

Ate Fruits and Vegetables Five or More Times per Day

Nationwide, 21.4% of students had eaten fruits and vegetables§§ five or more times per day during the 7 days before the survey (Table 70). Overall, the prevalence of having eaten fruits and vegetables five or more times per day was higher among male (22.9%) than female (19.9%) students; higher among white male (20.1%) than white female (17.6%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (25.4%) and 11th-grade male (22.6%) than 9th-grade female (22.0%) and 11th-grade female (17.2%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having eaten fruits and vegetables five or more times per day was higher among black (24.9%) and Hispanic (24.0%) than white (18.8%) students; higher among black female (23.4%) and Hispanic female (22.1%) than white female (17.6%) students; and higher among black male (26.6%) and Hispanic male (25.9%) than white male (20.1%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having eaten fruits and vegetables five or more times per day was higher among 9th-grade (23.7%) and 10th-grade (22.4%) than 11th-grade (19.9%) and 12th-grade (18.6%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (22.0%) than 11th-grade female (17.2%) and 12th-grade female (18.3%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (21.6%) than 11th-grade female (17.2%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (25.4%) than 12th-grade male (19.0%) students. Prevalence of having eaten fruits and vegetables five or more times per day ranged from 13.2% to 23.8% across state surveys (median: 17.9%) and from 16.9% to 28.8% across local surveys (median: 20.9%) (Table 71).

Drank Three or More Glasses per Day of Milk

Nationwide, 14.1% of students had drunk three or more glasses per day of milk during the 7 days before the survey (Table 70). Overall, the prevalence of having drunk three or more glasses per day of milk was higher among male (19.4%) than female (8.8%) students; higher among white male (22.2%), black male (13.6%), and Hispanic male (17.3%) than white female (9.9%), black female (5.7%), and Hispanic female (8.1%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (19.0%), 10th-grade male (20.7%), 11th-grade male (19.4%), and 12th-grade male (18.4%) than 9th-grade female (10.2%), 10th-grade female (9.3%), 11th-grade female (7.6%), and 12th-grade female (7.9%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having drunk three or more glasses per day of milk was higher among white (16.1%) than black (9.7%) and Hispanic (12.7%) students; higher among Hispanic (12.7%) than black (9.7%) students; higher among white female (9.9%) and Hispanic female (8.1%) than black female (5.7%) students; higher among white male (22.2%) than black male (13.6%) and Hispanic male (17.3%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (17.3%) than black male (13.6%) students. The prevalence of having drunk three or more glasses per day of milk was higher among 9th-grade female (10.2%) than 11th-grade female (7.6%) students. Prevalence of having drunk three or more glasses per day of milk ranged from 8.0% to 25.4% across state surveys (median: 14.5%) and from 5.1% to 14.2% across local surveys (median: 8.8%) (Table 71).

Drank Soda or Pop at Least One Time per Day

Nationwide, 33.8% of students had drunk a can, bottle, or glass of soda or pop (not including diet soda or diet pop) at least one time per day during the 7 days before the survey (Table 72). Overall, the prevalence of having drunk soda or pop at least one time per day was higher among male (38.6%) than female (29.0%) students; higher among white male (40.6%) and Hispanic male (37.3%) than white female (27.3%) and Hispanic female (29.5%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (39.5%), 10th-grade male (36.6%), 11th-grade male (39.0%), and 12th-grade male (39.2%) than 9th-grade female (31.5%), 10th-grade female (29.8%), 11th-grade female (26.5%), and 12th-grade female (27.2%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having drunk soda or pop at least one time per day was higher among higher among black (37.6%) than Hispanic (33.4%) students; and higher among black female (37.2%) than white female (27.3%) and Hispanic female (29.5%) students. The prevalence of having drunk soda or pop at least one time per day was higher among 9th-grade female (31.5%) than 11th-grade female (26.5%) students. Prevalence of having drunk soda or pop at least one time per day ranged from 16.9% to 47.0% across state surveys (median: 29.5%) and from 14.4% to 39.9% across local surveys (median: 28.6%) (Table 73).

Physical Activity

Met Recommended Levels of Physical Activity

Nationwide, 34.7% of students had been physically active doing any kind of physical activity that increased their heart rate and made them breathe hard some of the time for a total of at least 60 minutes per day on 5 or more days during the 7 days before the survey (i.e., met recommended levels of physical activity) (14) (Table 74). Overall, the prevalence of having met recommended levels of physical activity was higher among male (43.7%) than female (25.6%) students; higher among white male (46.1%), black male (41.3%), and Hispanic male (38.6%) than white female (27.9%), black female (21.0%), and Hispanic female (21.9%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (44.4%), 10th-grade male (45.1%), 11th-grade male (45.2%), and 12th-grade male (38.7%) than 9th-grade female (31.5%), 10th-grade female (24.4%), 11th-grade female (24.6%), and 12th-grade female (20.6%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having met recommended levels of physical activity was higher among white (37.0%) than black (31.1%) and Hispanic (30.2%) students; higher among white female (27.9%) than black female (21.0%) and Hispanic female (21.9%) students; and higher among white male (46.1%) than black male (41.3%) and Hispanic male (38.6%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having met recommended levels of physical activity was higher among 9th-grade (38.1%) than 10th-grade (34.8%), 11th-grade (34.8%), and 12th-grade (29.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade (34.8%) and 11th-grade (34.8%) than 12th-grade (29.5%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (31.5%) than 10th-grade female (24.4%), 11th-grade female (24.6%), and 12th-grade female (20.6%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (44.4%), 10th-grade male (45.1%), and 11th-grade male (45.2%) than among 12th-grade male (38.7%) students. Prevalence of having met recommended levels of physical activity ranged from 30.6% to 49.9% across state surveys (median: 43.6%) and from 28.1% to 48.5% across local surveys (median: 33.6%) (Table 75).

Did Not Participate in 60 or More Minutes of Physical Activity on Any Day

Nationwide, 24.9% of students did not participate in 60 or more minutes of any kind of physical activity that increased their heart rate and made them breathe hard some of the time on at least 1 day during the 7 days before the survey (i.e., did not participate in 60 or more minutes of physical activity on any day) (Table 74). Overall, the prevalence of not participating in 60 or more minutes of physical activity on any day was higher among female (31.8%) than male (18.0%) students; higher among white female (28.2%), black female (42.1%), and Hispanic female (35.2%) than white male (16.7%), black male (21.8%), and Hispanic male (18.8%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (26.1%), 10th-grade female (31.7%), 11th-grade female (34.3%), and 12th-grade female (36.2%) than 9th-grade male (17.1%), 10th-grade male (16.3%), 11th-grade male (18.0%), and 12th-grade male (21.5%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of not participating in 60 or more minutes of physical activity on any day was higher among black (32.0%) and Hispanic (27.1%) than white (22.4%) students; higher among black (32.0%) than Hispanic (27.1%) students; higher among black female (42.1%) and Hispanic female (35.2%) than white female (28.2%) students; higher among black female (42.1%) than Hispanic female (35.2%) students; and higher among black male (21.8%) than white male (16.7%) students. Overall, the prevalence of not participating in 60 or more minutes of physical activity on any day was higher among 11th-grade (26.2%) and 12th-grade (28.9%) than 9th-grade (21.5%) students; higher among 12th-grade (28.9%) than 10th-grade (24.0%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (31.7%), 11th-grade female (34.3%), and 12th-grade female (36.2%) than 9th-grade female (26.1%) students; and higher among 12th-grade male (21.5%) than 9th-grade male (17.1%) and 10th-grade male (16.3%) students. Prevalence of not participating in 60 or more minutes of physical activity on any day ranged from 10.5% to 26.7% across state surveys (median: 15.9%) and from 14.4% to 32.7% across local surveys (median: 22.6%) (Table 75).

Used Computers 3 or More Hours per Day

Nationwide, 24.9% of students played video or computer games or used a computer for something that was not school work for 3 or more hours per day on an average school day (i.e., used computers 3 or more hours per day) (Table 76). Overall, the prevalence of using computers 3 or more hours per day was higher among male (29.1%) than female (20.6%) students; higher among white male (26.9%), black male (34.0%), and Hispanic male (30.7%) than white female (18.2%), black female (26.7%), and Hispanic female (21.8%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (30.5%), 10th-grade male (30.0%), 11th-grade male (29.5%), and 12th-grade male (25.6%) than 9th-grade female (24.9%), 10th-grade female (22.6%), 11th-grade female (17.9%), and 12th-grade female (14.8%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of using computers 3 or more hours per day was higher among black (30.5%) and Hispanic (26.3%) than white (22.6%) students; higher among black (30.5%) than Hispanic (26.3%) students; higher among black female (26.7%) than white female (18.2%) and Hispanic female (21.8%) students; and higher among black male (34.0%) than white male (26.9%) students. Overall, the prevalence of using computers 3 or more hours per day was higher among 9th-grade (27.8%) than 11th-grade (23.7%) and 12th-grade (20.1%) students; higher among 10th-grade (26.3%) and 11th-grade (23.7%) than 12th-grade (20.1%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (24.9%) and 10th-grade female (22.6%) than 11th-grade female (17.9%) and 12th-grade female (14.8%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (30.5%) and 11th-grade male (29.5%) than 12th-grade male (25.6%) students. Prevalence of using computers 3 or more hours per day ranged from 12.5% to 31.1% across state surveys (median: 22.7%) and from 20.2% to 38.3% across local surveys (median: 27.2%) (Table 77).

Watched Television 3 or More Hours per Day

Nationwide, 35.4% of students watched television 3 or more hours per day on an average school day (Table 76). Overall, the prevalence of having watched television 3 or more hours per day was higher among male (37.5%) than female (33.2%) students; higher among white male (30.4%) than white female (24.0%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (35.4%) than 11th-grade female (29.6%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having watched television 3 or more hours per day was higher among black (62.7%) and Hispanic (43.0%) than white (27.2%) students; higher among black (62.7%) than Hispanic (43.0%) students; higher among black female (60.6%) and Hispanic female (43.6%) than white female (24.0%) students; higher among black female (60.6%) than Hispanic female (43.6%) students; higher among black male (64.6%) and Hispanic male (42.4%) than white male (30.4%) students; and higher among black male (64.6%) than Hispanic male (42.4%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having watched television 3 or more hours per day was higher among 9th-grade (39.7%) and 10th-grade (37.0%) than 11th-grade (32.5%) and 12th-grade (30.8%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (37.2%) and 10th-grade female (35.9%) than 11th-grade female (29.6%) and 12th-grade female (28.9%) students; higher among 9th-grade male (42.0%) than 11th-grade male (35.4%) and 12th-grade male (32.8%) students; and higher among 10th-grade male (38.1%) than 12th-grade male (32.8%) students. Prevalence of having watched television 3 or more hours per day ranged from 18.2% to 47.4% across state surveys (median: 29.8%) and from 33.2% to 60.5% across local surveys (median: 45.3%) (Table 77).

Attended Physical Education Classes

Nationwide, 53.6% of students went to physical education (PE) classes on 1 or more days in an average week when they were in school (i.e., attended PE classes) (Table 78). Overall, the prevalence of attending PE classes was higher among male (57.7%) than female (49.4%) students; higher among white male (54.0%), black male (61.0%), and Hispanic male (64.7%) than white female (46.8%), black female (50.6%), and Hispanic female (57.3%) students, respectively; and higher among 10th-grade male (62.3%), 11th-grade male (51.4%), and 12th-grade male (44.6%) than 10th-grade female (51.2%), 11th-grade female (38.8%), and 12th-grade female (38.5%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of attending PE classes was higher among Hispanic (61.0%) than white (50.4%) students; higher among Hispanic female (57.3%) than white female (46.8%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (64.7%) than white male (54.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of attending PE classes was higher among 9th-grade (66.8%) than 10th-grade (56.8%), 11th-grade (45.1%), and 12th-grade (41.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade (56.8%) than 11th-grade (45.1%) and 12th-grade (41.5%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (65.1%) than 10th-grade female (51.2%), 11th-grade female (38.8%), and 12th-grade female (38.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (51.2%) than 11th-grade female (38.8%) and 12th-grade female (38.5%) students; higher among 9th-grade male (68.3%) than 11th-grade male (51.4%) and 12th-grade male (44.6%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (62.3%) than 11th-grade male (51.4%) and 12th-grade male (44.6%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (51.4%) than 12th-grade male (44.6%) students. Prevalence of attending PE classes ranged from 28.4% to 90.8% across state surveys (median: 41.7%) and from 29.3% to 78.9% across local surveys (median: 44.3%) (Table 79).

Attended Physical Education Classes Daily

Nationwide, 30.3% of students went to PE classes 5 days in an average week when they were in school (i.e., attended PE classes daily) (Table 78). Overall, the prevalence of having attended PE classes daily was higher among male (33.2%) than female (27.3%) students; higher among white male (32.2%) and black male (35.8%) than white female (25.6%) and black female (27.8%) students, respectively; and higher among 10th-grade male (35.7%), 11th-grade male (27.9%), and 12th-grade male (27.5%) than 10th-grade female (26.1%), 11th-grade female (19.8%), and 12th-grade female (20.2%) students, respectively. The prevalence of having attended PE classes daily was higher among Hispanic female (35.5%) than white female (25.6%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having attended PE classes daily was higher among 9th-grade (40.1%) than 10th-grade (30.9%), 11th-grade (23.9%), and 12th-grade (23.8%) students; higher among 10th-grade (30.9%) than 11th-grade (23.9%) and 12th-grade (23.8%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (40.4%) than 10th-grade female (26.1%), 11th-grade female (19.8%), and 12th-grade female (20.2%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (26.1%) than 11th-grade female (19.8%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (39.7%) and 10th-grade male (35.7%) than 11th-grade male (27.9%) and 12th-grade male (27.5%) students. Prevalence of having attended PE classes daily ranged from 6.7% to 47.3% across state surveys (median: 25.2%) and from 6.5% to 54.0% across local surveys (median: 24.8%) (Table 79).

Played on at Least One Sports Team

Nationwide, 56.3% of students had played on at least one sports team (run by their school or community groups) during the 12 months before the survey (Table 80). Overall, the prevalence of having played on at least one sports team was higher among male (62.1%) than female (50.4%) students; higher among white male (63.0%), black male (65.1%), and Hispanic male (58.1%) than white female (54.8%), black female (44.7%), and Hispanic female (41.8%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (63.4%), 10th-grade male (64.7%), 11th-grade male (63.0%), and 12th-grade male (56.2%) than 9th-grade female (54.7%), 10th-grade female (50.8%), 11th-grade female (52.5%), and 12th-grade female (41.9%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having played on at least one sports team was higher among white (58.9%) than Hispanic (50.0%) students; higher among white female (54.8%) than black female (44.7%) and Hispanic female (41.8%) students; and higher among white male (63.0%) and black male (65.1%) than Hispanic male (58.1%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having played on at least one sports team was higher among 9th-grade (59.2%), 10th-grade (57.8%), and 11th-grade (57.7%) than 12th-grade (49.0%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (54.7%), 10th-grade female (50.8%), and 11th-grade female (52.5%) than 12th-grade female (41.9%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (63.4%), 10th-grade male (64.7%), and 11th-grade male (63.0%) than 12th-grade male (56.2%) students. Prevalence of having played on at least one sports team ranged from 46.0% to 67.1% across state surveys (median: 56.8%) and from 41.7% to 54.5% across local surveys (median: 49.6%) (Table 81).

Injured While Exercising or Playing Sports

Among the 79.6% of students nationwide who exercised or played sports during the 30 days before the survey, 21.9% had had to see a doctor or nurse for an injury that happened while exercising or playing sports (Table 80). Overall, the prevalence of having been injured while exercising or playing sports was higher among male (24.1%) than female (19.3%) students; higher among white male (23.6%), black male (26.7%), and Hispanic male (24.7%) than white female (19.9%), black female (19.3%), and Hispanic female (18.7%) students, respectively; and higher among 11th-grade male (23.8%) and 12th-grade male (20.9%) than 11th-grade female (18.2%) and 12th-grade female (14.8%) students, respectively. Overall the prevalence of having been injured while exercising or playing sports was higher among 9th-grade (24.0%), 10th-grade (22.8%), and 11th-grade (21.2%) than 12th-grade (18.1%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (21.7%) and 10th-grade female (20.8%) than 12th-grade female (14.8%) students; and higher among 9th-grade male (26.0%) than 12th-grade male (20.9%) students.

Obesity, Overweight, and Weight Control

Obese

Nationwide, 13.0% of students were obese (Table 82). Overall, the prevalence of obesity was higher among male (16.3%) than female (9.6%) students; higher among white male (14.6%) and Hispanic male (20.3%) than white female (6.8%) and Hispanic female (12.7%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (16.6%), 10th-grade male (16.4%), 11th-grade male (17.3%), and 12th-grade male (14.7%) than 9th-grade female (10.7%), 10th-grade female (9.8%), 11th-grade female (8.1%), and 12th-grade female (9.3%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of obesity was higher among black (18.3%) and Hispanic (16.6%) than white (10.8%) students; higher among black female (17.8%) and Hispanic female (12.7%) than white female (6.8%) students; higher among black female (17.8%) than Hispanic female (12.7%) students; and higher among black male (18.9%) and Hispanic male (20.3%) than white male (14.6%) students. The prevalence of obesity was higher among 9th-grade female (10.7%) than 11th-grade female (8.1%) students. Prevalence of obesity ranged from 8.7% to 17.9% across state surveys (median: 12.0%) and from 8.4% to 19.3% across local surveys (median: 14.8%) (Table 83).

Overweight

Nationwide, 15.8% of students were overweight (Table 82). The prevalence of overweight was higher among white male (15.7%) and black female (21.4%) than white female (12.8%) and black male (16.6%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of overweight was higher among black (19.0%) and Hispanic (18.1%) than white (14.3%) students and higher among black female (21.4%) and Hispanic female (17.9%) than white female (12.8%) students. Overall, the prevalence of overweight was higher among 9th-grade (17.6%) than 12th-grade (14.0%) students and higher among 9th-grade female (18.3%) than 10th-grade female (14.2%), 11th-grade female (14.2%), and 12th-grade female (13.1%) students. Prevalence of overweight ranged from 11.4% to 18.2% across state surveys (median: 15.0%) and from 12.5% to 22.2% across local surveys (median: 17.7%) (Table 83).

Described Themselves as Overweight

Nationwide, 29.3% of students described themselves as slightly or very overweight (Table 84). Overall, the prevalence of describing themselves as overweight was higher among female (34.5%) than male (24.2%) students; higher among white female (34.0%), black female (30.1%), and Hispanic female (39.3%) than white male (23.6%), black male (19.1%), and Hispanic male (28.3%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (33.6%), 10th-grade female (33.8%), 11th-grade female (36.2%), and 12th-grade female (34.9%) than 9th-grade male (24.3%), 10th-grade male (24.8%), 11th-grade male (25.8%), and 12th-grade male (21.6%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of describing themselves as overweight was higher among white (28.8%) than black (24.6%) students; higher among Hispanic (33.8%) than white (28.8%) and black (24.6%) students; higher among white female (34.0%) than black female (30.1%) students; higher among Hispanic female (39.3%) than white female (34.0%) and black female (30.1%) students; higher among white male (23.6%) than black male (19.1%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (28.3%) than white male (23.6%) and black male (19.1%) students. The prevalence of describing themselves as overweight was higher among 11th-grade male (25.8%) than 12th-grade male (21.6%) students. Prevalence of describing themselves as overweight ranged from 22.7% to 32.7% across state surveys (median: 29.1%) and from 23.1% to 34.5% across local surveys (median: 26.8%) (Table 85).

Were Trying to Lose Weight

Nationwide, 45.2% of students were trying to lose weight (Table 84). Overall, the prevalence of trying to lose weight was higher among female (60.3%) than male (30.4%) students; higher among white female (62.3%), black female (49.5%), and Hispanic female (62.1%) than white male (29.0%), black male (24.9%), and Hispanic male (38.5%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (58.6%), 10th-grade female (60.2%), 11th-grade female (61.3%), and 12th-grade female (61.6%) than 9th-grade male (31.0%), 10th-grade male (31.6%), 11th-grade male (30.1%), and 12th-grade male (28.7%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of trying to lose weight was higher among white (45.6%) than black (37.1%) students; higher among Hispanic (50.2%) than white (45.6%) and black (37.1%) students; higher among white female (62.3%) and Hispanic female (62.1%) than black female (49.5%) students; higher among white male (29.0%) than black male (24.9%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (38.5%) than white male (29.0%) and black male (24.9%) students. Prevalence of trying to lose weight ranged from 37.9% to 48.7% across state surveys (median: 45.0%) and from 38.1% to 53.1% across local surveys (median: 43.1%) (Table 85).

Ate Less Food, Fewer Calories, or Low-Fat Foods to Lose Weight or to Keep From Gaining Weight

During the 30 days before the survey, 40.6% of students nationwide had eaten less food, fewer calories, or low-fat foods to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight (Table 86). Overall, the prevalence of having eaten less food, fewer calories, or low-fat foods to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among female (53.2%) than male (28.3%) students; higher among white female (58.4%), black female (34.6%), and Hispanic female (52.0%) than white male (28.3%), black male (21.0%), and Hispanic male (32.3%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (50.5%), 10th-grade female (53.0%), 11th-grade female (54.0%), and 12th-grade female (56.4%) than 9th-grade male (27.3%), 10th-grade male (29.1%), 11th-grade male (29.8%), and 12th-grade male (27.4%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having eaten less food, fewer calories, or low-fat foods to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among white (43.3%) and Hispanic (42.1%) than black (27.8%) students; higher among white female (58.4%) than black female (34.6%) and Hispanic female (52.0%) students; higher among Hispanic female (52.0%) than black female (34.6%) students; higher among white male (28.3%) than black male (21.0%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (32.3%) than white male (28.3%) and black male (21.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having eaten less food, fewer calories, or low-fat foods to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among 12th-grade (42.0%) than 9th-grade (38.6%) students and higher among 12th-grade female (56.4%) than 9th-grade female (50.5%) students. Prevalence of having eaten less food, fewer calories, or low-fat foods to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight ranged from 35.1% to 43.7% across state surveys (median: 39.1%) and from 30.6% to 41.3% across local surveys (median: 35.9%) (Table 87).

Exercised to Lose Weight or to Keep From Gaining Weight

Nationwide, 60.9% of students had exercised to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days before the survey (Table 86). Overall, the prevalence of having exercised to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among female (67.0%) than male (55.0%) students; higher among white female (71.5%) and Hispanic female (66.4%) than white male (53.3%) and Hispanic male (60.1%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (70.6%), 10th-grade female (67.7%), 11th-grade female (65.0%), and 12th-grade female (63.7%) than 9th-grade male (58.7%), 10th-grade male (54.2%), 11th-grade male (54.9%), and 12th-grade male (51.1%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having exercised to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among white (62.4%) and Hispanic (63.2%) than black (52.2%) students; higher among white female (71.5%) than black female (50.7%) and Hispanic female (66.4%) students; higher among Hispanic female (66.4%) than black female (50.7%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (60.1%) than white male (53.3%) and black male (53.7%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having exercised to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among 9th-grade (64.5%) than 10th-grade (60.9%), 11th-grade (59.9%), and 12th-grade (57.5%) students; higher among 10th-grade (60.9%) than 12th-grade (57.5%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (70.6%) than 11th-grade female (65.0%) and 12th-grade female (63.7%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (67.7%) than 12th-grade female (63.7%) students; higher among 9th-grade male (58.7%) than 10th-grade male (54.2%) and 12th-grade male (51.1%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (54.9%) than 12th-grade male (51.1%) students. Prevalence of having exercised to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight ranged from 56.8% to 65.4% across state surveys (median: 61.1%) and from 50.5% to 69.3% across local surveys (median: 58.4%) (Table 87).

Did Not Eat for 24 or More Hours to Lose Weight or to Keep From Gaining Weight

Nationwide, 11.8% of students did not eat for 24 or more hours to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days before the survey (Table 88). Overall, the prevalence of not eating for 24 or more hours to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among female (16.3%) than male (7.3%) students; higher among white female (16.7%), black female (13.2%), and Hispanic female (17.4%) than white male (5.7%), black male (7.4%), and Hispanic male (10.7%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (16.8%), 10th-grade female (19.1%), 11th-grade female (14.8%), and 12th-grade female (13.6%) than 9th-grade male (6.5%), 10th-grade male (6.5%), 11th-grade male (8.1%), and 12th-grade male (8.0%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of not eating for 24 or more hours to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among Hispanic (14.1%) than white (11.2%) and black (10.3%) students; higher among white female (16.7%) and Hispanic female (17.4%) than black female (13.2%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (10.7%) than white male (5.7%) students. The prevalence of not eating for 24 or more hours to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among 9th-grade female (16.8%) than 12th-grade female (13.6%) students and higher among 10th-grade female (19.1%) than 11th-grade female (14.8%) and 12th-grade female (13.6%) students. Prevalence of not eating for 24 or more hours to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight ranged from 9.7% to 14.3% across state surveys (median: 12.0%) and from 8.9% to 14.0% across local surveys (median: 11.9%) (Table 89).

Took Diet Pills, Powders, or Liquids to Lose Weight or to Keep From Gaining Weight

During the 30 days before the survey, 5.9% of students nationwide had taken diet pills, powders, or liquids without a doctor's advice to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight (Table 88). Overall, the prevalence of having taken diet pills, powders, or liquids without a doctor's advice to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among female (7.5%) than male (4.2%) students; higher among white female (8.3%) and Hispanic female (7.8%) than white male (3.7%) and Hispanic male (5.1%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (6.1%), 10th-grade female (6.9%), 11th-grade female (7.4%), and 12th-grade female (10.2%) than 9th-grade male (2.9%), 10th-grade male (3.8%), 11th-grade male (5.0%), and 12th-grade male (5.7%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having taken diet pills, powders, or liquids without a doctor's advice to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among white (6.0%) and Hispanic (6.4%) than black (3.7%) students and higher among white female (8.3%) and Hispanic female (7.8%) than black female (3.9%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having taken diet pills, powders, or liquids without a doctor's advice to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among 11th-grade (6.2%) and 12th-grade (8.0%) than 9th-grade (4.4%) students; higher among 12th-grade (8.0%) than 10th-grade (5.3%) and 11th-grade (6.2%) students; higher among 12th-grade female (10.2%) than 9th-grade female (6.1%), 10th-grade female (6.9%), and 11th-grade female (7.4%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (5.0%) and 12th-grade male (5.7%) than 9th-grade male (2.9%) students. The prevalence of having taken diet pills, powders, or liquids without a doctor's advice to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight ranged from 3.9% to 8.6% across state surveys (median: 6.7%) and from 3.3% to 10.3% across local surveys (median: 5.4%) (Table 89).

Vomited or Took Laxatives to Lose Weight or to Keep From Gaining Weight

Nationwide, 4.3% of students had vomited or taken laxatives to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days before the survey (Table 90). Overall, the prevalence of having vomited or taken laxatives to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among female (6.4%) than male (2.2%) students; higher among white female (6.9%) and Hispanic female (7.0%) than white male (1.3%) and Hispanic male (3.7%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (5.5%), 10th-grade female (7.6%), 11th-grade female (5.7%), and 12th-grade female (6.6%) than 9th-grade male (2.1%), 10th-grade male (1.8%), 11th-grade male (2.1%), and 12th-grade male (2.6%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having vomited or taken laxatives to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight was higher among Hispanic (5.3%) than black (3.0%) students; higher among white female (6.9%) and Hispanic female (7.0%) than black female (3.5%) students; and higher among black male (2.5%) and Hispanic male (3.7%) than white male (1.3%) students. Prevalence of having vomited or taken laxatives to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight ranged from 3.6% to 7.9% across state surveys (median: 5.4%) and from 2.4% to 9.0% across local surveys (median: 5.2%) (Table 91).

Other Health-Related Topics

Lifetime Asthma

Nationwide, 20.3% of students had ever been told by a doctor or nurse that they had asthma (i.e., lifetime asthma) (Table 92). Overall, the prevalence of lifetime asthma was higher among black (24.0%) than white (19.6%) and Hispanic (18.5%) students and higher among black male (24.6%) than white male (18.9%) and Hispanic male (17.7%) students. Prevalence of lifetime asthma ranged from 15.4% to 28.7% across state surveys (median: 21.4%) and from 15.1% to 27.9% across local surveys (median: 20.9%) (Table 93).

Current Asthma

Nationwide, 10.9% of students had lifetime asthma and still had asthma (i.e., current asthma) (Table 92). Overall, the prevalence of current asthma was higher among female (12.5%) than male (9.3%) students; higher among white female (12.2%) and Hispanic female (11.4%) than white male (8.8%) and Hispanic male (7.7%) students, respectively; and higher among 10th-grade female (13.3%) and 11th-grade female (12.3%) than 10th-grade male (9.5%) and 11th-grade male (8.3%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of current asthma was higher among black (14.7%) than white (10.5%) and Hispanic (9.5%) students; higher among black female (15.6%) than white female (12.2%) and Hispanic female (11.4%) students; and higher among black male (13.6%) than white male (8.8%) and Hispanic male (7.7%) students. The prevalence of current asthma was higher among 9th-grade male (10.9%) than 11th-grade male (8.3%) and 12th-grade male (8.1%) students. Prevalence of current asthma ranged from 8.4% to 14.2% across state surveys (median: 10.9%) and from 6.8% to 19.9% across local surveys (median: 9.4%) (Table 93).

Routine Sunscreen Use

Nationwide, 10.3% of students most of the time or always wore sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher when outside for more than 1 hour on a sunny day (i.e., routine sunscreen use) (Table 94). Overall, the prevalence of routine sunscreen use was higher among female (13.7%) than male (6.9%) students; higher among white female (15.9%), black female (6.2%), and Hispanic female (10.6%) than white male (8.2%), black male (3.5%), and Hispanic male (5.2%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade female (14.4%), 10th-grade female (13.6%), 11th-grade female (12.9%), and 12th-grade female (13.8%) than 9th-grade male (7.4%), 10th-grade male (6.4%), 11th-grade male (6.5%), and 12th-grade male (7.4%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of routine sunscreen use was higher among white (12.0%) than black (4.9%) and Hispanic (7.9%) students; higher among Hispanic (7.9%) than black (4.9%) students; higher among white female (15.9%) than black female (6.2%) and Hispanic female (10.6%) students; higher among Hispanic female (10.6%) than black female (6.2%) students; and higher among white male (8.2%) than black male (3.5%) and Hispanic male (5.2%) students.

Routine Practice of Sun-Safety Behaviors

Nationwide, 17.4% of students most of the time or always stayed in the shade, wore long pants, wore a long-sleeved shirt, or wore a hat that shaded their face, ears, and neck when outside for more than 1 hour on a sunny day (i.e., routine practice of sun-safety behaviors) (Table 94). Overall, the prevalence of routine practice of sun-safety behaviors was higher among male (19.4%) than female (15.4%) students; higher among white male (18.3%) and Hispanic male (22.7%) than white female (11.4%) and Hispanic female (19.1%) students, respectively; and higher among 9th-grade male (21.0%), 11th-grade male (18.0%), and 12th-grade male (20.1%) than 9th-grade female (15.4%), 11th-grade female (14.8%), and 12th-grade female (14.8%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of routine practice of sun-safety behaviors was higher among black (21.1%) and Hispanic (20.9%) than white (14.9%) students; higher among black female (23.3%) and Hispanic female (19.1%) than white female (11.4%) students; and higher among Hispanic male (22.7%) than white male (18.3%) students.

Eight or More Hours of Sleep

Nationwide, 31.1% of students had 8 or more hours of sleep on an average school night (Table 95). Overall, the prevalence of having had 8 or more hours of sleep was higher among male (33.4%) than female (28.7%) students; higher among white male (34.2%) than white female (27.5%) students; and higher among 10th-grade male (35.6%) and 11th-grade male (27.3%) than 10th-grade female (29.2%) and 11th-grade female (22.6%) students, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of having had 8 or more hours of sleep was higher among Hispanic (34.4%) than black (28.8%) students; higher among Hispanic female (33.4%) than white female (27.5%) students; and higher among white male (34.2%) and Hispanic male (35.4%) than black male (28.0%) students. Overall, the prevalence of having had 8 or more hours of sleep was higher among 9th-grade (42.3%) than 10th-grade (32.4%), 11th-grade (24.9%), and 12th-grade (21.8%) students; higher among 10th-grade (32.4%) than 11th-grade (24.9%) and 12th-grade (21.8%) students; higher among 9th-grade female (39.4%) than 10th-grade female (29.2%), 11th-grade female (22.6%), and 12th-grade female (21.9%) students; higher among 10th-grade female (29.2%) than 11th-grade female (22.6%) and 12th-grade female (21.9%) students; higher among 9th-grade male (45.0%) than 10th-grade male (35.6%), 11th-grade male (27.3%), and 12th-grade male (21.6%) students; higher among 10th-grade male (35.6%) than 11th-grade male (27.3%) and 12th-grade male (21.6%) students; and higher among 11th-grade male (27.3%) than 12th-grade male (21.6%) students.

Trends During 1991--2007

Behaviors that Contribute to Unintentional Injuries

During 1991--2007, a significant linear decrease occurred in the percentage of students who rarely or never wore a seat belt (25.9%--11.1%), who rarely or never wore a motorcycle helmet (42.9%--33.9%), and who rode with a driver who had been drinking alcohol (39.9%--29.1%). The percentage of students who rarely or never wore a bicycle helmet decreased during 1991--2001 (96.2%--84.7%) and then did not change significantly during 2001--2007 (84.7%--85.1%). The percentage of students who drove when they had been drinking alcohol did not change significantly during 1991--1997 (16.7%--16.9%) and then decreased during 1997--2007 (16.9%--10.5%). During 2005--2007, no significant changes occurred in any of these variables.

Behaviors that Contribute to Violence

The percentage of students who carried a weapon decreased during 1991--1999 (26.1%--17.3%) and then did not change significantly during 1999--2007 (17.3%--18.0%); the percentage of students who carried a gun decreased during 1993--1999 (7.9%--4.9%) and then did not change significantly during 1999--2007 (4.9%--5.2%). The percentage of students who had been in a physical fight decreased during 1991--2003 (42.5%--33.0%) and then increased during 2003--2007 (33.0%--35.5%). During 2005--2007, no significant changes occurred in any of these behaviors that contribute to violence.

The percentage of students who carried a weapon on school property decreased during 1993--2003 (11.8%--6.1%) and then did not change significantly during 2003--2007 (6.1%--5.9%). The percentage of students who had been in a physical fight on school property decreased during 1993--2001 (16.2%--12.5%) and then did not change significantly during 2001--2007 (12.5%--12.4%). During 2003--2007, a significant linear decrease occurred in the percentage of students who had property stolen or damaged on school property (29.8%--27.1%). The percentage of students who had property stolen or damaged on school property also decreased during 2005--2007 (29.8%--27.1%). During 1993--2007, a significant linear increase occurred in the percentage of students who did not go to school because of safety concerns (4.4%--5.5%).

During 1991--2007, a significant linear decrease occurred in the percentage of students who seriously considered attempting suicide (29.0%--14.5%) and in the percentage of students who made a suicide plan (18.6%--11.3%). The percentage of students who attempted suicide did not change significantly during 1991--2001 (7.3%--8.8%) and then decreased during 2001--2007 (8.8%--6.9%). The percentage of students who made a suicide attempt that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse did not change significantly during 1991-- 2003 (1.7%--2.9%) and then decreased during 2003--2007 (2.9%--2.0%). During 2005--2007, significant decreases also occurred in the percentage of students who seriously considered attempting suicide (16.9%--14.5%), who made a suicide plan (13.0%--11.3%), and who attempted suicide (8.4%--6.9%).

Tobacco Use

The percentage of students who reported lifetime cigarette use did not change significantly during 1991--1999 (70.1%--70.4%) and then decreased during 1999--2007 (70.4%--50.3%). During 2001--2007, significant linear decreases occurred in the percentage of students who reported lifetime daily cigarette use (20.0%--12.4%), who reported trying to quit smoking cigarettes (57.4%--49.7%), and who reported buying cigarettes in a store or gas station (19.0%--16.0%). The percentage of students who reported trying to quit smoking cigarettes also decreased from 2005--2007 (54.6%--49.7%). The percentage of students who reported current cigarette use increased during 1991--1997 (27.5%--36.4%) and then decreased during 1997--2007 (36.4%--20.0%), and the percentage of students who reported current frequent cigarette use increased during 1991--1999 (12.7%--16.8%) and then decreased during 1999--2007 (16.8%--8.1%). During 1991--2007, a significant linear decrease occurred in the percentage of students who reported smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day (18.0%--10.7%). The percentage of students who reported current smokeless tobacco use decreased during 1995--2003 (11.4%--6.7%) and then did not change significantly during 2003--2007 (6.7%--7.9%). The percentage of students who reported current cigar use decreased during 1997--2005 (22.0%--14.0%) and then did not change significantly during 2005--2007 (14.0%--13.6%). During 1997--2007, a significant linear decrease occurred in the percentage of students who reported current tobacco use (43.4%--25.7%).

Alcohol and Other Drug Use

During 1991--2007, a significant linear decrease occurred in the percentage of students who reported lifetime alcohol use (81.6%--75.0%). The percentage of students who reported current alcohol use did not change significantly during 1991--1999 (50.8%--50.0%) and then decreased during 1999--2007 (50.0%--44.7%), and the percentage of students who reported episodic heavy drinking did not change significantly during 1991--1997 (31.3%--33.4%) and then decreased during 1997--2007 (33.4%--26.0%). The percentage of students who reported lifetime marijuana use increased during 1991--1999 (31.3%--47.2%) and then decreased during 1999--2007 (47.2%--38.1%), and the percentage of students who reported current marijuana use increased during 1991--1999 (14.7%--26.7%) and then decreased during 1999--2007 (26.7%--19.7%). The percentage of students who reported lifetime cocaine use increased during 1991--1999 (5.9%--9.5%) and then decreased during 1999--2007 (9.5%--7.2%), and the percentage of students who reported current cocaine use increased during 1991--2001 (1.7%--4.2%) and then decreased during 2001--2007 (4.2%--3.3%). The percentage of students who reported lifetime inhalant use decreased during 1995--2003 (20.3%--12.1%) and then did not change significantly during 2003--2007 (12.1%--13.3%). The percentage of students who reported lifetime illegal steroid use increased during 1991--2003 (2.7%--6.1%) and then decreased during 2003--2007 (6.1%--3.9%). During 2001--2007, a significant linear decrease occurred in the percentage of students who reported lifetime hallucinogenic drug use (13.3%--7.8%) and lifetime ecstasy use (11.1%--5.8%). The percentage of students who reported lifetime heroine use did not change significantly during 1999--2003 (2.4%--3.3%) and then decreased during 2003--2007 (3.3%--2.3%). The percentage of students who reported lifetime methamphetamine use did not change significantly during 1999--2001 (9.1%--9.8%) and then decreased during 2001--2007 (9.8%--4.4%). The percentage of students who reported lifetime methamphetamine use also decreased during 2005--2007 (6.2%--4.4%).

Age of Initiation of Risk Behaviors

The percentage of students who reported smoking a whole cigarette for the first time before age 13 years increased during 1991--1993 (23.8%--26.9%) and then decreased during 1993--2007 (26.9%--14.2%). The percentage of students who reported having drunk alcohol for the first time before age 13 years did not change significantly 1991--1999 (32.7%--32.2%) and then decreased during 1999--2007 (32.2%--23.8%). The percentage of students who reported having tried marijuana for the first time before age 13 years increased during 1991--1999 (7.4%--11.3%) and then decreased during 1999--2007 (11.3%--8.3%). During 2005--2007, no significant changes occurred in any of these age of initiation variables.

Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drug Use on School Property

The percentage of students who smoked cigarettes on school property did not change significantly during 1993--1995 (13.2%--16.0%) and then decreased during 1995--2007 (16.0%--5.7%). During 1993--2007, a significant linear decrease occurred in the percentage of students who drank alcohol on school property (5.2%--4.1%). The percentage of students who used marijuana on school property increased during 1993--1995 (5.6%--8.8%) and then decreased during 1995--2007 (8.8%--4.5%). The percentage of students who were offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property increased during 1993--1995 (24.0%--32.1%) and then decreased during 1995--2007 (32.1%--22.3%). The percentage of students who were offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property also decreased during 2005--2007 (25.4%--22.3%).

Sexual Behaviors that Contribute to Unintended Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Including HIV Infection

During 1991--2007, significant linear decreases occurred in the percentage of students who ever had sexual intercourse (54.1%--47.8%), who had sexual intercourse with four or more persons during their lifetime (18.7%--14.9%), and who were currently sexually active (37.5%--35.0%). The percentage of students who had sexual intercourse for the first time before age 13 years decreased during 1991--2005 (10.2%--6.2%) and then did not change significantly during 2005--2007 (6.2%--7.1%). The percentage of sexually active students who used a condom at last sexual intercourse increased during 1991--2003 (46.2%--63.0%) and then did not change significantly during 2003--2007 (63.0%--61.5%). The percentage of students who drank alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse increased during 1991--2001 (21.6--25.6) and then decreased during 2001--2007 (25.6%--22.5%). The percentage of students who were taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection increased during 1991--1997 (83.3%--91.5%) and then decreased during 1997--2007 (91.5%--89.5%). During 2005--2007, no significant changes occurred in any of these sexual behavior variables.

Dietary Behaviors

During 1999--2007, significant linear decreases occurred in the percentage of students who ate fruits and vegetables five or more times per day (23.9%--21.4%) and who drank three or more glasses per day of milk (18.0%--14.1%). During 2005--2007, no significant changes occurred in either of these dietary behavior variables.

Physical Activity

No significant linear change occurred in the percentage of students who used computers 3 or more hours per day during 2003--2007 (22.1%--24.9%). The percentage of students who used computers 3 or more hours per day increased during 2005--2007 (21.1%--24.9%). During 1999--2007, a significant linear decrease occurred in the percentage of students who watched 3 or more hours per day of television (42.8%--35.4%). The percentage of students who attended PE classes daily decreased during 1991--1995 (41.6%--25.4%) and then did not change significantly during 1995--2007 (25.4%--30.3%).

Obesity, Overweight, and Weight Control

During 1999--2007, significant linear increases occurred in the percentage of students who were obese (10.7%--13.0%) and who were overweight (14.4%--15.8%). The percentage of students who described themselves as overweight decreased during 1991--1997 (31.8%--27.3%) and then increased during 1997--2007 (27.3%--29.3%). The percentage of students who described themselves as overweight also decreased during 2005--2007 (31.5%--29.3%). During 1991--2007, a significant linear increase occurred in the percentage of students who were trying to lose weight (41.8%--45.2%). During 1995--2007, a significant linear increase occurred in the percentage of students who exercised to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight (51.0%--60.9%). The percentage of students who ate less food, fewer calories, or low-fat foods to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight increased during 1999--2001 (40.4%--43.8%) and then decreased during 2001--2007 (43.8%--40.6%). The percentage of students who took diet pills, powders, or liquids to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight increased during 1999--2001 (7.6%--9.2%) and then decreased during 2001--2007 (9.2%--5.9%). The percentage of students who vomited or took laxatives to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight did not change significantly during 1995--2003 (4.8%--6.0%) and then decreased during 2003--2007 (6.0%--4.3%).

Discussion

Certain risk behaviors are more likely to occur among subpopulations of students defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. However, this analysis could not isolate the effects of sex, race/ethnicity, or grade from the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) or culture on risk behaviors with substantial disparities. In a 1992 national study, after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and school enrollment status (i.e., in school or out of school), adolescents aged 12--17 years were less likely to report selected risk behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical inactivity, eating too little fruit and vegetables, and episodic heavy drinking) as the SES (education or family income) of the responsible adult in their family increased (15). Additional research is needed to assess the effect of specific educational, socioeconomic, cultural, and racial/ethnic factors on the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among high school students.

For the majority of risk behaviors, prevalence does not vary substantially across states or across cities. However, across state surveys, a range of 25 or more percentage points or a fivefold variation or greater was identified for the following risk behaviors:

  • rarely or never wore a bicycle helmet (minimum: 57.6%; maximum: 94.8%);
  • lifetime cigarette use (minimum: 24.9%; maximum: 62.2%);
  • current frequent cigarette use (minimum: 2.5%; maximum: 14.4%);
  • bought cigarettes in a store or gas station (minimum: 3.0%; maximum: 27.0%);
  • current tobacco use (minimum: 8.9%; maximum: 34.5%);
  • lifetime alcohol use (minimum: 36.7%; maximum: 78.2%);
  • current alcohol use (minimum: 17.0%; maximum: 48.9%);
  • bought alcohol in a store (minimum: 1.8%; maximum: 10.0%);
  • lifetime marijuana use (minimum: 17.4%; maximum: 44.7%)
  • used smokeless tobacco on school property (minimum: 1.9%; maximum: 10.6%);
  • offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property (minimum: 10.1%; maximum: 37.1%);
  • drank soda or pop at least one time per day (minimum: 16.9%; maximum: 47.0%);
  • watched television 3 or more hours per day (minimum: 18.2%; maximum: 47.4%);
  • attended PE class (minimum: 28.4%; maximum: 90.8%); and
  • attended PE class daily (minimum: 6.7%; maximum: 47.3%).

Across local surveys, a range of 25 or more percentage points or a fivefold variation or greater was identified for the following risk behaviors:

  • rarely or never wore a bicycle helmet (minimum: 69.7%; maximum: 96.4%);
  • smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day (minimum: 1.9%; maximum: 12.8%);
  • bought cigarettes in a store or gas station (minimum: 10.2%; maximum: 39.4%);
  • current smokeless tobacco use (minimum: 1.0%; maximum: 7.2%);
  • lifetime marijuana use (minimum: 22.8%; maximum: 50.8%);
  • lifetime cocaine use (minimum: 0.9%; maximum: 12.6%);
  • current cocaine use (minimum: 0.5%; maximum: 6.2%);
  • lifetime illegal injection-drug use (minimum: 0.5%; maximum: 5.5%);
  • lifetime heroin use (minimum: 0.6%; maximum: 5.4%);
  • lifetime methamphetamine use (minimum: 0.7%; maximum: 9.0%);
  • used smokeless tobacco on school property (minimum: 0.5%; maximum: 3.8%);
  • offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property (minimum: 13.5%; maximum: 39.2%);
  • ever had sexual intercourse (minimum: 26.4%; maximum: 67.1%);
  • currently sexually active (minimum: 17.5%; maximum: 49.7%);
  • drank soda or pop at least one time per day (minimum: 14.4%; maximum: 39.9%);
  • watched television 3 or more hours per day (minimum: 33.2%; maximum: 60.5%);
  • attended PE class (minimum: 29.3%; maximum: 78.9%); and
  • attended PE class daily (minimum: 6.5%; maximum: 54.0%).

These variations might occur, in part, because of differences in state and local laws and policies, enforcement practices, access to illegal drugs, availability of effective school and community interventions, prevailing behavioral and social norms, demographic characteristics of the population, and adult practices. Longitudinal research is needed to better understand the effect of these factors on the development and prevalence of risk behaviors.

Healthy People 2010

The national YRBS is the primary source of data to measure 15 Healthy People 2010 objectives and three leading health indicators (16). The Healthy People 2010 objectives provide a comprehensive agenda for improving the health of all persons in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century. This report provides the 2010 target and data from the 2007 national YRBS for all 15 objectives (Table 96).

Limitations

The findings in this report are subject to at least three limitations. First, these data apply only to youth who attend school and, therefore, are not representative of all persons in this age group. Nationwide, in 2005, of persons aged 16--17 years, approximately 3% were not enrolled in a high school program and had not completed high school (17). Second, the extent of underreporting or overreporting of behaviors cannot be determined, although the survey questions demonstrate good test-retest reliability (8). Third, BMI is calculated on the basis of self-reported height and weight, and, therefore, tends to underestimate the prevalence of obesity and overweight (18).

Conclusion

The national YRBS data are used routinely by CDC and other federal agencies. For example, CDC uses YRBS data for the following:

  • to assess trends in priority health-risk behaviors among high school students;
  • to monitor progress toward achieving 15 Healthy People 2010 health objectives and three leading health indicators (16);
  • to evaluate components of CDC's Performance Plan in compliance with the Government Performance and Results Act (19); and
  • to evaluate the contribution of HIV prevention and chronic disease prevention efforts in schools toward helping the nation reduce health-risk behaviors among youth.

State and local agencies and nongovernmental organizations use YRBS data to set school health and health promotion program goals, support modification of school health curricula or other programs, support new legislation and policies that promote health, and seek funding for new initiatives. For example, Hillsborough County, Florida, used YRBS data to enhance health education, physical education, and health science education programs and to create a guide for high school science teachers to use when discussing specific topics related to HIV, STDs, and unintended pregnancies. In Michigan, YRBS data are used to plan and advocate for coordinated school health programs and other health-related initiatives in their state. The San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) developed the SFUSD Family Guide, which combines its YRBS data in an easy-to-read form with information on related school health programs, national research, and strategies for promoting health at home. The family guides are available to parents, students, and community organizations. In Utah, YRBS data on sedentary activities were used in developing the "Unplug and Play Program" to promote physical activity. This program was implemented for the first time in 2007.

Seventy six percent of all states have YRBS data representative of their high school students attending public schools. Continued support for and expansion of YRBSS will help monitor and ensure effectiveness of public health and school health programs for youth.

References

  1. CDC, NCHS. Public use data file and documentation: multiple cause of death for ICD-10 2005 data [CD-ROM]. 2008.
  2. Ventura SJ, Abma JC, Mosher WD, Henshaw SK. Recent trends in teenage pregnancy in the United States, 1990--2002. Health E-stats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2006.
  3. Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W. Sexually transmitted disease among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2004;36:6--10.
  4. CDC. HIV/AIDS surveillance report, 2005. Vol. 17. Rev ed. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2007. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports.
  5. Brener ND, Kann L, Kinchen S, et al. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004:53(No RR-12):1--13.
  6. QED National Education Database Master Extract, Denver, CO: Quality Education Data, Inc.; 2006.
  7. US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Common Core of Data Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey. Washington, DC: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Available at http://nces.ed.gov/ccd.
  8. Brener ND, Kann L, McManus T, Kinchen SA, Sundberg EC, Ross JG. Reliability of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire. J Adolesc Health 2002;31:336--42.
  9. Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Grummer-Strawn LM, et al. CDC growth charts: United States. In: Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, no. 314. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2000.
  10. Barlow SE; Expert Committee. Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics 2007;120:S164--S192.
  11. SAS Institute, Inc. SAS,® version 9.1 [software and documentation]. Cary, NC: SAS Institute; 2003.
  12. Research Triangle Institute. SUDAAN,® version 9.0.1 [software and documentation]. Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute; 2005.
  13. Hinkle DE, Wiersma W, Jurs SG. Applied statistics for the behavioral sciences. 5th ed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.; 2003.
  14. US Department of Health and Human Services and US Department of Agriculture. Dietary guidelines for Americans 2005. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2005. Available at http://www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines.
  15. Lowry R, Kann L, Collins JL, Kolbe LJ. The effect of socioeconomic status on chronic disease risk behaviors among US adolescents. JAMA 1996;276:792--7.
  16. US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2010 (conference ed, in 2 vols). Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2000. Available at http://www.healthypeople.gov.
  17. Laird J, Kienzl G, DeBell M, Chapman C. Dropout rates in the United States: 2005. Washington, DC: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2007. Publication no. NCES 2007--059.
  18. Brener ND, McManus T, Galuska DA, Lowry R, Wechsler H. Reliability and validity of self-reported height and weight among high school students. J Adolesc Health 2003;32:281--7.
  19. CDC. FY 2004 performance plan. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2004.

* Black students refers to black or African-American, non-Hispanic students.

Hispanic students refers to Hispanic or Latino students of any race.

§ A questionnaire that fails quality control has less than 20 remaining responses after editing or has the same answer to 15 or more questions in a row.

Overall response rate = (number of participating schools / number of eligible sampled schools) × (number of useable questionnaires / number of eligible students sampled).

** Pellet-sized pieces of highly purified cocaine.

†† A process in which cocaine is dissolved in ether or sodium hydroxide and the precipitate is filtered off.

§§ 100% fruit juice, fruit, green salad, potatoes (excluding French fries, fried potatoes, or potato chips), carrots, or other vegetables.

State and Local Youth Risk Behavior Survey Coordinators

States: Alaska, Patricia Owen, Dept of Health and Social Svcs; Arizona, Catherine Osborn, MPA, Dept of Education; Arkansas, Kathleen Courtney, MS, Dept of Education; Connecticut, Diane Aye, PhD, Dept of Public Health; Delaware, Janet Arns Ray, MS, Dept of Education; Florida, Jamie Weitz, MS, Dept of Health; Georgia, Dafna Kanny, PhD, Dept of Human Resources; Hawaii, Dave Randall, MEd, Dept of Education; Idaho, Patricia Stewart, State Dept of Education; Illinois, Glenn Steinhausen, PhD, State Board of Education; Indiana, Katherine Newland, MPH, Dept of Health; Iowa, Sara A. Peterson, MA, Dept of Education; Kansas, Mark Thompson, PhD, Dept of Education; Kentucky, Stephanie Bunge, MEd, Dept of Education; Maine, Jean Zimmerman, MS, Dept of Education; Maryland, Richard D. Scott, DMin, State Dept of Education; Massachusetts, Chiniqua Milligan, MPH, Dept of Elementary and Secondary Education; Michigan, Kim Kovalchick, MPH, Dept of Education; Mississippi, Stephanie N. Robinson, MS, Dept of Education; Missouri, Kevin Miller, MA, Dept of Elementary and Secondary Education; Montana, Susan Court, Office of Public Instruction; Nevada, Robinette Bacon, Dept of Education; New Hampshire, Mary Bubnis, MEd, Dept of Education; New Mexico, Kristine M. Meurer, PhD, Public Education Dept; New York, Owen M. Donovan, MSE, State Education Dept; North Carolina, Sarah Langer, MPH, Dept of Public Instruction; North Dakota, Andrea Peña, MA, Dept of Public Instruction; Ohio, Angela Smith, MSA, Dept of Health; Oklahoma, Tyler Whitehead, Dept of Health; Rhode Island, Donald K. Perry, MPA, Dept of Health; South Carolina, Elaine Maney, MPH, Dept of Education; South Dakota, April Hodges, Dept of Education; Tennessee, Jerry Swaim, MS, Dept of Education; Texas, Michelle L. Cook, MPH, Dept of State Health Services; Utah, Frank Wojtech, MS, State Office of Education; Vermont, Jennifer K. Hicks, Dept of Health; West Virginia, Rick Deem, Dept of Education; Wisconsin, Brian Weaver, MPH, Dept of Public Instruction; and Wyoming, Gerald M. Maas, PhD, Dept of Education.
Cities: Baltimore, Maryland, Patricia Brownlee, MS, Baltimore City Public School System; Boston, Massachusetts, Barbara A. Huscher, MEd, Boston Public Schools; Broward County, Florida, Patrick Chalmers, MS, Broward County Public Schools; Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina, Nancy Langenfeld, MS, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools; Chicago, Illinois, Vicki Pittman, MS, Chicago Public Schools; Dallas, Texas, Angelica Duran, LMSW, Dallas Independent School District; DeKalb County, Georgia, Shannon L. Williams, EdS, DeKalb County School System; Detroit, Michigan, Arlene Richardson, EdD, Detroit Public Schools; District of Columbia, Marc D. Clark, PhD, District of Columbia Public Schools; Hillsborough County, Florida, Lloyd Zimet, PhD, Hillsborough County Public Schools; Houston, Texas, Rose Haggerty, MEd, Houston Independent School District; Los Angeles, California, Ric Loya, Los Angeles Unified School District; Memphis, Tennessee, Patricia Bafford, MEd, Memphis City Schools; Miami-Dade County, Florida, Rodolfo Abella, PhD, Miami-Dade County Public Schools; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Brett A. Fuller, MEd, Milwaukee Public Schools; New York City, New York, Donna Eisenhower, PhD, New York City Dept of Health and Mental Hygiene; Orange County, Florida, Brenda Christopher-Muench, Orange County Public Schools; Palm Beach County, Florida, Dannette Fitzgerald, MS, School District of Palm Beach County; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Brian P. Daly, Temple University, College of Health Professions; San Bernardino, California, Charlene Davis-Long, San Bernardino City Unified School District; San Diego, California, Marge Kleinsmith-Hildebrand, MS, San Diego Unified School District; and San Francisco, California, Phong Pham, MA, San Francisco Unified School District.

Table 1

TABLE 1. Sample sizes, response rates, and demographic characteristics* — United States and selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk
Behavior Survey, 2007
Student Response rate (%) Sex (%) Grade (%) Race/Ethnicity (%)
Site sample size School Student Overall Female Male 9 10 11 12 White† Black† Hispanic Other§
National survey 14,041 81 84 68 49.5 50.5 29.0 26.2 23.4 21.3 60.3 15.1 16.9 7.7
State surveys
Alaska 1,318 88 68 60 48.6 51.4 27.8 26.2 23.8 22.0 58.7 2.1 4.3 34.9
Arizona 3,095 98 84 82 49.1 50.9 27.5 26.1 23.2 22.5 50.6 3.3 35.3 10.8
Arkansas 1,608 76 84 64 49.0 51.0 27.6 26.7 24.3 21.1 69.2 22.9 5.7 2.3
Connecticut 2,072 78 78 61 49.0 51.0 27.0 25.4 24.6 22.4 68.9 13.6 14.0 3.5
Delaware 2,627 100 81 81 48.5 51.5 31.5 26.2 21.8 20.2 53.3 27.1 10.3 9.3
Florida 4,523 85 72 61 49.4 50.6 29.8 26.3 23.4 20.2 49.2 23.3 22.7 4.8
Georgia 2,465 92 89 81 49.9 50.1 31.5 26.2 22.6 19.5 49.2 39.3 6.5 4.9
Hawaii 1,191 96 63 60 47.7 52.3 29.8 25.0 24.4 20.6 13.0 0.5 7.5 79.0
Idaho 1,440 79 84 66 48.4 51.6 26.9 25.6 24.2 22.8 84.4 0.4 11.4 3.7
Illinois 2,438 83 79 66 49.6 50.4 28.2 25.9 23.7 22.0 61.3 17.4 16.0 5.2
Indiana 2,331 75 84 63 49.4 50.6 28.5 26.0 23.8 21.5 81.0 11.4 4.8 2.8
Iowa 1,440 74 81 60 49.1 50.9 24.3 25.6 25.1 24.9 88.3 2.5 4.2 5.0
Kansas 1,733 83 92 76 48.5 51.5 26.8 25.6 24.4 22.8 76.5 8.0 9.8 5.7
Kentucky 3,595 69 87 60 49.2 50.8 30.2 25.9 22.5 21.2 86.6 9.9 1.7 1.8
Maine 1,324 77 78 60 48.8 51.2 26.3 25.3 24.2 23.9 94.2 0.7 2.2 2.9
Maryland 1,528 100 63 63 49.6 50.4 28.9 25.4 23.5 22.1 50.1 37.3 6.9 5.7
Massachusetts 3,131 87 85 73 49.3 50.7 27.5 25.3 24.4 22.5 72.8 8.5 12.5 6.2
Michigan 3,532 80 82 65 49.4 50.6 29.5 26.3 23.3 20.8 75.1 17.9 3.4 3.5
Mississippi 1,614 78 81 63 51.2 48.8 31.5 26.4 22.2 19.7 46.3 50.8 1.6 1.3
Missouri 1,561 77 83 64 49.3 50.7 28.3 25.6 23.6 22.4 77.9 17.4 1.9 2.7
Montana 4,030 94 81 76 48.8 51.2 27.0 25.3 24.5 22.8 85.7 0.3 2.2 11.9
Nevada 1,783 98 64 63 48.9 51.1 34.1 27.7 20.3 17.6 48.4 11.7 30.4 9.6
New Hampshire 1,638 84 81 68 49.0 51.0 27.2 25.0 24.6 22.7 93.7 0.7 2.7 2.9
New Mexico 2,638 92 65 60 49.5 50.5 30.3 27.3 22.6 19.4 32.8 1.4 50.7 15.1
New York 13,439 86 72 62 49.8 50.2 28.8 26.8 22.8 21.2 57.9 18.3 16.0 7.8
North Carolina 3,506 78 83 64 49.6 50.4 30.3 25.9 23.1 20.4 58.5 31.9 6.4 3.3
North Dakota 1,768 95 86 82 48.7 51.3 25.6 25.4 24.6 24.2 87.2 0.4 1.7 10.7
Ohio 2,527 75 81 61 49.2 50.8 28.3 25.5 23.6 22.3 76.3 11.9 5.6 6.3
Oklahoma 2,612 86 80 69 48.7 51.3 28.7 25.9 23.7 21.6 61.0 10.6 4.1 24.2
Rhode Island 2,210 88 75 66 49.8 50.2 28.0 25.9 24.0 21.6 70.9 8.7 16.7 3.7
South Carolina 1,241 76 87 66 49.4 50.6 33.0 26.7 20.4 19.7 53.2 40.9 3.4 2.5
South Dakota 1,611 92 87 80 49.1 50.9 27.2 25.8 23.9 22.8 82.8 0.5 2.0 14.6
Tennessee 2,069 85 81 69 49.3 50.7 29.3 26.4 23.5 20.5 70.9 24.4 2.7 2.0
Texas 3,389 77 86 66 49.0 51.0 31.2 25.8 22.6 20.4 42.0 14.8 39.4 3.7
Utah 1,976 92 69 63 48.7 51.3 25.5 24.9 24.8 23.3 84.2 0.4 10.0 5.5
Vermont 6,777 100 74 74 47.9 52.1 25.2 25.0 24.8 24.1 94.7 0.5 1.8 2.9
West Virginia 1,393 97 77 75 48.9 51.1 28.6 25.6 23.4 22.0 93.8 4.5 0.7 1.0
Wisconsin 2,094 86 85 73 48.6 51.4 25.6 24.7 25.2 24.1 80.2 9.3 5.4 5.0
Wyoming 2,244 87 83 72 47.7 52.3 26.4 27.2 23.6 22.7 86.3 0.9 8.1 4.7
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 1,927 83 70 63 52.4 47.6 36.9 25.8 19.4 17.2 6.8 90.4 1.2 1.6
Boston, MA 1,899 100 71 71 49.8 50.2 31.9 19.5 23.0 25.5 14.4 44.3 31.9 9.4
Broward County, FL 1,347 89 78 70 49.4 50.6 28.4 26.1 23.8 21.6 33.8 36.5 24.4 5.3
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 1,484 100 80 80 50.3 49.7 34.7 24.3 21.5 19.1 38.8 44.8 10.0 6.4
Chicago, IL 1,118 96 72 70 52.0 48.0 32.6 26.2 21.3 19.5 10.2 49.6 35.3 4.9
Dallas, TX 1,134 100 72 72 51.0 49.0 35.3 24.4 21.9 18.3 6.3 34.4 55.3 4.0
DeKalb County, GA 2,197 100 83 83 49.9 50.1 31.3 24.1 23.0 21.3 9.5 80.1 5.2 5.2
Detroit, MI 1,988 100 70 70 51.4 48.6 36.2 26.4 19.2 17.8 1.5 94.2 3.1 1.1
District of Columbia 1,732 96 62 60 50.5 49.5 28.7 29.0 24.6 17.3 1.7 84.2 10.4 3.7
Hillsborough County, FL 1,606 100 73 73 51.6 48.4 29.7 25.0 24.0 21.2 44.9 22.0 25.5 7.6
Houston, TX 1,828 93 69 64 49.9 50.1 33.3 25.5 21.1 19.8 11.7 30.7 53.5 4.1
Los Angeles, CA 1,118 100 60 60 48.8 51.2 33.9 26.7 23.0 16.3 8.6 12.0 71.9 7.6
Memphis, TN 1,172 97 77 75 51.3 48.7 31.6 25.9 22.3 20.2 8.6 87.4 1.7 2.3
Miami-Dade County, FL 2,305 100 90 90 49.1 50.9 28.1 27.7 22.4 21.1 9.6 27.4 60.5 2.5
Milwaukee, WI 1,892 100 70 70 50.2 49.8 34.0 23.6 24.3 17.8 14.2 63.4 17.1 5.2
New York City, NY 9,080 98 70 68 51.4 48.6 33.3 29.1 19.7 17.8 13.8 35.6 34.2 16.4
Orange County, FL 1,226 100 82 82 50.1 49.9 27.3 26.8 23.8 21.5 37.6 26.2 29.6 6.6
Palm Beach County, FL 1,839 91 72 66 49.9 50.1 27.4 24.7 23.4 21.5 46.2 27.1 20.3 6.5
Philadelphia, PA 2,450 94 76 71 56.1 43.9 32.7 25.5 23.1 18.5 12.9 54.2 18.4 14.6
San Bernardino, CA 1,365 100 82 82 50.1 49.9 45.3 23.1 17.8 13.7 14.6 18.6 61.7 5.1
San Diego, CA 1,542 91 89 80 48.8 51.2 30.1 27.6 22.8 19.5 26.2 13.4 41.4 19.0
San Francisco, CA 2,587 100 77 77 48.9 51.1 28.3 25.3 22.7 23.5 8.0 9.4 18.5 64.1
* Weighted population estimates for the United States and each site.
† Non-Hispanic.
§ American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, and multiple race (non-Hispanic).
Return to top.
Figure

FIGURE. State and local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys — United States, 2007
Return to top.
Table 2

TABLE 2. Percentage of high school students who rarely or never wore a seat belt* or a bicycle helmet,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and
grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Rarely or never wore a seat belt Rarely or never wore a bicycle helmet
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 7.3 5.2–10.1 13.0 9.5–17.6 10.1 7.4–13.8 79.5 75.5–83.0 85.6 82.1–88.5 82.9 79.3–85.9
Blackĥ 10.0 7.6–13.1 14.7 11.4–18.7 12.4 10.0–15.4 93.0 90.4–94.9 95.0 93.3–96.3 94.2 92.6–95.5
Hispanic 11.4 7.8–16.3 14.3 11.2–18.2 12.9 9.7–17.0 86.6 81.8–90.3 90.3 87.9–92.2 88.7 85.9–91.0
Grade
9 9.2 7.2–11.7 15.1 11.8–19.0 12.3 9.9–15.1 80.1 75.8–83.9 86.4 82.8–89.4 83.7 80.2–86.6
10 8.3 5.9–11.5 13.2 10.7–16.3 10.8 8.5–13.5 83.0 78.3–86.9 88.1 85.0–90.7 85.9 82.8–88.5
11 8.9 6.1–12.8 12.2 9.2–16.1 10.6 7.9–14.1 83.0 78.0–87.1 88.1 84.4–90.9 85.9 82.2–88.8
12 7.3 5.5–9.6 13.8 10.4–18.1 10.5 8.2–13.4 83.8 78.1–88.3 86.9 81.9–90.7 85.5 81.5–88.8
Total 8.5 6.7–10.7 13.6 10.9–16.9 11.1 8.9–13.8 82.2 79.0–85.0 87.4 84.6–89.7 85.1 82.3–87.6
* When riding in a car driven by someone else.
†Among the 66.8% of students nationwide who had ridden a bicycle during the 12 months before the survey.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
Return to top.
Table 3

TABLE 3. Percentage of high school students who rarely or never wore a seat belt* or a bicycle helmet,† by sex — selected U.S.
sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Rarely or never wore a seat belt Rarely or never wore a bicycle helmet
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 5.0 3.2–7.8 8.8 6.4–12.2 7.0 5.4–9.1 73.1 67.0–78.4 78.2 73.4–82.4 76.0 72.0–79.6
Arizona 14.6 11.6–18.2 20.1 17.2–23.3 17.4 14.7–20.5 —ĥ — — — — —
Arkansas 13.1 9.4–17.8 20.8 16.2–26.3 17.0 13.6–21.0 88.2 83.5–91.7 91.7 87.1–94.7 90.2 86.8–92.9
Connecticut 7.5 5.8–9.7 10.6 8.0–14.0 9.1 7.2–11.5 75.0 69.2–80.0 80.7 76.1–84.7 78.3 74.2–81.8
Delaware 5.4 4.2–7.1 9.5 7.8–11.6 7.5 6.3–8.8 86.7 83.6–89.3 89.9 87.2–92.1 88.5 86.4–90.4
Florida 10.8 9.5–12.3 14.3 12.3–16.5 12.7 11.3–14.2 88.9 86.4–91.0 90.6 88.8–92.1 89.8 88.1–91.2
Georgia 6.5 5.1–8.3 11.0 8.5–14.1 8.7 6.9–10.9 87.7 83.2–91.1 90.0 85.9–93.0 88.8 85.3–91.5
Hawaii — — — — — — 85.9 81.2–89.5 86.2 81.6–89.8 86.1 82.1–89.4
Idaho 6.9 4.7–10.0 14.0 11.2–17.3 10.8 8.7–13.3 85.5 79.3–90.1 84.0 79.4–87.7 84.7 79.9–88.5
Illinois 5.3 3.6–7.7 8.7 6.7–11.2 7.0 5.2–9.2 93.6 89.7–96.1 93.4 90.4–95.6 93.5 90.9–95.4
Indiana 5.6 4.4–7.0 12.8 10.8–15.2 9.2 7.9–10.8 91.8 88.9–94.0 94.5 92.7–95.9 93.3 91.5–94.7
Iowa 4.1 2.8–6.1 9.3 6.4–13.5 6.8 5.2–8.8 89.8 85.2–93.2 91.7 85.6–95.3 90.7 85.6–94.2
Kansas 9.5 7.0–12.9 20.0 16.7–23.8 15.0 12.6–17.8 85.4 79.2–90.1 90.9 87.5–93.5 88.6 84.8–91.6
Kentucky 13.2 11.0–15.7 21.8 19.0–24.9 17.6 15.4–20.0 — — — — — —
Maine 6.9 5.0–9.6 15.3 12.2–19.1 11.2 9.4–13.4 59.0 50.3–67.3 70.2 62.7–76.8 65.8 58.8–72.1
Maryland 7.4 5.0–10.7 11.4 8.7–15.0 9.5 7.3–12.4 82.7 77.2–87.1 86.6 80.6–90.9 85.0 80.1–88.8
Massachusetts 11.8 9.5–14.6 17.3 14.6–20.4 14.7 12.4–17.3 — — — — — —
Michigan 4.6 3.1–6.7 7.7 6.3–9.5 6.2 5.0–7.8 93.0 91.1–94.5 91.9 89.6–93.7 92.3 90.7–93.6
Mississippi 13.8 10.5–18.1 25.1 20.4–30.4 19.4 15.9–23.5 94.4 91.4–96.5 95.2 92.6–96.9 94.8 92.9–96.2
Missouri 9.8 6.8–14.0 13.8 11.1–17.0 11.8 9.2–15.1 85.4 78.7–90.2 84.6 78.3–89.3 84.8 80.1–88.5
Montana 9.7 8.0–11.8 18.5 15.8–21.5 14.2 12.4–16.3 83.8 80.9–86.3 83.9 81.2–86.2 83.8 81.5–85.8
Nevada 8.4 6.6–10.7 12.1 9.2–15.7 10.3 8.2–12.8 — — — — — —
New Hampshire 8.3 6.3–10.9 15.0 11.8–18.9 11.7 9.5–14.4 55.7 50.4–60.9 73.9 69.3–78.1 66.2 62.0–70.2
New Mexico 6.3 4.8–8.3 11.3 9.8–13.0 8.9 7.5–10.5 85.9 78.0–91.3 87.8 78.5–93.5 87.0 78.8–92.4
New York 8.4 6.7–10.5 9.7 7.4–12.6 9.1 7.3–11.3 79.1 74.2–83.4 85.9 82.7–88.7 83.0 79.4–86.0
North Carolina 5.2 3.7–7.1 10.4 8.7–12.5 7.9 6.4–9.6 86.1 82.5–89.1 90.6 88.2–92.6 88.8 86.2–91.0
North Dakota 11.5 9.6–13.8 18.4 15.4–21.8 15.0 13.0–17.3 — — — — — —
Ohio 10.9 8.9–13.2 17.5 14.1–21.4 14.3 12.1–16.9 — — — — — —
Oklahoma 7.1 5.5–9.2 15.2 11.5–19.9 11.2 8.8–14.3 92.8 88.7–95.5 93.7 91.1–95.6 93.3 90.7–95.2
Rhode Island 10.7 7.7–14.7 16.5 12.9–20.8 13.7 11.1–16.6 74.4 69.0–79.2 84.7 78.2–89.5 80.4 74.8–84.9
South Carolina 7.8 5.6–10.8 11.4 8.8–14.6 9.7 7.4–12.5 92.2 85.1–96.1 93.5 90.7–95.5 92.8 90.1–94.8
South Dakota 13.0 9.4–17.8 20.7 16.1–26.2 17.0 13.2–21.5 — — — — — —
Tennessee 8.8 6.8–11.2 13.7 10.6–17.4 11.2 9.3–13.5 87.0 82.7–90.3 90.0 86.6–92.6 88.6 85.5–91.1
Texas 5.7 4.5–7.2 8.4 6.7–10.4 7.0 5.8–8.6 90.8 87.6–93.2 93.4 90.7–95.3 92.3 89.6–94.3
Utah 5.2 3.4–8.0 6.7 4.4–10.0 6.0 4.8–7.4 79.8 74.7–84.1 78.0 72.4–82.8 78.9 75.2–82.2
Vermont 6.1 4.6–7.9 10.4 7.9–13.7 8.4 6.6–10.8 50.3 36.9–63.7 62.5 50.7–73.1 57.6 45.1–69.1
West Virginia 13.5 10.8–16.6 19.6 14.7–25.5 16.6 13.3–20.5 85.1 80.1–89.0 85.5 79.8–89.9 85.3 80.9–88.8
Wisconsin 9.3 7.2–11.8 17.1 13.2–21.8 13.3 10.6–16.6 88.2 84.3–91.3 88.8 85.5–91.4 88.5 85.5–91.0
Wyoming 11.2 9.1–13.7 19.0 16.4–21.8 15.3 13.4–17.4 78.6 72.9–83.4 83.9 80.2–86.9 81.5 77.8–84.8
Median 8.3 13.9 11.2 85.9 88.3 87.8
Range 4.1–14.6 6.7–25.1 6.0–19.4 50.3–94.4 62.5–95.2 57.6–94.8
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 7.2 5.8–9.1 12.5 10.0–15.4 9.9 8.4–11.6 91.6 88.8–93.7 95.8 93.4–97.4 94.0 92.1–95.5
Boston, MA 18.2 15.1–21.7 22.3 19.8–25.1 20.4 18.4–22.6 — — — — — —
Broward County, FL 8.7 6.3–11.9 13.1 10.2–16.5 11.0 9.1–13.3 87.5 82.5–91.2 90.2 86.3–93.0 88.8 85.2–91.6
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 6.6 4.4–9.8 10.8 8.3–14.0 8.7 6.8–11.1 77.4 72.0–82.0 84.7 80.9–87.8 81.9 78.2–85.0
Chicago, IL 7.9 5.9–10.5 12.2 9.2–16.0 9.9 8.3–11.9 93.1 88.9–95.8 95.1 90.4–97.6 94.1 91.0–96.2
Dallas, TX 4.9 3.3–7.4 12.5 8.7–17.5 8.6 6.3–11.7 91.1 86.8–94.1 94.7 91.3–96.9 93.2 90.5–95.2
DeKalb County, GA 5.4 4.2–6.8 8.2 6.5–10.2 6.8 5.7–8.0 84.3 80.3–87.7 89.2 86.3–91.5 87.3 85.0–89.3
Detroit, MI 4.4 3.2–6.0 9.1 7.4–11.2 6.7 5.6–8.0 96.1 93.9–97.5 96.7 94.6–98.0 96.4 94.8–97.5
District of Columbia 9.9 7.8–12.5 12.7 10.0–16.1 11.4 9.7–13.4 87.6 83.5–90.7 86.6 82.0–90.2 86.3 82.8–89.1
Hillsborough County, FL 6.6 4.8–9.1 9.2 6.5–12.8 7.8 5.9–10.4 90.9 86.0–94.2 93.0 89.1–95.5 92.0 88.9–94.3
Houston, TX 7.9 6.4–9.8 10.6 8.6–13.1 9.3 8.1–10.7 87.8 83.6–91.0 89.0 86.2–91.4 88.5 86.4–90.3
Los Angeles, CA 4.3 2.0–9.2 7.2 5.3–9.8 5.8 3.9–8.7 79.3 71.8–85.2 87.6 83.2–91.0 84.3 81.1–87.1
Memphis, TN 4.4 2.7–7.1 8.1 5.9–11.0 6.3 4.8–8.2 92.2 88.5–94.8 91.3 87.8–93.9 91.7 89.5–93.6
Miami-Dade County, FL 10.9 8.7–13.4 15.2 12.9–17.8 13.3 11.7–15.1 90.4 87.3–92.9 89.0 85.3–91.9 89.6 86.5–92.0
Milwaukee, WI 21.1 18.6–23.9 29.4 25.7–33.4 25.1 22.9–27.4 93.3 90.6–95.3 92.3 89.6–94.3 92.8 90.9–94.3
New York City, NY 12.9 11.4–14.6 12.1 10.3–14.1 12.5 11.1–14.0 87.3 84.8–89.5 89.8 87.8–91.5 88.7 86.9–90.3
Orange County, FL 7.5 5.7–9.8 13.5 10.7–16.9 10.5 8.8–12.5 83.7 78.5–87.7 91.4 88.4–93.6 87.8 84.6–90.4
Palm Beach County, FL 6.9 5.2–9.2 13.2 10.6–16.2 10.1 8.3–12.2 89.3 86.3–91.7 91.4 88.2–93.8 90.4 87.9–92.4
Philadelphia, PA 20.9 18.7–23.3 29.6 26.1–33.2 24.8 22.4–27.3 92.0 88.3–94.6 91.9 86.9–95.1 92.0 88.3–94.5
San Bernardino, CA 3.7 2.4–5.4 7.7 5.6–10.5 5.7 4.3–7.4 85.6 79.0–90.4 89.6 86.5–92.0 87.9 84.3–90.8
San Diego, CA 4.6 3.1–6.7 6.7 5.0–9.1 5.6 4.3–7.3 70.8 64.5–76.4 77.7 72.0–82.5 75.1 70.4–79.3
San Francisco, CA 6.0 4.8–7.5 7.4 5.9–9.2 6.7 5.6–7.9 62.3 56.1–68.2 74.7 70.8–78.2 69.7 65.9–73.3
Median 7.0 12.1 9.6 87.8 90.2 88.8
Range 3.7–21.1 6.7–29.6 5.6–25.1 62.3–96.1 74.7–96.7 69.7–96.4
* When riding in a car driven by someone else.
† Among students who had ridden a bicycle during the 12 months before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 4

TABLE 4. Percentage of high school students who rarely or never wore a motorcycle helmet,* by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade —
United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 19.2 14.1–25.5 30.8 25.6–36.6 26.3 21.6–31.6
Black§ 36.0 25.6–47.8 52.4 45.6–59.2 46.0 38.1–54.2
Hispanic 49.6 40.2–59.0 52.4 45.0–59.7 51.3 44.7–57.9
Grade
9 29.8 22.9–37.7 41.4 35.3–47.8 37.6 31.9–43.6
10 28.2 21.7–35.8 34.7 28.9–41.1 32.3 27.6–37.4
11 24.9 17.1–34.8 38.1 31.5–45.1 32.7 26.9–39.1
12 24.8 17.1–34.5 36.5 29.4–44.3 31.4 25.2–38.4
Total 27.1 22.3–32.5 38.1 33.7–42.6 33.9 29.8–38.3
* Among the 24.3% of students nationwide who had ridden a motorcycle during the 12 months before the survey.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
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Table 5

TABLE 5. Percentage of high school students who rode in a car or other vehicle driven by someone who had been drinking alcohol*
and who drove a car or other vehicle when they had been drinking alcohol,* by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States,
Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Rode with a driver who had been drinking alcohol Drove when drinking alcohol
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 28.0 24.9–31.3 27.8 25.1–30.6 27.9 25.4–30.6 9.3 7.6–11.2 13.9 12.1–15.9 11.6 10.2–13.2
Black§ 26.9 23.5–30.6 28.1 23.6–33.0 27.4 23.7–31.5 3.9 2.7–5.8 7.5 5.3–10.5 5.7 4.0–7.9
Hispanic 35.1 31.9–38.4 36.0 32.0–40.2 35.5 32.3–38.8 7.7 6.0–9.7 13.0 10.1–16.5 10.3 8.4–12.5
Grade
9 27.6 23.4–32.3 27.6 24.7–30.7 27.6 25.0–30.4 4.1 2.9–5.8 6.8 5.3–8.6 5.5 4.4–6.9
10 30.4 26.5–34.6 27.1 24.5–29.9 28.7 26.3–31.3 7.3 5.3–10.1 10.0 8.1–12.3 8.7 7.1–10.5
11 26.8 24.2–29.5 31.4 28.3–34.7 29.2 26.6–31.9 9.1 7.1–11.6 13.7 11.2–16.8 11.5 10.0–13.2
12 30.5 27.1–34.2 32.5 27.7–37.8 31.5 27.9–35.4 13.1 10.1–16.8 23.6 19.7–28.1 18.3 15.7–21.2
Total 28.8 26.3–31.4 29.5 27.5–31.6 29.1 27.2–31.2 8.1 6.8–9.7 12.8 11.3–14.5 10.5 9.3–11.9
* One or more times during the 30 days before the survey.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
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Table 6

TABLE 6. Percentage of high school students who rode in a car or other vehicle driven by someone who had been drinking alcohol*
and who drove a car or other vehicle when they had been drinking alcohol,* by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 2007
Rode with a driver who had been drinking alcohol Drove when drinking alcohol
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 25.4 21.7–29.4 21.5 18.2–25.2 23.5 20.6–26.8 7.8 5.3–11.2 11.3 8.5–15.0 9.7 7.4–12.6
Arizona 29.5 26.2–32.9 32.7 29.4–36.2 31.2 28.6–33.8 9.7 8.1–11.6 14.8 12.3–17.8 12.3 10.5–14.4
Arkansas 30.0 25.6–34.8 27.2 21.8–33.3 28.5 24.4–33.0 8.5 6.0–12.0 13.8 10.9–17.2 11.1 8.9–13.8
Connecticut 27.4 24.4–30.5 27.0 24.4–29.9 27.3 25.2–29.5 8.4 6.9–10.1 11.8 9.2–15.0 10.2 8.4–12.2
Delaware 28.6 25.6–31.7 27.6 24.8–30.6 28.4 26.3–30.6 9.2 7.4–11.4 11.5 9.3–14.0 10.4 8.8–12.3
Florida 30.1 27.7–32.6 26.4 24.3–28.6 28.2 26.4–30.1 8.8 7.2–10.7 11.2 9.5–13.1 10.0 8.7–11.6
Georgia 23.0 19.8–26.5 24.7 21.7–27.9 23.9 21.3–26.8 7.5 5.4–10.3 10.6 7.9–14.2 9.1 7.0–11.7
Hawaii 33.7 28.7–39.0 34.1 29.2–39.4 33.9 30.2–37.8 7.9 5.7–10.9 8.1 4.6–13.7 8.0 5.9–10.8
Idaho 32.1 26.9–37.7 27.8 23.4–32.8 30.0 26.7–33.5 12.1 9.3–15.6 15.2 11.9–19.2 13.8 11.2–16.8
Illinois 31.4 27.1–36.0 25.9 22.6–29.6 28.6 25.7–31.7 9.9 7.6–12.8 12.8 9.7–16.8 11.3 9.1–14.0
Indiana 24.2 20.7–28.1 27.8 24.3–31.7 26.4 23.2–29.8 8.6 6.2–11.9 15.0 11.3–19.7 11.9 9.2–15.4
Iowa 28.1 24.7–31.6 25.1 20.3–30.5 26.5 23.0–30.4 11.3 8.8–14.2 13.9 9.2–20.5 12.6 9.5–16.5
Kansas 32.7 28.3–37.4 28.7 24.4–33.5 30.7 27.2–34.4 13.7 10.7–17.5 16.9 14.2–20.0 15.3 13.2–17.6
Kentucky 19.7 17.4–22.3 20.5 17.8–23.5 20.3 18.2–22.7 6.4 5.2–7.9 10.0 7.8–12.8 8.4 7.0–10.0
Maine 21.6 17.6–26.2 21.9 17.5–26.9 21.8 18.1–26.1 6.5 4.2–9.9 11.1 8.4–14.5 8.8 6.7–11.6
Maryland 31.0 27.0–35.3 26.7 21.7–32.5 28.9 25.3–32.7 7.2 4.7–10.8 9.5 6.7–13.3 8.5 6.2–11.4
Massachusetts 26.1 23.1–29.4 25.4 22.9–28.1 25.8 23.3–28.4 9.4 7.5–11.8 11.7 9.4–14.4 10.6 8.8–12.6
Michigan 28.3 23.9–33.1 26.7 23.5–30.3 27.6 24.3–31.1 8.3 6.6–10.3 9.8 7.1–13.3 9.1 7.2–11.6
Mississippi 28.9 24.8–33.2 31.9 27.8–36.4 30.5 28.1–33.0 8.1 6.4–10.2 15.3 11.5–20.0 11.8 9.7–14.2
Missouri 29.7 24.7–35.3 25.5 21.8–29.6 27.8 24.0–32.0 12.1 9.2–15.8 13.3 10.7–16.5 12.8 10.4–15.7
Montana 34.5 31.3–37.8 31.5 28.7–34.4 32.9 30.3–35.5 14.9 12.5–17.7 17.0 14.9–19.4 16.0 14.0–18.1
Nevada 24.3 21.5–27.3 22.4 19.0–26.2 23.4 20.9–26.1 8.7 6.1–12.2 8.6 6.2–12.0 8.7 6.7–11.2
New Hampshire 26.1 23.1–29.4 24.7 21.5–28.2 25.4 23.0–28.1 10.0 7.9–12.7 13.7 11.0–16.9 11.9 9.9–14.3
New Mexico 33.0 27.7–38.8 28.9 25.6–32.5 31.2 27.8–34.7 11.5 8.8–14.9 13.4 10.9–16.4 12.5 10.5–14.9
New York —§ — — — — — 5.6 4.4–7.1 8.5 7.1–10.0 7.1 6.1–8.2
North Carolina 23.6 21.0–26.4 25.8 23.5–28.1 24.7 22.6–27.0 7.2 5.9–8.8 11.1 8.9–13.8 9.2 7.7–11.0
North Dakota 34.1 30.1–38.3 29.0 25.8–32.4 31.5 28.8–34.4 18.4 15.3–21.9 18.9 15.4–22.9 18.7 16.0–21.7
Ohio 21.7 19.1–24.6 23.6 20.7–26.7 22.8 20.7–25.0 7.9 6.1–10.1 10.9 9.0–13.0 9.5 8.0–11.2
Oklahoma 26.0 22.4–30.1 27.5 24.1–31.2 26.8 23.8–30.1 10.0 8.1–12.3 16.5 13.2–20.4 13.3 11.1–15.9
Rhode Island 26.4 22.6–30.6 28.5 24.6–32.9 27.5 24.5–30.8 7.4 5.2–10.4 12.3 9.9–15.2 9.8 8.5–11.4
South Carolina 25.6 21.3–30.5 26.7 22.9–30.9 26.3 23.2–29.8 8.3 5.5–12.3 11.2 7.9–15.6 9.9 7.2–13.5
South Dakota 24.3 21.0–27.9 24.0 20.9–27.4 24.3 22.1–26.5 13.2 10.3–16.7 12.9 10.7–15.6 13.0 10.9–15.6
Tennessee 24.8 22.1–27.7 23.4 20.3–26.9 24.2 21.9–26.7 6.4 4.6–8.7 10.6 7.8–14.2 8.5 6.5–11.1
Texas 35.6 31.7–39.7 35.5 32.3–38.9 35.6 32.6–38.7 10.8 9.0–12.8 18.5 15.2–22.3 14.7 12.3–17.4
Utah 14.1 10.6–18.4 14.8 12.1–17.9 14.8 12.2–17.9 3.5 2.3–5.4 5.8 3.7–9.1 4.7 3.6–6.1
Vermont 22.5 20.5–24.5 24.6 22.2–27.1 23.6 21.7–25.6 6.5 6.2–6.9 11.6 10.0–13.4 9.2 8.4–10.1
West Virginia 22.0 18.0–26.5 25.3 20.5–30.7 23.8 20.2–27.8 6.8 4.4–10.4 12.8 9.8–16.6 10.0 8.0–12.3
Wisconsin 33.7 30.2–37.4 29.4 26.8–32.1 31.5 29.3–33.8 11.9 9.5–14.9 16.5 13.9–19.5 14.3 12.4–16.3
Wyoming 31.1 28.2–34.1 27.5 24.9–30.4 29.4 27.3–31.6 14.1 11.9–16.6 16.8 14.5–19.4 15.6 13.8–17.5
Median 27.7 26.7 27.4 8.6 12.3 10.4
Range 14.1–35.6 14.8–35.5 14.8–35.6 3.5–18.4 5.8–18.9 4.7–18.7
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 20.3 17.5–23.3 22.5 19.9–25.4 21.3 19.4–23.4 2.3 1.5–3.6 6.0 4.5–7.9 4.1 3.2–5.2
Boston, MA 23.4 20.6–26.4 22.4 19.2–25.9 23.1 20.8–25.5 3.4 2.3–5.0 7.1 5.0–9.9 5.2 4.1–6.7
Broward County, FL 24.2 20.3–28.7 24.1 20.8–27.8 24.1 21.2–27.3 5.6 3.6–8.6 12.8 9.6–16.9 9.2 7.1–11.8
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 21.8 18.6–25.2 22.7 19.3–26.6 22.4 19.8–25.2 4.4 3.2–6.2 8.4 6.0–11.7 6.5 4.9–8.6
Chicago, IL 31.5 26.5–36.9 26.9 20.9–33.8 29.5 25.6–33.8 6.5 4.2–9.8 8.5 5.6–12.6 7.6 5.2–10.9
Dallas, TX 40.2 35.0–45.6 36.4 30.4–42.9 38.4 34.6–42.2 8.9 6.4–12.4 11.9 8.8–16.1 10.5 8.1–13.4
DeKalb County, GA 20.9 18.6–23.4 20.8 18.0–23.8 21.0 19.0–23.0 3.1 2.0–4.6 6.1 4.6–8.1 4.6 3.6–5.9
Detroit, MI 31.2 28.1–34.6 30.9 27.0–35.0 31.1 28.6–33.6 3.0 2.1–4.2 5.0 3.4–7.3 4.0 3.0–5.3
District of Columbia 27.9 24.5–31.6 27.2 23.5–31.2 28.5 25.8–31.4 4.2 2.8–6.3 8.6 6.2–12.0 6.3 4.8–8.2
Hillsborough County, FL 26.7 22.0–32.1 26.8 22.9–31.2 26.9 23.4–30.7 8.4 6.3–11.2 13.2 9.9–17.4 10.8 8.9–13.1
Houston, TX 33.9 30.3–37.7 36.5 32.4–40.8 35.2 32.3–38.2 6.2 4.5–8.6 12.9 10.1–16.4 9.6 7.6–12.0
Los Angeles, CA 29.6 22.6–37.7 30.4 24.0–37.6 29.9 25.5–34.7 5.7 3.1–10.2 9.8 6.6–14.2 7.8 5.0–12.0
Memphis, TN 21.6 18.3–25.4 23.6 18.8–29.1 22.7 19.4–26.3 4.4 2.8–6.7 5.1 3.6–7.4 4.7 3.3–6.6
Miami-Dade County, FL 26.5 23.6–29.7 26.2 23.6–29.1 26.5 24.3–28.7 6.8 5.5–8.4 9.9 8.2–11.8 8.6 7.4–10.0
Milwaukee, WI 29.2 25.0–33.7 30.3 26.5–34.5 29.9 27.2–32.7 4.6 3.1–6.7 8.0 5.9–10.8 6.4 5.0–8.0
New York City, NY — — — — — — 1.7 1.2–2.4 4.1 3.2–5.1 2.8 2.4–3.4
Orange County, FL 27.5 23.4–32.0 26.6 22.8–30.8 27.0 24.2–29.9 8.4 5.9–11.9 10.1 7.2–13.9 9.2 7.1–11.8
Palm Beach County, FL 30.0 26.0–34.3 29.0 25.1–33.2 29.5 26.1–33.0 11.1 8.4–14.5 14.8 11.8–18.5 12.9 10.6–15.7
Philadelphia, PA 20.7 18.4–23.3 24.3 21.6–27.3 22.4 20.5–24.4 3.5 2.5–4.7 6.0 4.5–8.0 4.6 3.8–5.6
San Bernardino, CA 28.9 25.1–33.0 26.2 22.6–30.1 27.5 25.2–30.0 4.1 2.8–6.0 9.6 7.2–12.5 6.8 5.3–8.7
San Diego, CA 27.8 23.4–32.6 27.6 23.8–31.8 27.7 24.5–31.2 6.8 4.8–9.5 11.3 8.6–14.9 9.1 7.2–11.4
San Francisco, CA 18.4 16.0–21.0 17.6 15.5–20.0 18.0 16.3–20.0 2.1 1.3–3.4 3.4 2.5–4.5 2.8 2.2–3.7
Median 27.5 26.6 27.0 4.5 8.5 6.6
Range 18.4–40.2 17.6–36.5 18.0–38.4 1.7–11.1 3.4–14.8 2.8–12.9
* One or more times during the 30 days before the survey.
† 95% confidence interval.
§ Not available.
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Table 7

TABLE 7. Percentage of high school students who carried a weapon*† and who carried a gun,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade —
United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Carried a weapon Carried a gun
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 6.1 4.9–7.6 30.3 26.4–34.6 18.2 15.8–21.0 0.8 0.5–1.5 7.8 6.2–9.6 4.3 3.4–5.4
Blackĥ 10.0 7.7–12.9 24.6 22.0–27.3 17.2 15.2–19.4 1.3 0.8–2.3 11.2 8.7–14.3 6.2 4.8–7.9
Hispanic 9.0 7.1–11.3 28.2 24.7–32.1 18.5 16.2–21.1 2.1 1.4–3.3 10.4 8.5–12.7 6.2 5.2–7.5
Grade
9 8.9 7.1–11.1 31.0 26.8–35.6 20.1 17.4–23.2 1.4 0.9–2.1 8.9 7.1–11.0 5.2 4.2–6.5
10 8.1 6.2–10.6 29.3 25.4–33.5 18.8 16.4–21.3 1.1 0.6–2.0 9.8 7.8–12.2 5.5 4.4–6.8
11 6.0 4.7–7.6 27.7 24.0–31.6 16.7 14.6–19.0 1.2 0.6–2.2 8.1 6.2–10.5 4.6 3.5–5.9
12 6.2 4.7–8.2 25.0 21.3–29.1 15.5 13.0–18.2 0.9 0.5–1.7 9.2 7.1–11.9 5.0 3.9–6.5
Total 7.5 6.3–8.9 28.5 25.8–31.4 18.0 16.3–19.8 1.2 0.9–1.7 9.0 7.8–10.5 5.2 4.4–6.0
* For example, a gun, knife, or club.
†On at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 8

TABLE 8. Percentage of high school students who carried a weapon*† and who carried a gun,† by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth
Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Carried a weapon Carried a gun
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 9.4 7.2–12.1 38.4 33.7–43.2 24.4 21.3–27.7 2.6 1.5–4.5 13.5 10.6–16.9 8.3 6.5–10.4
Arizona 11.3 9.5–13.3 29.4 27.0–32.0 20.5 18.7–22.4 2.2 1.6–2.9 10.9 9.6–12.3 6.6 5.8–7.5
Arkansas 8.0 5.8–10.9 33.4 28.5–38.7 20.7 18.0–23.6 2.5 1.4–4.3 11.5 8.4–15.5 7.0 5.3–9.2
Connecticut 8.2 6.1–11.0 25.8 21.1–31.0 17.2 14.0–21.1 —ĥ — — — — —
Delaware 8.0 6.4–10.0 25.5 22.6–28.6 17.1 15.2–19.2 1.5 0.9–2.4 10.4 8.7–12.4 6.2 5.1–7.4
Florida 8.0 6.5–9.9 27.7 25.3–30.3 18.0 16.2–19.9 2.4 1.7–3.5 10.7 9.3–12.2 6.6 5.7–7.6
Georgia 9.2 7.2–11.6 29.9 26.4–33.7 19.5 17.5–21.5 2.3 1.3–3.9 10.7 8.8–13.0 6.5 5.5–7.7
Hawaii 7.4 5.3–10.2 21.6 16.7–27.3 14.8 11.9–18.3 — — — — — —
Idaho 9.3 6.8–12.5 37.3 32.9–42.0 23.6 21.0–26.5 2.8 1.8–4.4 17.4 14.2–21.1 10.3 8.6–12.3
Illinois 6.8 4.8–9.6 21.7 18.8–25.0 14.3 12.3–16.5 1.5 0.9–2.5 7.5 5.8–9.7 4.5 3.6–5.7
Indiana 8.2 6.9–9.8 32.6 29.8–35.6 20.9 19.3–22.6 2.0 1.4–2.8 15.6 13.6–17.8 9.1 7.7–10.7
Iowa 3.6 2.2–5.9 21.7 18.3–25.7 12.8 10.6–15.4 0.6 0.2–1.7 7.1 5.1–9.6 3.9 2.7–5.5
Kansas 6.0 4.5–8.0 30.1 26.3–34.1 18.4 16.1–21.0 1.5 0.9–2.5 13.2 10.8–16.0 7.7 6.4–9.1
Kentucky 9.0 7.5–10.7 39.4 35.9–43.1 24.4 22.3–26.7 — — — — — —
Maine 6.5 5.1–8.2 23.0 17.5–29.5 15.0 12.1–18.5 1.9 0.9–4.0 7.1 5.3–9.4 4.6 3.5–6.2
Maryland 10.9 8.1–14.5 27.7 23.4–32.4 19.3 16.3–22.7 1.8 1.0–3.1 8.7 6.9–11.1 5.2 4.1–6.7
Massachusetts 5.4 4.3–6.9 24.3 21.3–27.6 14.9 13.2–16.8 0.7 0.4–1.2 6.1 4.4–8.3 3.5 2.6–4.7
Michigan 8.0 6.0–10.7 27.4 23.7–31.3 17.9 15.4–20.6 1.9 1.2–2.9 8.9 6.7–11.9 5.6 4.3–7.3
Mississippi 7.2 5.3–9.6 28.4 23.5–33.7 17.3 14.7–20.3 1.5 0.7–3.2 12.6 9.4–16.8 7.0 5.7–8.5
Missouri 7.5 4.9–11.4 29.4 24.7–34.6 18.6 15.6–22.1 1.5 0.9–2.5 10.7 8.2–13.8 6.2 4.7–8.0
Montana 8.8 7.3–10.6 35.2 33.2–37.3 22.1 20.6–23.6 2.1 1.6–2.7 13.4 11.8–15.1 7.8 6.9–8.8
Nevada 7.4 5.7–9.7 21.2 18.0–24.8 14.5 12.5–16.8 — — — — — —
New Hampshire 6.2 4.6–8.4 29.7 25.6–34.3 18.1 15.4–21.2 1.4 0.8–2.4 8.5 6.6–10.8 5.0 3.9–6.4
New Mexico 14.4 12.2–16.9 40.4 37.5–43.4 27.5 24.9–30.2 5.3 3.5–8.0 17.9 14.5–22.0 11.7 9.5–14.3
New York 6.5 5.0–8.5 21.8 19.8–24.0 14.2 12.8–15.8 1.3 0.8–2.2 8.0 6.3–10.1 4.6 3.6–5.9
North Carolina 9.8 7.8–12.2 32.4 29.1–35.9 21.2 18.9–23.7 — — — — — —
North Dakota — — — — — — — — — — — —
Ohio 6.4 4.9–8.2 26.5 22.4–31.1 16.6 14.0–19.7 1.5 0.9–2.4 7.3 5.3–10.0 4.5 3.4–5.8
Oklahoma 6.9 5.2–9.0 37.0 31.9–42.4 22.3 19.2–25.8 1.4 0.9–2.2 13.5 10.5–17.3 7.6 6.0–9.7
Rhode Island 5.1 3.7–7.0 18.7 16.6–21.1 12.0 10.5–13.6 — — — — — —
South Carolina 11.4 8.1–15.8 28.1 23.4–33.4 19.8 16.5–23.6 3.3 1.9–5.8 11.0 8.1–14.7 7.1 5.4–9.3
South Dakota — — — — — — — — — — — —
Tennessee 8.5 6.3–11.2 36.7 32.0–41.7 22.6 19.9–25.7 1.7 1.0–3.1 13.7 11.1–16.8 7.7 6.3–9.4
Texas 8.4 6.9–10.2 29.0 26.7–31.5 18.8 17.3–20.3 1.6 1.0–2.5 9.3 7.9–11.0 5.5 4.6–6.6
Utah 6.3 4.8–8.1 27.7 23.3–32.5 17.1 14.5–20.0 1.6 1.0–2.8 12.4 9.1–16.6 7.1 5.5–9.3
Vermont — — — — — — — — — — — —
West Virginia 7.4 5.7–9.6 34.4 29.9–39.1 21.3 18.3–24.7 1.0 0.4–2.4 8.4 6.3–11.3 4.9 3.5–6.9
Wisconsin 4.1 3.1–5.6 21.1 18.3–24.1 12.7 11.2–14.3 0.7 0.4–1.5 8.6 6.6–11.2 4.8 3.7–6.2
Wyoming 11.8 9.9–14.1 40.7 37.3–44.3 26.8 24.3–29.4 3.4 2.4–4.8 19.1 16.3–22.3 11.5 9.9–13.4
Median 8.0 28.7 18.5 1.6 10.7 6.5
Range 3.6–14.4 18.7–40.7 12.0–27.5 0.6–5.3 6.1–19.1 3.5–11.7
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 13.1 10.5–16.1 31.2 27.7–34.9 21.7 19.2–24.5 1.1 0.6–2.0 10.9 9.0–13.1 5.7 4.6–7.0
Boston, MA 9.1 6.8–12.2 23.9 20.4–27.8 16.5 14.1–19.1 1.8 1.0–3.2 6.7 4.8–9.2 4.3 3.2–5.7
Broward County, FL 6.0 3.4–10.3 16.8 14.1–19.9 11.4 9.1–14.1 0.8 0.3–2.1 8.0 6.5–9.9 4.4 3.5–5.6
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 7.0 5.5–9.0 27.3 23.5–31.5 17.2 14.8–20.0 — — — — — —
Chicago, IL 12.5 9.7–16.0 23.2 18.5–28.7 17.8 13.9–22.5 1.7 0.6–4.5 7.6 5.7–10.1 4.7 3.6–6.2
Dallas, TX 8.5 6.2–11.6 29.5 25.0–34.5 18.7 15.8–22.0 1.9 1.0–3.6 15.1 11.6–19.4 8.3 6.2–11.2
DeKalb County, GA — — — — — — 3.0 2.2–4.2 14.7 12.4–17.2 8.9 7.6–10.4
Detroit, MI 13.2 10.9–15.8 25.4 21.8–29.3 19.1 16.7–21.8 1.7 1.0–3.0 12.5 10.1–15.3 7.0 5.6–8.6
District of Columbia 16.4 13.3–20.1 27.0 22.6–31.9 21.3 18.6–24.3 2.6 1.7–3.9 14.2 11.3–17.7 8.3 6.8–10.1
Hillsborough County, FL 9.3 6.8–12.6 26.0 21.8–30.7 17.4 14.5–20.8 1.5 0.7–3.0 11.3 8.9–14.3 6.3 5.1–7.8
Houston, TX 7.8 6.1–9.8 25.0 21.4–29.0 16.3 14.5–18.4 1.7 1.0–2.8 11.9 9.5–14.8 6.8 5.5–8.3
Los Angeles, CA 5.2 3.2–8.4 23.4 19.3–28.2 14.3 11.3–18.1 0.9 0.3–2.7 8.2 6.2–10.7 4.6 3.6–5.9
Memphis, TN 11.5 9.0–14.5 18.9 15.8–22.5 15.2 12.8–17.8 2.5 1.3–4.7 9.4 7.3–12.0 5.9 4.4–7.8
Miami-Dade County, FL 6.6 5.1–8.5 21.3 18.1–24.8 14.2 12.3–16.4 2.8 2.0–3.8 8.0 6.2–10.4 5.5 4.4–6.9
Milwaukee, WI 11.8 9.2–15.1 25.3 20.8–30.5 18.4 15.9–21.1 1.8 1.1–3.1 15.1 12.1–18.6 8.3 6.7–10.4
New York City, NY 6.8 5.9–7.9 16.8 15.0–18.8 11.7 10.6–12.9 0.9 0.6–1.4 5.5 4.2–7.2 3.1 2.4–4.1
Orange County, FL 9.1 6.5–12.5 22.9 19.7–26.5 15.8 13.6–18.3 2.6 1.4–4.6 8.2 6.1–11.0 5.3 4.1–6.8
Palm Beach County, FL 7.8 6.3–9.6 23.9 20.1–28.0 15.6 13.5–18.0 2.2 1.4–3.5 7.9 5.8–10.6 5.0 3.9–6.5
Philadelphia, PA 11.0 9.2–13.0 28.0 25.1–31.2 18.3 16.5–20.3 1.7 1.1–2.7 11.7 9.5–14.4 6.0 4.9–7.4
San Bernardino, CA 7.9 5.8–10.5 19.7 16.6–23.2 13.9 11.9–16.1 0.6 0.2–1.5 5.4 3.8–7.5 3.0 2.2–4.1
San Diego, CA 6.2 3.9–9.6 21.8 18.5–25.5 14.1 11.7–16.9 1.1 0.5–2.5 7.8 5.9–10.1 4.5 3.4–6.0
San Francisco, CA 5.6 4.3–7.3 11.5 9.7–13.5 8.6 7.4–10.0 0.9 0.5–1.7 3.3 2.3–4.6 2.1 1.5–2.9
Median 8.5 23.9 16.3 1.7 8.2 5.5
Range 5.2–16.4 11.5–31.2 8.6–21.7 0.6–3.0 3.3–15.1 2.1–8.9
* For example, a gun, knife, or club.
† On at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 9

TABLE 9. Percentage of high school students who were in a physical fight* and who were injured in a physical fight,*† by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
In a physical fight Injured in a physical fight
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 21.5 19.4–23.6 41.9 39.4–44.5 31.7 29.8–33.7 2.0 1.3–3.0 4.1 3.2–5.1 3.0 2.5–3.7
Blackĥ 39.4 36.1–42.7 50.3 45.7–54.8 44.7 42.1–47.4 4.2 2.9–6.1 6.5 5.1–8.3 5.3 4.5–6.4
Hispanic 33.5 29.6–37.6 47.3 44.1–50.6 40.4 37.9–42.9 5.1 4.0–6.5 7.6 5.9–9.6 6.3 5.4–7.5
Grade
9 31.8 28.9–34.8 49.6 46.1–53.1 40.9 38.6–43.2 4.3 3.3–5.6 6.7 5.2–8.5 5.6 4.6–6.7
10 27.2 23.9–30.8 45.1 41.8–48.4 36.2 33.6–39.0 2.1 1.3–3.2 5.4 4.1–6.9 3.7 3.0–4.7
11 23.5 20.6–26.7 46.3 42.9–49.6 34.8 32.1–37.6 2.5 1.5–4.0 4.6 3.4–6.1 3.5 2.7–4.5
12 21.8 19.0–24.9 34.3 30.6–38.2 28.0 25.2–30.9 2.3 1.5–3.3 4.4 3.5–5.7 3.3 2.7–4.1
Total 26.5 24.6–28.6 44.4 42.6–46.2 35.5 34.0–37.1 2.9 2.3–3.6 5.5 4.7–6.3 4.2 3.7–4.7
* One or more times during the 12 months before the survey.
†Injuries had to be treated by a doctor or nurse.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 10

TABLE 10. Percentage of high school students who were in a physical fight* and who were injured in a physical fight,*† by sex —
selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
In a physical fight Injured in a physical fight
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 20.2 16.0–25.1 37.4 32.3–42.9 29.2 25.8–32.9 2.0 0.9–4.3 4.4 2.9–6.8 3.3 2.2–5.0
Arizona 26.3 22.8–30.0 36.0 32.6–39.5 31.3 28.2–34.5 —ĥ — — — — —
Arkansas 23.3 19.6–27.6 42.2 37.0–47.6 32.8 29.2–36.5 2.0 1.2–3.3 6.4 4.5–9.0 4.2 3.2–5.5
Connecticut 24.7 21.3–28.5 37.9 34.3–41.7 31.4 28.6–34.4 3.4 2.3–5.0 4.1 3.0–5.7 3.9 2.9–5.2
Delaware 26.0 23.2–29.1 38.4 34.9–42.0 33.0 30.5–35.6 2.6 1.8–3.8 5.3 3.9–7.1 4.1 3.3–5.1
Florida 24.5 21.8–27.5 39.7 36.8–42.7 32.3 29.9–34.9 3.0 2.2–4.0 6.2 5.1–7.7 4.7 3.8–5.7
Georgia 27.6 24.9–30.4 40.1 36.3–44.0 34.0 31.4–36.6 3.9 2.8–5.3 5.2 3.7–7.2 4.6 3.5–6.0
Hawaii 26.4 21.1–32.5 30.7 25.7–36.2 28.6 24.4–33.3 2.0 1.0–4.0 4.6 2.7–7.8 3.3 2.1–5.3
Idaho 21.5 17.5–26.1 37.8 34.6–41.2 30.0 27.2–32.9 2.3 1.3–4.0 5.4 3.6–8.0 4.0 2.9–5.6
Illinois 28.1 23.6–32.9 39.8 35.3–44.5 33.9 30.1–37.9 3.7 2.4–5.5 6.0 4.2–8.4 4.8 3.7–6.4
Indiana 20.5 17.8–23.4 37.9 34.7–41.3 29.5 26.8–32.3 2.9 2.1–4.1 4.4 3.4–5.7 3.8 3.1–4.6
Iowa 18.2 15.2–21.6 29.6 24.8–34.8 24.0 21.2–27.1 2.3 1.4–3.7 3.8 2.5–5.7 3.0 2.3–4.1
Kansas 23.0 19.3–27.2 37.1 32.7–41.8 30.3 27.1–33.8 1.5 0.8–2.6 5.9 4.1–8.4 3.8 2.6–5.5
Kentucky 21.5 19.4–23.7 32.4 29.2–35.7 27.0 25.0–29.0 2.1 1.5–2.9 4.5 3.5–5.7 3.5 2.8–4.3
Maine 19.3 15.8–23.3 33.3 28.4–38.6 26.5 22.6–31.0 — — — — — —
Maryland 27.5 22.8–32.7 44.0 36.8–51.5 35.7 30.3–41.5 3.9 2.5–6.1 7.7 5.5–10.7 6.0 4.3–8.4
Massachusetts 19.5 16.9–22.4 35.5 32.5–38.7 27.5 24.9–30.4 2.2 1.5–3.3 5.9 4.7–7.3 4.1 3.3–5.2
Michigan 22.5 18.3–27.4 38.6 34.5–42.8 30.7 27.1–34.6 2.4 1.5–3.8 3.8 2.8–5.1 3.1 2.3–4.2
Mississippi 23.0 19.9–26.4 38.7 34.2–43.4 30.6 27.7–33.7 2.8 1.6–4.9 5.8 3.8–8.8 4.3 3.1–6.0
Missouri 22.4 17.4–28.2 38.9 33.9–44.0 30.9 26.4–35.9 4.5 2.7–7.5 5.4 3.5–8.1 5.1 3.5–7.3
Montana 25.3 22.8–28.0 40.2 37.6–42.8 32.8 30.7–35.0 2.5 1.6–3.7 4.9 3.8–6.3 3.7 3.0–4.6
Nevada 25.3 22.3–28.6 37.8 34.1–41.6 31.6 28.6–34.7 — — — — — —
New Hampshire 17.6 14.6–20.9 36.1 32.4–39.9 27.0 24.3–29.9 1.6 1.0–2.6 5.2 3.9–6.9 3.4 2.5–4.6
New Mexico 29.4 25.8–33.3 44.0 40.8–47.2 37.1 34.8–39.4 — — — — — —
New York 24.8 22.4–27.4 38.4 35.7–41.1 31.7 29.6–33.8 3.3 2.4–4.4 5.8 4.5–7.3 4.6 3.7–5.6
North Carolina 21.7 17.5–26.5 38.5 35.7–41.3 30.1 27.1–33.3 2.4 1.6–3.7 4.8 3.7–6.1 3.7 2.9–4.7
North Dakota — — — — — — — — — — — —
Ohio 23.3 19.7–27.3 37.2 33.6–41.0 30.4 27.3–33.6 2.7 1.8–3.9 5.0 3.7–6.6 3.8 3.0–4.9
Oklahoma 18.6 15.9–21.6 39.2 36.1–42.3 29.2 26.6–32.1 1.7 1.0–2.8 5.3 4.1–6.9 3.6 2.7–4.6
Rhode Island 18.8 16.2–21.7 33.7 29.2–38.5 26.3 23.1–29.8 2.2 1.4–3.5 6.2 4.4–8.6 4.3 3.2–5.7
South Carolina 22.1 17.7–27.2 35.9 31.9–40.2 29.1 26.3–32.1 2.0 1.2–3.4 4.5 2.7–7.2 3.3 2.3–4.8
South Dakota 21.3 16.1–27.7 38.3 35.3–41.4 29.8 25.9–34.1 2.1 1.0–4.5 5.2 3.4–8.0 3.7 2.4–5.8
Tennessee 23.6 19.5–28.2 39.7 35.6–44.0 31.8 28.6–35.1 1.8 1.2–2.9 2.9 2.1–4.0 2.4 1.8–3.2
Texas 26.1 22.9–29.5 43.5 41.2–45.9 34.9 32.5–37.4 2.6 1.9–3.7 5.6 4.6–6.8 4.1 3.4–5.0
Utah 22.7 18.4–27.8 36.7 31.1–42.7 30.1 26.3–34.3 4.6 3.0–7.1 4.7 3.3–6.6 4.6 3.3–6.4
Vermont 17.1 13.9–20.9 33.7 29.6–38.0 26.0 22.9–29.3 2.1 1.6–2.9 3.7 2.9–4.8 3.0 2.5–3.6
West Virginia 23.0 17.3–29.9 36.4 31.6–41.5 29.9 25.2–35.2 2.2 1.2–4.1 5.7 3.8–8.4 4.1 2.8–6.0
Wisconsin 22.7 19.1–26.9 39.2 35.7–42.7 31.2 28.3–34.2 1.4 0.8–2.4 3.0 2.0–4.4 2.2 1.6–3.0
Wyoming 19.8 17.3–22.6 35.2 32.3–38.2 27.9 25.8–30.2 3.3 2.4–4.4 6.2 5.0–7.8 4.9 4.1–5.9
Median 22.8 37.9 30.3 2.3 5.2 3.8
Range 17.1–29.4 29.6–44.0 24.0–37.1 1.4–4.6 2.9–7.7 2.2–6.0
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 38.9 35.6–42.4 46.4 43.0–49.9 42.4 39.9–45.1 5.2 3.8–7.0 7.5 5.8–9.7 6.5 5.3–7.9
Boston, MA 27.3 23.6–31.3 39.3 35.1–43.7 33.3 30.1–36.5 2.9 1.7–4.8 6.0 4.2–8.4 4.5 3.4–5.9
Broward County, FL 26.8 21.6–32.8 39.1 32.9–45.7 33.1 28.1–38.6 3.3 1.9–5.5 7.1 5.0–9.9 5.2 4.0–6.9
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 19.4 16.4–22.9 39.9 35.9–44.1 29.6 26.6–32.8 3.0 1.9–4.7 5.5 3.9–7.6 4.4 3.3–5.8
Chicago, IL 36.4 29.9–43.5 43.4 38.9–47.9 39.8 35.1–44.6 3.4 2.2–5.0 7.5 5.2–10.6 5.5 4.3–7.0
Dallas, TX 31.5 26.3–37.1 47.3 42.2–52.4 39.2 35.1–43.5 3.4 2.0–6.0 7.6 5.4–10.6 5.6 4.2–7.3
DeKalb County, GA 29.5 26.1–33.2 44.6 41.2–48.1 37.0 34.2–39.9 — — — — — —
Detroit, MI 39.1 35.6–42.8 47.4 43.3–51.5 43.1 40.4–45.9 4.3 3.2–5.8 5.0 3.7–6.7 4.6 3.7–5.8
District of Columbia 39.6 35.5–43.8 46.6 41.8–51.5 43.0 40.1–45.8 7.3 5.5–9.5 12.5 9.6–16.2 9.6 7.9–11.8
Hillsborough County, FL 23.4 19.8–27.5 37.9 32.8–43.4 30.5 27.0–34.2 2.4 1.5–4.0 6.7 4.3–10.1 4.5 3.1–6.4
Houston, TX 26.3 22.8–30.2 40.5 36.3–44.8 33.3 31.1–35.6 2.1 1.3–3.2 6.3 4.4–9.0 4.2 3.2–5.6
Los Angeles, CA 29.5 23.9–35.8 42.7 33.6–52.4 36.2 29.0–44.2 6.3 3.5–11.1 6.1 3.6–10.1 6.1 3.8–9.8
Memphis, TN 34.2 29.1–39.7 46.1 40.4–52.0 40.1 36.1–44.2 3.8 2.1–6.9 4.5 3.0–6.6 4.2 2.9–6.0
Miami-Dade County, FL 26.1 22.9–29.5 40.2 36.8–43.8 33.4 30.7–36.3 3.0 2.1–4.3 7.1 5.6–9.0 5.2 4.3–6.3
Milwaukee, WI 37.4 33.9–41.0 48.5 43.6–53.4 43.1 39.9–46.3 3.0 1.9–4.6 6.8 4.9–9.3 4.9 3.8–6.3
New York City, NY 27.6 24.7–30.6 39.8 37.0–42.7 33.5 31.6–35.5 2.8 2.1–3.8 5.3 4.3–6.5 4.0 3.4–4.7
Orange County, FL 24.4 19.3–30.3 41.0 37.4–44.6 32.4 29.1–35.9 2.2 1.2–3.8 5.3 3.9–7.3 3.7 2.7–5.1
Palm Beach County, FL 22.9 19.6–26.5 41.0 36.9–45.1 32.0 28.8–35.4 3.2 2.2–4.7 7.2 5.3–9.7 5.2 4.0–6.8
Philadelphia, PA 40.5 37.0–44.2 50.7 46.5–54.9 45.0 42.1–47.8 4.5 3.3–6.0 8.1 6.5–10.1 6.1 5.1–7.3
San Bernardino, CA 27.3 22.8–32.3 40.4 35.8–45.3 33.8 29.9–37.9 2.4 1.5–4.0 5.3 3.5–7.9 3.9 2.9–5.3
San Diego, CA 21.9 18.4–25.9 42.5 38.2–47.0 32.5 28.6–36.6 2.1 1.2–3.6 4.6 2.9–7.0 3.5 2.5–4.8
San Francisco, CA 18.9 16.3–21.8 26.6 23.8–29.6 22.8 20.7–25.0 2.0 1.3–3.0 4.4 3.4–5.6 3.3 2.6–4.3
Median 27.4 41.8 33.6 3.0 6.3 4.6
Range 18.9–40.5 26.6–50.7 22.8–45.0 2.0–7.3 4.4–12.5 3.3–9.6
* One or more times during the 12 months before the survey.
† Injuries had to be treated by a doctor or nurse.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 11

TABLE 11. Percentage of high school students who experienced dating violence* and who were ever physically forced to have
sexual intercourse,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Dating violence Forced to have sexual intercourse
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 7.4 6.1–9.1 9.3 7.6–11.4 8.4 7.2–9.9 11.0 9.4–12.7 3.2 2.3–4.3 7.0 6.1–8.2
Blackĥ 13.2 11.5–15.2 15.2 12.5–18.2 14.2 12.6–15.9 13.3 10.3–17.1 7.8 6.3–9.6 10.5 8.8–12.5
Hispanic 10.1 8.2–12.5 12.0 9.8–14.6 11.1 9.5–12.9 11.4 9.3–13.8 6.2 4.8–7.9 8.8 7.3–10.4
Grade
9 6.3 4.8–8.2 10.5 8.6–12.7 8.5 7.3–9.8 9.2 7.3–11.5 4.1 3.1–5.4 6.6 5.4–7.9
10 8.8 6.6–11.5 9.1 7.5–10.9 8.9 7.4–10.7 13.1 10.6–16.0 3.4 2.5–4.7 8.2 6.6–10.0
11 10.2 8.7–12.0 10.8 8.5–13.5 10.6 9.2–12.2 12.0 9.8–14.5 5.0 3.9–6.5 8.5 7.2–10.0
12 10.1 8.3–12.2 14.1 11.8–16.7 12.1 10.6–13.8 10.9 9.2–12.8 5.7 4.3–7.5 8.3 7.3–9.5
Total 8.8 7.6–10.3 11.0 9.7–12.4 9.9 8.9–11.1 11.3 9.9–12.8 4.5 3.8–5.3 7.8 7.0–8.8
* Hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend during the 12 months before the survey.
†When they did not want to.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 12

TABLE 12. Percentage of high school students who experienced dating violence* and who were ever physically forced to have
sexual intercourse,† by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Dating violence Forced to have sexual intercourse
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 10.3 7.7–13.7 13.9 11.4–16.8 12.4 10.3–14.8 11.2 9.1–13.6 7.2 4.9–10.3 9.2 7.6–11.1
Arizona 12.4 10.5–14.6 12.1 9.9–14.8 12.2 10.7–14.0 13.2 10.7–16.1 6.9 5.3–8.9 10.0 8.3–12.0
Arkansas 15.1 12.2–18.5 13.3 10.5–16.7 14.1 12.2–16.3 18.8 15.3–22.8 9.2 6.3–13.2 14.0 11.7–16.6
Connecticut 12.7 10.3–15.7 13.8 10.9–17.3 13.4 11.2–15.9 11.5 9.0–14.5 7.9 6.0–10.4 9.7 8.0–11.8
Delaware 7.8 6.2–9.9 8.1 6.5–9.9 7.9 6.8–9.3 11.2 9.4–13.4 4.5 3.3–6.0 7.6 6.5–8.9
Florida 8.8 7.3–10.5 12.9 11.1–15.0 10.9 9.6–12.3 9.7 8.4–11.2 6.6 5.5–7.9 8.2 7.4–9.2
Georgia 16.2 13.7–19.1 15.1 12.7–17.9 15.7 13.6–18.0 —ĥ — — — — —
Hawaii 8.4 6.0–11.6 10.4 7.7–14.0 9.5 7.7–11.6 11.9 8.6–16.1 4.1 2.5–6.5 7.8 6.2–9.8
Idaho 14.7 11.8–18.1 12.3 9.6–15.6 13.6 11.5–15.9 13.2 11.2–15.6 7.6 5.3–10.8 10.5 8.7–12.7
Illinois 8.6 6.0–12.2 12.0 9.3–15.4 10.3 8.0–13.1 9.4 7.0–12.5 6.7 4.8–9.3 8.0 6.3–10.1
Indiana 10.8 9.1–12.9 12.2 10.3–14.3 11.6 10.3–13.2 13.2 11.0–15.7 5.3 3.8–7.4 9.4 7.6–11.6
Iowa 7.1 5.1–9.8 7.5 5.5–10.1 7.2 6.1–8.6 9.3 7.1–12.1 3.5 2.2–5.7 6.3 4.8–8.4
Kansas 9.4 7.7–11.4 10.4 7.8–13.9 10.1 8.4–12.1 11.3 9.3–13.6 5.4 4.0–7.2 8.3 7.2–9.6
Kentucky 14.1 12.5–16.0 15.7 14.0–17.6 14.9 13.6–16.4 13.3 11.9–14.9 8.2 6.9–9.9 10.9 10.0–11.8
Maine 10.3 7.5–14.0 12.6 9.6–16.3 11.6 8.9–15.0 10.0 7.5–13.2 6.1 4.3–8.6 8.1 6.5–10.1
Maryland 14.9 12.1–18.2 15.9 12.4–20.0 15.5 13.7–17.5 — — — — — —
Massachusetts — — — — — — — — — — — —
Michigan 11.8 9.9–14.0 12.9 11.5–14.4 12.4 11.1–13.9 13.7 11.6–16.0 6.9 4.8–9.9 10.3 9.0–11.9
Mississippi 13.2 10.6–16.4 14.2 11.5–17.4 13.6 11.6–15.9 10.8 8.9–13.2 6.2 4.1–9.2 8.8 7.3–10.5
Missouri 8.7 6.4–11.7 12.2 8.5–17.1 10.5 8.1–13.6 14.0 11.1–17.5 6.6 4.6–9.4 10.3 8.3–12.7
Montana 9.7 8.5–11.2 11.3 9.7–13.1 10.6 9.5–11.8 12.7 11.2–14.4 5.0 4.1–6.1 8.8 7.8–9.9
Nevada 8.6 6.6–11.1 9.9 7.7–12.8 9.4 7.8–11.3 11.5 9.7–13.6 3.7 2.4–5.7 7.6 6.5–8.9
New Hampshire 7.5 5.5–10.1 9.2 7.3–11.6 8.4 7.2–9.9 8.6 6.7–11.0 6.0 4.3–8.2 7.2 6.0–8.7
New Mexico 11.4 9.5–13.7 13.5 11.1–16.4 12.6 11.0–14.4 11.6 9.9–13.5 6.9 5.2–9.0 9.2 8.3–10.3
New York 10.5 9.1–12.2 13.5 11.5–15.8 12.1 10.6–13.7 10.0 8.7–11.4 7.1 5.5–9.2 8.6 7.4–9.9
North Carolina 11.4 9.3–14.0 14.9 12.5–17.6 13.2 11.3–15.3 12.3 10.3–14.6 6.4 4.8–8.6 9.3 8.1–10.7
North Dakota 7.4 5.7–9.6 9.7 7.3–12.7 8.6 6.9–10.5 10.1 7.9–12.8 4.3 2.8–6.6 7.1 5.8–8.8
Ohio — — — — — — 13.0 10.5–16.0 7.2 5.7–9.3 10.2 8.9–11.6
Oklahoma 6.7 5.0–9.0 7.8 6.1–10.0 7.3 5.9–8.9 11.8 9.8–14.1 3.7 2.6–5.3 7.7 6.4–9.2
Rhode Island 13.4 11.1–16.2 14.4 11.9–17.3 14.0 12.1–16.2 12.2 9.7–15.1 7.9 6.6–9.4 10.1 8.6–11.9
South Carolina 12.0 10.4–13.9 15.0 12.2–18.4 13.7 12.0–15.5 12.3 10.1–14.9 5.8 3.6–9.3 9.1 7.9–10.4
South Dakota 11.3 9.7–13.1 9.5 7.9–11.3 10.4 9.1–11.9 13.9 11.0–17.6 5.7 4.3–7.7 9.8 8.0–11.9
Tennessee 12.9 10.3–16.0 11.3 9.3–13.7 12.0 10.1–14.3 10.5 8.3–13.1 3.9 2.6–5.8 7.1 5.9–8.6
Texas 10.5 9.3–11.9 10.0 8.2–12.1 10.2 9.2–11.4 13.7 11.3–16.5 3.7 2.8–5.0 8.7 7.4–10.1
Utah 12.4 8.8–17.2 12.7 8.9–17.9 12.6 10.5–15.1 14.2 9.8–20.1 8.9 4.6–16.5 11.9 7.5–18.5
Vermont 6.7 5.2–8.5 7.9 6.9–9.2 7.4 6.3–8.7 — — — — — —
West Virginia 11.9 9.3–15.1 11.5 8.9–14.8 11.8 9.8–14.3 12.1 8.9–16.3 6.6 4.2–10.3 9.5 7.1–12.5
Wisconsin 8.8 7.2–10.7 9.0 7.4–10.9 8.9 7.8–10.1 — — — — — —
Wyoming 14.2 12.1–16.5 14.9 12.9–17.3 14.7 13.1–16.5 16.0 13.4–18.8 9.0 7.3–11.0 12.5 10.9–14.3
Median 10.8 12.2 11.8 12.0 6.5 9.1
Range 6.7–16.2 7.5–15.9 7.2–15.7 8.6–18.8 3.5–9.2 6.3–14.0
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 10.2 8.2–12.7 13.3 10.9–16.1 11.8 10.2–13.6 10.0 8.1–12.4 5.8 4.2–7.8 8.0 6.7–9.5
Boston, MA — — — — — — — — — — — —
Broward County, FL 7.3 4.9–10.9 9.0 6.4–12.7 8.2 6.7–10.0 10.0 7.2–13.7 4.6 2.8–7.2 7.4 5.7–9.4
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 10.6 8.4–13.2 10.7 7.8–14.6 10.7 8.7–13.2 9.2 7.2–11.7 5.1 3.6–7.3 7.2 5.7–9.0
Chicago, IL 10.6 8.3–13.5 16.4 12.6–21.2 13.4 10.8–16.4 11.3 8.7–14.7 11.3 6.7–18.5 11.3 9.0–14.1
Dallas, TX 13.3 10.5–16.6 14.6 11.7–18.1 13.9 11.7–16.5 12.5 9.9–15.6 9.4 6.6–13.2 10.9 9.2–12.9
DeKalb County, GA 12.6 10.5–15.0 13.2 11.0–15.8 13.0 11.3–14.9 11.7 9.8–14.0 8.2 6.2–10.8 10.0 8.5–11.8
Detroit, MI 13.2 11.3–15.3 15.4 12.6–18.8 14.4 12.6–16.3 12.0 10.0–14.4 6.5 4.8–8.7 9.3 7.9–11.1
District of Columbia 16.1 13.5–19.0 18.0 15.2–21.2 17.1 15.3–19.0 10.8 8.7–13.2 6.4 4.5–9.0 8.8 7.3–10.5
Hillsborough County, FL 17.8 14.3–22.0 16.6 12.7–21.4 17.4 14.4–20.8 16.3 13.0–20.3 7.6 5.4–10.6 12.2 10.3–14.5
Houston, TX 13.1 10.2–16.6 16.9 14.3–19.9 15.1 13.1–17.4 9.8 7.8–12.3 10.3 7.7–13.5 10.1 8.3–12.2
Los Angeles, CA 6.2 4.2–8.9 7.2 3.6–14.0 6.6 4.4–9.8 5.6 3.5–8.8 5.7 3.2–10.0 5.6 4.3–7.2
Memphis, TN 13.5 10.1–17.8 10.5 8.2–13.4 12.0 9.6–14.8 8.6 6.7–11.0 4.2 2.6–6.6 6.4 5.0–8.1
Miami-Dade County, FL 11.3 9.6–13.4 12.0 10.0–14.5 11.8 10.4–13.4 8.0 6.6–9.5 5.1 3.7–7.0 6.7 5.5–8.0
Milwaukee, WI 15.8 13.1–19.0 14.5 11.3–18.4 15.2 13.1–17.6 — — — — — —
New York City, NY 11.2 9.9–12.6 11.2 9.9–12.5 11.2 10.2–12.3 9.4 8.3–10.7 7.1 5.8–8.6 8.3 7.4–9.3
Orange County, FL 12.0 8.6–16.4 12.8 9.8–16.7 12.4 9.8–15.5 11.9 9.7–14.5 6.6 4.7–9.4 9.2 7.7–11.1
Palm Beach County, FL 7.4 5.8–9.5 10.3 7.9–13.5 8.9 7.3–10.8 8.3 6.5–10.5 6.7 4.9–9.2 7.6 6.3–9.2
Philadelphia, PA 15.5 13.4–17.9 17.6 14.8–20.8 16.5 15.0–18.1 10.9 9.0–13.0 8.8 7.0–11.0 10.0 8.6–11.6
San Bernardino, CA 8.6 6.5–11.4 9.9 7.8–12.5 9.2 7.6–11.2 8.3 6.2–11.0 4.2 2.9–6.1 6.4 5.1–7.9
San Diego, CA 9.4 7.1–12.3 11.2 8.8–14.1 10.3 8.6–12.3 9.5 7.4–12.0 8.8 7.0–11.0 9.2 7.8–10.7
San Francisco, CA 9.2 7.6–11.1 9.9 8.4–11.8 9.6 8.4–10.8 8.6 6.9–10.7 4.4 3.2–6.1 6.5 5.4–7.8
Median 11.3 12.8 12.0 9.9 6.5 8.5
Range 6.2–17.8 7.2–18.0 6.6–17.4 5.6–16.3 4.2–11.3 5.6–12.2
* Hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend during the 12 months before the survey.
† When they did not want to.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 13

TABLE 13. Percentage of high school students who carried a weapon on school property*† and who were threatened or injured with
a weapon on school property,†§ by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Threatened or injured with a weapon
Carried a weapon on school property on school property
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CIĥ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White** 2.1 1.4–3.0 8.5 6.8–10.7 5.3 4.3–6.5 4.6 3.6–5.8 9.2 7.8–10.7 6.9 5.9–8.0
Black** 3.5 2.6–4.8 8.4 7.2–9.8 6.0 5.1–7.0 8.1 6.6–10.1 11.2 8.8–14.2 9.7 8.1–11.6
Hispanic 4.1 2.9–5.9 10.4 8.2–13.0 7.3 5.8–9.1 5.4 4.2–7.0 12.0 10.4–14.0 8.7 7.6–10.0
Grade
9 3.1 2.1–4.6 8.7 6.9–10.8 6.0 4.9–7.3 6.8 5.3–8.6 11.4 9.8–13.3 9.2 7.9–10.6
10 2.6 1.5–4.5 8.8 6.9–11.2 5.8 4.6–7.1 6.3 5.0–7.9 10.4 9.0–12.0 8.4 7.4–9.5
11 2.4 1.8–3.2 8.6 6.4–11.5 5.5 4.2–7.0 3.2 2.4–4.2 10.5 8.5–12.8 6.8 5.7–8.1
12 2.3 1.5–3.5 9.8 7.7–12.3 6.0 4.9–7.2 4.5 3.2–6.3 8.1 6.3–10.4 6.3 5.1–7.7
Total 2.7 2.1–3.4 9.0 7.8–10.4 5.9 5.2–6.7 5.4 4.6–6.3 10.2 9.1–11.5 7.8 7.0–8.8
* On at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
† For example, a gun, knife, or club.
§ One or more times during the 12 months before the survey.
ĥ 95% confidence interval.
** Non-Hispanic.
Return to top.
Table 14

TABLE 14. Percentage of high school students who carried a weapon on school property*† and who were threatened or injured with
a weapon on school property,†§ by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Carried a weapon on school property Threatened or injured with a weapon on school property
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CIĥ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 3.6 2.2–5.8 12.7 9.4–16.9 8.4 6.5–10.8 5.1 3.5–7.4 9.9 7.7–12.6 7.7 6.1–9.6
Arizona 4.1 3.0–5.5 9.8 7.8–12.2 7.0 5.6–8.6 8.6 6.9–10.8 13.5 11.6–15.7 11.2 9.7–12.9
Arkansas 2.7 1.7–4.3 10.8 8.1–14.1 6.8 5.2–8.7 7.4 5.3–10.2 10.7 8.2–13.9 9.1 7.1–11.4
Connecticut 2.8 1.7–4.8 8.1 5.3–12.1 5.5 3.7–8.1 5.0 3.6–6.8 10.1 8.4–12.1 7.7 6.6–9.0
Delaware 3.9 2.8–5.4 7.0 5.6–8.7 5.4 4.4–6.6 4.0 3.0–5.3 6.9 5.7–8.3 5.6 4.7–6.7
Florida 3.2 2.4–4.4 7.8 6.6–9.2 5.6 4.8–6.5 6.4 5.2–7.9 10.4 8.8–12.4 8.6 7.5–9.9
Georgia 3.6 2.3–5.5 6.8 5.1–8.9 5.3 4.4–6.3 5.8 4.3–7.8 10.1 8.2–12.6 8.1 6.6–10.0
Hawaii 2.4 1.1–4.9 4.9 2.8–8.4 3.7 2.2–6.1 3.4 2.1–5.3 9.2 6.0–13.9 6.4 4.5–9.0
Idaho 2.7 1.5–4.8 14.6 11.4–18.6 8.9 7.2–11.1 7.5 5.3–10.6 12.6 9.8–15.9 10.2 8.2–12.6
Illinois 2.8 1.7–4.6 4.7 3.2–6.7 3.7 2.6–5.4 5.8 4.2–7.9 9.8 8.4–11.3 7.8 6.5–9.3
Indiana 3.4 2.1–5.3 9.4 7.8–11.4 6.9 5.7–8.3 7.2 5.8–8.7 11.6 9.7–13.7 9.6 8.3–11.1
Iowa 1.2 0.7–2.2 7.4 5.2–10.5 4.4 3.3–5.9 5.3 3.1–9.0 8.8 7.2–10.7 7.1 5.5–9.2
Kansas 1.9 1.1–3.1 9.2 6.9–12.1 5.7 4.4–7.5 5.3 3.5–7.8 11.6 8.6–15.4 8.6 6.6–11.2
Kentucky 3.0 2.0–4.6 12.7 10.7–15.1 8.0 6.9–9.3 6.6 5.3–8.3 9.6 8.1–11.3 8.3 7.2–9.4
Maine 2.8 1.8–4.1 6.6 4.5–9.7 4.9 3.6–6.6 5.5 3.7–8.1 7.7 5.7–10.5 6.8 5.2–8.9
Maryland 4.2 2.3–7.5 7.3 5.8–9.2 5.9 4.4–7.9 8.6 6.5–11.4 10.3 8.5–12.5 9.6 7.9–11.6
Massachusetts 2.6 1.8–3.6 7.2 5.7–9.0 5.0 4.1–6.0 3.0 2.2–4.2 7.6 6.3–9.0 5.3 4.4–6.3
Michigan 3.7 2.4–5.6 5.9 4.4–8.0 5.0 3.8–6.5 7.1 5.3–9.3 8.8 7.1–11.0 8.1 6.7–9.8
Mississippi 3.0 1.7–5.2 6.7 4.7–9.6 4.8 3.7–6.3 6.1 4.9–7.5 10.5 8.0–13.7 8.3 7.1–9.6
Missouri 1.8 1.0–3.5 7.2 4.7–10.9 4.6 3.1–6.8 7.5 5.2–10.8 10.8 8.8–13.1 9.3 7.3–11.8
Montana 3.7 2.8–4.8 15.6 13.9–17.5 9.7 8.7–10.9 5.3 4.1–6.9 8.6 7.4–10.0 7.0 6.1–8.1
Nevada 3.1 2.0–4.7 6.2 4.5–8.6 4.7 3.6–6.1 6.2 4.8–8.1 9.2 7.4–11.4 7.8 6.5–9.3
New Hampshire 2.8 1.8–4.2 8.7 7.0–10.9 5.8 4.7–7.1 4.3 3.1–6.0 10.1 8.1–12.5 7.3 6.0–8.8
New Mexico 4.7 3.9–5.8 13.5 11.3–16.1 9.3 7.9–10.8 7.3 5.6–9.4 12.2 10.4–14.4 10.1 8.7–11.7
New York 2.5 1.9–3.3 6.7 5.4–8.3 4.7 3.9–5.5 5.4 4.3–6.8 8.9 7.2–10.8 7.3 6.3–8.5
North Carolina 2.6 1.6–4.1 11.0 8.3–14.5 6.8 5.2–9.0 4.9 3.5–6.8 8.2 6.7–10.0 6.6 5.5–8.0
North Dakota 1.5 0.9–2.8 8.3 6.5–10.6 5.0 4.0–6.3 3.2 2.2–4.6 7.1 5.2–9.5 5.2 4.1–6.5
Ohio 2.2 1.4–3.5 5.7 4.1–7.7 4.1 3.2–5.2 6.1 4.8–7.8 10.2 8.2–12.5 8.3 6.8–9.9
Oklahoma 3.0 1.8–4.8 14.8 10.4–20.6 9.0 6.5–12.3 4.0 3.0–5.4 9.9 7.7–12.6 7.0 5.7–8.6
Rhode Island 2.2 1.4–3.2 7.6 5.8–9.9 4.9 3.7–6.4 5.9 4.6–7.4 10.4 9.4–11.5 8.3 7.5–9.2
South Carolina 3.8 2.3–6.3 5.4 3.6–8.1 4.8 3.4–6.7 6.8 4.8–9.7 12.3 9.2–16.2 9.8 8.2–11.7
South Dakota 2.3 1.3–3.8 10.1 7.7–13.3 6.3 4.8–8.2 3.7 2.4–5.6 8.0 5.7–11.2 5.9 4.4–8.0
Tennessee 2.7 1.8–3.9 8.6 6.1–11.9 5.6 4.4–7.3 6.4 4.4–9.4 7.9 6.2–10.0 7.3 5.8–9.0
Texas 3.1 2.2–4.5 10.3 8.4–12.6 6.8 5.7–8.0 6.3 4.9–8.0 11.1 9.6–12.9 8.7 7.7–9.9
Utah 3.2 2.2–4.7 11.6 8.5–15.5 7.5 5.7–9.7 5.8 4.0–8.5 15.9 11.0–22.5 11.4 8.1–15.9
Vermont 3.9 3.5–4.3 14.8 10.9–19.7 9.6 7.5–12.2 4.5 3.3–6.3 7.6 6.5–8.9 6.2 5.1–7.6
West Virginia 3.2 2.1–4.8 10.3 7.7–13.7 6.9 5.3–9.0 8.1 6.0–10.7 11.0 8.6–14.0 9.7 8.2–11.4
Wisconsin 1.8 0.9–3.6 5.4 4.0–7.3 3.6 2.8–4.8 3.9 2.6–5.7 7.3 5.5–9.7 5.6 4.4–7.2
Wyoming 3.7 2.8–4.8 18.4 16.2–20.8 11.4 10.0–13.0 6.6 5.1–8.6 9.5 7.7–11.6 8.3 7.1–9.7
Median 3.0 8.3 5.6 5.8 9.9 8.1
Range 1.2–4.7 4.7–18.4 3.6–11.4 3.0–8.6 6.9–15.9 5.2–11.4
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 6.7 4.9–9.2 13.2 10.4–16.5 9.9 8.1–12.0 10.0 7.9–12.6 13.3 10.9–16.2 11.7 9.9–13.8
Boston, MA 3.9 2.7–5.5 10.0 7.7–12.7 6.9 5.5–8.5 4.7 3.2–6.9 6.9 5.3–8.8 5.8 4.6–7.3
Broward County, FL 1.0 0.6–1.7 4.1 2.9–5.9 2.6 1.9–3.4 6.3 4.4–9.0 10.3 7.7–13.5 8.4 6.8–10.3
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 1.9 1.0–3.6 6.2 4.4–8.7 4.0 2.9–5.5 4.0 2.7–6.0 8.4 6.2–11.4 6.4 4.8–8.3
Chicago, IL 4.9 3.6–6.5 6.4 3.9–10.1 5.7 4.1–8.1 9.4 7.4–11.9 16.0 12.4–20.5 12.8 11.0–14.9
Dallas, TX 4.4 2.9–6.7 8.5 5.7–12.4 6.4 4.7–8.5 6.6 4.8–9.2 11.1 8.4–14.5 8.9 7.0–11.1
DeKalb County, GA 5.0 3.7–6.7 9.7 7.8–12.0 7.5 6.3–8.9 5.5 4.2–7.3 10.5 8.5–12.9 8.1 6.9–9.5
Detroit, MI 6.9 5.2–9.1 7.4 5.6–9.7 7.2 5.8–8.9 9.8 7.8–12.2 13.2 10.6–16.4 11.6 9.9–13.5
District of Columbia 5.3 3.6–7.5 9.4 6.9–12.7 7.4 6.0–9.0 8.5 6.6–10.7 13.7 10.6–17.6 11.3 9.5–13.3
Hillsborough County, FL 2.8 1.7–4.5 7.5 5.6–10.0 5.2 3.8–7.0 7.4 5.4–10.0 10.4 7.5–14.3 9.0 7.3–11.1
Houston, TX 2.6 1.8–3.8 7.0 5.3–9.2 4.9 3.9–6.1 6.5 4.8–8.7 14.1 11.5–17.2 10.4 8.7–12.3
Los Angeles, CA 3.1 1.7–5.6 9.0 5.3–14.8 6.1 4.0–9.3 5.2 3.9–7.0 15.3 10.4–22.0 10.3 7.5–14.0
Memphis, TN 6.0 4.2–8.4 5.3 3.6–7.7 5.8 4.4–7.5 10.0 7.4–13.3 8.7 6.5–11.6 9.4 7.5–11.7
Miami-Dade County, FL 2.2 1.6–3.1 7.1 5.3–9.3 4.9 3.9–6.1 7.4 5.9–9.2 9.1 7.5–11.0 8.6 7.4–9.9
Milwaukee, WI 5.8 4.2–7.9 9.2 6.8–12.5 7.5 6.0–9.3 9.8 7.5–12.7 13.7 11.1–16.9 12.0 10.2–14.0
New York City, NY 2.6 2.0–3.3 6.4 5.1–8.0 4.4 3.7–5.3 4.5 3.7–5.5 9.1 8.0–10.2 6.8 6.1–7.5
Orange County, FL 2.6 1.6–4.4 7.4 5.4–9.9 5.0 3.8–6.5 6.9 4.7–10.0 10.4 7.9–13.5 8.6 6.7–11.0
Palm Beach County, FL 2.3 1.5–3.5 6.3 4.6–8.7 4.3 3.3–5.6 6.9 5.3–9.1 11.3 9.1–14.1 9.2 7.9–10.8
Philadelphia, PA 2.7 1.9–4.0 4.7 3.4–6.4 3.7 2.9–4.8 7.4 6.0–9.0 14.2 11.9–16.9 10.5 9.1–12.0
San Bernardino, CA 3.1 2.0–4.7 7.4 5.5–9.9 5.3 4.1–6.9 7.3 5.3–10.0 14.1 10.8–18.2 10.8 8.7–13.4
San Diego, CA 2.7 1.5–5.0 7.2 5.7–9.1 5.0 3.8–6.6 4.7 3.1–6.9 11.0 9.1–13.3 8.1 6.7–9.7
San Francisco, CA 3.4 2.4–4.7 6.4 5.1–8.0 4.9 4.0–5.9 5.6 4.1–7.8 11.8 10.1–13.6 8.8 7.5–10.3
Median 3.1 7.3 5.2 6.9 11.2 9.1
Range 1.0–6.9 4.1–13.2 2.6–9.9 4.0–10.0 6.9–16.0 5.8–12.8
* On at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
† For example, a gun, knife, or club.
§ One or more times during the 12 months before the survey.
ĥ 95% confidence interval.
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Table 15

TABLE 15. Percentage of high school students who were in a physical fight on school property* and who had their property stolen
or deliberately damaged on school property,*† by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey,
2007
Had property stolen or deliberately
In a physical fight on school property damaged on school property
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 5.9 4.7–7.3 14.5 13.0–16.1 10.2 9.1–11.4 22.6 20.7–24.5 29.3 27.1–31.5 25.9 24.3–27.6
Blackĥ 15.2 13.1–17.6 20.0 16.9–23.6 17.6 15.5–19.9 25.6 22.2–29.3 32.8 29.4–36.4 29.3 26.8–31.8
Hispanic 12.4 10.1–15.3 18.5 16.2–21.1 15.5 13.9–17.2 26.0 22.7–29.5 32.0 28.5–35.7 29.0 26.3–31.7
Grade
9 11.4 9.5–13.7 22.3 19.9–24.9 17.0 15.7–18.4 28.8 25.6–32.2 32.2 28.9–35.8 30.6 27.9–33.4
10 8.3 6.4–10.8 15.0 12.9–17.2 11.7 10.0–13.5 25.8 23.3–28.5 29.3 26.0–32.8 27.6 25.2–30.0
11 7.3 5.6–9.5 14.8 12.7–17.3 11.0 9.6–12.6 19.7 17.5–22.1 32.1 29.4–35.0 25.9 24.0–27.9
12 6.2 4.8–7.9 11.1 9.6–12.7 8.6 7.4–9.9 18.8 16.5–21.3 27.2 23.6–31.1 22.9 20.4–25.6
Total 8.5 7.3–9.8 16.3 15.1–17.6 12.4 11.5–13.4 23.7 22.3–25.2 30.4 28.4–32.4 27.1 25.7–28.5
* One or more times during the 12 months before the survey.
†For example, a car, clothing, or books.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 16

TABLE 16. Percentage of high school students who were in a physical fight on school property* and who had their property stolen
or deliberately damaged on school property,*† by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
In a physical fight on school property Had property stolen or deliberately damaged on school property
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 6.0 4.1–8.8 14.4 10.6–19.3 10.4 8.3–13.0 26.8 22.7–31.3 31.9 28.0–36.0 29.8 26.4–33.4
Arizona 7.7 6.0–9.8 14.8 13.0–16.9 11.3 9.9–12.8 26.8 23.7–30.2 31.3 28.3–34.5 29.2 27.2–31.3
Arkansas 8.4 6.6–10.6 17.7 14.1–22.1 13.0 11.1–15.3 29.0 25.2–33.2 31.0 26.8–35.6 30.0 26.7–33.6
Connecticut 7.2 5.5–9.5 13.6 11.5–16.0 10.5 8.9–12.4 25.3 21.8–29.1 31.0 27.9–34.2 28.3 25.8–30.9
Delaware 7.5 5.8–9.6 13.0 11.0–15.2 10.5 9.2–12.0 18.5 16.1–21.0 20.9 18.4–23.7 19.8 17.9–21.9
Florida 8.3 7.1–9.8 16.2 13.8–19.0 12.5 10.9–14.3 24.6 22.1–27.2 27.9 26.0–30.0 26.3 24.6–28.1
Georgia 8.7 6.7–11.1 17.2 14.1–21.0 13.1 11.0–15.4 26.2 23.5–29.1 30.9 27.4–34.7 28.6 25.8–31.6
Hawaii 6.8 4.8–9.4 7.3 4.9–10.6 7.0 5.6–8.8 24.1 20.6–28.0 32.0 26.4–38.3 28.3 24.2–32.8
Idaho 6.8 4.8–9.5 17.4 14.9–20.3 12.3 10.5–14.5 31.0 26.8–35.5 34.8 30.5–39.3 33.1 29.9–36.5
Illinois 9.5 6.9–12.8 13.2 10.9–15.8 11.3 9.2–13.8 25.8 21.5–30.7 27.1 23.6–30.8 26.6 23.6–29.8
Indiana 7.6 5.9–9.8 14.5 12.2–17.1 11.5 9.7–13.5 26.7 23.7–30.0 30.9 27.8–34.3 29.2 26.6–31.8
Iowa 5.6 4.4–7.1 12.4 8.8–17.2 9.1 7.3–11.3 24.7 19.2–31.2 30.0 26.9–33.4 27.5 23.9–31.5
Kansas 6.3 4.5–8.8 14.4 11.4–18.1 10.6 8.6–12.9 21.4 17.9–25.4 27.8 23.7–32.3 24.8 21.5–28.6
Kentucky 7.3 5.9–9.0 13.7 11.4–16.4 10.6 9.3–12.0 24.1 21.6–26.7 25.0 22.6–27.5 24.7 22.9–26.6
Maine 6.9 4.7–9.9 12.9 9.6–17.1 10.1 7.9–12.7 23.2 19.9–26.9 20.8 17.0–25.2 22.1 19.3–25.1
Maryland 10.0 7.0–14.0 14.5 10.7–19.4 12.4 9.2–16.4 30.7 27.3–34.4 33.6 30.0–37.3 32.4 29.4–35.5
Massachusetts 5.8 4.3–7.7 12.3 10.6–14.3 9.1 7.6–10.9 18.0 16.3–19.8 24.5 22.1–27.0 21.2 19.7–22.9
Michigan 6.4 4.6–8.9 16.1 14.0–18.5 11.4 9.7–13.3 29.1 25.6–32.9 30.8 27.1–34.8 30.1 27.2–33.1
Mississippi 8.7 6.8–11.1 15.4 12.6–18.6 11.9 10.0–14.1 20.8 18.0–24.0 27.6 24.6–30.9 24.0 21.6–26.6
Missouri 6.0 3.7–9.5 15.1 13.3–17.2 10.7 8.3–13.7 28.0 23.6–32.8 28.7 25.5–32.0 28.3 25.0–31.8
Montana 8.1 6.7–9.7 15.7 13.6–18.1 12.0 10.5–13.5 26.3 23.6–29.1 30.8 28.3–33.5 28.6 26.9–30.4
Nevada 8.3 6.4–10.6 14.3 11.4–17.8 11.3 9.3–13.7 —ĥ — — — — —
New Hampshire 6.4 4.9–8.3 15.9 13.9–18.1 11.3 9.9–12.7 23.0 19.5–26.9 26.5 23.7–29.5 24.9 22.5–27.4
New Mexico 11.8 9.1–15.1 21.5 19.4–23.9 16.9 15.4–18.5 — — — — — —
New York 8.6 7.0–10.6 15.8 13.3–18.6 12.2 10.5–14.1 21.8 20.0–23.8 25.1 22.8–27.5 23.6 22.0–25.3
North Carolina 7.6 5.7–10.0 13.1 11.3–15.1 10.4 8.8–12.2 25.3 23.5–27.2 28.5 26.3–30.8 26.9 25.4–28.6
North Dakota 5.4 3.9–7.5 13.7 11.5–16.1 9.6 8.1–11.3 — — — — — —
Ohio 6.9 5.1–9.3 11.7 9.9–13.9 9.4 7.9–11.2 23.2 20.4–26.3 29.6 27.1–32.2 26.4 24.4–28.6
Oklahoma 5.4 3.9–7.4 15.4 13.0–18.1 10.6 9.0–12.3 19.4 17.3–21.7 25.1 22.6–27.7 22.3 20.4–24.3
Rhode Island 5.7 4.0–8.0 13.2 10.8–15.9 9.6 7.8–11.7 — — — — — —
South Carolina 7.3 5.2–10.2 14.4 11.0–18.5 10.8 9.2–12.8 25.4 21.3–30.0 31.2 27.7–34.9 28.5 25.3–31.9
South Dakota 5.2 3.0–9.0 13.3 9.8–17.8 9.3 6.9–12.4 19.5 16.3–23.2 28.0 24.3–32.1 24.0 21.0–27.3
Tennessee 9.7 7.3–12.6 15.2 12.2–18.9 12.4 10.3–15.0 24.2 21.3–27.4 27.4 23.6–31.5 25.8 23.3–28.6
Texas 9.6 7.9–11.6 18.1 15.8–20.5 13.9 12.1–15.9 28.2 25.6–30.9 32.6 29.1–36.3 30.4 27.8–33.2
Utah 8.3 5.9–11.6 14.9 11.1–19.7 11.6 9.2–14.6 27.1 21.4–33.6 40.0 34.1–46.2 34.0 29.9–38.3
Vermont 6.4 4.9–8.3 15.9 13.3–18.8 11.5 9.6–13.6 20.1 15.9–25.1 24.5 22.0–27.2 22.6 19.5–26.0
West Virginia 9.0 5.5–14.3 16.4 12.9–20.5 12.9 9.7–16.9 25.1 21.8–28.8 21.4 18.0–25.3 23.4 20.6–26.5
Wisconsin 8.2 5.9–11.2 14.3 12.3–16.6 11.4 9.5–13.5 — — — — — —
Wyoming 7.7 5.8–10.1 15.1 13.0–17.6 11.6 10.1–13.4 27.4 23.6–31.6 28.0 25.4–30.8 27.9 25.6–30.4
Median 7.5 14.5 11.3 25.2 28.6 27.2
Range 5.2–11.8 7.3–21.5 7.0–16.9 18.0–31.0 20.8–40.0 19.8–34.0
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 16.0 13.8–18.5 19.1 16.2–22.5 17.5 15.5–19.8 22.8 20.2–25.7 24.8 21.8–28.2 23.8 21.8–25.9
Boston, MA 8.7 6.5–11.7 11.2 8.6–14.6 10.0 8.3–12.0 — — — — — —
Broward County, FL 5.8 4.4–7.6 16.9 12.6–22.1 11.5 9.0–14.6 22.7 18.5–27.5 24.4 19.5–30.1 23.8 21.3–26.5
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 5.9 4.0–8.5 11.6 9.3–14.5 8.8 7.1–11.0 21.7 18.2–25.7 28.8 25.0–32.9 25.3 22.6–28.3
Chicago, IL 14.9 10.1–21.3 20.0 16.0–24.7 17.4 13.7–21.8 26.7 21.9–32.2 31.7 27.6–36.2 29.3 26.2–32.7
Dallas, TX 11.0 7.9–15.2 18.9 15.1–23.3 14.9 12.3–18.0 29.7 26.2–33.3 31.8 27.7–36.3 30.8 27.8–33.9
DeKalb County, GA 11.2 9.3–13.4 19.0 16.8–21.5 15.0 13.3–16.9 26.0 23.4–28.6 31.5 28.3–34.8 28.8 26.6–31.0
Detroit, MI 19.0 16.1–22.4 23.5 20.5–26.8 21.2 18.9–23.7 36.4 33.1–39.9 36.7 32.3–41.2 36.6 33.6–39.8
District of Columbia 16.1 13.4–19.3 22.8 18.8–27.3 19.8 17.5–22.3 25.8 23.0–28.8 28.5 24.5–32.7 27.2 24.5–30.1
Hillsborough County, FL 6.4 4.9–8.4 12.1 9.4–15.5 9.3 7.5–11.4 30.9 27.0–35.0 32.8 28.6–37.2 32.0 28.8–35.3
Houston, TX 9.4 7.6–11.7 16.3 13.6–19.5 12.8 11.1–14.7 29.0 26.0–32.2 31.9 28.5–35.5 30.5 28.0–33.1
Los Angeles, CA 11.8 7.4–18.4 25.6 17.7–35.5 18.9 13.2–26.4 25.3 21.7–29.3 27.8 23.0–33.3 26.6 23.0–30.6
Memphis, TN 15.0 12.0–18.5 20.5 16.2–25.6 17.8 15.0–20.9 28.7 25.6–32.1 30.1 25.7–34.9 29.5 26.6–32.6
Miami-Dade County, FL 10.7 8.6–13.3 18.1 15.5–20.9 14.7 12.9–16.6 26.1 23.4–28.9 26.6 23.6–29.9 26.6 24.4–28.9
Milwaukee, WI 15.8 13.3–18.7 20.6 17.2–24.5 18.4 16.3–20.7 — — — — — —
New York City, NY 10.4 8.7–12.3 14.9 13.2–16.7 12.5 11.3–13.8 22.6 20.5–24.8 22.9 20.6–25.4 22.8 21.0–24.6
Orange County, FL 8.5 6.4–11.2 14.6 11.7–18.1 11.5 9.6–13.7 21.7 18.6–25.1 27.3 24.2–30.7 24.5 22.2–27.0
Palm Beach County, FL 8.1 5.3–12.2 16.1 13.0–19.7 12.3 9.6–15.5 24.1 21.2–27.2 30.7 27.2–34.4 27.6 25.1–30.2
Philadelphia, PA 15.4 12.8–18.4 21.9 18.5–25.7 18.4 16.0–21.0 25.9 23.0–28.9 27.9 24.4–31.6 26.7 24.3–29.4
San Bernardino, CA 10.1 7.8–13.0 18.5 15.3–22.3 14.3 11.9–17.2 25.3 21.5–29.4 36.5 32.0–41.2 30.9 27.4–34.6
San Diego, CA 7.5 5.9–9.5 20.9 18.1–24.1 14.3 12.2–16.7 30.4 26.7–34.4 34.8 30.6–39.3 32.6 29.6–35.8
San Francisco, CA 5.7 4.2–7.6 10.5 8.6–12.8 8.1 6.9–9.6 20.1 17.5–23.0 29.1 26.4–31.9 24.7 22.8–26.8
Median 10.5 18.7 14.5 25.8 29.6 27.4
Range 5.7–19.0 10.5–25.6 8.1–21.2 20.1–36.4 22.9–36.7 22.8–36.6
* One or more times during the 12 months before the survey.
† For example, a car, clothing, or books.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 17

TABLE 17. Percentage of high school students who did not go to school because they felt unsafe at school or on their way to or
from school,* by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 4.2 3.1–5.7 3.7 2.9–4.7 4.0 3.2–4.9
Black§ 6.3 4.8–8.2 6.8 4.9–9.3 6.6 5.4–8.0
Hispanic 9.7 7.4–12.5 9.6 7.6–12.0 9.6 7.8–11.8
Grade
9 7.4 5.6–9.6 5.8 4.6–7.3 6.6 5.4–8.0
10 6.0 4.8–7.5 4.8 3.8–6.1 5.4 4.6–6.3
11 3.9 2.8–5.3 5.5 3.9–7.7 4.7 3.6–6.1
12 4.3 3.1–6.0 5.3 4.0–6.9 4.8 3.7–6.1
Total 5.6 4.6–6.7 5.4 4.6–6.3 5.5 4.7–6.3
* On at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
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Table 18

TABLE 18. Percentage of high school students who did not go to school because they felt unsafe at school or on their way to or
from school,* by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Site % CI† % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 5.6 4.0–7.7 5.2 3.3–8.0 5.5 4.2–7.1
Arizona 7.8 5.8–10.3 8.4 5.8–11.9 8.1 6.1–10.6
Arkansas 10.0 5.2–18.4 5.0 3.3–7.6 7.4 4.3–12.4
Connecticut 6.4 3.4–11.5 4.4 2.6–7.6 5.5 3.2–9.3
Delaware 5.0 3.8–6.5 5.7 4.3–7.3 5.3 4.3–6.4
Florida 6.2 5.2–7.4 7.0 5.6–8.8 6.7 5.8–7.8
Georgia 6.5 4.8–8.8 5.0 3.9–6.4 5.8 4.7–7.2
Hawaii 8.9 6.4–12.3 6.9 4.1–11.2 7.8 6.0–10.2
Idaho 6.2 4.2–9.0 5.0 3.3–7.5 5.7 4.1–7.9
Illinois 4.3 2.8–6.4 5.0 3.7–6.7 4.6 3.8–5.7
Indiana 6.1 4.5–8.2 5.2 3.7–7.2 5.9 4.5–7.8
Iowa 5.6 2.8–11.0 4.1 2.6–6.3 4.9 3.0–7.8
Kansas 4.7 2.9–7.6 6.4 3.7–10.8 5.7 3.6–8.9
Kentucky 5.2 4.1–6.5 5.3 4.1–6.9 5.3 4.3–6.6
Maine 5.6 3.7–8.5 5.0 3.5–7.0 5.3 3.9–7.2
Maryland 8.0 4.9–12.7 6.7 4.8–9.4 7.4 5.2–10.4
Massachusetts 4.2 3.2–5.5 5.1 4.0–6.5 4.7 3.8–5.8
Michigan 6.9 4.6–10.3 6.0 3.6–10.0 6.5 4.3–9.8
Mississippi 6.9 4.0–11.5 8.6 6.1–12.1 7.8 5.4–11.1
Missouri 8.7 4.3–16.8 6.4 3.3–12.0 7.5 3.9–13.9
Montana 4.4 3.2–6.0 4.0 3.0–5.2 4.2 3.4–5.3
Nevada 8.1 6.0–10.8 6.0 4.2–8.4 7.0 5.4–9.0
New Hampshire 4.9 3.5–6.8 4.0 2.8–5.8 4.5 3.5–5.8
New Mexico 8.8 6.9–11.2 8.9 7.3–10.8 9.0 7.7–10.5
New York 6.2 4.9–7.7 6.7 5.3–8.4 6.5 5.4–7.9
North Carolina 7.0 3.6–13.2 7.0 4.4–10.8 7.0 4.1–11.9
North Dakota —§ — — — — —
Ohio 4.1 3.1–5.5 3.5 2.5–4.9 3.8 3.0–4.8
Oklahoma 5.7 3.3–9.7 4.4 3.1–6.2 5.1 3.6–7.1
Rhode Island 3.9 2.7–5.6 4.4 3.5–5.5 4.2 3.4–5.1
South Carolina 5.9 4.3–8.1 5.6 4.0–7.8 5.8 4.5–7.4
South Dakota 4.3 2.2–8.4 3.7 2.2–6.1 4.0 2.5–6.3
Tennessee 9.3 6.1–14.0 5.3 4.2–6.6 7.3 5.5–9.7
Texas 6.6 4.6–9.2 5.1 4.0–6.5 5.8 4.5–7.4
Utah 4.2 2.5–6.9 6.5 4.5–9.2 5.4 4.2–6.8
Vermont 4.0 2.9–5.6 3.5 2.5–4.8 3.9 3.0–4.9
West Virginia 6.7 4.3–10.2 6.5 4.4–9.6 6.8 4.8–9.6
Wisconsin 7.0 4.9–9.9 5.7 3.8–8.5 6.3 4.4–9.0
Wyoming 7.3 5.9–9.0 4.8 3.6–6.5 6.1 5.1–7.3
Median 6.2 5.2 5.8
Range 3.9–10.0 3.5–8.9 3.8–9.0
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 9.9 7.8–12.4 9.1 7.1–11.6 9.6 8.1–11.3
Boston, MA 7.7 5.6–10.6 8.0 6.3–10.2 8.0 6.5–9.8
Broward County, FL 5.7 3.2–9.9 7.2 5.0–10.2 6.6 4.7–9.1
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 3.9 2.5–6.2 6.5 4.7–9.0 5.4 4.0–7.2
Chicago, IL 10.7 7.3–15.4 13.6 10.1–18.1 12.3 9.5–15.8
Dallas, TX 13.5 10.4–17.3 9.5 6.7–13.4 11.5 9.2–14.3
DeKalb County, GA 6.8 5.5–8.5 6.8 5.3–8.6 6.9 5.8–8.2
Detroit, MI 13.9 11.8–16.5 8.6 6.7–11.0 11.4 9.9–13.1
District of Columbia 12.3 9.8–15.2 16.1 13.5–19.0 14.4 12.5–16.5
Hillsborough County, FL 6.6 4.8–9.1 6.1 4.3–8.7 6.5 5.1–8.2
Houston, TX 11.3 9.4–13.4 11.3 9.3–13.7 11.3 9.9–12.8
Los Angeles, CA 11.9 7.1–19.3 11.0 6.0–19.5 11.4 6.6–18.9
Memphis, TN 10.2 7.9–13.0 6.4 4.7–8.7 8.6 7.0–10.5
Miami-Dade County, FL 7.6 5.9–9.6 9.1 7.2–11.5 8.6 7.0–10.4
Milwaukee, WI 9.8 7.7–12.3 9.5 7.5–11.9 9.6 8.2–11.3
New York City, NY 7.6 6.4–9.0 7.4 6.0–9.1 7.5 6.4–8.8
Orange County, FL 6.2 4.2–9.0 7.4 5.2–10.5 6.8 5.2–8.9
Palm Beach County, FL 9.8 7.5–12.7 9.9 7.8–12.4 9.9 8.1–12.0
Philadelphia, PA 9.3 7.5–11.6 10.3 8.4–12.6 9.8 8.2–11.6
San Bernardino, CA 14.1 11.2–17.6 11.7 9.3–14.6 13.0 11.0–15.3
San Diego, CA 5.7 3.9–8.2 6.5 4.9–8.8 6.2 4.9–7.9
San Francisco, CA 7.6 5.8–10.1 7.2 5.7–8.9 7.4 6.1–9.0
Median 9.5 8.8 9.1
Range 3.9–14.1 6.1–16.1 5.4–14.4
* On at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
† 95% confidence interval.
§ Not available.
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Table 19

TABLE 19. Percentage of high school students who felt sad or hopeless,*† by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth
Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 34.6 31.9–37.5 17.8 16.2–19.6 26.2 24.5–28.0
Blackĥ 34.5 31.5–37.6 24.0 21.2–27.1 29.2 27.4–31.1
Hispanic 42.3 39.7–45.0 30.4 26.6–34.4 36.3 33.8–38.8
Grade
9 34.8 31.0–38.8 22.1 19.3–25.2 28.2 25.7–30.9
10 37.7 34.2–41.5 20.3 18.3–22.5 28.9 26.9–31.1
11 34.5 30.8–38.4 19.5 17.1–22.1 27.1 24.9–29.3
12 35.9 32.8–39.1 22.6 19.7–25.9 29.4 27.1–31.8
Total 35.8 33.8–37.9 21.2 19.9–22.7 28.5 27.1–29.8
* Almost every day for 2 or more weeks in a row so that they stopped doing some usual activities.
†During the 12 months before the survey.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 20

TABLE 20. Percentage of high school students who felt sad or hopeless,*† by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 34.5 30.4–39.0 19.2 15.7–23.3 26.9 24.2–29.8
Arizona 40.6 35.5–45.9 24.4 21.9–27.2 32.5 29.4–35.8
Arkansas 40.9 36.7–45.2 22.1 18.3–26.3 31.4 28.5–34.5
Connecticut 29.3 26.9–31.9 16.4 14.4–18.6 22.8 21.2–24.4
Delaware 35.7 32.5–39.0 18.4 16.2–20.9 26.9 24.9–28.9
Florida 33.5 30.9–36.3 17.8 15.8–20.0 25.7 24.2–27.2
Georgia 37.1 34.1–40.2 22.5 19.8–25.4 29.8 27.9–31.8
Hawaii 39.6 35.4–44.0 24.7 19.1–31.2 31.8 28.1–35.8
Idaho 35.9 31.8–40.1 19.1 16.4–22.2 27.4 24.7–30.2
Illinois 34.7 30.9–38.7 18.2 15.5–21.2 26.5 24.0–29.1
Indiana 36.2 32.3–40.3 18.7 15.7–22.0 27.5 24.3–31.0
Iowa 27.7 23.0–32.8 16.7 13.5–20.5 22.1 19.4–25.1
Kansas 31.7 27.7–36.0 18.3 14.7–22.5 25.0 21.9–28.4
Kentucky 35.9 32.7–39.3 23.1 20.7–25.6 29.4 27.2–31.8
Maine 27.9 24.0–32.3 16.4 12.9–20.6 22.2 19.0–25.7
Maryland 30.7 26.7–35.1 15.5 12.9–18.7 23.2 20.7–25.8
Massachusetts 31.1 28.3–34.0 16.8 14.6–19.3 24.0 22.0–26.0
Michigan 34.2 30.2–38.3 19.7 17.5–22.0 26.9 24.6–29.2
Mississippi 36.8 32.1–41.8 19.1 15.5–23.3 28.2 24.8–31.8
Missouri 29.5 25.5–33.8 17.5 14.5–21.0 23.6 21.1–26.3
Montana 34.0 31.9–36.1 17.7 15.1–20.8 25.8 23.8–27.8
Nevada 35.2 31.4–39.2 17.5 15.0–20.3 26.1 23.8–28.6
New Hampshire 32.2 28.3–36.3 17.4 14.9–20.4 24.6 22.4–27.0
New Mexico 39.7 36.4–43.0 21.8 19.1–24.7 30.8 28.3–33.4
New York 33.5 31.1–35.9 18.1 16.1–20.4 25.8 24.1–27.6
North Carolina 32.4 29.1–36.0 21.5 19.8–23.4 26.9 25.1–28.9
North Dakota 23.2 19.8–26.9 11.4 9.1–14.2 17.1 15.0–19.5
Ohio 30.4 26.0–35.1 20.0 17.2–23.0 25.1 22.3–28.1
Oklahoma 32.7 29.6–36.0 19.0 15.7–22.8 25.7 23.3–28.3
Rhode Island 29.4 25.7–33.3 17.8 14.6–21.5 23.6 20.8–26.7
South Carolina 31.7 28.5–35.1 23.3 20.5–26.4 27.5 25.4–29.6
South Dakota 30.8 26.2–35.8 16.1 13.8–18.7 23.4 20.6–26.4
Tennessee 34.8 30.1–39.9 19.0 16.0–22.5 26.8 23.7–30.2
Texas 38.9 35.9–41.9 22.4 19.5–25.6 30.5 28.3–32.8
Utah 29.8 25.2–34.9 22.2 18.7–26.0 25.9 22.2–30.0
Vermont 27.7 23.4–32.5 14.6 12.5–17.1 20.9 17.9–24.2
West Virginia 40.9 35.6–46.5 20.5 17.0–24.6 30.7 27.0–34.6
Wisconsin 29.6 26.8–32.5 15.6 13.0–18.7 22.4 20.3–24.7
Wyoming 35.8 32.3–39.4 21.3 18.9–23.8 28.2 26.0–30.6
Median 33.5 18.7 26.1
Range 23.2–40.9 11.4–24.7 17.1–32.5
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 35.3 31.9–38.7 19.5 17.1–22.2 27.7 25.6–29.8
Boston, MA 31.4 27.6–35.4 20.8 18.3–23.6 26.2 23.7–28.9
Broward County, FL 36.0 31.5–40.8 20.1 15.6–25.4 28.0 25.2–31.1
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 32.5 28.3–37.1 22.7 18.8–27.2 27.6 24.7–30.8
Chicago, IL 36.9 31.2–43.1 22.6 16.4–30.3 30.0 26.1–34.2
Dallas, TX 41.5 37.1–46.1 22.2 19.0–25.7 32.2 29.3–35.2
DeKalb County, GA 33.0 30.0–36.2 19.9 17.3–22.7 26.5 24.4–28.7
Detroit, MI 35.4 32.2–38.8 20.7 17.6–24.2 28.4 26.2–30.8
District of Columbia 31.3 28.1–34.7 22.7 19.2–26.6 26.8 24.4–29.3
Hillsborough County, FL 37.1 31.6–43.0 22.0 17.6–27.0 29.8 26.0–34.0
Houston, TX 32.0 29.0–35.2 24.3 21.2–27.7 28.2 26.2–30.3
Los Angeles, CA 39.0 33.8–44.5 24.4 18.7–31.1 31.5 27.5–35.9
Memphis, TN 30.5 27.2–33.9 18.5 15.3–22.1 24.8 22.6–27.2
Miami-Dade County, FL 37.7 34.7–40.8 22.2 19.5–25.2 30.0 27.8–32.3
Milwaukee, WI 32.9 28.8–37.2 21.2 18.3–24.5 27.1 24.2–30.1
New York City, NY 39.1 36.9–41.2 20.6 18.5–23.0 30.2 28.6–31.9
Orange County, FL 36.0 31.9–40.4 16.8 14.0–20.1 26.6 23.8–29.6
Palm Beach County, FL 31.6 28.4–34.9 19.9 16.5–23.8 26.0 23.5–28.6
Philadelphia, PA 38.4 35.1–41.9 22.1 19.2–25.3 31.4 28.8–34.1
San Bernardino, CA 38.0 32.9–43.3 24.0 20.2–28.3 31.0 27.8–34.3
San Diego, CA 34.1 30.8–37.5 21.1 18.5–23.8 27.5 25.5–29.7
San Francisco, CA 33.1 30.1–36.3 22.4 19.7–25.4 27.7 25.6–29.9
Median 35.3 21.6 27.8
Range 30.5–41.5 16.8–24.4 24.8–32.2
* Almost every day for 2 or more weeks in a row so that they stopped doing some usual activities.
† During the 12 months before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
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Table 21

TABLE 21. Percentage of high school students who seriously considered attempting suicide* and who made a plan about how they
would attempt suicide,* by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Seriously considered attempting suicide Made a suicide plan
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 17.8 15.9–19.9 10.2 8.6–12.1 14.0 12.8–15.3 12.8 11.3–14.5 8.8 7.5–10.1 10.8 9.8–11.9
Black§ 18.0 15.5–20.8 8.5 6.3–11.5 13.2 11.1–15.6 12.0 9.7–14.6 7.1 5.2–9.6 9.5 7.8–11.6
Hispanic 21.1 18.5–23.9 10.7 8.7–13.1 15.9 14.0–17.9 15.2 13.2–17.5 10.4 8.7–12.5 12.8 11.3–14.4
Grade
9 19.0 16.5–21.7 10.8 9.0–12.8 14.8 13.4–16.3 13.4 11.1–16.2 9.2 7.7–10.9 11.2 9.8–12.8
10 22.0 19.4–24.9 9.3 7.6–11.3 15.6 13.9–17.4 16.1 13.7–18.9 8.9 7.2–11.0 12.5 10.7–14.4
11 16.3 14.2–18.6 10.7 8.6–13.2 13.5 12.1–15.1 11.6 9.4–14.3 9.2 7.5–11.2 10.4 9.1–11.8
12 16.7 13.8–20.0 10.2 8.5–12.2 13.5 11.7–15.5 11.7 9.8–13.8 9.5 7.9–11.4 10.6 9.4–12.0
Total 18.7 17.1–20.4 10.3 9.1–11.6 14.5 13.4–15.6 13.4 12.0–14.8 9.2 8.3–10.3 11.3 10.4–12.3
* During the 12 months before the survey.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
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Table 22

TABLE 22. Percentage of high school students who seriously considered attempting suicide* and who made a plan about how they
would attempt suicide,* by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Seriously considered attempting suicide Made a suicide plan
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI† % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 20.9 17.2–25.2 12.1 10.0–14.6 16.5 14.4–19.0 15.9 12.9–19.5 12.3 10.4–14.5 14.2 12.4–16.1
Arizona 20.0 16.8–23.6 12.2 10.4–14.3 16.1 14.1–18.3 13.2 10.4–16.6 11.4 10.3–12.7 12.3 10.6–14.2
Arkansas 22.0 19.0–25.4 12.8 10.0–16.2 17.4 15.4–19.6 18.0 14.7–21.9 8.1 6.1–10.7 13.0 11.3–14.8
Connecticut 16.5 14.0–19.4 9.7 7.9–11.8 13.1 11.4–14.9 12.6 10.5–15.0 7.9 6.4–9.7 10.3 8.8–12.0
Delaware 12.9 11.0–15.1 9.2 7.5–11.2 11.1 9.8–12.6 10.5 8.6–12.9 7.8 6.3–9.7 9.2 7.9–10.6
Florida 13.4 12.0–14.8 8.9 7.4–10.7 11.2 10.3–12.1 8.3 7.3–9.5 7.7 6.3–9.4 8.1 7.2–9.2
Georgia 18.6 15.6–22.0 12.4 10.5–14.6 15.5 13.7–17.6 13.9 11.5–16.6 10.9 9.0–13.2 12.4 10.7–14.4
Hawaii 24.2 20.0–29.1 13.2 9.8–17.7 18.5 15.6–21.9 20.1 17.1–23.6 14.0 10.6–18.3 17.0 14.5–19.8
Idaho 22.6 18.5–27.2 11.7 9.3–14.7 17.1 14.9–19.7 17.5 15.1–20.2 10.1 7.7–13.3 13.8 12.0–15.8
Illinois 17.0 14.7–19.4 8.9 7.2–11.0 12.9 11.4–14.7 10.9 9.4–12.6 7.4 6.2–8.8 9.2 8.2–10.2
Indiana 19.1 15.5–23.4 12.4 9.9–15.4 15.8 13.2–18.8 13.1 10.5–16.3 9.9 7.5–12.9 11.7 9.5–14.2
Iowa 14.7 12.0–17.8 9.8 7.5–12.7 12.3 10.4–14.5 11.8 9.6–14.6 7.2 5.1–10.1 9.6 8.0–11.5
Kansas 16.8 13.9–20.1 11.2 8.9–14.0 13.9 11.9–16.2 11.0 8.7–13.6 8.3 6.0–11.4 9.6 7.7–11.8
Kentucky 17.8 15.6–20.3 12.2 10.6–14.0 15.1 13.7–16.6 13.8 12.3–15.4 9.9 8.5–11.5 11.9 10.8–13.1
Maine 13.1 10.2–16.7 9.2 7.3–11.6 11.2 9.1–13.6 15.4 11.8–19.9 10.4 7.9–13.5 12.9 10.3–16.1
Maryland 15.8 12.5–19.8 10.3 8.3–12.8 13.2 11.1–15.5 10.8 8.8–13.2 9.7 8.1–11.5 10.2 8.8–11.8
Massachusetts 15.6 13.3–18.2 9.2 7.5–11.1 12.5 10.9–14.2 12.6 10.6–14.9 8.6 6.9–10.6 10.6 9.2–12.2
Michigan 19.7 16.3–23.7 10.8 9.0–12.8 15.3 13.2–17.7 15.5 13.2–18.2 8.3 6.7–10.3 12.0 10.4–13.7
Mississippi 17.0 13.2–21.6 9.3 7.5–11.5 13.4 11.5–15.7 13.1 10.3–16.5 7.5 5.2–10.8 10.6 8.8–12.7
Missouri 19.4 16.3–22.8 10.5 7.5–14.7 14.8 12.2–17.9 12.9 9.9–16.6 7.4 4.9–11.2 10.1 7.7–13.1
Montana 19.3 17.3–21.5 11.0 9.6–12.7 15.1 13.9–16.5 15.4 13.4–17.7 11.0 9.5–12.7 13.2 11.8–14.8
Nevada 19.1 16.3–22.2 9.8 8.1–11.9 14.3 12.7–16.1 17.4 14.8–20.4 11.0 8.8–13.7 14.2 12.3–16.3
New Hampshire 17.2 14.5–20.2 10.4 8.0–13.3 13.7 12.1–15.5 11.8 9.1–15.2 6.7 5.0–8.8 9.2 7.7–11.1
New Mexico 23.0 19.9–26.5 15.4 13.4–17.7 19.3 17.9–20.7 17.0 14.4–19.9 13.0 11.8–14.3 15.1 13.5–16.7
New York 15.1 12.8–17.8 9.0 7.3–11.0 12.1 10.4–14.0 11.4 9.9–13.1 8.9 7.6–10.4 10.2 8.9–11.5
North Carolina 15.8 12.9–19.1 9.2 7.9–10.7 12.5 10.8–14.4 11.2 9.1–13.7 7.8 6.8–9.0 9.5 8.3–10.9
North Dakota 12.8 10.6–15.3 8.2 6.2–10.6 10.4 8.7–12.3 9.0 7.4–11.0 7.2 5.6–9.0 8.1 6.9–9.5
Ohio 16.0 13.0–19.6 10.6 8.6–13.0 13.4 11.3–15.9 12.1 10.1–14.5 8.2 6.5–10.3 10.1 8.6–11.9
Oklahoma 16.9 14.1–20.1 11.0 9.5–12.6 13.9 12.4–15.5 13.0 11.0–15.2 8.7 7.0–10.8 10.9 9.5–12.5
Rhode Island 14.5 12.2–17.2 9.4 7.2–12.2 12.1 10.3–14.0 13.4 11.0–16.3 9.5 7.6–11.8 11.5 10.1–13.1
South Carolina 17.6 15.6–19.8 12.5 10.1–15.4 15.1 13.5–16.8 12.7 10.3–15.5 11.5 8.6–15.4 12.1 10.3–14.2
South Dakota 22.9 18.8–27.5 13.5 11.3–16.1 18.3 16.1–20.7 17.0 13.3–21.6 10.9 8.8–13.3 14.1 11.7–16.7
Tennessee 16.7 13.4–20.6 11.6 8.9–15.1 14.1 11.5–17.0 11.8 9.1–15.3 8.7 6.3–12.0 10.2 8.3–12.6
Texas 19.6 17.6–21.8 10.8 9.2–12.7 15.2 14.0–16.3 15.0 13.2–17.0 8.5 6.9–10.4 11.7 10.6–12.9
Utah 15.8 12.2–20.3 15.4 9.6–23.6 15.6 12.6–19.1 14.1 11.4–17.3 9.8 6.3–14.7 11.9 9.5–14.8
Vermont —§ — — — — — 10.4 8.4–12.7 7.6 6.3–9.1 8.9 7.4–10.7
West Virginia 19.8 15.9–24.4 12.3 9.6–15.6 16.0 13.6–18.8 14.0 11.4–17.2 10.4 8.3–12.9 12.2 10.6–14.0
Wisconsin 20.1 16.7–24.0 10.1 8.2–12.4 15.0 13.1–17.0 13.2 10.8–16.1 7.6 6.2–9.3 10.3 8.9–12.0
Wyoming 21.8 18.7–25.2 13.9 12.0–16.1 17.8 15.7–20.0 22.7 19.9–25.8 13.0 11.1–15.3 17.8 16.0–19.6
Median 17.4 10.8 14.5 13.1 8.7 11.5
Range 12.8–24.2 8.2–15.4 10.4–19.3 8.3–22.7 6.7–14.0 8.1–17.8
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 12.9 10.8–15.4 6.1 4.7–7.9 9.7 8.4–11.2 10.3 8.4–12.6 5.2 3.9–7.1 8.0 6.7–9.4
Boston, MA 13.6 11.2–16.3 7.4 5.7–9.6 10.5 9.0–12.4 13.2 11.3–15.4 9.3 7.2–12.0 11.4 10.0–13.1
Broward County, FL 13.3 10.6–16.6 8.1 5.5–11.9 10.7 8.8–12.8 11.0 8.1–14.8 6.8 4.7–9.6 8.9 7.4–10.7
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 13.6 10.8–17.1 9.3 6.8–12.5 11.5 9.5–13.8 12.0 9.8–14.5 8.6 6.2–11.7 10.3 8.6–12.2
Chicago, IL 17.1 13.7–21.2 9.3 6.6–12.9 13.4 11.8–15.2 12.2 9.0–16.3 8.5 6.3–11.4 10.4 8.6–12.6
Dallas, TX 20.6 17.1–24.5 9.0 6.7–11.8 15.0 12.9–17.3 14.0 11.3–17.2 9.0 6.8–11.9 11.6 9.8–13.7
DeKalb County, GA 16.6 14.4–19.1 9.8 8.1–11.8 13.3 11.9–14.8 14.8 12.9–16.8 9.5 7.9–11.3 12.2 10.7–13.7
Detroit, MI 14.8 12.7–17.2 8.5 6.7–10.8 11.8 10.4–13.4 12.3 10.4–14.6 8.9 6.7–11.6 10.7 9.1–12.6
District of Columbia 15.9 13.3–18.9 14.1 11.0–17.9 14.9 12.9–17.1 12.1 9.9–14.6 12.3 9.5–15.8 12.1 10.3–14.1
Hillsborough County, FL 17.9 14.2–22.5 11.2 8.3–14.9 14.7 12.5–17.3 17.4 13.4–22.4 11.7 9.6–14.1 14.7 12.3–17.5
Houston, TX 13.6 11.7–15.9 11.1 8.9–13.8 12.5 11.0–14.3 13.3 11.0–15.9 12.3 9.8–15.4 12.9 11.2–14.7
Los Angeles, CA 17.4 13.1–22.8 9.5 6.6–13.4 13.4 10.5–16.9 13.7 10.3–18.0 9.4 6.7–13.1 11.5 9.5–13.8
Memphis, TN 12.7 10.2–15.9 8.8 6.4–12.0 10.8 8.9–13.0 9.8 7.6–12.7 6.1 4.4–8.5 8.1 6.4–10.1
Miami-Dade County, FL 14.9 12.6–17.5 9.2 7.6–11.1 12.1 10.6–13.7 11.3 9.4–13.4 8.1 6.5–10.1 9.9 8.8–11.3
Milwaukee, WI 16.6 14.1–19.4 11.8 9.5–14.7 14.4 12.6–16.4 13.8 11.7–16.3 8.8 6.7–11.5 11.4 9.7–13.4
New York City, NY 15.4 13.8–17.0 7.7 6.4–9.3 11.8 10.6–13.1 12.9 11.5–14.5 8.6 7.0–10.4 11.0 9.8–12.2
Orange County, FL 18.0 14.3–22.5 8.5 6.4–11.3 13.4 11.3–15.7 12.8 9.8–16.6 6.2 4.7–8.2 9.5 7.6–11.7
Palm Beach County, FL 13.3 11.0–16.0 9.6 7.4–12.2 11.4 9.8–13.3 11.0 8.7–13.9 10.7 8.4–13.5 10.9 9.3–12.8
Philadelphia, PA 18.3 15.7–21.2 10.4 8.4–12.8 15.0 13.2–16.8 15.0 12.8–17.5 12.3 10.0–15.0 13.9 12.1–15.9
San Bernardino, CA 17.8 14.8–21.4 8.2 5.8–11.3 13.0 11.1–15.3 13.2 10.5–16.5 7.0 5.1–9.5 10.2 8.5–12.2
San Diego, CA 16.6 14.1–19.5 9.0 6.9–11.6 12.7 11.3–14.3 12.3 10.2–14.7 8.1 6.5–10.1 10.1 8.9–11.6
San Francisco, CA 15.4 13.4–17.6 10.2 8.3–12.4 12.8 11.4–14.4 15.1 13.0–17.6 11.8 9.6–14.5 13.5 11.9–15.4
Median 15.6 9.2 12.7 12.8 8.8 10.9
Range 12.7–20.6 6.1–14.1 9.7–15.0 9.8–17.4 5.2–12.3 8.0–14.7
* During the 12 months before the survey.
† 95% confidence interval.
§ Not available.
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Table 23

TABLE 23. Percentage of high school students who attempted suicide*† and whose suicide attempt resulted in an injury, poisoning,
or an overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse,* by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 2007
Attempted suicide Suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 7.7 6.7–8.9 3.4 2.7–4.3 5.6 5.0–6.3 2.1 1.6–2.8 0.9 0.6–1.3 1.5 1.2–1.9
Blackĥ 9.9 7.4–13.2 5.5 4.1–7.4 7.7 6.1–9.7 2.1 1.3–3.3 2.5 1.4–4.5 2.3 1.5–3.4
Hispanic 14.0 12.1–16.2 6.3 5.2–7.7 10.2 9.0–11.6 3.9 2.9–5.1 1.8 1.3–2.6 2.9 2.3–3.5
Grade
9 10.5 8.7–12.5 5.3 4.1–6.8 7.9 6.8–9.1 2.6 1.8–3.9 1.9 1.2–2.9 2.3 1.7–3.0
10 11.2 9.1–13.7 4.9 4.0–5.9 8.0 6.9–9.4 3.1 2.3–4.0 1.0 0.6–1.8 2.0 1.6–2.6
11 7.8 6.2–9.9 3.7 2.8–4.9 5.8 4.8–6.9 1.7 1.1–2.7 1.4 0.9–2.1 1.6 1.1–2.2
12 6.5 5.2–8.1 4.2 3.2–5.6 5.4 4.4–6.5 1.8 1.2–2.8 1.5 0.9–2.4 1.7 1.1–2.4
Total 9.3 8.2–10.4 4.6 4.0–5.2 6.9 6.3–7.6 2.4 2.0–2.9 1.5 1.2–1.8 2.0 1.7–2.3
* During the 12 months before the survey.
†One or more times.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 24

TABLE 24. Percentage of high school students who actually attempted suicide*† and whose suicide attempt resulted in an injury,
poisoning, or an overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse,* by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Attempted suicide Suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 12.7 8.7–18.3 8.3 6.5–10.7 10.7 8.6–13.2 3.3 1.9–5.7 3.0 2.0–4.4 3.2 2.3–4.5
Arizona 9.7 7.5–12.4 5.8 4.4–7.7 7.8 6.4–9.3 3.4 2.2–5.3 2.9 2.3–3.8 3.2 2.5–4.1
Arkansas 11.9 8.5–16.3 7.7 5.1–11.3 9.8 7.4–12.8 3.6 2.0–6.2 2.1 1.0–4.7 2.9 1.7–4.9
Connecticut 9.2 7.6–11.0 10.2 8.3–12.5 9.8 8.3–11.6 —ĥ — — — — —
Delaware 7.6 6.1–9.4 4.7 3.5–6.3 6.2 5.1–7.3 2.7 1.9–3.8 1.6 0.9–2.7 2.1 1.5–2.9
Florida 6.5 5.1–8.1 4.7 3.5–6.3 5.7 4.8–6.8 1.9 1.3–2.7 2.3 1.5–3.5 2.1 1.6–2.8
Georgia 8.3 6.6–10.4 7.2 5.6–9.3 7.9 6.6–9.4 2.3 1.7–3.2 2.6 1.8–3.7 2.5 1.9–3.1
Hawaii 14.4 10.7–19.1 9.7 6.2–15.0 12.0 9.5–15.0 2.8 1.5–5.0 3.1 1.2–7.6 3.0 1.6–5.5
Idaho 10.6 8.5–13.1 6.1 4.3–8.5 8.4 7.0–10.1 3.8 2.5–5.7 2.4 1.3–4.2 3.2 2.2–4.4
Illinois 8.6 6.2–11.7 4.8 3.6–6.4 6.8 5.5–8.3 2.2 1.2–3.9 1.7 1.1–2.6 2.0 1.4–2.7
Indiana 8.9 7.4–10.8 5.1 3.5–7.4 7.2 5.9–8.9 3.6 2.7–4.7 2.0 0.9–4.2 2.9 2.1–4.1
Iowa 9.2 7.0–12.1 4.2 2.5–7.1 6.7 5.0–8.9 2.1 1.2–3.7 1.3 0.6–3.0 1.7 1.1–2.7
Kansas 7.1 5.4–9.2 6.3 5.0–8.0 6.7 5.5–8.2 2.0 1.3–3.2 2.2 1.3–3.7 2.1 1.4–3.2
Kentucky 9.2 7.7–11.0 5.8 4.6–7.3 7.6 6.6–8.7 3.2 2.5–4.0 1.4 0.9–2.3 2.4 2.0–2.9
Maine 6.3 3.5–11.0 3.2 1.9–5.2 4.8 2.9–8.0 2.0 0.9–4.1 0.9 0.3–2.4 1.5 0.8–3.0
Maryland 8.1 5.4–12.1 6.5 4.9–8.6 7.5 5.5–10.2 2.3 1.1–4.8 2.1 1.2–3.5 2.3 1.5–3.5
Massachusetts 8.8 7.0–11.1 6.0 4.6–7.8 7.6 6.2–9.3 3.1 2.3–4.4 2.3 1.6–3.3 2.8 2.2–3.5
Michigan 11.6 9.4–14.3 6.5 4.7–8.9 9.1 7.4–11.2 3.2 2.1–4.7 1.9 1.2–2.9 2.6 1.9–3.5
Mississippi 9.0 6.3–12.7 6.0 4.0–8.7 7.9 6.4–9.7 2.7 1.8–4.2 2.2 1.1–4.6 2.6 1.7–3.9
Missouri 10.7 8.0–14.2 5.1 3.4–7.6 7.9 6.0–10.3 2.9 1.4–6.0 1.2 0.4–3.2 2.0 1.3–3.1
Montana 9.9 8.2–11.8 5.7 4.5–7.2 7.9 6.8–9.1 3.1 2.3–4.1 2.4 1.8–3.2 2.7 2.2–3.3
Nevada 11.9 9.6–14.7 5.9 4.1–8.5 8.9 7.3–10.9 4.3 2.9–6.5 2.2 1.1–4.3 3.3 2.3–4.6
New Hampshire 7.9 5.8–10.5 3.2 2.1–4.7 5.5 4.3–6.9 2.5 1.4–4.5 2.0 1.3–3.1 2.2 1.5–3.3
New Mexico 15.2 12.3–18.7 13.3 11.1–15.8 14.3 12.6–16.3 4.9 3.5–6.9 4.7 3.4–6.3 4.8 3.9–5.9
New York 8.0 6.5–9.7 6.9 4.8–9.7 7.6 6.1–9.4 2.7 2.0–3.7 2.5 1.7–3.8 2.7 2.0–3.6
North Carolina 13.8 11.0–17.2 12.8 10.7–15.3 13.3 11.6–15.3 — — — — — —
North Dakota 7.6 6.0–9.7 9.7 7.9–12.0 8.8 7.4–10.3 — — — — — —
Ohio 9.4 7.2–12.3 4.9 3.7–6.4 7.2 5.8–9.0 3.1 2.0–4.7 1.5 0.9–2.5 2.3 1.7–3.2
Oklahoma 7.0 5.6–8.7 4.6 3.4–6.2 5.9 4.9–7.1 2.5 1.6–3.8 1.6 0.9–2.7 2.1 1.4–2.9
Rhode Island 10.2 7.5–13.7 8.2 6.6–10.2 9.3 7.8–11.2 3.9 2.4–6.2 4.1 2.9–5.8 4.0 3.0–5.5
South Carolina 7.7 5.7–10.3 6.8 4.4–10.3 7.5 5.9–9.5 2.2 1.4–3.5 3.9 1.9–7.9 3.1 1.9–5.1
South Dakota 11.7 8.8–15.3 5.8 4.1–8.1 8.7 6.9–11.0 4.4 3.2–6.1 3.2 2.1–4.9 3.8 2.9–4.9
Tennessee 10.1 7.4–13.6 4.6 3.2–6.6 7.4 5.9–9.4 2.6 1.5–4.5 1.9 1.1–3.3 2.2 1.5–3.4
Texas 11.8 10.0–14.0 4.9 3.3–7.3 8.4 7.1–9.9 3.7 2.6–5.0 1.6 0.7–3.5 2.6 1.9–3.6
Utah 9.9 6.7–14.2 9.4 6.1–14.2 9.6 8.0–11.6 3.0 1.9–4.9 4.8 2.9–7.9 4.4 2.8–6.7
Vermont 5.8 4.2–7.8 3.8 2.6–5.3 4.8 3.5–6.5 1.9 1.3–2.7 1.1 0.7–1.9 1.5 1.1–2.1
West Virginia 11.4 8.6–14.8 6.7 3.9–11.2 9.1 6.9–11.8 3.8 2.5–5.7 3.0 1.3–6.9 3.4 2.1–5.3
Wisconsin 9.8 8.0–12.0 4.8 3.6–6.4 7.3 6.1–8.8 3.5 2.5–4.9 2.5 1.7–3.7 3.0 2.3–4.0
Wyoming 11.9 9.6–14.8 8.7 7.1–10.7 10.5 9.0–12.3 4.8 3.4–6.8 3.3 2.4–4.7 4.2 3.3–5.3
Median 9.4 6.0 7.9 3.0 2.2 2.6
Range 5.8–15.2 3.2–13.3 4.8–14.3 1.9–4.9 0.9–4.8 1.5–4.8
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 10.3 8.0–13.2 5.0 3.4–7.1 8.2 6.7–10.0 3.4 2.3–5.1 1.8 1.0–3.1 2.9 2.1–4.0
Boston, MA 10.8 8.3–13.8 10.0 7.2–13.8 10.4 8.4–13.0 3.1 1.8–5.1 4.6 2.6–8.1 3.8 2.5–5.9
Broward County, FL 6.9 5.5–8.8 3.1 1.8–5.4 5.1 4.0–6.4 1.4 0.6–2.9 1.5 0.6–3.9 1.4 0.8–2.7
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 11.6 9.2–14.5 13.3 10.6–16.7 12.7 10.6–15.1 — — — — — —
Chicago, IL 9.7 6.6–13.9 10.1 6.4–15.4 10.1 8.6–11.9 1.9 0.9–3.8 1.3 0.4–3.6 1.8 1.0–3.4
Dallas, TX 16.6 13.5–20.4 9.4 7.0–12.3 13.3 11.2–15.8 2.7 1.7–4.3 4.3 2.7–6.8 3.5 2.5–4.8
DeKalb County, GA 9.4 7.7–11.5 8.1 6.3–10.2 8.9 7.5–10.4 2.1 1.4–3.3 3.8 2.8–5.3 3.1 2.3–4.0
Detroit, MI 11.9 9.9–14.3 8.5 6.3–11.3 10.4 8.7–12.3 3.1 2.1–4.6 2.4 1.3–4.2 2.9 2.0–4.1
District of Columbia 12.4 10.0–15.4 10.7 7.8–14.7 12.2 10.0–14.7 4.0 2.7–5.8 4.1 2.4–6.8 4.0 2.9–5.4
Hillsborough County, FL 11.1 8.3–14.6 7.9 5.1–12.1 9.8 7.7–12.4 3.1 1.8–5.2 2.7 1.3–5.4 2.9 1.9–4.4
Houston, TX 9.4 7.4–11.7 9.8 7.5–12.7 9.7 8.1–11.6 2.6 1.6–4.4 5.2 3.5–7.5 3.8 2.7–5.5
Los Angeles, CA 10.7 6.4–17.4 5.5 2.8–10.5 8.1 5.0–13.1 2.3 0.8–6.5 2.4 1.0–5.6 2.3 1.1–4.6
Memphis, TN 9.6 6.9–13.1 5.7 3.9–8.4 8.0 6.1–10.3 2.9 1.6–5.1 1.4 0.6–3.6 2.2 1.4–3.6
Miami-Dade County, FL 10.3 8.4–12.5 7.3 5.5–9.7 9.1 7.8–10.7 3.4 2.2–5.0 2.7 1.6–4.5 3.2 2.4–4.5
Milwaukee, WI 11.4 8.8–14.5 11.7 8.7–15.5 11.8 9.5–14.5 3.6 2.4–5.4 5.6 3.8–8.3 4.7 3.7–6.1
New York City, NY 9.3 8.0–10.6 5.4 4.2–6.8 7.5 6.5–8.7 2.3 1.8–2.9 1.9 1.3–2.7 2.1 1.7–2.6
Orange County, FL 10.5 7.4–14.8 5.4 3.6–8.2 8.0 6.0–10.6 4.0 2.5–6.5 1.7 0.8–3.6 2.9 1.9–4.4
Palm Beach County, FL 7.9 5.9–10.6 6.4 4.6–9.0 7.3 5.7–9.2 2.3 1.4–3.9 3.2 2.0–5.2 2.8 1.9–4.2
Philadelphia, PA 12.6 10.4–15.2 11.9 9.1–15.4 12.5 10.6–14.6 3.6 2.5–5.1 4.9 3.2–7.4 4.2 3.3–5.3
San Bernardino, CA 13.7 10.7–17.4 3.3 2.0–5.3 8.7 6.9–10.9 3.9 2.5–5.9 1.0 0.4–2.4 2.5 1.7–3.7
San Diego, CA 9.4 7.5–11.8 5.9 4.3–8.2 7.7 6.5–9.0 2.4 1.4–4.0 2.9 1.8–4.8 2.7 2.0–3.5
San Francisco, CA 7.3 5.8–9.1 5.3 4.0–7.1 6.4 5.4–7.6 1.5 0.9–2.5 2.3 1.4–3.7 1.9 1.3–2.7
Median 10.4 7.6 9.0 2.9 2.7 2.9
Range 6.9–16.6 3.1–13.3 5.1–13.3 1.4–4.0 1.0–5.6 1.4–4.7
* During the 12 months before the survey.
† One or more times.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 25

TABLE 25. Percentage of high school students who ever smoked cigarettes, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States,
Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Lifetime cigarette use* Lifetime daily cigarette use†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 48.3 43.4–53.4 51.7 46.9–56.4 50.0 45.4–54.7 14.9 12.2–18.2 15.8 13.0–19.0 15.4 12.8–18.5
Blackĥ 48.8 44.0–53.6 52.0 47.1–56.9 50.3 46.5–54.1 5.0 3.1–7.9 7.3 5.5–9.6 6.2 4.5–8.4
Hispanic 52.1 47.7–56.6 54.5 48.9–59.9 53.3 49.2–57.3 7.1 5.3–9.3 8.9 7.2–10.9 8.0 6.6–9.6
Grade
9 39.2 34.8–43.7 46.0 41.7–50.4 42.7 38.9–46.5 6.3 4.7–8.4 10.3 7.6–13.8 8.3 6.5–10.6
10 48.7 44.2–53.3 48.8 44.2–53.4 48.8 44.7–52.9 12.4 9.5–15.8 11.7 9.1–14.9 12.0 9.6–15.0
11 51.4 47.0–55.8 55.4 51.4–59.4 53.4 49.7–57.2 14.0 10.1–19.1 13.4 11.2–16.0 13.8 10.9–17.4
12 58.5 53.3–63.6 60.1 55.1–64.8 59.3 54.7–63.7 15.8 12.7–19.4 18.0 14.3–22.3 16.8 13.7–20.5
Total 48.8 45.6–52.1 51.8 48.4–55.3 50.3 47.2–53.5 11.8 9.8–14.1 13.0 10.9–15.4 12.4 10.4–14.7
* Ever tried cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs.
†Ever smoked at least one cigarette every day for 30 days.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 26

TABLE 26. Percentage of high school students who ever smoked cigarettes, by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 2007
Lifetime cigarette use* Lifetime daily cigarette use†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 54.0 47.8–60.0 51.1 45.5–56.7 52.7 48.3–57.1 15.5 11.6–20.5 12.0 9.7–14.7 13.8 11.7–16.3
Arizona 53.1 48.5–57.6 56.5 52.0–60.9 54.8 50.7–58.9 12.1 10.2–14.4 12.0 8.9–16.1 12.1 9.9–14.7
Arkansas 59.3 54.7–63.7 60.4 55.0–65.5 59.7 56.3–63.1 15.0 11.8–18.8 16.6 13.5–20.3 15.8 13.3–18.7
Connecticut —ĥ — — — — — — — — — — —
Delaware 51.8 47.9–55.7 52.0 48.6–55.3 51.7 49.1–54.3 13.2 10.9–15.9 13.3 11.2–15.8 13.3 11.7–15.1
Florida — — — — — — 9.4 7.6–11.6 11.1 9.6–12.9 10.3 8.9–11.8
Georgia 53.6 50.3–56.9 60.2 57.3–63.0 56.9 54.8–59.0 12.4 10.4–14.7 13.5 11.2–16.2 13.0 11.7–14.4
Hawaii — — — — — — — — — — — —
Idaho 46.7 39.1–54.4 49.7 43.5–55.9 48.3 42.8–53.7 13.4 10.2–17.3 13.1 10.0–17.1 13.4 11.1–16.0
Illinois 53.7 46.6–60.7 50.1 44.0–56.3 51.8 46.2–57.4 15.8 12.3–20.0 11.8 8.8–15.7 13.7 11.0–17.1
Indiana 50.0 45.5–54.5 56.1 50.8–61.3 53.3 48.8–57.7 15.5 11.9–19.9 15.6 12.4–19.6 15.8 12.8–19.4
Iowa 42.7 36.4–49.3 43.8 38.1–49.6 43.3 37.9–49.0 12.4 9.5–16.0 10.9 8.1–14.5 11.6 9.4–14.3
Kansas 48.4 44.4–52.5 48.7 44.3–53.2 48.6 45.9–51.3 14.0 11.2–17.4 14.3 11.9–17.1 14.1 11.8–16.9
Kentucky 62.4 59.1–65.6 62.0 58.3–65.6 62.2 59.4–65.0 21.4 19.0–24.0 20.8 17.3–24.7 21.1 19.0–23.4
Maine — — — — — — — — — — — —
Maryland 49.8 45.4–54.1 50.5 43.7–57.3 50.3 45.7–55.0 10.7 7.7–14.7 12.2 8.1–17.9 11.6 8.4–15.7
Massachusetts 45.5 41.2–49.9 47.3 43.5–51.3 46.4 42.8–50.1 11.1 8.9–13.7 13.0 10.7–15.7 12.0 10.2–14.2
Michigan 51.7 46.6–56.8 50.6 46.2–55.0 51.2 47.4–54.9 12.0 8.9–16.0 13.3 10.4–16.9 12.7 10.3–15.6
Mississippi 54.8 49.0–60.5 60.8 56.4–65.0 57.8 53.8–61.6 10.6 8.6–13.0 12.1 8.9–16.1 11.6 9.7–13.8
Missouri 51.3 44.3–58.2 50.2 44.1–56.3 50.9 44.9–56.9 14.5 10.5–19.5 14.2 11.0–18.1 14.4 11.3–18.3
Montana 52.5 48.7–56.3 51.4 48.0–54.8 52.1 48.9–55.2 13.7 11.6–16.1 12.0 9.9–14.5 12.9 11.2–14.8
Nevada 44.7 40.4–49.1 44.5 40.6–48.5 44.7 41.7–47.8 — — — — — —
New Hampshire — — — — — — — — — — — —
New Mexico 59.5 52.4–66.2 60.1 54.3–65.7 59.9 53.8–65.7 — — — — — —
New York 45.7 41.6–49.9 45.0 41.9–48.0 45.4 42.8–48.0 11.0 9.2–13.0 9.9 8.5–11.5 10.5 9.2–11.9
North Carolina — — — — — — — — — — — —
North Dakota 50.4 45.3–55.4 47.8 42.6–53.1 49.1 44.7–53.6 14.4 11.5–18.0 12.5 10.2–15.3 13.6 11.4–16.0
Ohio 50.2 45.3–55.0 52.1 47.5–56.8 51.2 47.2–55.1 — — — — — —
Oklahoma 51.0 44.9–57.2 58.2 53.9–62.4 54.8 50.3–59.3 12.6 10.1–15.6 14.1 11.5–17.1 13.3 11.1–15.9
Rhode Island 42.9 38.5–47.3 43.4 37.3–49.6 43.1 38.6–47.8 11.0 8.8–13.7 12.0 8.3–17.1 11.5 8.9–14.8
South Carolina 55.5 49.8–61.1 59.6 52.8–66.2 57.6 52.1–62.9 12.1 9.0–16.1 14.0 10.7–18.1 13.1 10.5–16.2
South Dakota 52.8 44.8–60.6 56.4 48.5–64.0 54.6 47.3–61.7 17.3 13.9–21.4 16.6 11.9–22.5 17.0 13.3–21.3
Tennessee 52.2 47.2–57.1 56.9 52.4–61.2 54.6 50.5–58.6 15.4 12.2–19.3 18.7 15.3–22.6 17.1 14.2–20.4
Texas 53.5 50.1–56.8 57.7 53.7–61.5 55.6 52.4–58.7 10.3 7.7–13.7 12.2 10.1–14.7 11.3 9.3–13.6
Utah 20.6 16.1–26.0 29.1 21.1–38.8 24.9 20.0–30.5 2.8 1.8–4.5 6.4 3.4–11.8 4.6 3.1–6.9
Vermont — — — — — — — — — — — —
West Virginia 59.8 53.9–65.4 58.6 52.7–64.3 59.3 54.3–64.2 20.1 15.2–26.2 19.1 15.3–23.6 19.5 15.8–23.9
Wisconsin 48.9 44.6–53.2 49.1 45.1–53.2 49.0 45.6–52.3 14.6 12.1–17.5 13.8 11.1–17.1 14.2 12.2–16.5
Wyoming 54.5 50.4–58.5 54.2 50.2–58.2 54.4 51.3–57.6 17.9 14.8–21.5 13.7 11.1–16.7 15.8 13.6–18.3
Median 51.7 51.7 51.9 13.3 13.2 13.3
Range 20.6–62.4 29.1–62.0 24.9–62.2 2.8–21.4 6.4–20.8 4.6–21.1
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 40.5 37.3–43.8 44.1 40.0–48.3 42.4 39.8–45.0 4.8 3.3–6.9 6.9 5.3–9.1 5.8 4.6–7.2
Boston, MA 44.0 39.8–48.2 42.7 38.8–46.7 43.5 40.3–46.7 5.2 3.8–7.2 4.4 3.1–6.1 4.8 3.8–6.0
Broward County, FL 33.5 28.8–38.6 42.3 37.2–47.6 38.1 33.9–42.3 4.3 2.8–6.8 9.7 7.6–12.4 7.1 5.6–8.8
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC — — — — — — — — — — — —
Chicago, IL 57.4 49.9–64.5 57.7 48.6–66.4 57.6 49.9–64.9 7.9 5.8–10.6 6.3 4.0–9.7 7.2 5.2–9.8
Dallas, TX 52.0 47.3–56.8 63.0 56.5–69.1 57.2 52.6–61.7 6.0 4.1–8.5 11.5 8.9–14.8 8.6 6.9–10.7
DeKalb County, GA 42.3 38.8–45.9 49.0 45.8–52.2 45.6 43.1–48.2 3.1 2.1–4.6 6.7 5.3–8.3 4.9 4.0–5.9
Detroit, MI 47.8 44.6–50.9 50.3 46.2–54.4 49.1 46.2–52.0 2.5 1.7–3.6 5.3 3.6–7.6 4.0 3.0–5.2
District of Columbia 47.6 44.0–51.2 52.7 47.2–58.1 50.0 46.7–53.3 5.0 3.5–7.0 8.4 6.2–11.1 6.6 5.2–8.2
Hillsborough County, FL 44.5 38.8–50.3 47.5 40.6–54.5 46.0 41.0–51.0 7.4 5.4–10.0 11.0 8.1–14.7 9.1 7.0–11.7
Houston, TX 48.3 44.0–52.7 56.8 52.1–61.4 52.4 48.9–56.0 5.9 4.2–8.2 7.6 5.8–9.9 6.8 5.4–8.5
Los Angeles, CA 41.9 34.6–49.5 47.9 40.8–55.1 44.9 38.4–51.5 4.0 2.1–7.6 5.5 3.0–10.1 4.8 2.9–7.6
Memphis, TN 40.9 36.4–45.5 45.3 41.3–49.3 43.3 40.4–46.2 2.7 1.3–5.3 6.3 4.5–8.8 4.4 3.1–6.3
Miami-Dade County, FL 39.3 36.1–42.6 38.7 35.0–42.5 39.2 36.5–42.0 4.6 3.5–6.1 6.2 4.5–8.3 5.7 4.5–7.1
Milwaukee, WI 50.1 46.4–53.8 50.7 46.2–55.2 50.6 47.5–53.8 7.5 5.4–10.2 7.4 5.6–9.9 7.4 5.8–9.4
New York City, NY 43.6 40.4–46.9 43.4 40.6–46.2 43.5 41.0–46.0 5.3 4.3–6.6 6.0 4.7–7.7 5.7 4.8–6.6
Orange County, FL 39.2 33.4–45.3 43.6 38.1–49.2 41.3 36.9–45.7 6.6 3.7–11.5 6.4 4.4–9.2 6.4 4.5–9.0
Palm Beach County, FL 38.2 33.4–43.2 41.2 36.0–46.7 39.7 35.8–43.8 6.7 5.1–8.9 6.6 4.9–8.9 6.7 5.4–8.3
Philadelphia, PA 49.4 45.9–53.0 52.8 48.4–57.2 50.8 47.7–53.7 6.3 4.8–8.2 8.4 6.6–10.7 7.2 6.0–8.5
San Bernardino, CA 41.3 36.9–45.8 42.5 38.3–46.8 41.8 38.5–45.3 5.4 3.9–7.4 5.5 3.7–8.2 5.6 4.2–7.3
San Diego, CA 39.1 33.9–44.5 47.7 42.8–52.7 43.6 39.5–47.8 3.9 2.7–5.6 6.6 4.6–9.3 5.4 4.2–7.0
San Francisco, CA 34.5 31.4–37.7 38.4 35.1–41.8 36.5 34.3–38.8 5.2 4.0–6.6 6.7 5.2–8.5 6.0 5.0–7.1
Median 42.3 47.5 43.6 5.2 6.6 6.0
Range 33.5–57.4 38.4–63.0 36.5–57.6 2.5–7.9 4.4–11.5 4.0–9.1
* Ever tried cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs.
† Ever smoked at least one cigarette every day for 30 days.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 27

TABLE 27. Percentage of high school students who currently smoked cigarettes, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United
States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Current cigarette use* Current frequent cigarette use†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 22.5 19.6–25.7 23.8 20.2–27.8 23.2 20.4–26.2 10.2 8.0–12.8 10.6 8.7–12.8 10.4 8.5–12.6
Blackĥ 8.4 6.6–10.6 14.9 11.7–18.8 11.6 9.5–14.1 2.1 1.4–3.1 5.8 3.9–8.4 3.9 2.8–5.4
Hispanic 14.6 11.3–18.8 18.7 15.0–23.2 16.7 13.5–20.4 3.3 2.2–5.0 5.1 3.8–6.9 4.2 3.2–5.5
Grade
9 12.3 10.1–15.0 16.2 12.4–21.1 14.3 11.9–17.1 3.3 2.2–4.9 5.4 3.5–8.1 4.3 3.2–5.9
10 19.1 16.1–22.6 20.0 16.3–24.2 19.6 16.7–22.8 6.8 5.2–8.8 7.2 5.4–9.6 7.0 5.5–8.8
11 19.6 15.2–24.9 23.4 20.8–26.1 21.6 18.4–25.2 9.7 6.8–13.7 10.5 8.6–12.7 10.1 7.9–13.0
12 25.5 21.8–29.5 27.4 22.5–32.9 26.5 22.5–30.8 11.3 8.4–14.9 13.1 10.2–16.7 12.2 9.5–15.5
Total 18.7 16.5–21.1 21.3 18.3–24.6 20.0 17.6–22.6 7.4 5.9–9.2 8.7 7.2–10.5 8.1 6.7–9.8
* Smoked cigarettes on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
†Smoked cigarettes on 20 or more days during the 30 days before the survey.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 28

TABLE 28. Percentage of high school students who currently smoked cigarettes, by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk
Behavior Survey, 2007
Current cigarette use* Current frequent cigarette use†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 19.7 15.2–25.2 15.9 13.3–18.8 17.8 15.0–20.8 9.1 5.3–15.3 5.6 4.0–7.7 7.4 4.8–11.0
Arizona 21.3 18.2–24.7 22.9 19.2–27.1 22.2 19.0–25.7 6.1 4.6–8.0 7.6 5.5–10.4 6.9 5.3–8.8
Arkansas 20.6 16.9–24.9 20.9 16.8–25.5 20.7 17.9–23.8 8.8 6.4–11.9 8.6 5.8–12.7 8.7 6.5–11.5
Connecticut 22.6 19.5–26.0 19.5 15.9–23.7 21.1 18.6–23.9 9.2 7.4–11.3 8.6 6.4–11.5 8.9 7.4–10.8
Delaware 19.1 16.4–22.1 20.7 18.5–23.2 20.2 18.4–22.1 8.2 6.6–10.3 8.5 6.9–10.5 8.5 7.3–9.9
Florida 14.6 12.8–16.6 17.1 15.2–19.1 15.9 14.6–17.4 5.5 4.5–6.8 8.0 6.5–9.7 6.8 5.8–8.0
Georgia 16.5 14.5–18.8 20.7 18.1–23.4 18.6 16.9–20.4 6.7 4.9–8.9 7.1 5.1–9.8 6.9 5.6–8.5
Hawaii 15.3 11.3–20.3 10.4 6.1–17.3 12.8 9.6–16.9 7.0 4.8–9.9 2.2 0.6–7.8 4.5 2.8–7.1
Idaho 19.8 15.3–25.3 19.9 15.9–24.6 20.0 16.8–23.6 8.4 6.2–11.4 7.9 5.8–10.7 8.2 6.7–10.1
Illinois 21.8 18.2–25.9 18.1 14.3–22.8 19.9 16.9–23.3 9.9 7.4–13.1 8.9 6.4–12.2 9.3 7.5–11.6
Indiana 19.9 15.2–25.5 24.6 19.4–30.6 22.5 17.8–27.9 10.4 7.5–14.2 11.0 8.6–13.9 10.8 8.4–13.7
Iowa 20.2 16.0–25.2 17.7 12.5–24.4 18.9 15.4–23.0 8.8 5.5–13.9 7.5 4.5–12.2 8.1 6.1–10.8
Kansas 21.2 18.5–24.0 20.1 16.6–24.0 20.6 18.2–23.2 8.5 6.2–11.5 10.3 8.2–13.0 9.4 7.4–11.8
Kentucky 25.8 23.9–27.7 26.2 23.2–29.3 26.0 24.1–28.1 14.2 12.5–16.0 12.5 10.3–15.2 13.4 11.8–15.2
Maine 14.7 12.1–17.7 13.3 9.7–18.1 14.0 11.3–17.1 6.6 4.5–9.6 5.3 3.2–8.5 5.9 4.0–8.7
Maryland 15.8 12.3–20.1 17.4 12.1–24.4 16.8 12.8–21.7 6.6 4.5–9.5 8.0 4.4–13.9 7.4 5.1–10.5
Massachusetts 17.9 15.1–21.0 17.6 14.7–20.9 17.7 15.3–20.4 7.7 6.1–9.8 8.4 6.5–10.8 8.1 6.5–10.0
Michigan 17.5 14.0–21.7 18.4 14.7–22.9 18.0 14.7–21.8 7.6 5.5–10.4 8.7 6.3–11.8 8.1 6.2–10.7
Mississippi 18.4 15.7–21.3 19.4 15.8–23.5 19.2 16.9–21.7 6.5 5.1–8.4 7.8 5.9–10.1 7.3 6.0–8.8
Missouri 23.2 17.6–30.0 24.3 19.7–29.6 23.8 19.3–28.8 11.8 7.8–17.5 11.0 8.3–14.3 11.5 8.8–14.8
Montana 21.3 17.8–25.1 18.6 15.9–21.5 20.0 17.3–23.0 8.4 7.0–10.2 7.6 6.2–9.3 8.1 6.9–9.4
Nevada 14.3 11.4–17.8 12.8 10.1–16.1 13.6 11.4–16.2 5.1 3.5–7.4 4.8 3.3–7.0 5.0 3.8–6.6
New Hampshire 17.2 14.0–21.0 20.6 17.6–23.9 19.0 16.5–21.7 7.5 5.8–9.5 10.3 8.1–13.0 8.9 7.4–10.8
New Mexico 23.7 18.7–29.5 24.9 21.9–28.1 24.2 20.8–27.9 5.6 3.4–9.2 7.9 6.9–9.0 6.7 5.5–8.2
New York 14.7 12.3–17.5 12.9 11.2–14.8 13.8 12.2–15.7 6.4 5.1–8.0 5.7 4.6–7.1 6.0 5.1–7.1
North Carolina 22.2 19.9–24.7 22.5 19.8–25.4 22.5 20.3–24.8 9.3 7.4–11.6 9.2 7.8–10.8 9.3 7.8–10.9
North Dakota 22.7 18.7–27.2 19.4 16.3–23.0 21.1 18.3–24.3 11.0 8.5–14.0 8.9 6.8–11.5 9.9 8.2–12.0
Ohio 19.6 16.2–23.4 23.7 19.7–28.4 21.6 18.3–25.4 8.9 6.4–12.3 11.6 8.9–14.9 10.3 7.9–13.2
Oklahoma 21.0 17.7–24.7 25.5 21.6–29.7 23.2 20.1–26.6 7.6 5.8–9.9 11.1 8.8–13.9 9.4 7.5–11.6
Rhode Island 13.8 9.8–19.0 16.4 12.1–21.7 15.1 11.7–19.3 4.6 2.6–8.1 7.7 5.2–11.4 6.2 4.1–9.2
South Carolina 17.4 13.6–22.0 18.1 13.8–23.3 17.8 14.5–21.7 7.8 5.6–10.8 8.5 5.7–12.4 8.1 6.0–10.9
South Dakota 24.6 18.5–32.0 24.7 17.3–34.1 24.7 18.4–32.4 10.8 7.7–15.0 12.8 9.0–18.0 11.8 8.9–15.5
Tennessee 23.8 19.9–28.3 27.0 22.6–31.9 25.5 21.9–29.5 10.0 7.8–12.9 14.0 10.4–18.5 12.1 9.6–15.2
Texas 19.1 15.7–23.0 23.0 20.3–26.0 21.1 18.3–24.2 5.8 4.0–8.3 8.4 6.7–10.5 7.1 5.5–9.1
Utah 5.7 4.2–7.5 9.3 5.2–16.0 7.9 5.3–11.7 0.7 0.4–1.5 4.3 2.1–8.4 2.5 1.6–3.9
Vermont 16.6 12.6–21.6 19.7 15.8–24.2 18.2 14.4–22.8 6.7 4.9–8.9 8.8 6.1–12.6 7.9 5.6–10.9
West Virginia 28.4 22.4–35.3 26.7 22.9–30.8 27.6 23.5–32.2 14.5 11.1–18.7 14.2 10.4–18.9 14.4 11.4–18.0
Wisconsin 20.3 17.2–23.8 20.7 18.1–23.5 20.5 18.2–23.0 8.4 6.8–10.3 10.3 7.9–13.3 9.4 7.7–11.3
Wyoming 21.5 18.1–25.4 20.0 17.5–22.7 20.8 18.6–23.3 9.9 7.6–12.8 9.8 7.3–13.1 9.9 7.9–12.3
Median 19.8 19.9 20.0 8.2 8.5 8.1
Range 5.7–28.4 9.3–27.0 7.9–27.6 0.7–14.5 2.2–14.2 2.5–14.4
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 8.0 5.8–10.8 10.3 8.1–12.9 9.2 7.6–11.0 3.3 2.0–5.2 4.5 3.2–6.3 3.9 2.9–5.2
Boston, MA 7.6 5.7–10.1 7.4 5.9–9.1 7.5 6.2–9.0 1.8 1.1–3.0 2.5 1.5–3.9 2.1 1.5–3.0
Broward County, FL 10.9 9.0–13.2 17.2 13.7–21.3 14.0 12.1–16.2 3.1 1.8–5.3 7.5 5.4–10.3 5.3 4.1–6.8
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 12.8 10.1–16.0 17.8 14.5–21.7 15.3 13.0–18.0 4.5 3.3–6.3 7.1 5.1–9.8 5.8 4.5–7.6
Chicago, IL 13.7 9.5–19.3 12.4 8.0–18.8 13.2 9.3–18.3 3.3 1.7–6.6 3.0 1.3–6.7 3.2 1.7–5.9
Dallas, TX 12.1 8.9–16.2 18.0 14.4–22.2 15.0 12.0–18.5 0.9 0.4–2.1 4.9 3.5–6.9 2.8 2.0–3.9
DeKalb County, GA 7.0 5.5–9.0 10.0 8.1–12.2 8.5 7.2–10.0 1.4 0.7–2.5 4.2 3.0–5.9 2.8 2.1–3.8
Detroit, MI 4.4 3.4–5.9 7.9 6.0–10.3 6.2 5.0–7.5 0.8 0.4–1.6 2.8 1.7–4.4 1.8 1.3–2.6
District of Columbia 7.5 5.8–9.6 13.5 10.8–16.8 10.6 9.0–12.4 1.6 0.9–2.8 4.6 3.0–7.1 3.1 2.1–4.5
Hillsborough County, FL 12.7 9.7–16.5 14.7 11.5–18.5 13.8 11.3–16.8 4.5 3.0–6.7 6.7 4.3–10.3 5.6 3.9–7.9
Houston, TX 8.7 6.6–11.4 15.0 12.3–18.1 11.7 9.9–13.9 1.9 1.0–3.5 3.0 2.0–4.6 2.4 1.7–3.5
Los Angeles, CA 12.0 10.0–14.3 13.4 10.3–17.2 12.8 10.4–15.5 1.6 0.7–3.5 3.9 2.1–7.1 2.8 1.7–4.4
Memphis, TN 5.9 3.9–9.0 12.1 9.6–15.1 8.8 6.9–11.2 1.3 0.5–3.2 4.7 3.0–7.2 2.9 1.8–4.6
Miami-Dade County, FL 8.7 7.1–10.5 13.2 10.9–15.9 11.2 9.7–12.9 2.2 1.4–3.4 3.6 2.4–5.5 3.1 2.2–4.2
Milwaukee, WI 11.4 8.8–14.6 13.4 10.6–16.9 12.3 10.3–14.7 5.1 3.5–7.4 5.6 3.9–7.9 5.3 4.0–7.0
New York City, NY 8.6 7.1–10.5 8.3 6.8–10.1 8.5 7.4–9.7 2.6 1.8–3.7 2.8 1.9–4.0 2.7 2.1–3.5
Orange County, FL 13.0 9.3–18.0 13.3 10.3–17.0 13.1 10.5–16.4 4.1 2.1–7.7 4.3 2.9–6.5 4.2 2.8–6.2
Palm Beach County, FL 13.9 11.1–17.3 14.8 11.8–18.4 14.4 12.2–16.9 4.2 3.0–5.9 4.5 3.1–6.4 4.4 3.5–5.6
Philadelphia, PA 9.8 8.0–12.0 11.8 9.6–14.5 10.7 9.2–12.4 2.9 1.9–4.4 5.3 3.7–7.7 3.9 3.0–5.2
San Bernardino, CA 11.3 9.2–13.7 12.1 9.2–15.7 11.7 9.7–14.0 2.5 1.5–4.0 2.5 1.5–4.3 2.5 1.7–3.8
San Diego, CA 8.9 6.3–12.3 12.9 9.5–17.2 11.0 8.5–14.1 1.8 1.0–3.2 3.4 2.2–5.3 2.6 1.7–3.9
San Francisco, CA 7.1 5.7–8.9 8.7 6.8–11.1 8.0 6.8–9.4 1.1 0.6–2.1 2.6 1.9–3.7 1.9 1.4–2.6
Median 9.3 13.0 11.4 2.3 4.2 3.0
Range 4.4–13.9 7.4–18.0 6.2–15.3 0.8–5.1 2.5–7.5 1.8–5.8
* Smoked cigarettes on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
† Smoked cigarettes on 20 or more days during the 30 days before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
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Table 29

TABLE 29. Percentage of high school students who currently smoked more than 10 cigarettes/day* and who tried to quit smoking
cigarettes,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Smoked more than 10 cigarettes/day Tried to quit smoking cigarettes
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 8.0 5.8–10.8 15.7 12.7–19.2 11.9 9.8–14.3 55.6 50.3–60.7 43.8 40.2–47.4 49.4 46.2–52.6
Blackĥ 1.7 0.4–6.6 8.6 4.4–15.9 6.1 3.2–11.4 67.5 58.6–75.3 53.6 43.0–64.0 58.4 50.0–66.4
Hispanic 4.8 2.1–10.6 8.4 4.6–14.8 6.8 4.1–11.0 47.2 39.4–55.2 49.2 43.9–54.5 48.3 43.5–53.2
Grade
9 6.7 3.2–13.7 12.6 7.9–19.5 10.1 6.8–14.8 53.2 42.9–63.2 45.3 39.2–51.6 48.6 42.4–54.9
10 5.3 3.1–8.7 12.6 7.5–20.3 9.0 6.2–13.0 54.0 46.2–61.7 49.9 40.8–58.9 51.9 45.1–58.5
11 8.1 4.7–13.6 9.9 5.7–16.5 9.0 5.6–14.3 56.1 48.9–63.2 44.9 37.8–52.2 49.9 44.9–55.0
12 7.8 4.7–12.5 19.2 14.2–25.4 13.6 10.1–18.0 56.4 51.2–61.5 41.1 33.7–48.9 48.5 43.3–53.7
Total 7.1 5.4–9.3 13.8 11.4–16.7 10.7 9.0–12.6 55.1 50.9–59.3 45.1 42.1–48.1 49.7 47.2–52.2
* On the days they smoked during the 30 days before the survey, among the 20.0% of students nationwide who currently smoked cigarettes.
†During the 12 months before the survey, among the 20.0% of students nationwide who currently smoked cigarettes.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
Return to top.
Table 30

TABLE 30. Percentage of high school students who currently smoked more than 10 cigarettes/day* and who tried to quit smoking
cigarettes,† by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Smoked more than 10 cigarettes/day Tried to quit smoking cigarettes
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska —ĥ — — — 4.1 2.1–8.1 — — — — 61.3 52.5–69.4
Arizona 5.2 3.0–8.9 12.1 7.7–18.5 8.9 6.2–12.6 62.4 54.5–69.6 53.7 47.0–60.3 57.5 51.1–63.7
Arkansas 6.8 3.3–13.5 11.0 6.0–19.3 8.9 5.3–14.5 60.9 51.3–69.7 55.1 40.0–69.3 57.9 49.0–66.3
Connecticut — — — — — — — — — — — —
Delaware 8.0 4.8–13.0 11.4 7.8–16.4 9.8 7.0–13.5 60.0 52.5–67.0 45.9 38.7–53.2 52.2 47.2–57.2
Florida — — — — — — 47.2 41.0–53.6 40.7 35.3–46.3 43.4 38.9–48.0
Georgia 4.7 2.2–9.9 9.8 6.3–14.9 7.4 5.0–11.0 59.6 53.6–65.3 56.8 47.1–65.9 58.0 52.4–63.4
Hawaii — — — — — — — — — — 58.1 42.3–72.4
Idaho 4.4 1.8–10.2 12.3 6.5–21.9 9.1 5.0–15.8 55.4 46.5–63.9 49.1 41.1–57.1 52.1 45.6–58.6
Illinois 6.4 4.0–10.1 18.2 12.9–25.2 11.8 8.3–16.6 61.5 55.7–67.0 58.1 49.9–65.9 60.0 54.0–65.7
Indiana 11.0 7.0–16.7 15.1 12.1–18.7 13.2 11.0–15.9 61.9 53.5–69.7 50.2 43.1–57.4 55.8 49.4–62.0
Iowa 3.6 2.0–6.6 6.6 2.8–14.6 5.0 2.5–9.6 53.7 44.0–63.2 60.9 51.4–69.7 57.0 50.5–63.2
Kansas 6.7 3.9–11.1 17.9 10.6–28.7 12.2 8.2–17.9 59.0 50.9–66.6 44.8 35.5–54.5 51.7 45.4–58.0
Kentucky 13.0 9.9–16.9 14.0 10.0–19.3 13.6 10.7–17.1 64.8 59.4–69.8 53.3 49.2–57.4 59.0 55.8–62.1
Maine — — — — 12.3 7.5–19.6 — — — — 44.6 34.4–55.3
Maryland 7.8 3.6–16.1 11.0 5.7–20.0 9.7 6.1–15.1 63.8 49.8–75.8 49.8 36.4–63.2 56.8 44.8–68.1
Massachusetts — — — — — — 53.4 45.6–60.9 52.0 46.3–57.7 52.7 48.0–57.4
Michigan 8.8 5.8–13.1 8.2 5.1–12.9 8.7 6.5–11.6 60.9 51.8–69.3 54.8 48.1–61.4 57.6 52.5–62.5
Mississippi 4.3 1.8–9.7 12.0 7.6–18.6 8.3 5.7–11.9 54.4 45.8–62.8 42.8 33.5–52.8 49.7 44.2–55.1
Missouri 10.7 6.2–18.0 18.7 11.0–30.1 14.8 10.2–21.0 59.0 49.2–68.1 48.5 39.1–57.9 53.7 47.7–59.6
Montana 5.6 3.3–9.2 9.9 6.8–14.1 7.7 5.7–10.3 60.2 53.3–66.6 49.2 42.9–55.6 55.0 50.1–59.9
Nevada 6.4 2.9–13.3 12.2 6.4–22.0 9.1 5.7–14.3 — — — — — —
New Hampshire — — — — — — — — — — — —
New Mexico 3.9 1.7–8.8 9.9 6.9–13.9 6.9 5.2–9.2 51.0 45.9–56.0 52.4 48.1–56.6 51.6 48.5–54.8
New York 7.1 4.1–11.8 18.4 12.8–25.8 12.4 8.7–17.3 60.4 52.3–68.0 54.0 43.7–64.1 57.3 51.5–63.0
North Carolina — — — — — — 56.7 50.2–63.0 52.3 40.7–63.7 54.6 47.6–61.4
North Dakota — — — — — — 58.3 50.0–66.1 55.0 47.1–62.6 56.6 51.6–61.5
Ohio 10.5 6.4–16.8 18.9 13.5–25.9 15.2 11.3–20.1 51.1 41.9–60.2 46.5 39.9–53.2 48.6 42.5–54.6
Oklahoma 3.5 2.0–6.1 12.4 7.9–18.9 8.4 5.9–12.0 53.4 45.9–60.7 50.1 44.3–55.9 51.7 47.1–56.2
Rhode Island 7.6 3.9–14.3 15.9 10.6–23.0 12.0 8.0–17.6 59.5 51.5–67.0 59.0 51.1–66.5 59.3 52.6–65.7
South Carolina 11.9 6.3–21.2 — — 16.2 10.3–24.6 63.1 52.8–72.3 — — 57.4 50.1–64.4
South Dakota 3.2 1.1–8.6 10.8 5.7–19.4 6.9 4.0–11.7 67.6 56.1–77.3 57.2 46.4–67.4 62.5 53.3–70.9
Tennessee 11.9 7.8–17.7 22.4 16.3–30.0 17.8 12.7–24.4 56.3 50.3–62.1 45.6 37.7–53.8 50.4 45.3–55.6
Texas 5.8 3.6–9.4 8.2 5.8–11.4 7.1 5.4–9.4 55.3 49.1–61.2 43.8 38.9–48.8 48.9 44.8–53.0
Utah — — — — 11.8 5.8–22.8 — — — — 53.3 39.6–66.4
Vermont 11.5 7.1–17.9 18.9 14.9–23.7 15.9 13.3–18.8 — — — — — —
West Virginia 15.5 10.7–22.1 25.6 17.3–36.3 20.3 14.5–27.7 55.6 51.6–59.4 44.5 34.8–54.7 50.1 44.4–55.8
Wisconsin 7.4 4.0–13.4 11.1 7.8–15.5 9.3 6.8–12.5 63.7 55.9–70.8 53.7 44.6–62.5 58.6 52.5–64.4
Wyoming 7.7 4.5–12.9 18.7 14.1–24.3 13.4 10.1–17.5 59.7 52.9–66.2 51.6 44.0–59.2 55.7 51.0–60.4
Median 7.1 12.2 9.7 59.5 51.8 55.7
Range 3.2–15.5 6.6–25.6 4.1–20.3 47.2–67.6 40.7–60.9 43.4–62.5
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD — — — — 9.0 4.9–15.8 — — — — 60.3 51.1–68.8
Boston, MA — — — — 1.9 0.6–6.2 — — — — 55.5 45.6–64.9
Broward County, FL — — — — 10.6 6.4–17.2 — — — — 42.5 33.2–52.5
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC — — — — — — — — 57.4 49.8–64.6 56.3 49.4–63.1
Chicago, IL — — — — 7.7 3.1–17.6 — — — — 64.2 57.2–70.7
Dallas, TX — — — — 4.8 2.2–10.1 — — — — 55.1 46.1–63.7
DeKalb County, GA — — — — 7.8 4.7–12.6 — — — — 53.4 45.6–61.0
Detroit, MI — — — — 4.0 1.4–10.7 — — — — 62.5 51.2–72.6
District of Columbia — — — — 6.9 3.5–13.4 — — — — 49.3 40.0–58.6
Hillsborough County, FL — — — — 12.8 7.4–21.4 — — — — 47.2 39.3–55.2
Houston, TX — — 5.5 2.5–11.8 5.8 3.2–10.4 — — 52.2 41.7–62.4 56.8 49.1–64.3
Los Angeles, CA — — — — 5.8 1.8–17.2 — — — — 51.7 41.3–62.1
Memphis, TN — — — — — — — — — — — —
Miami-Dade County, FL — — 13.7 8.5–21.3 12.4 8.4–17.8 — — 49.3 38.9–59.8 45.7 38.6–52.9
Milwaukee, WI 6.8 3.0–14.5 10.2 4.4–21.9 8.6 4.7–15.1 60.3 50.2–69.7 — — 58.2 49.1–66.8
New York City, NY 4.5 1.8–10.5 10.1 6.5–15.3 7.2 4.8–10.6 61.3 51.6–70.2 57.5 49.1–65.4 59.5 52.3–66.3
Orange County, FL — — — — 12.7 7.6–20.5 — — — — 48.9 38.4–59.5
Palm Beach County, FL 7.5 3.8–14.4 — — 10.0 6.5–15.3 44.5 36.1–53.3 43.6 34.4–53.3 44.1 37.9–50.5
Philadelphia, PA 7.2 3.2–15.6 14.2 8.2–23.6 10.4 7.0–15.0 60.1 47.3–71.7 — — 58.7 50.8–66.2
San Bernardino, CA — — — — 2.8 1.2–6.2 — — — — 57.5 50.1–64.5
San Diego, CA — — — — 7.0 3.7–12.6 — — — — 41.4 32.2–51.3
San Francisco, CA — — 5.2 2.2–11.9 3.1 1.4–6.5 — — 70.7 58.0–80.9 61.9 52.5–70.6
Median 7.0 10.1 7.4 60.2 54.8 55.5
Range 4.5–7.5 5.2–14.2 1.9–12.8 44.5–61.3 43.6–70.7 41.4–64.2
* On the days they smoked during the 30 days before the survey, among students who currently smoked cigarettes.
† During the 12 months before the survey, among students who currently smoked cigarettes.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 31

TABLE 31. Percentage of high school students who usually obtained their own cigarettes by buying them in a store or gas station*
and who currently used smokeless tobacco,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey,
2007
Bought cigarettes in a store or gas station Current smokeless tobacco use
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 10.9 7.1–16.4 20.4 15.5–26.3 15.9 12.1–20.6 2.5 1.6–3.9 18.0 14.5–22.2 10.3 8.2–12.9
Blackĥ —** — 22.6 13.6–35.3 19.3 13.3–27.3 0.5 0.2–1.2 2.0 1.3–3.0 1.2 0.8–2.0
Hispanic 9.9 4.3–21.4 17.1 10.7–26.3 13.8 8.8–21.2 2.7 1.8–4.0 6.7 4.7–9.4 4.7 3.5–6.3
Grade
9 7.0 3.7–12.7 11.8 7.4–18.4 9.7 6.5–14.4 2.0 1.3–3.0 10.4 7.5–14.3 6.3 4.7–8.5
10 9.4 5.2–16.5 20.2 14.1–28.0 15.0 10.4–21.0 2.8 1.5–5.4 14.4 11.0–18.7 8.7 6.6–11.5
11 13.6 8.8–20.5 20.9 15.7–27.3 17.8 13.7–22.9 2.0 1.1–3.5 13.3 10.3–17.1 7.6 5.8–9.9
12 17.0 10.5–26.3 34.8 27.5–42.8 25.6 20.5–31.4 2.2 1.2–4.1 15.9 12.5–20.0 8.9 6.9–11.4
Total 11.3 8.0–15.6 20.0 16.0–24.8 16.0 12.8–19.9 2.3 1.7–3.2 13.4 10.7–16.7 7.9 6.3–9.8
* During the 30 days before the survey, among the 16.1% of students nationwide who were aged <18 years and who currently smoked cigarettes.
† Used chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Non-Hispanic.
** Not available.
Return to top.
Table 32

TABLE 32. Percentage of high school students who usually obtained their own cigarettes by buying them in a store or gas station*
and who currently used smokeless tobacco,† by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Bought cigarettes in a store or gas station Current smokeless tobacco use
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska —ĥ — — — 3.0 1.1–7.5 7.3 4.5–11.6 13.5 9.8–18.4 10.4 7.4–14.6
Arizona 8.6 4.6–15.5 20.1 15.0–26.4 14.1 10.4–18.8 — — — — — —
Arkansas 7.8 3.2–17.6 21.9 13.8–32.9 14.8 10.0–21.5 4.0 2.2–7.0 18.4 14.8–22.6 11.2 8.9–13.9
Connecticut — — — — — — — — — — — —
Delaware 15.8 10.5–23.0 28.1 21.8–35.3 21.4 17.0–26.6 1.9 1.2–3.0 8.1 6.5–10.0 5.2 4.2–6.3
Florida 11.5 8.1–16.1 32.5 26.7–39.0 23.0 19.0–27.5 2.4 1.7–3.3 9.7 7.7–12.1 6.1 4.9–7.5
Georgia 13.2 8.2–20.7 21.8 15.2–30.3 17.9 13.6–23.3 1.8 1.1–3.2 14.8 10.9–19.8 8.4 6.2–11.3
Hawaii — — — — — — — — — — — —
Idaho 4.2 1.9–9.3 9.4 4.9–17.5 6.7 4.0–11.0 4.4 2.9–6.7 18.6 15.8–21.9 11.8 10.2–13.6
Illinois 8.1 4.2–15.0 21.3 12.7–33.6 13.9 9.6–19.8 1.7 0.7–3.9 8.2 6.2–10.7 4.9 3.7–6.5
Indiana 9.2 5.2–15.9 20.7 14.1–29.2 15.1 12.0–18.9 3.3 2.3–4.6 17.4 14.7–20.5 10.7 8.9–12.7
Iowa 1.8 0.4–7.7 — — 5.3 2.6–10.7 2.0 1.1–3.8 13.8 10.4–18.2 8.1 6.2–10.4
Kansas 11.3 5.6–21.3 20.8 14.8–28.3 15.6 11.6–20.7 2.2 1.1–4.1 16.0 13.3–19.2 9.4 7.8–11.2
Kentucky 13.3 9.9–17.7 21.3 15.6–28.3 17.3 13.5–21.9 4.4 3.5–5.7 26.7 23.1–30.7 15.8 13.8–18.1
Maine — — — — — — 2.9 1.9–4.6 9.2 6.8–12.3 6.2 4.6–8.3
Maryland — — — — 17.3 11.5–25.1 1.8 1.0–3.2 6.7 3.9–11.1 4.2 2.7–6.6
Massachusetts — — — — — — 1.9 1.4–2.8 11.2 8.7–14.3 6.7 5.2–8.5
Michigan 7.5 3.6–15.2 22.4 15.2–31.7 15.0 10.3–21.5 3.0 1.5–5.7 14.6 11.0–19.1 8.9 6.7–11.9
Mississippi 11.7 5.1–24.5 — — 20.9 13.3–31.2 0.8 0.3–2.0 14.6 11.3–18.6 7.8 6.1–9.8
Missouri 6.9 3.9–12.0 19.3 12.2–29.2 13.0 8.8–18.9 1.7 0.9–3.0 15.8 11.7–21.1 9.1 6.6–12.5
Montana 5.3 3.2–8.6 14.0 8.5–22.3 9.3 6.5–13.1 5.3 4.2–6.6 20.3 17.7–23.2 12.9 11.3–14.7
Nevada 6.3 2.9–13.4 — — 10.1 7.1–14.2 2.2 1.3–3.7 6.6 4.6–9.3 4.5 3.4–5.8
New Hampshire — — — — — — 1.8 1.2–2.9 12.2 10.0–15.0 7.2 5.8–8.8
New Mexico 6.1 3.4–10.9 16.4 10.7–24.4 11.2 8.2–15.1 5.7 3.2–10.0 17.4 15.1–20.1 11.8 10.1–13.7
New York — — — — — — 2.1 1.4–3.2 8.0 6.7–9.5 5.1 4.2–6.2
North Carolina — — — — — — — — — — — —
North Dakota 6.9 3.8–12.5 16.8 9.8–27.4 11.8 8.1–16.8 3.2 2.1–4.8 19.8 16.6–23.5 11.7 9.9–13.7
Ohio 15.5 10.3–22.6 23.0 16.0–32.0 19.4 14.0–26.2 2.3 1.5–3.4 17.0 14.3–20.2 9.8 8.2–11.5
Oklahoma 14.8 10.1–21.2 22.8 15.5–32.2 19.2 14.0–25.9 2.1 1.4–3.2 24.8 20.3–30.0 13.7 11.2–16.6
Rhode Island 18.6 13.1–25.7 35.2 24.5–47.6 27.0 20.3–35.0 2.4 1.5–3.9 10.6 7.4–14.9 6.5 4.7–8.9
South Carolina — — — — 14.7 8.5–24.3 2.2 1.3–3.9 13.4 10.1–17.6 7.9 6.1–10.2
South Dakota 4.8 2.1–10.3 11.3 7.0–17.7 7.9 4.7–13.0 3.3 1.8–6.0 18.9 15.8–22.6 11.2 9.1–13.7
Tennessee 4.8 2.0–11.3 20.1 14.3–27.4 12.9 9.7–17.0 2.9 1.9–4.4 22.8 17.9–28.5 12.9 10.3–16.1
Texas 8.8 5.9–12.9 19.5 16.0–23.5 14.5 11.9–17.4 2.6 1.8–3.8 13.1 10.3–16.5 7.9 6.3–9.9
Utah — — — — 12.2 4.8–27.5 1.7 1.0–3.0 7.1 3.2–14.8 4.9 2.5–9.5
Vermont — — — — — — 2.6 1.5–4.6 14.1 10.5–18.6 8.6 6.3–11.7
West Virginia 3.7 1.6–8.0 19.4 11.6–30.5 11.1 7.0–17.0 2.2 1.3–3.7 27.0 21.7–33.0 14.8 11.8–18.3
Wisconsin 9.3 5.2–16.0 16.1 10.1–24.8 12.6 8.4–18.4 2.3 1.5–3.7 12.9 9.9–16.7 7.7 6.0–10.0
Wyoming 7.1 4.3–11.5 10.7 6.3–17.5 9.4 6.6–13.3 7.4 6.1–8.9 21.3 18.9–24.0 14.7 13.2–16.4
Median 8.1 20.4 14.1 2.3 14.6 8.6
Range 1.8–18.6 9.4–35.2 3.0–27.0 0.8–7.4 6.6–27.0 4.2–15.8
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD — — — — 39.4 31.0–48.6 0.7 0.3–1.9 2.1 1.3–3.6 1.4 0.9–2.2
Boston, MA — — — — — — 1.9 1.0–3.6 5.8 4.4–7.7 3.9 2.9–5.3
Broward County, FL — — — — 16.0 10.0–24.7 1.1 0.5–2.4 5.9 4.1–8.5 3.5 2.6–4.6
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC — — — — — — — — — — — —
Chicago, IL — — — — 18.5 10.8–29.7 2.1 0.9–5.0 3.6 1.6–7.7 3.0 1.6–5.7
Dallas, TX — — — — 22.7 16.3–30.7 3.6 2.3–5.6 4.8 3.0–7.6 4.2 2.9–6.2
DeKalb County, GA — — — — 25.1 18.4–33.3 0.7 0.3–1.3 3.9 2.8–5.4 2.3 1.7–3.0
Detroit, MI — — — — 33.7 24.7–44.0 2.1 1.4–3.0 3.4 2.3–5.1 2.9 2.2–3.8
District of Columbia — — — — 25.8 18.3–35.1 2.6 1.6–4.2 8.1 5.4–11.9 5.6 3.9–7.9
Hillsborough County, FL — — — — 26.9 19.9–35.3 2.5 1.6–4.1 12.1 9.3–15.7 7.2 5.6–9.2
Houston, TX — — — — 23.7 17.3–31.6 2.5 1.5–4.0 5.5 4.2–7.1 4.0 3.2–5.0
Los Angeles, CA — — — — 21.6 12.9–33.8 1.7 0.7–4.3 4.9 2.7–8.8 3.4 2.2–5.1
Memphis, TN — — — — — — 0.2 0.0–1.1 1.8 1.0–3.2 1.0 0.5–1.7
Miami-Dade County, FL — — 23.4 16.4–32.2 21.0 15.2–28.2 0.5 0.3–1.1 5.2 3.9–7.1 3.1 2.4–4.1
Milwaukee, WI — — — — 31.0 23.7–39.4 2.0 1.1–3.6 2.4 1.5–4.0 2.2 1.5–3.4
New York City, NY — — — — — — 1.2 0.8–1.9 3.2 2.3–4.5 2.2 1.6–2.9
Orange County, FL — — — — 17.8 12.0–25.8 2.0 1.0–4.1 6.0 4.1–8.7 4.0 2.8–5.5
Palm Beach County, FL 18.5 12.5–26.7 — — 18.2 12.7–25.5 1.8 1.0–3.3 7.5 5.4–10.2 4.7 3.4–6.3
Philadelphia, PA — — — — 34.3 26.0–43.6 1.2 0.6–2.3 5.4 3.8–7.7 3.0 2.1–4.3
San Bernardino, CA — — — — 12.7 7.2–21.2 1.1 0.5–2.2 2.8 1.7–4.5 2.0 1.3–3.0
San Diego, CA — — — — 10.2 5.6–17.8 0.9 0.4–1.9 5.5 4.0–7.6 3.3 2.4–4.5
San Francisco, CA — — — — 28.1 21.2–36.2 — — — — — —
Median 18.5 23.4 23.2 1.7 5.0 3.2
Range 18.5–18.5 23.4–23.4 10.2–39.4 0.2–3.6 1.8–12.1 1.0–7.2
* During the 30 days before the survey, among students who were aged <18 years and who currently smoked cigarettes.
† Used chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
Return to top.
Table 33

TABLE 33. Percentage of high school students who currently smoked cigars* and who currently used tobacco,† by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Current cigar use Current tobacco use
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 7.4 6.3–8.8 22.0 19.5–24.7 14.8 13.3–16.5 24.3 21.5–27.4 35.3 31.0–39.9 29.9 26.7–33.2
Blackĥ 6.7 4.8–9.2 13.2 10.3–16.8 10.0 8.0–12.3 12.1 9.7–15.0 19.9 15.4–25.3 16.0 13.1–19.3
Hispanic 9.0 7.2–11.3 16.3 13.1–20.0 12.7 10.5–15.2 16.4 12.7–20.9 23.9 19.3–29.2 20.1 16.3–24.5
Grade
9 6.1 4.6–8.0 13.5 11.2–16.2 9.9 8.2–11.9 14.4 12.0–17.2 22.6 18.1–27.9 18.6 15.7–21.8
10 7.9 6.1–10.1 16.9 14.0–20.3 12.5 10.4–14.8 21.0 17.6–24.9 28.5 23.8–33.7 24.8 21.2–28.8
11 7.6 5.8–10.0 23.2 19.7–27.2 15.5 13.4–17.8 21.8 17.3–27.2 34.5 30.3–38.9 28.2 24.4–32.3
12 9.2 7.3–11.4 26.2 22.1–30.7 17.6 15.0–20.5 28.6 24.8–32.7 38.3 32.7–44.3 33.4 29.1–37.9
Total 7.6 6.6–8.8 19.4 17.0–22.0 13.6 12.1–15.2 21.0 18.7–23.5 30.3 26.4–34.4 25.7 22.8–28.7
* Smoked cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
†Current cigarette use, current smokeless tobacco use, or current cigar use.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 34

TABLE 34. Percentage of high school students who currently smoked cigars* and who currently used tobacco,† by sex — selected
U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Current cigar use Current tobacco use
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 6.1 4.2–8.8 13.6 11.2–16.5 10.1 8.5–12.0 23.4 19.6–27.7 24.9 22.0–28.1 24.1 21.7–26.7
Arizona —ĥ — — — — — — — — — — —
Arkansas 11.1 7.9–15.4 23.6 20.3–27.3 17.4 14.6–20.7 23.1 18.9–27.9 33.7 29.3–38.5 28.3 24.9–32.0
Connecticut — — — — — — — — — — — —
Delaware 7.4 5.9–9.4 17.7 15.4–20.2 12.5 11.1–14.1 21.6 19.0–24.5 27.1 24.6–29.8 24.6 22.7–26.6
Florida 7.3 6.2–8.6 16.2 14.4–18.2 12.0 10.8–13.2 16.7 14.7–18.9 23.6 21.3–26.0 20.2 18.7–21.9
Georgia 11.5 9.3–14.0 20.7 17.8–23.9 16.1 14.4–18.0 21.4 19.5–23.5 31.1 27.5–34.9 26.2 24.0–28.5
Hawaii — — — — — — — — — — — —
Idaho 7.6 5.5–10.4 20.9 16.1–26.7 14.5 11.5–18.1 21.9 17.1–27.6 29.9 24.9–35.5 26.1 22.2–30.4
Illinois 8.6 6.8–10.8 18.0 14.6–22.0 13.3 11.3–15.6 24.0 20.3–28.1 26.9 22.8–31.4 25.3 22.2–28.8
Indiana 11.7 9.8–14.0 22.9 21.1–24.9 17.7 16.2–19.4 23.8 19.2–29.1 34.4 29.6–39.5 29.3 24.7–34.3
Iowa 7.0 4.5–10.7 16.2 12.4–21.0 11.7 9.4–14.4 22.6 17.9–28.1 28.3 23.3–34.0 25.5 21.8–29.6
Kansas 9.4 7.7–11.5 19.1 16.5–22.0 14.4 13.0–16.0 22.8 19.8–26.0 27.6 24.1–31.3 25.2 23.3–27.3
Kentucky 11.1 9.4–12.9 19.6 17.0–22.4 15.5 14.0–17.2 28.7 26.6–31.0 38.5 33.9–43.2 33.6 30.9–36.5
Maine 7.8 5.0–12.1 19.3 15.6–23.6 13.8 11.4–16.7 18.5 16.1–21.2 24.1 19.0–30.1 21.3 18.1–24.9
Maryland 7.9 5.8–10.8 13.8 9.8–19.2 11.0 8.4–14.3 17.9 14.5–22.0 22.9 17.1–29.9 20.4 16.2–25.3
Massachusetts 7.9 6.6–9.5 21.0 18.2–24.1 14.6 12.8–16.7 20.4 17.6–23.6 28.3 24.7–32.2 24.4 21.5–27.6
Michigan 8.6 6.6–11.2 20.6 17.7–23.8 14.7 12.5–17.2 20.3 16.6–24.6 29.3 24.7–34.4 24.8 21.2–28.9
Mississippi 10.1 7.9–12.8 19.2 15.1–24.1 14.9 12.4–17.7 22.2 19.3–25.5 28.4 24.1–33.2 25.6 22.7–28.7
Missouri 10.0 6.7–14.7 19.7 16.4–23.4 15.0 12.0–18.6 25.4 19.2–32.7 33.4 27.5–40.0 29.6 23.9–36.1
Montana 10.6 9.0–12.5 20.1 17.6–22.9 15.5 13.8–17.4 25.4 22.1–29.1 34.4 31.3–37.6 30.0 27.2–33.0
Nevada — — — — — — — — — — — —
New Hampshire 6.8 5.1–8.8 27.2 23.8–30.9 17.2 15.0–19.7 19.5 16.2–23.4 33.3 29.7–37.2 26.6 23.7–29.7
New Mexico 14.1 11.3–17.5 23.5 19.9–27.6 18.9 16.2–21.9 26.8 21.5–32.8 33.9 30.1–37.9 30.2 26.4–34.3
New York 4.9 3.9–6.0 12.9 11.1–15.1 9.0 7.8–10.5 16.2 13.4–19.3 19.2 17.1–21.5 17.7 15.8–19.8
North Carolina — — — — — — — — — — — —
North Dakota 7.1 5.1–9.7 15.3 12.5–18.8 11.4 9.5–13.6 24.2 20.0–28.9 30.5 26.8–34.4 27.4 24.3–30.7
Ohio — — — — — — — — — — — —
Oklahoma 9.1 7.2–11.4 20.5 17.2–24.1 15.0 12.8–17.5 23.8 20.1–27.9 38.6 33.4–44.1 31.3 27.4–35.4
Rhode Island 6.1 4.9–7.6 19.6 16.1–23.6 12.9 10.7–15.4 16.7 12.6–21.9 26.5 21.1–32.8 21.6 17.5–26.4
South Carolina 8.0 6.1–10.4 17.3 13.5–21.8 12.7 10.2–15.7 19.6 16.0–23.7 29.1 23.8–35.0 24.2 20.6–28.4
South Dakota — — — — — — — — — — — —
Tennessee 10.5 8.1–13.4 22.1 18.8–25.7 16.4 14.1–19.0 26.7 22.7–31.1 38.7 33.2–44.6 32.8 28.7–37.1
Texas 12.5 10.0–15.7 17.8 15.8–20.0 15.2 13.2–17.5 22.6 19.0–26.8 30.9 27.7–34.2 26.8 23.9–29.9
Utah 3.0 2.1–4.4 10.0 5.4–17.6 7.0 4.5–10.9 6.0 4.6–7.9 11.0 6.4–18.3 8.9 6.1–12.8
Vermont — — — — — — — — — — — —
West Virginia 8.5 5.2–13.7 19.9 15.9–24.6 14.5 11.4–18.3 29.3 23.4–36.0 39.3 34.2–44.6 34.5 30.3–39.0
Wisconsin 9.3 7.2–12.0 21.9 18.8–25.4 15.8 13.7–18.1 23.5 20.1–27.4 31.4 28.2–34.8 27.5 24.6–30.6
Wyoming — — — — — — — — — — — —
Median 8.5 19.6 14.5 22.6 29.6 25.8
Range 3.0–14.1 10.0–27.2 7.0–18.9 6.0–29.3 11.0–39.3 8.9–34.5
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 6.4 4.7–8.5 10.9 8.9–13.3 8.6 7.3–10.1 10.0 7.6–12.9 13.8 11.6–16.5 11.7 10.1–13.6
Boston, MA 5.0 3.6–6.8 11.4 9.2–13.9 8.2 6.8–9.9 9.4 7.3–11.9 13.6 11.2–16.3 11.4 9.7–13.4
Broward County, FL 4.6 3.5–6.1 17.1 13.8–20.9 10.9 9.1–12.9 12.4 10.5–14.7 22.1 18.2–26.5 17.3 15.2–19.6
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC — — — — — — — — — — — —
Chicago, IL 10.3 7.2–14.7 13.5 9.7–18.5 11.9 8.8–15.9 17.2 12.8–22.8 15.6 10.8–21.9 16.5 12.5–21.3
Dallas, TX 13.8 10.7–17.7 20.1 16.8–23.8 16.9 14.5–19.7 16.2 12.4–20.8 24.8 20.7–29.4 20.3 17.1–23.9
DeKalb County, GA 7.6 6.0–9.7 15.1 12.7–17.7 11.4 9.9–13.2 10.9 9.0–13.1 17.4 14.8–20.3 14.0 12.3–16.0
Detroit, MI 6.5 5.1–8.2 11.6 9.3–14.4 9.1 7.7–10.7 9.8 8.1–11.8 13.5 11.1–16.3 11.6 10.0–13.4
District of Columbia 6.1 4.6–8.0 12.9 9.8–16.7 10.1 8.1–12.6 9.0 7.0–11.4 16.6 13.2–20.7 12.8 10.9–15.0
Hillsborough County, FL 7.2 5.0–10.4 20.5 17.3–24.3 13.8 11.7–16.1 15.2 12.0–19.1 23.8 19.8–28.3 19.3 16.6–22.3
Houston, TX 9.6 7.5–12.2 16.8 13.8–20.3 13.2 11.5–15.2 11.9 9.8–14.4 20.2 17.0–23.9 16.0 13.9–18.2
Los Angeles, CA 7.3 4.7–11.0 12.1 7.9–18.1 9.8 6.9–13.8 12.8 10.1–16.0 17.6 13.1–23.2 15.3 12.0–19.3
Memphis, TN 11.6 9.2–14.5 13.5 10.8–16.7 12.5 10.3–15.1 13.9 11.3–17.1 19.2 15.9–22.9 16.3 13.8–19.2
Miami-Dade County, FL 4.3 3.2–5.8 11.0 9.0–13.3 8.0 6.7–9.5 9.1 7.6–11.0 15.4 12.9–18.3 12.5 10.8–14.3
Milwaukee, WI 11.8 9.5–14.5 14.8 11.3–19.1 13.2 10.9–16.0 16.4 13.4–20.1 18.1 14.5–22.3 17.2 14.7–20.2
New York City, NY 2.8 2.2–3.6 6.2 4.9–7.7 4.5 3.6–5.5 9.7 8.0–11.8 11.0 9.2–13.0 10.3 8.9–11.9
Orange County, FL 7.2 4.8–10.7 14.6 10.5–19.8 10.8 8.3–13.8 15.6 10.9–21.7 20.0 15.6–25.2 17.6 14.2–21.8
Palm Beach County, FL 5.7 4.2–7.6 14.6 11.5–18.4 10.2 8.4–12.4 15.5 12.4–19.2 20.7 17.4–24.6 18.1 15.8–20.7
Philadelphia, PA 4.5 3.5–5.8 9.6 7.8–11.9 6.8 5.7–8.1 11.7 9.6–14.1 15.4 13.0–18.1 13.3 11.6–15.1
San Bernardino, CA 5.8 4.3–7.9 8.6 6.8–11.0 7.2 5.8–8.9 11.9 9.8–14.4 13.9 10.9–17.7 12.9 10.9–15.2
San Diego, CA 6.3 4.6–8.7 13.0 10.3–16.3 9.9 8.1–12.0 9.8 7.2–13.1 17.5 13.5–22.3 13.7 11.0–17.0
San Francisco, CA — — — — — — — — — — — —
Median 6.4 13.3 10.1 11.9 17.4 14.6
Range 2.8–13.8 6.2–20.5 4.5–16.9 9.0–17.2 11.0–24.8 10.3–20.3
* Smoked cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
† Current cigarette use, current smokeless tobacco use, or current cigar use.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 35

TABLE 35. Percentage of high school students who drank alcohol, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk
Behavior Survey, 2007
Lifetime alcohol use* Current alcohol use†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 76.4 72.2–80.0 75.8 72.2–79.1 76.1 72.4–79.4 47.1 43.3–51.0 47.4 43.3–51.5 47.3 43.9–50.7
Blackĥ 70.0 65.7–74.0 68.4 64.4–72.1 69.1 65.8–72.2 34.9 30.9–39.2 34.1 29.9–38.6 34.5 31.2–37.9
Hispanic 79.3 75.5–82.7 76.5 72.8–79.8 77.9 75.0–80.6 47.5 43.0–52.0 47.7 43.6–51.8 47.6 44.0–51.3
Grade
9 66.1 61.5–70.5 65.0 61.6–68.3 65.5 62.2–68.6 37.2 33.2–41.4 34.3 30.2–38.7 35.7 33.5–38.1
10 74.6 70.9–77.9 74.9 71.2–78.2 74.7 71.8–77.4 42.3 38.0–46.7 41.4 37.2–45.6 41.8 38.5–45.3
11 79.1 74.6–82.9 79.7 76.2–82.7 79.4 76.1–82.3 46.5 41.8–51.2 51.5 48.0–54.9 49.0 45.3–52.7
12 85.2 81.8–88.0 80.2 75.7–84.1 82.8 79.0–85.9 54.2 49.8–58.5 55.6 49.9–61.3 54.9 50.7–59.1
Total 75.7 72.7–78.5 74.3 71.7–76.7 75.0 72.4–77.4 44.6 41.8–47.5 44.7 41.9–47.6 44.7 42.4–47.0
* Had at least one drink of alcohol on at least 1 day during their life.
†Had at least one drink of alcohol on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 36

TABLE 36. Percentage of high school students who drank alcohol, by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Lifetime alcohol use* Current alcohol use†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 73.9 67.8–79.1 73.4 68.3–77.9 73.6 69.2–77.6 39.2 33.3–45.4 40.0 35.2–45.0 39.7 35.6–44.0
Arizona —ĥ — — — — — 46.1 42.0–50.2 44.9 41.4–48.5 45.6 42.1–49.1
Arkansas 75.7 71.1–79.7 72.5 68.6–76.1 73.9 70.8–76.9 40.8 35.9–45.8 43.7 38.9–48.7 42.2 38.6–45.8
Connecticut — — — — — — 45.3 40.7–49.9 46.7 40.6–52.9 46.0 41.6–50.4
Delaware 77.3 74.8–79.6 74.2 71.0–77.1 75.8 73.8–77.7 44.7 41.0–48.5 44.6 40.9–48.3 45.2 42.4–48.0
Florida — — — — — — 43.3 40.1–46.6 41.3 38.4–44.3 42.3 39.7–44.9
Georgia 73.7 70.3–76.9 73.6 71.4–75.6 73.6 71.5–75.6 37.0 33.6–40.5 38.5 34.4–42.8 37.7 34.7–40.9
Hawaii 63.3 58.1–68.3 54.5 46.0–62.7 58.7 52.5–64.7 33.6 27.5–40.3 24.9 17.8–33.7 29.1 23.6–35.4
Idaho 66.0 56.2–74.5 67.0 61.6–72.0 66.5 60.0–72.4 42.3 35.3–49.7 42.6 37.2–48.2 42.5 37.1–48.2
Illinois 77.6 72.8–81.8 70.7 65.6–75.2 74.1 70.3–77.6 46.6 40.3–53.1 40.6 34.7–46.7 43.7 38.2–49.3
Indiana 75.8 72.4–78.9 74.5 68.4–79.8 75.2 71.3–78.8 41.9 37.5–46.5 45.6 39.9–51.3 43.9 39.4–48.5
Iowa 73.7 67.8–78.8 71.4 65.8–76.5 72.6 68.4–76.5 41.5 36.4–46.9 40.4 33.4–47.7 41.0 36.2–46.1
Kansas 72.3 68.5–75.8 67.0 62.6–71.2 69.7 66.6–72.6 42.6 38.1–47.3 42.1 37.6–46.8 42.4 39.0–45.9
Kentucky 74.1 71.6–76.5 69.2 65.7–72.6 71.7 69.4–73.9 40.1 37.2–43.1 41.0 37.6–44.4 40.6 38.1–43.2
Maine — — — — — — 41.6 36.0–47.4 37.0 31.9–42.4 39.3 34.4–44.4
Maryland 75.3 69.3–80.4 70.7 64.9–75.9 72.9 67.8–77.4 45.3 39.0–51.8 40.3 32.3–48.9 42.9 36.4–49.7
Massachusetts 74.9 71.9–77.8 70.1 67.1–72.9 72.5 70.2–74.7 49.4 45.3–53.5 43.1 39.6–46.6 46.2 43.0–49.4
Michigan 73.9 70.6–77.0 70.3 65.2–74.9 72.2 69.0–75.1 44.2 40.2–48.2 41.4 36.5–46.5 42.8 39.4–46.2
Mississippi 71.4 67.3–75.2 72.5 68.0–76.6 72.1 68.7–75.2 38.8 34.6–43.1 41.9 36.7–47.4 40.6 37.3–43.9
Missouri 74.8 69.7–79.2 72.3 68.8–75.6 73.5 69.6–77.2 44.1 37.0–51.5 44.4 39.1–49.8 44.4 39.3–49.5
Montana 77.6 75.2–79.8 78.0 75.8–80.0 77.8 76.0–79.4 46.7 43.1–50.3 46.4 43.5–49.3 46.5 43.7–49.2
Nevada 72.1 68.4–75.6 70.9 67.0–74.5 71.6 68.8–74.3 39.2 35.4–43.1 34.6 30.4–39.2 37.0 34.0–40.1
New Hampshire 70.7 65.9–75.0 71.7 67.4–75.6 71.2 67.5–74.6 43.9 39.3–48.6 45.7 41.5–50.0 44.8 41.2–48.5
New Mexico — — — — — — 44.2 41.1–47.3 42.0 38.2–45.9 43.2 40.9–45.6
New York — — — — — — 44.8 41.4–48.2 42.4 38.2–46.8 43.7 41.0–46.5
North Carolina — — — — — — 37.6 34.3–41.0 37.8 34.6–41.1 37.7 35.0–40.4
North Dakota 76.2 72.8–79.2 71.8 67.1–76.1 73.9 70.9–76.7 49.4 45.2–53.6 42.9 38.2–47.7 46.1 42.5–49.8
Ohio 77.1 74.0–80.0 74.9 71.2–78.3 76.0 73.4–78.5 45.3 41.2–49.4 46.1 41.9–50.3 45.7 42.3–49.1
Oklahoma 76.8 71.8–81.1 74.4 71.4–77.1 75.6 72.8–78.1 40.2 35.6–44.9 46.2 42.1–50.3 43.1 39.4–46.9
Rhode Island 73.2 69.6–76.6 67.5 62.8–71.8 70.4 67.4–73.2 43.1 37.8–48.6 42.8 39.1–46.6 42.9 39.3–46.6
South Carolina 70.0 65.6–74.2 69.4 63.3–74.8 69.7 65.3–73.8 38.0 33.1–43.2 35.4 29.8–41.4 36.8 32.1–41.8
South Dakota 75.7 70.1–80.6 76.2 71.7–80.3 76.1 72.3–79.5 43.6 38.7–48.5 45.1 40.8–49.6 44.5 40.8–48.3
Tennessee 69.0 65.2–72.5 71.0 67.0–74.7 69.9 66.3–73.3 36.4 32.4–40.6 37.3 32.5–42.3 36.7 32.9–40.8
Texas 80.7 77.3–83.8 75.7 72.4–78.8 78.2 75.6–80.6 49.3 45.0–53.7 47.3 44.2–50.5 48.3 44.9–51.8
Utah 34.4 27.4–42.0 39.1 32.6–46.0 36.7 31.1–42.7 15.5 11.3–20.9 18.5 13.8–24.3 17.0 13.5–21.1
Vermont — — — — — — 41.4 38.7–44.1 43.7 40.8–46.6 42.6 40.3–44.9
West Virginia 76.2 70.4–81.3 74.6 70.9–78.0 75.4 73.1–77.6 42.1 36.7–47.6 44.8 40.1–49.6 43.5 40.5–46.6
Wisconsin 78.4 74.8–81.6 77.2 74.2–79.9 77.8 75.2–80.2 48.8 44.9–52.6 49.0 45.2–52.8 48.9 45.7–52.1
Wyoming 79.3 76.1–82.2 73.1 70.2–75.9 76.1 73.9–78.2 43.8 40.8–46.9 40.9 37.4–44.5 42.4 40.0–44.8
Median 74.8 71.8 73.5 43.1 42.4 42.9
Range 34.4–80.7 39.1–78.0 36.7–78.2 15.5–49.4 18.5–49.0 17.0–48.9
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 64.1 60.5–67.6 59.0 55.1–62.9 61.6 58.7–64.3 25.9 22.6–29.5 28.3 24.9–32.0 26.8 24.5–29.3
Boston, MA 67.7 63.8–71.4 63.5 58.8–67.9 65.6 62.2–68.9 37.8 33.9–41.8 36.1 32.2–40.2 36.9 34.0–40.0
Broward County, FL 71.4 65.1–77.0 71.3 66.5–75.7 71.4 67.1–75.3 40.9 35.9–46.1 44.5 40.3–48.9 42.6 39.8–45.4
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC — — — — — — 32.9 29.2–36.8 34.5 29.9–39.3 33.8 30.3–37.4
Chicago, IL 71.7 66.4–76.6 71.0 60.0–80.0 71.4 64.7–77.3 40.4 35.3–45.6 37.3 27.7–48.0 38.9 32.9–45.4
Dallas, TX 79.0 74.8–82.6 70.2 65.3–74.8 74.8 71.2–78.0 42.4 37.8–47.2 37.2 31.5–43.3 39.9 36.0–43.9
DeKalb County, GA 68.3 64.9–71.5 62.3 58.6–65.9 65.4 62.7–68.0 26.8 23.9–30.0 25.7 22.1–29.7 26.3 23.8–29.0
Detroit, MI 70.1 67.1–73.0 61.6 57.0–66.0 66.1 63.2–68.8 29.6 25.8–33.6 23.4 19.8–27.4 26.7 23.9–29.7
District of Columbia 68.1 64.4–71.6 64.3 59.4–68.8 66.4 63.4–69.3 34.8 30.9–38.8 30.5 26.1–35.3 32.6 29.8–35.6
Hillsborough County, FL 72.2 65.0–78.4 68.7 63.2–73.8 70.6 66.0–74.9 41.4 35.4–47.7 37.0 31.3–43.2 39.4 35.0–44.0
Houston, TX 69.5 65.3–73.5 63.7 57.7–69.2 66.7 62.2–70.9 38.6 33.7–43.8 35.1 30.2–40.2 36.8 32.6–41.2
Los Angeles, CA 71.5 59.6–81.0 70.6 63.8–76.6 71.2 64.2–77.4 41.9 33.6–50.6 40.9 33.2–49.2 41.6 35.8–47.7
Memphis, TN 66.5 60.9–71.6 61.7 57.2–66.1 64.2 60.1–68.1 26.8 23.3–30.7 26.5 22.4–31.1 26.8 24.0–29.7
Miami-Dade County, FL 70.4 67.3–73.4 67.7 64.6–70.6 69.0 66.4–71.5 42.0 38.6–45.5 40.0 36.6–43.5 41.0 38.2–43.8
Milwaukee, WI 67.6 63.1–71.7 65.1 61.4–68.6 66.6 63.8–69.2 31.3 28.3–34.5 29.8 26.1–33.7 30.8 28.1–33.6
New York City, NY — — — — — — 34.5 31.8–37.3 32.5 29.2–35.9 33.5 31.2–35.9
Orange County, FL 70.9 65.8–75.6 67.9 61.8–73.5 69.3 64.9–73.3 38.0 32.1–44.2 34.3 29.2–39.7 36.2 32.0–40.6
Palm Beach County, FL 71.6 67.4–75.5 67.7 62.4–72.6 69.6 65.4–73.5 45.3 40.3–50.5 43.4 38.2–48.7 44.3 40.1–48.7
Philadelphia, PA 66.0 62.2–69.6 66.2 62.7–69.6 66.1 63.2–68.8 31.7 28.6–35.1 31.5 28.3–35.0 31.7 29.2–34.2
San Bernardino, CA 69.4 63.9–74.3 64.2 59.9–68.2 66.8 63.2–70.2 36.9 32.3–41.7 36.6 33.0–40.3 36.7 33.6–39.8
San Diego, CA 75.0 71.1–78.5 68.9 64.7–72.8 72.0 68.6–75.2 38.2 33.2–43.5 35.2 30.4–40.3 36.7 32.6–41.0
San Francisco, CA 53.7 49.7–57.7 52.8 49.0–56.5 53.2 50.4–56.1 24.0 20.6–27.9 20.4 17.8–23.3 22.3 19.9–24.9
Median 69.8 65.6 66.7 37.3 34.8 36.4
Range 53.7–79.0 52.8–71.3 53.2–74.8 24.0–45.3 20.4–44.5 22.3–44.3
* Had at least one drink of alcohol on at least 1 day during their life.
† Had at least one drink of alcohol on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 37

TABLE 37. Percentage of high school students who had five or more drinks of alcohol in a row* and who usually obtained the
alcohol they drank by buying it in a store,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Episodic heavy drinking Bought alcohol in a store
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 27.9 25.3–30.6 31.8 28.2–35.5 29.8 27.4–32.4 2.2 1.2–3.9 6.9 4.7–10.0 4.6 3.1–6.6
Blackĥ 10.7 8.8–12.8 14.5 12.0–17.3 12.5 11.0–14.2 3.8 2.1–6.8 8.1 4.9–13.1 5.9 4.0–8.6
Hispanic 25.3 21.9–29.1 28.3 24.1–32.9 26.8 23.5–30.3 3.6 2.1–6.0 9.8 7.1–13.5 6.7 5.0–8.9
Grade
9 17.2 14.9–19.7 17.0 13.9–20.6 17.0 15.2–19.0 1.1 0.4–2.8 5.1 2.9–9.0 3.1 1.8–5.1
10 21.8 18.2–26.0 25.5 21.9–29.5 23.7 20.8–26.8 2.6 1.3–4.9 4.6 2.7–7.6 3.6 2.4–5.2
11 26.7 22.8–31.0 33.1 30.5–35.8 29.9 27.0–32.9 2.0 1.0–4.0 9.1 6.0–13.4 5.6 3.9–8.0
12 32.8 29.2–36.7 40.4 35.3–45.7 36.5 33.1–40.1 5.0 3.0–8.0 11.1 7.8–15.6 8.0 5.7–11.1
Total 24.1 22.0–26.4 27.8 25.1–30.7 26.0 24.0–28.0 2.7 1.8–4.1 7.6 5.9–9.8 5.2 4.0–6.6
* Within a couple of hours on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
†Such as a liquor store, convenience store, supermarket, discount store, or gas station, among the 44.7% of students who currently drank alcohol
during the 30 days before the survey.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 38

TABLE 38. Percentage of high school students who had five or more drinks of alcohol in a row* and who usually obtained the
alcohol they drank by buying it in a store,† by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Episodic heavy drinking Bought alcohol in a store
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 23.9 19.3–29.3 27.3 23.3–31.6 25.8 22.3–29.6 0.0 — 3.9 1.9–7.7 2.0 1.0–3.9
Arizona 27.6 24.1–31.4 33.0 29.8–36.4 30.4 27.4–33.5 3.6 2.2–5.8 9.3 6.5–13.0 6.4 4.5–9.0
Arkansas 23.1 19.5–27.3 27.3 22.9–32.2 25.2 22.1–28.6 3.1 1.2–7.9 7.0 3.6–13.2 5.1 2.8–9.2
Connecticut 24.5 20.9–28.5 27.8 22.8–33.4 26.2 22.3–30.4 —ĥ — — — — —
Delaware 23.7 20.5–27.2 26.8 23.7–30.2 25.4 23.2–27.8 2.9 1.5–5.8 6.5 4.4–9.5 4.7 3.3–6.5
Florida 21.5 19.3–23.7 24.0 21.6–26.6 22.8 20.7–25.0 5.8 4.4–7.5 12.5 10.7–14.7 9.1 7.8–10.7
Georgia 17.0 14.4–19.8 21.0 17.5–25.1 19.0 16.3–22.0 2.3 0.9–5.9 6.4 4.2–9.6 4.3 2.9–6.3
Hawaii 16.4 12.0–22.0 13.4 7.9–21.9 14.9 10.3–21.0 2.4 0.6–9.0 6.1 2.7–13.3 4.0 2.1–7.6
Idaho 28.4 22.2–35.6 32.1 27.0–37.7 30.4 25.5–35.7 0.5 0.1–3.7 3.0 2.0–4.6 2.1 1.5–3.0
Illinois 31.4 26.4–36.9 24.7 20.6–29.3 28.0 23.9–32.5 2.8 1.1–7.4 7.0 4.8–10.1 4.7 3.0–7.4
Indiana 24.9 20.7–29.7 31.1 25.2–37.6 28.2 23.4–33.6 1.3 0.5–3.3 4.6 2.9–7.2 3.0 1.9–4.7
Iowa 25.3 20.5–30.7 27.0 21.4–33.5 26.1 22.1–30.6 0.2 0.0–1.7 4.7 3.0–7.1 2.4 1.6–3.7
Kansas 25.9 22.0–30.2 28.2 23.5–33.4 27.1 24.0–30.4 1.5 0.6–3.8 6.4 4.1–9.8 3.9 2.6–6.0
Kentucky 25.5 23.1–27.9 28.6 26.0–31.2 27.1 25.1–29.2 1.9 1.1–3.5 7.5 5.1–10.8 4.9 3.7–6.4
Maine 22.8 17.2–29.6 23.6 18.4–29.9 23.3 18.8–28.5 0.7 0.1–6.1 4.5 1.6–11.6 2.5 0.9–7.0
Maryland 22.1 16.8–28.5 25.3 19.0–32.9 23.9 18.4–30.4 — — — — — —
Massachusetts 27.5 24.1–31.3 28.2 25.0–31.7 27.9 25.0–31.0 — — — — — —
Michigan 23.1 19.3–27.5 26.1 21.0–32.0 24.6 20.8–28.9 3.2 1.1–8.8 4.7 2.7–8.3 4.1 2.3–7.1
Mississippi 18.0 15.5–20.9 24.1 19.6–29.3 21.2 18.8–23.8 3.6 1.8–7.1 8.6 5.7–12.8 5.9 3.9–9.0
Missouri 27.7 22.0–34.2 30.1 24.8–36.1 29.1 24.4–34.3 1.0 0.3–2.7 5.1 2.6–9.5 3.0 1.6–5.7
Montana 32.7 29.4–36.2 32.8 29.9–35.9 32.7 30.1–35.5 1.0 0.5–2.0 5.6 3.8–8.4 3.4 2.4–4.9
Nevada 22.1 18.9–25.7 20.0 16.0–24.7 21.1 18.4–24.2 1.6 0.5–4.6 7.4 5.0–10.8 4.3 2.9–6.2
New Hampshire 26.8 23.0–31.1 30.0 26.1–34.2 28.4 25.2–31.9 0.7 0.2–2.7 6.1 3.9–9.4 3.5 2.2–5.3
New Mexico 26.6 22.2–31.6 28.0 25.9–30.2 27.4 25.6–29.4 1.4 0.5–4.0 6.4 4.6–9.0 3.9 2.7–5.8
New York 23.8 20.9–27.0 25.7 22.9–28.9 24.9 22.4–27.6 5.8 3.3–10.1 14.6 11.3–18.8 10.0 7.6–13.1
North Carolina 19.9 17.4–22.6 22.1 19.7–24.6 21.1 19.0–23.3 3.3 2.2–5.1 9.2 6.2–13.3 6.3 4.8–8.3
North Dakota 33.4 29.9–37.2 31.4 27.6–35.5 32.5 29.5–35.7 0.8 0.3–2.6 2.9 1.4–6.3 1.9 1.1–3.5
Ohio 26.5 23.2–30.1 31.0 27.3–34.9 28.8 25.9–31.8 — — — — — —
Oklahoma 24.5 20.4–29.0 31.3 26.8–36.2 27.9 24.2–32.0 2.8 1.4–5.4 7.4 4.2–12.6 5.3 3.2–8.7
Rhode Island 21.2 17.7–25.1 25.6 22.5–28.8 23.3 20.5–26.3 — — — — — —
South Carolina 18.8 14.7–23.6 21.3 15.8–27.9 20.1 15.9–25.1 3.0 1.1–7.9 6.2 3.4–11.2 4.5 2.4–8.4
South Dakota 30.7 26.7–35.0 29.4 26.1–32.9 30.0 26.6–33.6 0.5 0.1–2.0 2.7 1.5–4.8 1.8 1.0–3.2
Tennessee 19.2 16.4–22.4 24.3 20.3–28.8 21.7 18.7–25.2 2.8 1.4–5.6 6.4 3.9–10.2 4.6 3.0–7.1
Texas 28.0 25.4–30.8 29.9 26.3–33.7 29.0 26.1–32.0 2.8 1.5–5.1 5.8 4.0–8.3 4.3 2.8–6.6
Utah 9.4 6.9–12.6 13.2 9.1–18.7 11.7 8.3–16.1 7.4 1.6–28.6 7.8 2.3–23.6 7.6 2.0–25.2
Vermont 23.2 20.9–25.6 28.8 27.0–30.8 26.1 24.2–28.1 — — — — — —
West Virginia 26.6 22.8–30.8 32.2 27.3–37.5 29.5 26.9–32.2 0.7 0.2–3.1 7.4 4.7–11.6 4.1 2.6–6.4
Wisconsin 29.0 25.8–32.5 34.1 30.9–37.5 31.6 28.9–34.4 1.0 0.4–2.4 5.7 4.0–8.1 3.4 2.5–4.7
Wyoming 28.5 25.4–31.8 30.1 26.8–33.6 29.4 26.9–31.9 1.9 1.0–3.6 5.7 3.9–8.3 3.9 2.8–5.5
Median 24.5 27.8 26.2 1.9 6.4 4.1
Range 9.4–33.4 13.2–34.1 11.7–32.7 0.0–7.4 2.7–14.6 1.8–10.0
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 8.7 6.7–11.2 13.4 11.0–16.2 10.8 9.2–12.8 10.4 5.8–18.2 22.4 16.2–30.2 16.2 11.7–22.1
Boston, MA 16.9 14.1–20.2 20.1 16.2–24.7 18.5 15.8–21.6 — — — — — —
Broward County, FL 16.9 13.8–20.6 24.2 20.7–28.1 20.5 18.3–23.0 4.2 2.0–8.5 18.6 14.0–24.2 11.5 8.4–15.7
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 13.8 10.8–17.5 17.5 14.2–21.5 15.8 12.9–19.1 2.7 1.3–5.3 9.9 6.2–15.4 6.5 4.4–9.6
Chicago, IL 20.6 16.8–24.9 19.2 13.3–26.8 20.0 16.0–24.6 6.8 3.4–12.9 11.9 6.5–20.8 9.0 5.7–14.0
Dallas, TX 21.1 17.2–25.6 20.0 16.1–24.6 20.6 17.3–24.3 6.8 4.0–11.3 12.9 8.6–18.9 9.5 6.5–13.7
DeKalb County, GA 7.3 5.6–9.5 10.1 8.2–12.4 8.7 7.3–10.4 3.8 1.8–7.7 12.6 8.5–18.4 8.0 5.6–11.4
Detroit, MI 9.4 7.7–11.4 7.8 5.9–10.2 8.7 7.4–10.3 8.5 5.0–13.9 12.0 7.6–18.4 10.1 7.4–13.7
District of Columbia 10.0 7.7–12.9 14.5 11.2–18.5 12.1 10.1–14.4 9.4 5.9–14.6 18.2 11.9–26.9 13.1 9.6–17.7
Hillsborough County, FL 20.7 17.3–24.5 22.9 18.6–27.8 21.8 18.9–25.0 5.2 2.5–10.5 13.8 8.7–21.3 9.0 5.7–13.8
Houston, TX 17.9 14.2–22.2 21.9 18.1–26.1 19.8 16.7–23.2 6.8 4.2–11.0 19.1 14.3–24.9 12.4 9.5–16.0
Los Angeles, CA 23.0 16.4–31.3 26.4 20.2–33.7 24.6 19.7–30.3 4.6 1.7–11.8 13.1 6.0–26.2 8.7 4.3–16.7
Memphis, TN 8.8 6.1–12.4 9.1 6.7–12.3 9.0 6.8–11.8 4.6 1.7–12.1 4.5 1.9–10.0 4.5 2.3–8.5
Miami-Dade County, FL 19.9 17.5–22.6 21.1 18.4–24.0 20.6 18.8–22.6 4.8 3.1–7.3 16.3 12.2–21.4 10.5 8.1–13.5
Milwaukee, WI 13.1 10.8–15.9 14.7 12.2–17.7 14.0 12.2–16.0 5.5 2.9–10.5 13.1 8.2–20.5 9.0 6.0–13.3
New York City, NY 14.7 12.5–17.2 14.9 13.1–16.9 14.8 13.1–16.6 9.5 7.4–12.0 18.6 14.3–23.7 13.6 10.9–16.8
Orange County, FL 20.0 15.5–25.3 16.9 13.3–21.2 18.5 15.4–22.0 3.8 1.7–8.1 13.7 8.7–20.8 8.3 5.7–11.8
Palm Beach County, FL 23.5 19.3–28.2 25.1 20.7–30.1 24.3 20.7–28.2 7.3 4.7–11.2 12.8 8.8–18.3 10.0 7.2–13.7
Philadelphia, PA 11.8 9.8–14.2 15.6 12.7–19.0 13.5 11.5–15.7 3.9 1.7–8.5 10.9 7.0–16.5 7.0 4.7–10.1
San Bernardino, CA 20.7 17.4–24.4 22.1 18.3–26.4 21.4 18.7–24.3 2.0 0.8–5.0 8.7 4.8–15.1 5.3 3.2–8.7
San Diego, CA 22.0 17.2–27.7 21.7 17.7–26.3 21.8 18.3–25.9 2.3 0.9–5.4 7.1 4.3–11.6 4.6 2.8–7.5
San Francisco, CA 11.7 9.4–14.4 9.0 7.5–10.8 10.4 8.9–12.0 10.0 6.8–14.4 12.8 8.9–18.1 11.2 8.6–14.5
Median 16.9 18.3 18.5 5.2 12.9 9.0
Range 7.3–23.5 7.8–26.4 8.7–24.6 2.0–10.4 4.5–22.4 4.5–16.2
* Within a couple of hours on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
† Such as a liquor store, convenience store, supermarket, discount store, or gas station, among students who currently drank alcohol during the 30 days before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 39

TABLE 39. Percentage of high school students who used marijuana, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk
Behavior Survey, 2007
Lifetime marijuana use* Current marijuana use†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 34.1 30.1–38.4 41.8 38.3–45.4 38.0 34.7–41.4 17.0 14.3–20.1 22.7 20.0–25.6 19.9 17.4–22.6
Blackĥ 35.0 31.3–38.9 44.5 38.9–50.2 39.6 35.3–44.1 17.1 14.5–19.9 26.0 21.4–31.2 21.5 18.4–25.0
Hispanic 35.9 31.2–40.9 42.0 36.3–47.9 38.9 34.4–43.6 16.4 13.6–19.7 20.5 16.8–24.8 18.5 15.8–21.5
Grade
9 21.7 18.3–25.6 33.0 29.4–36.8 27.5 24.6–30.6 12.5 10.0–15.5 16.9 14.5–19.5 14.7 12.8–16.9
10 34.5 30.4–38.8 39.2 35.4–43.2 36.9 33.7–40.2 16.5 13.9–19.5 22.0 19.2–25.1 19.3 17.1–21.6
11 36.6 31.7–41.7 48.3 44.4–52.1 42.4 38.5–46.4 17.5 14.1–21.6 25.2 22.2–28.5 21.4 18.6–24.6
12 48.3 43.2–53.4 49.9 44.3–55.5 49.1 44.1–54.1 22.6 18.3–27.5 27.8 23.6–32.4 25.1 21.4–29.3
Total 34.5 31.4–37.7 41.6 39.0–44.3 38.1 35.5–40.7 17.0 14.9–19.4 22.4 20.4–24.5 19.7 17.8–21.8
* Used marijuana one or more times during their life.
†Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days before the survey.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 40

TABLE 40. Percentage of high school students who used marijuana, by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey,
2007
Lifetime marijuana use* Current marijuana use†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 44.4 37.9–51.1 44.9 40.0–49.8 44.7 40.4–49.0 18.9 14.7–24.0 22.0 18.7–25.7 20.5 17.7–23.6
Arizona 40.5 36.1–45.2 43.8 39.2–48.5 42.3 38.4–46.2 20.4 17.3–24.0 23.3 19.7–27.4 22.0 19.3–24.9
Arkansas 29.0 25.8–32.5 40.2 35.5–45.0 34.6 31.0–38.4 11.3 9.3–13.7 21.4 17.7–25.6 16.4 14.3–18.8
Connecticut 37.2 32.6–42.0 39.9 35.8–44.2 38.6 35.1–42.3 22.0 19.4–24.8 24.4 20.2–29.1 23.2 20.5–26.1
Delaware 41.6 37.8–45.5 46.5 42.8–50.2 43.9 41.0–46.7 21.5 18.9–24.3 28.4 25.7–31.2 25.1 23.1–27.2
Florida 32.9 30.1–35.8 37.0 34.3–39.7 35.0 33.0–37.1 16.1 14.2–18.1 21.5 19.2–23.9 18.9 17.2–20.8
Georgia 33.7 30.9–36.6 42.7 39.1–46.5 38.1 36.0–40.3 17.0 14.7–19.6 22.3 19.5–25.5 19.6 17.7–21.7
Hawaii 30.8 26.1–36.0 29.1 21.0–38.8 29.9 24.5–36.0 16.9 12.9–21.7 14.6 9.2–22.2 15.7 12.4–19.6
Idaho 32.3 26.5–38.8 33.7 27.8–40.1 33.1 27.9–38.7 15.3 12.1–19.2 20.2 15.9–25.3 17.9 14.6–21.7
Illinois 37.7 31.7–44.1 39.6 33.3–46.3 38.6 33.3–44.1 18.7 15.6–22.3 22.0 18.1–26.5 20.3 17.7–23.3
Indiana 36.1 31.8–40.7 39.5 35.7–43.4 37.8 34.9–40.8 16.2 13.9–18.8 21.6 19.0–24.4 18.9 16.6–21.5
Iowa 23.1 16.6–31.3 24.8 20.5–29.6 24.0 18.8–30.0 10.5 6.7–16.0 12.5 9.9–15.6 11.5 8.6–15.1
Kansas 30.2 26.6–34.2 32.1 27.9–36.6 31.1 28.0–34.4 14.0 11.7–16.7 16.5 14.0–19.4 15.3 13.5–17.3
Kentucky 33.9 31.0–36.8 36.0 32.1–39.9 35.0 32.4–37.6 15.4 13.0–18.1 17.4 15.0–20.1 16.4 14.4–18.7
Maine —ĥ — — — — — 21.3 17.1–26.2 22.5 18.6–27.0 22.0 18.8–25.6
Maryland 34.5 30.2–39.0 38.2 30.4–46.6 36.5 31.3–42.0 15.9 12.7–19.8 23.0 17.6–29.3 19.4 15.7–23.8
Massachusetts 38.8 34.7–43.1 43.5 40.0–47.1 41.2 37.8–44.6 21.2 18.1–24.6 27.8 24.6–31.3 24.6 21.8–27.6
Michigan 32.9 28.8–37.4 37.7 32.6–43.0 35.4 31.6–39.4 16.5 14.0–19.3 19.4 16.6–22.6 18.0 15.9–20.3
Mississippi 31.1 26.7–36.0 41.0 35.8–46.3 35.9 31.9–40.2 14.3 11.8–17.2 19.0 15.6–22.8 16.7 14.6–18.9
Missouri 34.8 29.2–40.9 36.4 32.6–40.3 35.9 31.8–40.3 17.4 14.2–21.0 20.4 17.0–24.3 19.0 16.5–21.9
Montana 38.3 34.4–42.3 39.7 36.5–43.1 39.1 35.8–42.4 19.3 16.3–22.6 22.7 19.6–26.0 21.0 18.3–24.0
Nevada 34.4 30.1–39.0 35.9 31.6–40.5 35.3 31.8–38.9 13.7 11.5–16.2 17.1 14.3–20.3 15.5 13.4–17.7
New Hampshire 36.7 32.0–41.7 42.9 38.5–47.5 39.9 36.1–43.9 19.8 16.8–23.2 25.7 22.0–29.9 22.9 20.2–25.8
New Mexico — — — — — — 23.8 19.2–29.2 26.2 21.5–31.4 25.0 20.8–29.8
New York 34.9 30.4–39.6 35.4 32.3–38.7 35.2 32.6–37.9 17.2 14.8–19.8 20.0 18.3–21.9 18.6 17.1–20.2
North Carolina 34.7 30.3–39.5 37.9 34.2–41.8 36.4 33.6–39.2 17.9 14.8–21.6 20.2 17.3–23.5 19.1 16.7–21.8
North Dakota 28.0 24.0–32.5 32.2 27.8–36.9 30.1 26.7–33.8 12.7 10.2–15.8 16.7 13.7–20.3 14.8 12.6–17.3
Ohio 31.5 27.5–35.8 35.8 31.1–40.9 33.8 30.2–37.6 15.4 12.5–18.9 20.0 16.4–24.1 17.7 14.9–21.0
Oklahoma 30.5 26.1–35.4 35.8 32.3–39.5 33.2 29.5–37.2 13.4 10.7–16.6 18.2 15.6–21.1 15.9 13.3–18.8
Rhode Island 37.0 31.2–43.1 43.9 39.3–48.6 40.3 35.8–45.0 19.7 16.0–24.1 26.8 22.7–31.4 23.2 19.6–27.3
South Carolina 32.2 27.7–37.0 40.9 37.2–44.7 36.6 33.0–40.3 14.1 10.6–18.4 23.1 19.7–26.9 18.6 15.8–21.8
South Dakota 31.1 21.9–42.0 36.6 28.0–46.0 33.9 25.5–43.4 15.9 8.9–26.9 19.5 13.0–28.4 17.7 11.2–26.7
Tennessee 33.0 28.5–37.8 43.1 39.0–47.2 38.1 34.2–42.2 15.0 12.1–18.5 23.8 20.2–27.9 19.4 16.9–22.3
Texas 34.6 31.4–38.0 40.7 37.1–44.5 37.7 34.6–41.0 18.1 15.4–21.2 20.4 18.4–22.7 19.3 17.3–21.5
Utah 14.0 9.2–20.7 20.8 14.3–29.2 17.4 12.4–24.0 6.6 4.0–10.7 10.8 6.2–18.2 8.7 5.4–13.6
Vermont — — — — — — 20.6 18.4–23.0 27.6 25.3–30.0 24.1 22.2–26.1
West Virginia 38.0 32.6–43.8 43.6 39.0–48.3 40.9 37.3–44.6 21.4 18.1–25.1 25.4 21.8–29.2 23.5 21.4–25.8
Wisconsin 36.6 32.2–41.3 37.5 33.5–41.7 37.1 33.6–40.7 19.4 16.9–22.1 21.2 17.8–25.1 20.3 17.8–23.1
Wyoming 33.1 30.2–36.2 35.7 32.3–39.3 34.5 32.1–37.0 12.0 10.2–14.0 16.4 14.3–18.8 14.4 12.9–16.0
Median 34.1 38.0 36.1 16.9 21.4 19.0
Range 14.0–44.4 20.8–46.5 17.4–44.7 6.6–23.8 10.8–28.4 8.7–25.1
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 37.1 33.5–40.8 45.5 42.1–48.9 41.2 38.4–44.1 17.6 15.0–20.4 25.7 22.5–29.2 21.4 19.4–23.6
Boston, MA 33.2 29.2–37.5 35.4 31.4–39.7 34.3 31.1–37.7 15.7 13.1–18.8 19.1 16.0–22.6 17.4 15.1–19.9
Broward County, FL 27.1 23.1–31.6 42.6 38.2–47.0 34.7 31.5–38.1 11.8 9.6–14.6 22.3 18.5–26.7 17.0 15.1–19.2
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 35.2 30.3–40.4 42.9 38.4–47.5 39.1 35.3–43.0 15.7 12.6–19.4 23.5 20.2–27.1 19.5 17.0–22.3
Chicago, IL 42.3 37.9–46.9 45.8 40.4–51.3 44.0 39.8–48.2 19.3 15.0–24.4 24.3 19.7–29.5 21.7 18.1–25.7
Dallas, TX 33.8 28.5–39.6 47.3 41.7–52.9 40.3 35.7–45.0 16.7 12.9–21.3 26.0 21.2–31.4 21.2 17.3–25.6
DeKalb County, GA 31.5 28.3–35.0 42.7 39.0–46.5 37.1 34.3–40.1 12.9 10.9–15.3 25.0 21.8–28.5 18.9 16.7–21.3
Detroit, MI 39.5 36.2–42.9 39.0 34.9–43.3 39.2 36.5–42.0 15.3 13.4–17.3 19.7 16.5–23.3 17.4 15.7–19.3
District of Columbia 39.2 34.8–43.7 41.4 36.5–46.5 40.4 37.1–43.8 19.0 15.6–22.9 22.6 18.9–26.8 20.8 18.3–23.6
Hillsborough County, FL 31.4 26.1–37.3 37.7 33.1–42.7 34.4 30.3–38.7 14.8 11.9–18.3 21.8 18.2–25.9 18.1 15.3–21.2
Houston, TX 28.2 24.7–31.9 40.9 36.1–45.9 34.4 31.0–37.9 11.6 9.3–14.4 20.9 17.5–24.9 16.3 14.0–18.8
Los Angeles, CA 34.3 28.3–40.8 47.1 39.2–55.1 40.7 33.8–47.9 17.4 14.2–21.0 25.3 20.9–30.4 21.4 18.5–24.6
Memphis, TN 40.0 35.6–44.6 48.7 43.2–54.2 44.2 40.3–48.2 19.6 16.4–23.3 26.6 22.8–30.8 22.9 20.4–25.6
Miami-Dade County, FL 24.5 21.4–27.8 30.3 27.0–33.9 27.5 24.8–30.3 12.3 10.3–14.6 16.4 13.9–19.4 14.5 12.7–16.6
Milwaukee, WI 48.2 43.5–52.9 53.4 47.8–58.9 50.8 47.0–54.6 23.3 19.8–27.1 30.4 26.3–34.8 26.8 23.9–29.9
New York City, NY 24.8 22.2–27.7 28.1 25.2–31.1 26.3 24.1–28.7 11.0 9.3–13.0 14.0 12.3–15.8 12.4 11.0–13.9
Orange County, FL 29.1 24.0–34.7 33.5 28.6–38.8 31.3 27.4–35.4 15.8 11.3–21.6 17.4 14.2–21.0 16.4 13.2–20.2
Palm Beach County, FL 30.8 26.7–35.1 37.8 32.8–43.0 34.3 30.6–38.1 16.6 13.7–20.1 24.8 21.1–28.9 20.7 18.2–23.4
Philadelphia, PA 35.0 31.7–38.4 42.3 38.3–46.4 38.2 35.3–41.2 16.6 14.1–19.5 21.5 18.7–24.6 18.8 16.7–21.2
San Bernardino, CA 28.3 23.7–33.3 32.7 27.5–38.4 30.4 26.4–34.9 14.0 11.2–17.3 17.2 13.4–21.8 15.6 12.9–18.7
San Diego, CA 32.4 27.1–38.3 36.8 31.4–42.5 34.6 30.3–39.2 14.5 11.1–18.8 18.7 15.0–23.0 16.6 13.7–19.9
San Francisco, CA 22.9 19.7–26.4 22.6 19.4–26.3 22.8 20.3–25.5 12.2 9.9–14.8 10.6 8.8–12.7 11.4 9.9–13.1
Median 32.8 41.1 35.9 15.7 22.0 18.4
Range 22.9–48.2 22.6–53.4 22.8–50.8 11.0–23.3 10.6–30.4 11.4–26.8
* Used marijuana one or more times during their life.
† Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 41

TABLE 41. Percentage of high school students who used cocaine, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk
Behavior Survey, 2007
Lifetime cocaine use* Current cocaine use†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 6.9 5.6–8.4 7.9 6.6–9.4 7.4 6.3–8.7 2.6 1.9–3.5 3.4 2.7–4.3 3.0 2.4–3.7
Blackĥ 0.9 0.4–2.0 2.8 1.5–5.0 1.8 1.1–3.1 0.5 0.2–1.5 1.7 0.7–3.9 1.1 0.5–2.2
Hispanic 10.2 7.9–13.2 11.5 8.4–15.5 10.9 8.4–13.9 3.9 2.8–5.3 6.7 4.7–9.4 5.3 3.9–7.1
Grade
9 4.7 3.3–6.6 5.0 3.8–6.5 4.8 3.7–6.2 2.3 1.6–3.4 3.0 2.1–4.2 2.7 2.0–3.6
10 6.7 5.2–8.6 7.7 6.0–9.8 7.2 5.9–8.8 2.6 1.7–4.1 3.7 2.7–5.0 3.2 2.4–4.3
11 7.4 5.3–10.3 8.0 6.5–9.8 7.7 6.0–9.8 2.3 1.4–3.7 3.5 2.5–4.9 2.9 2.1–3.9
12 7.6 6.0–9.6 11.4 9.2–14.0 9.5 7.9–11.3 2.8 1.9–4.1 6.0 4.5–8.0 4.4 3.3–5.7
Total 6.5 5.4–7.8 7.8 6.7–9.0 7.2 6.2–8.2 2.5 2.0–3.2 4.0 3.4–4.6 3.3 2.8–3.8
* Used any form of cocaine (e.g., powder, crack, or freebase) one or more times during their life.
†Used any form of cocaine one or more times during the 30 days before the survey.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 42

TABLE 42. Percentage of high school students who used cocaine, by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Lifetime cocaine use* Current cocaine use†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 6.6 4.7–9.4 8.7 6.3–11.8 7.8 6.0–10.0 2.5 1.4–4.6 3.0 1.8–4.9 2.9 2.0–4.0
Arizona 13.7 11.7–16.0 15.1 12.9–17.7 14.4 12.6–16.5 5.2 3.8–7.2 7.9 6.3–10.0 6.6 5.3–8.3
Arkansas 6.3 4.4–9.1 8.7 6.4–11.8 7.6 6.0–9.5 2.0 1.2–3.2 4.7 3.1–7.0 3.3 2.5–4.5
Connecticut 7.4 5.5–9.9 9.0 6.3–12.6 8.3 6.7–10.3 3.6 2.6–5.1 5.2 3.4–7.8 4.4 3.3–5.9
Delaware 4.5 3.5–5.9 7.7 6.2–9.6 6.1 5.2–7.2 2.3 1.5–3.4 3.0 2.0–4.3 2.7 2.1–3.5
Florida 6.2 5.1–7.6 8.5 7.1–10.0 7.5 6.4–8.6 3.0 2.3–4.0 4.7 3.7–5.9 3.9 3.2–4.8
Georgia 5.1 4.0–6.7 6.8 5.2–8.8 6.0 4.9–7.5 2.1 1.4–3.2 2.8 1.9–4.1 2.6 1.9–3.5
Hawaii 6.5 3.8–10.9 4.7 2.5–8.9 5.6 3.9–7.9 1.6 0.6–3.9 2.5 1.1–5.6 2.0 1.2–3.5
Idaho 6.4 4.3–9.4 10.1 7.3–13.7 8.5 6.7–10.7 2.1 1.1–3.7 5.4 3.4–8.4 3.8 2.6–5.7
Illinois 5.8 4.3–7.9 7.6 6.1–9.4 6.7 5.7–7.8 2.2 1.5–3.4 4.1 2.7–6.0 3.1 2.4–4.2
Indiana 6.8 5.6–8.1 8.7 6.3–11.8 8.0 6.5–9.8 2.8 2.0–3.9 4.2 2.7–6.5 3.8 2.7–5.3
Iowa 4.7 3.0–7.2 5.8 4.0–8.3 5.2 3.8–7.1 1.2 0.5–2.7 2.1 1.1–4.3 1.7 0.9–3.0
Kansas 7.4 5.4–9.9 9.6 7.4–12.4 8.7 7.1–10.5 1.9 1.2–2.9 5.7 3.5–9.1 3.9 2.7–5.7
Kentucky 7.0 5.6–8.6 9.8 8.3–11.5 8.6 7.5–9.8 2.7 1.8–3.9 3.9 2.8–5.3 3.4 2.7–4.3
Maine —ĥ — — — — — 3.3 2.0–5.3 5.2 3.4–7.9 4.3 3.0–6.1
Maryland 3.6 2.0–6.5 7.0 4.7–10.2 5.5 3.7–8.3 1.5 0.7–3.2 3.5 1.8–6.9 2.6 1.4–4.8
Massachusetts 6.9 5.4–8.8 10.3 8.5–12.6 8.7 7.3–10.4 — — — — — —
Michigan 6.2 4.5–8.5 7.0 5.5–8.8 6.8 5.5–8.4 2.7 1.8–4.1 2.1 1.5–3.0 2.5 1.9–3.3
Mississippi 4.1 2.3–7.1 6.5 4.4–9.5 5.3 3.7–7.5 1.8 1.0–3.3 3.5 2.4–5.0 2.7 2.0–3.6
Missouri 5.2 3.0–8.9 8.0 5.6–11.2 6.6 5.0–8.8 1.3 0.6–3.1 3.5 2.1–6.0 2.5 1.4–4.5
Montana 7.2 5.9–8.9 9.3 7.6–11.4 8.3 7.0–9.8 2.4 1.7–3.3 3.4 2.5–4.5 2.9 2.3–3.6
Nevada 8.9 6.6–12.0 6.5 4.5–9.2 7.8 6.3–9.6 1.9 1.1–3.3 2.7 1.8–4.2 2.4 1.7–3.3
New Hampshire 8.6 6.6–11.2 8.9 7.1–11.2 8.8 7.1–10.8 2.9 1.9–4.4 3.9 2.8–5.6 3.4 2.5–4.6
New Mexico 11.1 8.8–14.0 11.9 9.4–14.9 11.6 9.9–13.6 4.1 2.8–6.0 6.7 4.9–8.9 5.4 4.4–6.7
New York 5.1 4.0–6.4 8.8 7.1–10.9 7.0 5.8–8.5 — — — — — —
North Carolina 5.8 4.2–7.9 7.9 6.4–9.7 7.0 5.5–8.7 — — — — — —
North Dakota 4.5 3.2–6.3 7.8 6.0–10.0 6.2 5.0–7.8 1.3 0.7–2.6 2.6 1.5–4.4 2.0 1.3–3.2
Ohio 7.0 5.0–9.8 9.5 7.3–12.2 8.3 6.5–10.6 2.8 1.7–4.5 4.6 3.3–6.3 3.7 2.7–5.2
Oklahoma 5.9 4.5–7.7 8.7 7.1–10.7 7.3 6.1–8.8 2.1 1.3–3.1 3.9 2.7–5.7 3.0 2.2–4.1
Rhode Island 4.1 2.3–7.0 7.4 5.7–9.6 5.8 4.3–7.8 1.9 1.1–3.2 4.9 3.7–6.4 3.4 2.6–4.4
South Carolina 5.2 3.5–7.7 7.4 4.8–11.3 6.5 4.5–9.3 2.5 1.5–4.3 3.4 1.9–6.3 3.1 2.0–4.9
South Dakota — — — — — — 2.7 1.5–4.9 3.9 2.5–6.1 3.4 2.2–5.3
Tennessee 4.9 3.5–6.8 8.2 6.0–11.1 6.6 5.1–8.5 1.7 1.1–2.8 4.0 2.3–6.7 2.9 1.9–4.3
Texas 13.3 11.1–15.7 11.9 9.5–14.8 12.6 10.7–14.7 5.5 4.0–7.5 5.2 3.6–7.4 5.4 4.1–7.1
Utah 4.8 2.8–8.4 8.7 4.0–18.1 6.8 3.7–12.4 2.6 1.0–6.5 5.8 1.7–17.9 4.3 1.5–11.2
Vermont — — — — — — 3.1 2.3–4.3 6.8 5.6–8.1 5.1 4.2–6.3
West Virginia 10.2 6.8–15.2 11.8 9.5–14.6 11.1 8.6–14.3 5.3 3.3–8.4 4.6 3.4–6.1 5.0 3.7–6.8
Wisconsin 5.6 4.0–7.6 9.0 7.3–10.9 7.3 6.0–8.8 2.2 1.5–3.4 3.8 2.8–5.3 3.1 2.4–3.9
Wyoming 7.6 6.0–9.6 9.4 7.8–11.2 8.7 7.5–10.0 2.3 1.6–3.2 4.8 3.6–6.3 3.6 2.8–4.6
Median 6.2 8.7 7.4 2.3 3.9 3.3
Range 3.6–13.7 4.7–15.1 5.2–14.4 1.2–5.5 2.1–7.9 1.7–6.6
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 1.5 0.7–3.1 2.4 1.5–3.8 2.0 1.3–3.2 0.9 0.3–2.1 1.3 0.7–2.4 1.2 0.7–2.0
Boston, MA 2.5 1.5–4.1 4.8 3.3–6.9 3.7 2.6–5.3 — — — — — —
Broward County, FL 5.1 3.0–8.3 6.5 4.7–8.9 5.9 4.3–7.9 1.6 0.7–3.3 2.7 1.6–4.8 2.2 1.4–3.6
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 4.4 2.8–6.8 10.2 7.6–13.5 7.4 5.6–9.8 — — — — — —
Chicago, IL 4.6 2.7–7.8 7.4 4.6–11.7 5.9 3.9–8.8 1.6 0.8–3.0 4.6 2.4–8.7 3.0 1.7–5.3
Dallas, TX 11.7 9.4–14.6 13.5 10.1–17.8 12.6 10.0–15.6 6.1 4.3–8.5 6.4 4.3–9.4 6.2 4.5–8.5
DeKalb County, GA 3.0 2.2–4.0 6.8 5.3–8.6 4.9 4.0–6.0 — — — — — —
Detroit, MI 1.1 0.6–2.0 3.9 2.5–6.2 2.6 1.7–3.8 0.5 0.2–1.2 2.1 1.3–3.3 1.3 0.9–2.0
District of Columbia 2.9 1.8–4.5 9.4 6.7–13.1 6.2 4.6–8.4 1.3 0.7–2.3 5.2 3.3–8.2 3.6 2.4–5.5
Hillsborough County, FL 5.7 3.7–8.7 9.7 7.0–13.3 7.8 5.8–10.5 2.6 1.5–4.6 6.1 4.1–8.9 4.3 2.9–6.3
Houston, TX 8.8 6.5–11.8 14.1 11.4–17.4 11.4 9.3–13.8 2.8 1.7–4.6 6.3 4.8–8.4 4.6 3.5–5.9
Los Angeles, CA 11.0 8.4–14.3 11.7 8.1–16.6 11.4 9.1–14.3 4.5 2.4–8.5 4.0 2.3–6.7 4.2 2.6–6.6
Memphis, TN 0.4 0.1–1.4 1.5 0.8–2.7 0.9 0.5–1.6 0.2 0.0–1.1 0.9 0.4–1.9 0.5 0.3–1.1
Miami-Dade County, FL 6.8 5.5–8.4 7.6 5.8–10.0 7.5 6.3–9.0 2.7 1.9–3.8 4.4 3.2–6.0 3.8 3.0–4.8
Milwaukee, WI 3.5 2.2–5.6 7.9 5.8–10.6 5.7 4.5–7.3 1.1 0.6–2.1 3.4 2.4–4.8 2.3 1.7–3.0
New York City, NY 2.4 1.6–3.7 3.9 2.9–5.2 3.2 2.5–4.1 — — — — — —
Orange County, FL 6.7 5.0–8.8 7.6 5.2–10.9 7.1 5.4–9.3 2.9 1.7–4.9 3.7 2.2–6.1 3.2 2.1–5.0
Palm Beach County, FL 6.2 4.6–8.3 6.3 4.8–8.3 6.4 5.2–7.8 2.5 1.5–4.1 3.0 1.9–4.6 2.8 2.0–3.9
Philadelphia, PA 1.3 0.8–2.0 4.2 2.6–6.8 2.6 1.8–3.8 0.6 0.3–1.2 1.6 0.9–2.8 1.1 0.6–1.8
San Bernardino, CA 4.5 3.2–6.1 5.5 3.8–7.9 5.0 3.9–6.4 2.0 1.1–3.8 2.3 1.4–3.5 2.2 1.5–3.1
San Diego, CA 8.2 6.1–10.9 9.0 6.7–12.0 8.6 7.2–10.3 3.4 2.3–5.1 3.9 2.7–5.6 3.6 2.9–4.6
San Francisco, CA 4.0 2.9–5.5 5.2 3.9–6.8 4.6 3.7–5.7 1.8 1.0–3.1 2.3 1.5–3.4 2.0 1.4–2.9
Median 4.4 7.1 5.9 1.9 3.5 2.9
Range 0.4–11.7 1.5–14.1 0.9–12.6 0.2–6.1 0.9–6.4 0.5–6.2
* Used any form of cocaine (e.g., powder, crack, or freebase) one or mores times during their life.
† Used any form of cocaine one or more times during the 30 days before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 43

TABLE 43. Percentage of high school students who injected illegal drugs* and who used inhalants,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and
grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Lifetime illegal injection-drug use Lifetime inhalant use
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 1.1 0.5–2.0 2.0 1.4–2.8 1.5 1.0–2.3 15.6 13.4–18.0 13.1 11.6–14.8 14.4 12.9–16.0
Blackĥ 0.8 0.4–1.5 2.8 1.8–4.3 1.8 1.2–2.6 7.9 5.2–11.9 9.2 6.9–12.1 8.5 6.8–10.7
Hispanic 2.5 1.5–4.2 3.6 2.5–5.3 3.1 2.2–4.3 15.5 12.5–19.1 12.8 10.3–15.7 14.1 11.7–17.0
Grade
9 1.3 0.7–2.2 2.7 1.9–3.9 2.0 1.4–2.9 17.2 14.7–20.0 13.0 10.5–16.0 15.0 13.0–17.2
10 1.6 0.9–2.8 1.3 0.8–2.0 1.4 1.0–2.1 16.6 13.9–19.8 12.5 10.6–14.8 14.6 12.6–16.8
11 1.4 0.6–3.2 2.3 1.5–3.5 1.9 1.1–3.1 12.4 9.7–15.7 12.6 10.5–15.1 12.5 10.6–14.8
12 0.7 0.2–1.9 4.1 2.9–5.9 2.4 1.6–3.5 9.7 7.8–12.0 10.7 8.6–13.1 10.2 8.6–12.0
Total 1.3 0.8–2.2 2.6 2.0–3.4 2.0 1.5–2.7 14.3 12.7–16.1 12.4 11.2–13.8 13.3 12.1–14.6
* Used a needle to inject any illegal drug into their body one or more times during their life.
†Sniffed glue, breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans, or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high one or more times during their life.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 44

TABLE 44. Percentage of high school students who injected illegal drugs* and who used inhalants,† by sex — selected U.S. sites,
Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Lifetime illegal injection-drug use Lifetime inhalant use
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 0.9 0.3–2.3 3.3 2.0–5.5 2.1 1.4–3.2 16.7 13.2–20.8 12.3 9.9–15.3 14.4 12.2–16.9
Arizona 3.4 2.6–4.5 4.8 3.7–6.3 4.1 3.3–5.2 16.4 14.4–18.6 12.8 10.7–15.3 14.6 12.9–16.3
Arkansas 2.4 1.3–4.2 4.2 2.9–6.1 3.3 2.4–4.5 15.7 14.0–17.6 14.9 11.7–18.9 15.3 13.4–17.3
Connecticut 2.0 1.1–3.4 3.3 2.1–5.1 2.7 1.8–4.0 11.0 9.0–13.5 11.2 8.7–14.1 11.2 9.5–13.2
Delaware 1.3 0.7–2.3 2.9 2.0–4.2 2.2 1.6–2.9 13.7 11.7–15.9 12.1 10.3–14.2 12.9 11.5–14.4
Florida 1.8 1.3–2.5 4.0 3.1–5.3 3.0 2.5–3.7 11.0 9.4–12.8 10.5 8.9–12.3 10.8 9.5–12.3
Georgia 1.9 1.2–2.9 4.0 2.9–5.4 3.1 2.4–3.9 10.3 8.1–13.1 12.5 10.3–15.0 11.4 9.8–13.3
Hawaii —ĥ — — — — — 11.0 8.4–14.3 11.7 8.7–15.5 11.4 9.2–14.0
Idaho 1.4 0.8–2.5 4.1 2.5–6.8 2.9 1.9–4.3 18.2 14.9–22.0 17.7 14.9–21.0 18.1 15.9–20.5
Illinois 1.3 0.7–2.6 2.5 1.7–3.7 1.9 1.4–2.5 12.1 9.9–14.7 11.6 9.3–14.4 11.8 10.2–13.7
Indiana 1.8 1.2–2.7 3.1 2.0–4.8 2.7 2.0–3.7 14.4 12.2–17.0 16.7 13.0–21.1 15.8 13.1–19.0
Iowa 0.9 0.4–2.1 1.3 0.6–2.7 1.1 0.6–2.1 8.4 6.6–10.6 11.3 7.8–16.1 9.8 7.7–12.6
Kansas 1.8 1.1–3.0 4.7 2.9–7.6 3.3 2.3–4.9 10.9 8.6–13.7 13.9 11.3–17.0 12.5 10.4–14.9
Kentucky 2.5 1.9–3.1 4.6 3.3–6.4 3.6 2.9–4.5 13.4 10.8–16.6 14.7 12.5–17.1 14.2 12.4–16.2
Maine 2.0 1.1–3.9 2.9 1.4–6.2 2.5 1.3–4.8 14.3 11.6–17.6 12.1 8.8–16.6 13.3 10.5–16.7
Maryland 0.7 0.3–1.6 2.9 1.7–4.8 2.1 1.4–3.1 11.8 9.4–14.9 13.8 11.2–17.0 12.9 11.0–15.1
Massachusetts 1.6 1.0–2.5 3.3 2.5–4.5 2.5 1.9–3.2 — — — — — —
Michigan 2.1 1.3–3.6 2.7 1.8–4.0 2.6 1.8–3.7 13.3 10.6–16.6 10.8 9.5–12.2 12.0 10.4–13.9
Mississippi 1.4 0.7–2.7 4.3 2.5–7.4 2.9 1.9–4.4 10.9 8.4–13.8 14.6 11.9–17.7 12.6 10.9–14.6
Missouri 1.4 0.6–3.4 3.4 1.8–6.5 2.5 1.5–4.3 12.9 9.2–17.7 12.3 9.1–16.3 12.7 9.8–16.3
Montana 1.6 1.0–2.4 2.3 1.7–3.1 2.0 1.5–2.5 18.1 15.6–21.0 14.4 12.4–16.7 16.2 14.4–18.1
Nevada 1.3 0.7–2.6 2.7 1.7–4.2 2.0 1.3–3.1 14.1 11.2–17.6 11.5 9.1–14.5 12.9 10.9–15.3
New Hampshire 1.7 0.9–3.3 3.4 2.4–4.8 2.6 1.8–3.7 13.5 10.8–16.8 12.0 9.7–14.7 12.8 11.1–14.7
New Mexico 2.7 1.5–4.7 4.5 3.4–6.0 3.6 2.9–4.5 — — — — — —
New York 1.6 1.0–2.5 4.0 2.8–5.8 2.9 2.1–3.9 10.8 9.3–12.6 12.7 10.4–15.4 11.9 10.5–13.5
North Carolina 2.0 1.0–4.1 3.0 2.0–4.4 2.5 1.8–3.7 14.2 10.9–18.4 13.3 11.1–15.8 13.8 11.6–16.4
North Dakota 1.4 0.8–2.3 2.2 1.3–3.7 1.8 1.2–2.7 12.1 9.8–14.8 10.2 8.1–12.8 11.1 9.5–13.0
Ohio 2.6 1.8–3.7 3.6 2.5–5.1 3.1 2.3–4.1 — — — — — —
Oklahoma 0.8 0.4–1.6 3.3 2.2–4.8 2.1 1.4–3.0 12.0 9.7–14.6 11.4 9.1–14.1 11.7 9.8–14.0
Rhode Island — — — — — — 9.5 7.1–12.5 10.4 8.7–12.4 9.9 8.2–12.0
South Carolina 2.3 1.1–4.7 3.6 2.2–5.8 3.0 1.8–5.0 12.6 10.0–15.7 12.6 9.6–16.5 12.6 10.4–15.3
South Dakota 1.8 0.8–3.7 3.1 1.8–5.2 2.4 1.5–3.9 13.0 9.3–18.0 14.3 11.9–17.0 13.7 11.0–17.0
Tennessee 1.7 1.0–3.0 2.8 1.3–5.6 2.2 1.4–3.6 12.6 9.8–15.9 14.6 12.3–17.3 13.7 11.6–16.0
Texas 1.9 1.4–2.6 3.5 2.5–4.7 2.7 2.2–3.3 12.9 10.8–15.5 13.0 10.4–16.0 12.9 10.8–15.4
Utah 3.1 1.6–5.6 5.5 2.2–13.3 4.7 2.1–10.4 12.6 9.4–16.7 12.0 8.0–17.5 12.7 9.3–17.0
Vermont 1.5 1.2–1.9 3.4 2.6–4.4 2.5 2.0–3.2 — — — — — —
West Virginia 2.2 1.3–3.7 3.2 2.3–4.4 2.8 1.9–3.9 22.0 18.9–25.5 16.2 12.5–20.8 19.2 17.1–21.5
Wisconsin — — — — — — 12.1 10.0–14.4 9.0 7.1–11.5 10.5 9.1–12.1
Wyoming 2.7 1.9–3.9 4.4 3.1–6.0 3.6 2.8–4.6 16.5 14.3–19.0 16.8 14.0–19.9 16.7 14.7–18.9
Median 1.8 3.3 2.6 12.9 12.5 12.8
Range 0.7–3.4 1.3–5.5 1.1–4.7 8.4–22.0 9.0–17.7 9.8–19.2
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 1.3 0.7–2.4 1.5 0.8–2.7 1.5 0.9–2.5 7.1 5.3–9.5 6.3 4.9–8.0 6.9 5.7–8.3
Boston, MA 1.6 0.8–3.0 2.8 1.6–4.9 2.3 1.4–3.5 — — — — — —
Broward County, FL 1.4 0.7–2.9 2.6 1.2–5.6 2.1 1.1–3.9 11.0 7.9–15.0 12.0 8.9–15.9 11.4 9.5–13.7
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 0.8 0.3–1.9 3.6 2.3–5.5 2.2 1.4–3.4 9.0 6.8–11.8 14.1 11.3–17.4 11.7 9.7–13.9
Chicago, IL 1.9 0.8–4.3 2.9 1.8–4.7 2.4 1.4–3.8 10.3 7.6–13.7 8.5 5.3–13.4 9.6 7.1–12.9
Dallas, TX 3.4 2.0–5.9 3.6 1.9–6.4 3.6 2.2–5.8 11.8 9.5–14.6 12.2 8.1–17.9 12.0 9.1–15.6
DeKalb County, GA 0.8 0.4–1.5 3.3 2.3–4.6 2.1 1.5–2.8 9.5 7.7–11.7 9.9 8.1–12.1 9.8 8.4–11.4
Detroit, MI 2.0 1.2–3.3 3.0 1.8–5.1 2.6 1.8–3.8 8.2 6.6–10.2 7.1 5.2–9.6 7.8 6.6–9.2
District of Columbia 3.0 1.9–4.8 8.0 5.5–11.7 5.5 4.0–7.6 8.0 6.4–10.0 11.1 8.1–14.8 10.1 8.2–12.4
Hillsborough County, FL 2.7 1.5–4.9 5.9 3.8–9.0 4.3 3.0–6.1 14.7 12.2–17.5 12.8 9.3–17.4 13.9 11.7–16.4
Houston, TX 3.3 2.1–5.3 4.2 2.8–6.4 3.8 2.8–5.2 8.8 6.9–11.1 11.4 9.1–14.1 10.0 8.5–11.8
Los Angeles, CA 1.6 0.5–5.0 3.6 1.8–6.9 2.7 1.4–4.9 19.4 14.9–25.0 15.4 12.3–19.1 17.4 14.0–21.4
Memphis, TN 0.4 0.1–1.3 0.6 0.2–1.6 0.5 0.2–1.1 8.5 6.0–11.9 6.0 4.2–8.4 7.2 5.6–9.4
Miami-Dade County, FL 2.0 1.3–2.9 3.3 2.3–4.9 3.0 2.3–3.8 11.0 8.8–13.6 11.3 9.6–13.3 11.4 10.0–13.0
Milwaukee, WI — — — — — — 8.7 6.9–10.9 9.4 7.3–12.0 9.0 7.5–10.9
New York City, NY 1.1 0.7–1.7 2.2 1.6–3.1 1.7 1.3–2.2 8.1 6.8–9.7 9.3 7.4–11.6 8.7 7.2–10.5
Orange County, FL 1.8 0.8–3.8 2.9 1.6–5.1 2.3 1.4–3.6 11.3 8.8–14.5 13.8 10.7–17.5 12.4 10.3–14.9
Palm Beach County, FL 1.9 1.0–3.6 3.5 2.2–5.6 2.7 1.8–4.2 10.2 8.3–12.4 9.6 7.8–11.6 10.0 8.5–11.7
Philadelphia, PA 1.0 0.5–1.9 2.8 1.8–4.3 1.8 1.3–2.7 — — — — — —
San Bernardino, CA 1.3 0.6–2.6 2.3 1.1–4.4 1.8 1.1–2.9 13.6 11.3–16.4 14.4 11.7–17.6 14.0 12.0–16.3
San Diego, CA 2.0 1.1–3.7 3.9 2.6–5.8 3.0 2.1–4.3 9.6 7.7–11.8 11.7 9.7–14.1 10.7 9.2–12.5
San Francisco, CA 2.0 1.2–3.3 3.1 2.2–4.4 2.6 1.9–3.6 8.7 7.0–10.6 8.3 6.6–10.2 8.5 7.3–9.9
Median 1.8 3.1 2.4 9.5 11.2 10.0
Range 0.4–3.4 0.6–8.0 0.5–5.5 7.1–19.4 6.0–15.4 6.9–17.4
* Used a needle to inject any illegal drug into their body one or more times during their life.
† Sniffed glue, breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans, or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high one or more times during their life.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 45

TABLE 45. Percentage of high school students who took steroids* and who used hallucinogenic drugs,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and
grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Lifetime illegal steroid use Lifetime hallucinogenic drug use
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 2.8 2.0–3.9 5.3 4.4–6.3 4.1 3.4–4.9 6.8 5.2–8.9 11.1 9.7–12.8 9.0 7.8–10.5
Blackĥ 1.0 0.6–1.7 3.4 2.4–4.8 2.2 1.7–2.9 0.9 0.4–2.1 4.0 2.3–7.0 2.4 1.5–4.0
Hispanic 4.5 2.8–7.2 4.8 3.5–6.6 4.6 3.3–6.4 7.4 5.1–10.6 8.4 6.1–11.5 7.9 5.9–10.5
Grade
9 3.8 2.4–6.0 5.7 4.2–7.6 4.8 3.5–6.4 4.5 2.9–6.8 5.8 4.2–7.9 5.1 3.8–6.9
10 2.9 1.9–4.3 4.5 3.1–6.4 3.7 2.7–5.0 6.4 4.6–8.8 9.5 7.6–11.9 8.0 6.4–10.0
11 1.9 1.2–2.8 4.4 3.0–6.2 3.1 2.4–4.1 6.5 4.3–9.6 9.5 7.7–11.6 8.1 6.4–10.2
12 1.9 1.1–3.2 5.6 4.4–7.0 3.8 3.0–4.7 7.0 5.1–9.4 14.0 11.3–17.3 10.4 8.6–12.7
Total 2.7 2.1–3.6 5.1 4.4–5.9 3.9 3.4–4.6 6.1 4.7–7.7 9.5 8.3–10.9 7.8 6.7–9.1
* Took steroid pills or shots without a doctor’s prescription one or more times during their life.
†Used hallucinogenic drugs (e.g., LSD, acid, PCP, angel dust, mescaline, or mushrooms) one or more times during their life.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 46

TABLE 46. Percentage of high school students who took steroids (lifetime illegal steroid use),* by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth
Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Site % CI† % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 2.8 1.9–4.3 3.7 2.5–5.5 3.3 2.4–4.3
Arizona 5.3 3.9–7.1 5.9 4.6–7.6 5.6 4.6–6.9
Arkansas 2.5 1.7–3.6 6.5 4.8–8.7 4.5 3.6–5.5
Connecticut 2.3 1.3–3.8 4.9 3.4–6.9 3.7 2.7–5.0
Delaware 2.0 1.3–3.0 4.5 3.3–6.1 3.3 2.6–4.1
Florida 3.2 2.3–4.5 5.0 4.0–6.2 4.2 3.6–5.0
Georgia 3.1 2.2–4.4 4.4 3.6–5.5 3.9 3.1–4.9
Hawaii 2.7 1.4–5.2 5.7 3.3–9.6 4.3 3.0–6.1
Idaho 2.4 1.3–4.3 4.4 2.7–7.0 3.6 2.4–5.2
Illinois 1.7 1.2–2.5 4.2 2.8–6.3 3.0 2.3–4.0
Indiana 3.2 2.3–4.4 4.7 3.5–6.3 4.5 3.2–6.3
Iowa 1.3 0.6–2.5 2.4 1.6–3.6 1.8 1.3–2.7
Kansas 2.6 1.7–3.8 5.0 3.3–7.5 3.9 2.9–5.3
Kentucky 4.1 3.2–5.1 7.8 6.3–9.7 6.1 5.2–7.1
Maine 3.2 2.4–4.4 3.4 1.6–7.4 3.4 2.2–5.1
Maryland 2.3 1.2–4.3 2.2 1.3–3.7 2.5 1.6–3.7
Massachusetts 2.4 1.6–3.7 4.8 3.8–6.1 3.7 3.0–4.5
Michigan 2.2 1.3–3.7 3.3 2.4–4.4 2.8 2.0–3.9
Mississippi 2.4 1.2–4.6 5.4 3.4–8.3 4.0 2.9–5.5
Missouri 2.0 1.2–3.2 4.0 3.1–5.2 3.2 2.5–4.1
Montana 2.0 1.4–3.0 3.6 2.9–4.6 2.8 2.3–3.5
Nevada 3.0 2.0–4.5 4.5 2.9–7.0 3.8 2.8–5.2
New Hampshire 2.0 1.2–3.4 4.5 3.2–6.2 3.3 2.5–4.4
New Mexico —§ — — — — —
New York 2.4 1.7–3.4 5.5 4.1–7.4 4.1 3.2–5.3
North Carolina 2.4 1.4–3.9 5.2 3.8–7.1 3.9 2.9–5.1
North Dakota 1.1 0.6–2.1 3.7 2.5–5.4 2.6 1.8–3.7
Ohio 3.3 2.2–4.9 6.6 5.0–8.6 5.0 3.9–6.5
Oklahoma 3.2 2.2–4.6 6.1 4.2–8.6 4.7 3.6–6.1
Rhode Island 2.0 1.2–3.3 6.1 4.7–8.0 4.1 3.1–5.3
South Carolina 1.9 1.1–3.2 5.2 3.3–8.0 3.6 2.5–5.2
South Dakota 1.0 0.4–2.3 3.3 2.1–5.1 2.2 1.4–3.4
Tennessee 3.3 2.0–5.4 6.6 4.7–9.3 5.0 3.8–6.5
Texas 3.0 1.9–4.5 4.8 4.0–5.8 3.9 3.2–4.7
Utah 2.8 1.4–5.5 7.6 4.0–13.8 5.6 2.8–10.9
Vermont 1.6 1.1–2.5 3.9 3.2–4.8 2.9 2.5–3.5
West Virginia 3.0 1.8–5.0 6.8 4.9–9.4 5.0 3.9–6.4
Wisconsin — — — — — —
Wyoming 4.6 3.6–5.9 6.6 5.0–8.7 5.8 4.8–7.1
Median 2.4 4.8 3.9
Range 1.0–5.3 2.2–7.8 1.8–6.1
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 1.4 0.7–2.5 2.4 1.6–3.7 2.0 1.4–2.9
Boston, MA 2.4 1.4–4.0 3.4 2.1–5.3 2.9 2.0–4.2
Broward County, FL 1.4 0.6–3.1 3.4 2.0–5.7 2.5 1.6–3.8
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 0.9 0.5–1.7 4.6 3.2–6.5 2.9 2.1–3.9
Chicago, IL 2.3 1.3–4.3 5.6 3.4–9.3 4.0 2.5–6.4
Dallas, TX 5.1 3.0–8.6 5.0 2.6–9.4 5.2 3.1–8.6
DeKalb County, GA 1.1 0.6–1.9 3.6 2.4–5.3 2.4 1.7–3.4
Detroit, MI 1.3 0.7–2.4 3.3 2.1–5.2 2.4 1.7–3.5
District of Columbia 3.3 2.0–5.2 9.4 6.4–13.5 6.5 4.8–8.8
Hillsborough County, FL 3.5 2.2–5.8 7.0 4.6–10.5 5.3 3.9–7.0
Houston, TX 4.5 3.0–6.8 6.1 4.6–8.0 5.3 4.0–7.0
Los Angeles, CA 1.9 0.7–4.9 2.7 1.6–4.5 2.3 1.3–4.1
Memphis, TN 0.8 0.3–2.0 2.3 1.3–4.2 1.6 1.0–2.5
Miami-Dade County, FL 2.6 1.8–3.9 3.7 2.6–5.2 3.5 2.7–4.5
Milwaukee, WI — — — — — —
New York City, NY 1.2 0.7–1.9 2.9 2.1–4.0 2.1 1.6–2.7
Orange County, FL 2.3 1.2–4.4 3.9 2.2–6.8 3.1 2.1–4.6
Palm Beach County, FL 3.4 2.2–5.3 4.3 2.8–6.3 3.9 2.7–5.4
Philadelphia, PA 2.3 1.6–3.3 3.9 2.7–5.7 3.0 2.3–4.0
San Bernardino, CA 2.7 1.6–4.5 3.2 2.0–5.2 3.0 2.1–4.2
San Diego, CA 2.3 1.4–3.8 5.0 3.6–7.0 3.8 2.9–4.8
San Francisco, CA 2.4 1.5–3.9 2.9 1.9–4.3 2.7 2.0–3.8
Median 2.3 3.7 3.0
Range 0.8–5.1 2.3–9.4 1.6–6.5
* Took steroid pills or shots without a doctor’s prescription one or more times during their life.
† 95% confidence interval.
§ Not available.
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Table 47

TABLE 47. Percentage of high school students who used heroin* and who used methamphetamines,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and
grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Lifetime heroin use Lifetime methamphetamine use
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 1.3 0.9–2.0 2.1 1.4–3.2 1.7 1.2–2.4 4.5 3.3–6.0 4.4 3.4–5.6 4.5 3.5–5.6
Blackĥ 0.7 0.3–1.5 2.9 1.8–4.7 1.8 1.2–2.7 0.8 0.4–1.5 3.0 1.9–4.8 1.9 1.3–2.9
Hispanic 3.3 1.8–6.0 4.0 2.8–5.7 3.7 2.5–5.2 5.3 3.6–7.8 6.1 4.2–8.7 5.7 4.1–7.9
Grade
9 2.1 1.2–3.7 3.0 2.2–4.2 2.6 1.9–3.5 3.4 2.3–4.9 3.7 2.5–5.3 3.6 2.7–4.7
10 1.6 1.0–2.6 1.9 1.3–2.8 1.8 1.3–2.4 4.2 3.0–5.9 4.0 2.9–5.5 4.1 3.2–5.3
11 1.2 0.7–2.0 2.4 1.6–3.6 1.8 1.2–2.6 5.3 3.7–7.7 5.4 4.1–7.1 5.4 4.1–7.1
12 1.3 0.7–2.4 4.0 2.7–5.8 2.6 1.9–3.6 3.5 2.5–4.8 5.6 4.1–7.6 4.5 3.4–6.0
Total 1.6 1.1–2.3 2.9 2.3–3.6 2.3 1.8–2.8 4.1 3.2–5.3 4.6 3.8–5.5 4.4 3.7–5.3
* Used heroin (also called “smack,” “junk,” or “China White”) one or more times during their life.
†Used methamphetamines (also called “speed,” “crystal,” “crank,” or “ice”) one or more times during their life.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 48

TABLE 48. Percentage of high school students who used heroin* and who used methamphetamines,† by sex — selected U.S. sites,
Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Lifetime heroin use Lifetime methamphetamine use
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 0.9 0.3–2.3 2.4 1.4–4.1 1.6 1.1–2.4 4.3 2.9–6.3 4.9 3.5–6.8 4.6 3.5–6.0
Arizona 4.0 2.9–5.5 6.3 4.9–7.9 5.2 4.2–6.4 8.3 6.7–10.2 8.9 7.6–10.4 8.6 7.6–9.7
Arkansas 2.4 1.3–4.4 4.2 2.7–6.6 3.3 2.2–4.9 6.5 4.7–9.1 7.1 5.3–9.4 6.8 5.5–8.4
Connecticut 3.0 2.0–4.7 4.8 3.1–7.2 4.1 3.1–5.5 4.5 3.2–6.3 6.3 4.5–8.9 5.6 4.3–7.3
Delaware 1.5 1.0–2.4 3.1 2.1–4.7 2.4 1.7–3.3 3.8 2.3–6.1 4.6 3.6–6.0 4.3 3.3–5.5
Florida 2.1 1.5–3.0 4.2 3.3–5.3 3.3 2.7–4.0 3.3 2.5–4.3 4.9 3.9–6.1 4.2 3.5–5.1
Georgia 1.1 0.7–2.0 3.6 2.3–5.5 2.4 1.7–3.5 3.8 2.8–5.1 5.9 4.3–8.1 4.9 3.9–6.3
Hawaii —ĥ — — — — — 4.7 2.4–9.0 4.3 1.9–9.7 4.5 2.6–7.6
Idaho 3.1 1.9–5.1 5.1 3.1–8.2 4.3 3.0–6.1 6.2 4.1–9.2 6.4 4.2–9.7 6.4 4.6–8.9
Illinois 1.0 0.4–2.2 4.0 2.5–6.3 2.5 1.6–3.8 2.4 1.3–4.6 4.8 3.7–6.3 3.6 2.7–4.8
Indiana 2.3 1.6–3.1 4.2 3.1–5.7 3.6 2.8–4.8 5.1 3.6–7.1 6.8 5.0–9.2 6.2 4.7–8.2
Iowa 1.4 0.6–3.3 1.3 0.5–3.4 1.4 0.7–2.7 3.9 2.5–6.1 3.3 1.7–6.4 3.6 2.4–5.5
Kansas 2.6 1.7–3.9 5.6 3.3–9.4 4.2 2.8–6.3 5.0 3.7–6.6 7.2 4.9–10.5 6.2 4.7–8.2
Kentucky 1.9 1.3–2.6 5.2 3.8–7.1 3.8 3.0–4.7 4.9 3.5–6.8 6.7 5.0–9.0 6.0 4.8–7.4
Maine 2.6 1.3–5.1 4.9 2.7–8.7 3.8 2.3–6.4 4.6 3.2–6.5 5.3 3.0–9.4 5.0 3.5–7.3
Maryland 0.8 0.3–1.8 3.7 1.9–6.8 2.4 1.4–4.0 1.6 0.7–3.4 3.9 2.3–6.5 3.0 2.0–4.5
Massachusetts 2.2 1.4–3.3 3.8 2.9–5.0 3.1 2.3–4.0 3.1 2.2–4.4 4.6 3.5–6.0 4.0 3.1–5.0
Michigan 1.9 1.1–3.3 2.4 1.5–3.8 2.2 1.4–3.5 3.5 2.5–4.8 4.4 3.3–6.0 4.0 3.1–5.2
Mississippi 1.4 0.7–2.7 4.7 2.9–7.3 3.1 2.2–4.2 2.6 1.8–3.8 5.7 4.0–8.1 4.2 3.3–5.4
Missouri 1.2 0.7–2.1 3.1 2.0–4.7 2.3 1.6–3.4 3.3 2.1–5.2 3.9 2.6–5.8 3.7 2.9–4.7
Montana 1.8 1.2–2.6 3.2 2.4–4.2 2.5 2.0–3.2 4.7 3.4–6.5 4.5 3.2–6.2 4.6 3.7–5.9
Nevada — — — — — — 7.5 5.4–10.4 5.0 3.5–7.0 6.3 4.8–8.3
New Hampshire 1.3 0.7–2.5 4.5 3.1–6.3 3.0 2.2–4.1 4.8 3.3–6.9 6.2 4.5–8.6 5.6 4.4–7.1
New Mexico 3.2 1.8–5.6 6.5 5.5–7.6 5.0 3.9–6.3 6.9 4.8–9.7 8.3 7.0–9.9 7.7 6.6–9.0
New York 1.6 1.0–2.5 5.1 3.7–7.1 3.4 2.6–4.6 2.5 1.8–3.5 6.0 4.6–7.8 4.4 3.6–5.4
North Carolina 1.5 0.8–2.8 3.8 2.8–5.2 2.8 2.0–3.9 3.4 2.4–4.8 5.8 4.5–7.4 4.7 3.8–5.8
North Dakota 1.7 1.0–2.8 3.0 1.9–4.7 2.4 1.6–3.5 3.4 2.4–4.9 4.5 3.3–6.3 4.1 3.2–5.2
Ohio 2.8 1.7–4.4 4.1 2.9–5.9 3.5 2.5–4.7 4.8 3.5–6.5 7.0 5.2–9.2 5.9 4.6–7.6
Oklahoma 1.1 0.7–1.5 3.2 2.2–4.7 2.2 1.6–3.0 4.6 3.5–6.1 6.3 4.8–8.1 5.5 4.4–6.7
Rhode Island — — — — — — — — — — — —
South Carolina 1.6 1.0–2.7 3.8 2.0–7.0 2.8 1.7–4.6 3.7 2.4–5.8 5.2 3.2–8.5 4.6 3.0–7.1
South Dakota 1.9 1.0–3.8 3.8 2.6–5.4 3.0 2.2–4.0 4.9 2.9–8.2 5.0 3.5–7.2 5.0 3.6–6.9
Tennessee 1.9 1.0–3.5 3.2 1.6–6.0 2.6 1.7–4.0 2.6 1.6–4.3 4.7 2.8–7.8 3.8 2.9–4.8
Texas 1.8 1.3–2.4 3.0 2.3–3.9 2.4 1.9–3.0 6.2 4.5–8.4 7.2 5.6–9.3 6.7 5.4–8.3
Utah 1.9 0.7–4.7 8.3 3.8–17.3 5.6 2.4–12.5 3.5 2.1–5.9 8.8 3.3–21.4 6.6 2.8–14.8
Vermont 1.8 1.2–2.6 4.3 3.5–5.2 3.1 2.5–3.9 3.3 2.4–4.7 5.8 5.0–6.7 4.7 3.9–5.6
West Virginia 2.5 1.6–3.8 4.7 3.6–6.0 3.7 2.9–4.9 8.3 6.2–11.1 7.8 5.8–10.3 8.1 6.8–9.5
Wisconsin 1.1 0.6–1.9 3.4 2.3–4.8 2.2 1.6–3.1 2.8 1.9–4.1 4.9 3.7–6.6 3.9 3.2–4.7
Wyoming 3.4 2.5–4.7 6.5 5.0–8.5 5.2 4.2–6.4 4.7 3.4–6.4 6.8 5.3–8.8 6.0 4.9–7.3
Median 1.8 4.0 3.0 4.4 5.7 4.8
Range 0.8–4.0 1.3–8.3 1.4–5.6 1.6–8.3 3.3–8.9 3.0–8.6
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 1.2 0.6–2.4 2.2 1.3–3.5 1.8 1.1–2.8 1.6 0.9–2.8 2.0 1.3–3.3 1.9 1.3–2.9
Boston, MA 2.5 1.5–4.3 2.9 1.5–5.4 2.8 1.8–4.2 1.7 0.8–3.4 3.6 2.1–6.1 2.7 1.6–4.5
Broward County, FL 0.9 0.4–2.2 2.0 1.0–3.9 1.5 0.9–2.7 1.4 0.8–2.6 3.6 2.0–6.5 2.6 1.5–4.3
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 0.5 0.2–1.2 3.1 2.0–4.9 2.0 1.3–2.9 2.3 1.4–3.7 6.3 4.5–8.8 4.5 3.4–5.9
Chicago, IL 2.2 0.9–5.2 4.7 2.6–8.6 3.7 2.1–6.2 2.5 1.2–5.1 7.1 4.3–11.6 4.7 2.9–7.5
Dallas, TX 4.0 2.5–6.4 6.6 4.1–10.3 5.2 3.6–7.6 4.7 3.1–7.2 7.2 5.0–10.2 5.9 4.2–8.2
DeKalb County, GA — — — — — — 1.6 1.0–2.5 3.7 2.6–5.2 2.7 2.1–3.6
Detroit, MI 0.6 0.3–1.2 2.4 1.4–4.3 1.6 1.0–2.6 0.8 0.4–1.5 3.0 1.7–5.2 2.0 1.2–3.1
District of Columbia 2.0 1.2–3.4 8.3 5.6–12.1 5.4 3.8–7.7 2.9 1.7–4.8 8.9 6.4–12.4 6.1 4.5–8.2
Hillsborough County, FL 2.5 1.4–4.5 5.6 3.6–8.7 4.0 2.7–6.0 3.6 2.0–6.3 7.0 5.1–9.5 5.5 3.9–7.6
Houston, TX 3.2 2.0–5.2 6.6 5.0–8.6 4.9 3.7–6.5 3.5 2.2–5.4 6.9 5.3–9.0 5.2 4.0–6.7
Los Angeles, CA 1.7 0.8–3.5 4.2 2.5–7.0 3.1 2.0–4.8 9.4 8.0–11.0 8.5 5.5–13.0 9.0 7.1–11.4
Memphis, TN 0.1 0.0–0.7 1.0 0.5–2.1 0.6 0.3–1.1 0.1 0.0–0.7 1.4 0.8–2.7 0.7 0.4–1.4
Miami-Dade County, FL 2.0 1.3–3.0 3.4 2.4–4.8 3.0 2.3–4.0 2.8 2.0–3.8 4.4 3.2–6.1 3.9 3.1–4.9
Milwaukee, WI 1.9 1.2–3.2 5.0 3.5–7.1 3.5 2.6–4.5 1.9 1.2–3.1 5.4 3.8–7.7 3.7 2.9–4.8
New York City, NY 0.6 0.3–1.1 2.0 1.3–3.0 1.3 0.9–1.9 0.9 0.5–1.6 2.8 2.0–3.9 1.8 1.3–2.5
Orange County, FL 1.7 1.0–3.0 2.2 1.3–3.6 1.9 1.3–2.9 3.9 2.3–6.4 3.8 2.3–6.3 3.8 2.6–5.6
Palm Beach County, FL 2.6 1.5–4.5 4.2 2.6–6.7 3.5 2.3–5.2 3.5 2.5–4.9 4.2 2.7–6.4 3.9 2.9–5.3
Philadelphia, PA 0.6 0.3–1.3 4.2 2.8–6.2 2.2 1.5–3.3 0.7 0.3–1.6 3.8 2.4–6.0 2.2 1.4–3.3
San Bernardino, CA 1.5 0.8–2.6 1.8 1.0–3.2 1.7 1.2–2.5 5.9 4.4–7.9 5.4 3.8–7.7 5.7 4.4–7.3
San Diego, CA 2.2 1.2–3.7 4.1 2.9–5.7 3.2 2.4–4.3 6.0 4.3–8.3 6.7 4.9–9.0 6.4 5.2–8.0
San Francisco, CA 1.6 0.9–2.9 2.7 1.9–4.0 2.3 1.5–3.3 3.0 2.0–4.4 4.0 2.9–5.4 3.6 2.7–4.7
Median 1.7 3.4 2.8 2.6 4.3 3.8
Range 0.1–4.0 1.0–8.3 0.6–5.4 0.1–9.4 1.4–8.9 0.7–9.0
* Used heroin (also called “smack,” “junk,” or “China White”) one or more times during their life.
† Used methamphetamines (also called “speed,” “crystal,” “crank,” or “ice”) one or more times during their life.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 49

TABLE 49. Percentage of high school students who used ecstasy (lifetime ecstasy use),* by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade —
United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 4.6 3.8–5.6 6.5 5.3–8.1 5.6 4.8–6.6
Black§ 2.4 1.5–3.8 5.1 3.4–7.6 3.7 2.6–5.3
Hispanic 6.9 5.3–8.8 8.0 5.9–10.8 7.4 6.0–9.2
Grade
9 3.3 2.3–4.7 5.9 4.4–7.8 4.6 3.6–5.9
10 5.0 3.7–6.7 5.7 4.2–7.7 5.3 4.3–6.6
11 5.2 3.7–7.2 6.0 4.8–7.4 5.6 4.5–7.1
12 5.6 4.2–7.6 9.6 7.4–12.4 7.6 6.3–9.1
Total 4.8 4.1–5.6 6.7 5.7–7.9 5.8 5.0–6.6
*Used ecstasy (also called “MDMA”) one or more times during their life.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
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Table 50

TABLE 50. Percentage of high school students who used ecstasy (lifetime ecstasy use),* by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk
Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Site % CI† % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 8.0 5.5–11.3 7.1 5.1–9.8 7.5 6.1–9.3
Arizona 8.2 6.4–10.5 10.0 8.4–11.9 9.1 7.8–10.7
Arkansas 5.1 4.0–6.6 8.5 6.4–11.3 6.9 5.6–8.4
Connecticut 6.2 4.7–8.1 6.8 4.7–9.7 6.6 5.2–8.4
Delaware 4.5 3.4–5.8 6.8 5.4–8.5 5.6 4.7–6.7
Florida 5.7 4.4–7.3 7.9 6.7–9.3 6.9 5.9–8.1
Georgia 6.9 5.8–8.2 8.4 6.1–11.5 7.7 6.2–9.5
Hawaii 5.0 3.1–7.8 4.2 2.3–7.7 4.6 3.4–6.2
Idaho 4.8 3.3–6.9 9.2 6.5–12.9 7.2 5.4–9.4
Illinois 5.0 3.2–7.7 6.7 5.0–9.0 5.9 4.6–7.5
Indiana 5.4 4.3–6.7 6.7 4.9–9.0 6.4 5.2–7.9
Iowa 3.0 2.0–4.5 3.0 1.7–5.2 3.0 2.1–4.2
Kansas 7.6 5.8–10.0 9.3 6.9–12.4 8.6 7.2–10.3
Kentucky 4.4 3.2–6.0 8.2 6.3–10.5 6.5 5.1–8.1
Maine —§ — — — — —
Maryland 5.2 3.5–7.9 7.1 3.8–13.0 6.3 4.0–9.7
Massachusetts — — — — — —
Michigan — — — — — —
Mississippi 4.8 3.5–6.6 9.5 7.0–12.7 7.1 5.6–9.0
Missouri 5.8 4.3–7.8 7.7 5.5–10.7 6.9 5.2–9.0
Montana 5.2 4.1–6.6 6.8 5.5–8.4 6.0 5.2–7.0
Nevada — — — — — —
New Hampshire 5.7 4.2–7.8 7.0 5.6–8.7 6.4 5.2–7.9
New Mexico 5.8 3.8–8.8 10.7 9.1–12.5 8.4 7.2–9.9
New York 4.5 3.5–5.7 7.4 5.9–9.3 6.1 5.1–7.4
North Carolina 5.4 4.2–7.0 7.1 5.8–8.8 6.4 5.4–7.5
North Dakota 4.3 3.0–6.1 4.5 3.3–6.1 4.4 3.4–5.6
Ohio — — — — — —
Oklahoma 4.3 3.1–6.0 7.3 5.7–9.2 5.9 4.7–7.4
Rhode Island 5.2 3.9–6.8 7.9 6.4–9.7 6.6 5.4–8.0
South Carolina 6.8 4.6–9.9 7.4 4.8–11.2 7.2 5.3–9.6
South Dakota 3.0 1.9–4.9 5.4 3.8–7.7 4.3 3.1–6.0
Tennessee 3.9 2.8–5.4 7.9 5.5–11.3 6.0 4.5–7.9
Texas 10.2 8.8–11.8 9.6 7.6–12.0 9.9 8.6–11.3
Utah 5.6 3.9–8.0 10.1 4.4–21.3 7.9 4.5–13.4
Vermont — — — — — —
West Virginia 4.9 3.4–7.1 7.5 5.5–10.1 6.3 4.8–8.1
Wisconsin 5.2 3.7–7.4 8.0 6.5–9.8 6.7 5.4–8.2
Wyoming 5.5 4.3–7.0 9.4 7.6–11.7 7.7 6.5–9.1
Median 5.2 7.5 6.6
Range 3.0–10.2 3.0–10.7 3.0–9.9
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 2.7 1.6–4.5 4.1 2.7–6.0 3.5 2.5–4.8
Boston, MA — — — — — —
Broward County, FL 4.7 2.7–8.3 7.8 5.6–10.9 6.3 4.6–8.7
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 6.5 4.5–9.4 9.2 6.7–12.6 7.9 6.1–10.2
Chicago, IL 5.8 3.6–9.2 6.5 3.9–10.5 6.4 4.2–9.6
Dallas, TX 5.4 3.5–8.2 8.3 6.1–11.2 6.8 5.1–9.1
DeKalb County, GA 3.1 2.2–4.4 6.5 5.1–8.2 4.9 4.0–6.1
Detroit, MI — — — — — —
District of Columbia 4.6 3.3–6.5 10.2 7.5–13.8 7.7 6.1–9.7
Hillsborough County, FL 6.4 4.4–9.3 10.8 7.8–14.8 8.8 6.7–11.4
Houston, TX 8.3 6.1–11.1 12.5 10.0–15.4 10.3 8.5–12.4
Los Angeles, CA 6.1 4.2–8.7 6.4 3.4–11.8 6.4 3.9–10.1
Memphis, TN 2.0 1.1–3.8 3.3 2.1–5.2 2.7 1.9–3.8
Miami-Dade County, FL 6.5 5.3–7.8 7.9 6.3–9.9 7.5 6.4–8.7
Milwaukee, WI 4.8 3.3–6.9 8.8 6.8–11.3 6.8 5.6–8.3
New York City, NY 2.0 1.6–2.6 2.9 2.0–4.2 2.5 2.0–3.3
Orange County, FL 4.7 3.0–7.4 5.4 3.6–7.9 5.1 3.7–6.9
Palm Beach County, FL 6.9 5.2–9.2 7.5 5.5–10.0 7.3 5.9–9.1
Philadelphia, PA 1.9 1.3–2.7 4.8 3.2–7.0 3.2 2.3–4.4
San Bernardino, CA 4.5 3.2–6.4 5.6 4.4–7.1 5.1 4.0–6.4
San Diego, CA 6.5 4.4–9.4 11.2 8.8–14.2 9.0 7.1–11.3
San Francisco, CA 6.6 5.3–8.2 6.5 5.1–8.3 6.7 5.6–8.0
Median 5.1 7.0 6.5
Range 1.9–8.3 2.9–12.5 2.5–10.3
* Used ecstasy (also called “MDMA”) one or more times during their life.
† 95% confidence interval.
§ Not available.
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Table 51

TABLE 51. Percentage of high school students who smoked a whole cigarette and who drank alcohol* for the first time before age
13 years, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Smoked a whole cigarette before age 13 years Drank alcohol before age 13 years
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 12.2 9.9–14.9 16.5 12.5–21.5 14.4 11.5–17.9 17.8 15.7–20.1 25.0 21.0–29.4 21.5 18.8–24.4
Black§ 10.5 8.6–12.7 14.6 11.6–18.2 12.5 10.6–14.7 22.7 19.3–26.6 30.7 26.5–35.4 26.7 24.2–29.4
Hispanic 11.9 10.0–14.1 16.8 14.0–20.0 14.3 12.4–16.4 24.2 22.0–26.6 33.6 31.1–36.2 29.0 27.5–30.5
Grade
9 13.2 10.8–15.9 19.2 15.3–23.9 16.3 13.6–19.4 27.1 23.9–30.4 34.5 30.0–39.3 30.9 28.1–33.9
10 12.9 9.9–16.7 15.7 12.2–19.9 14.3 11.7–17.4 22.2 19.2–25.4 26.6 23.5–30.0 24.4 22.1–26.9
11 9.2 7.3–11.7 14.6 12.1–17.6 12.0 10.0–14.4 13.8 11.6–16.4 25.1 22.8–27.6 19.6 17.7–21.5
12 11.5 9.0–14.5 15.2 11.8–19.2 13.3 10.7–16.4 14.8 12.3–17.7 21.2 17.2–25.8 18.0 15.2–21.1
Total 11.9 10.3–13.6 16.4 13.5–19.7 14.2 12.2–16.5 20.0 18.2–21.9 27.4 24.8–30.2 23.8 21.9–25.7
*Other than a few sips.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
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Table 52

TABLE 52. Percentage of high school students who smoked a whole cigarette and who drank alcohol* for the first time before age
13 years, by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Smoked a whole cigarette before age 13 years Drank alcohol before age 13 years
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI† % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 14.3 11.0–18.3 17.4 13.5–22.2 16.1 13.2–19.4 16.3 13.1–20.2 24.0 20.0–28.4 20.4 17.7–23.5
Arizona 13.2 10.7–16.2 16.2 13.7–19.0 14.7 12.5–17.3 22.4 18.7–26.7 24.4 20.2–29.2 23.5 20.3–27.0
Arkansas 15.1 12.6–17.9 21.6 18.5–25.0 18.4 16.0–21.0 23.5 20.4–26.9 29.4 25.2–34.0 26.4 23.8–29.3
Connecticut 7.8 5.9–10.3 11.7 9.0–15.1 9.9 8.0–12.3 15.3 12.4–18.8 21.0 17.5–25.0 18.3 15.8–21.2
Delaware 13.1 10.8–15.8 16.0 13.8–18.6 14.7 13.0–16.6 21.2 18.6–24.0 27.8 24.6–31.2 24.9 22.6–27.4
Florida 11.1 9.2–13.4 14.9 13.3–16.7 13.1 11.7–14.6 22.0 19.5–24.7 26.2 23.9–28.7 24.2 22.3–26.1
Georgia 10.7 8.8–13.0 18.2 15.7–21.0 14.5 12.6–16.7 20.1 17.2–23.4 27.6 25.0–30.5 23.9 21.8–26.1
Hawaii —§ — — — — — 21.5 17.3–26.5 20.6 15.9–26.2 21.0 17.6–24.9
Idaho 12.1 9.0–16.1 15.2 11.8–19.3 13.9 11.7–16.4 18.7 14.4–24.0 26.8 23.0–31.0 23.0 19.5–26.9
Illinois 13.5 9.8–18.4 13.1 10.9–15.8 13.4 10.7–16.5 21.5 17.7–25.9 25.2 22.1–28.6 23.3 20.2–26.8
Indiana 13.3 10.3–16.9 18.0 15.4–21.0 16.0 13.6–18.7 17.9 14.7–21.5 25.2 21.6–29.2 21.9 19.4–24.7
Iowa 9.4 6.7–13.2 11.5 8.6–15.2 10.4 7.9–13.7 16.1 13.3–19.2 20.4 15.9–25.8 18.3 15.3–21.8
Kansas 11.6 9.0–14.8 16.3 13.8–19.2 14.0 12.2–16.0 18.6 14.9–23.1 27.6 24.1–31.4 23.3 20.3–26.7
Kentucky 21.2 18.5–24.1 26.3 23.2–29.6 23.8 21.7–26.1 21.3 18.6–24.3 28.4 25.2–31.7 25.1 23.1–27.2
Maine 10.6 7.7–14.4 9.7 7.0–13.5 10.2 7.8–13.2 14.1 10.9–17.9 16.6 13.0–21.0 15.4 12.5–18.9
Maryland 11.8 8.4–16.4 14.4 11.3–18.1 13.4 10.8–16.4 20.3 15.4–26.2 26.3 23.0–29.9 23.5 20.2–27.1
Massachusetts 9.8 7.7–12.5 14.7 12.8–16.7 12.2 10.4–14.3 16.3 13.9–19.0 22.8 20.4–25.3 19.6 17.6–21.9
Michigan 14.7 12.1–17.6 12.8 9.9–16.5 13.8 11.7–16.3 18.7 15.7–22.1 23.8 20.4–27.6 21.4 18.7–24.4
Mississippi 14.3 11.3–17.9 20.0 16.4–24.2 17.0 14.9–19.3 23.8 20.8–27.0 32.9 29.5–36.4 28.1 25.8–30.5
Missouri 14.0 9.3–20.6 12.7 10.4–15.5 13.4 10.5–16.9 18.6 14.0–24.2 22.9 18.6–27.9 20.9 17.3–25.0
Montana 14.1 12.2–16.3 15.3 13.4–17.6 14.7 13.0–16.6 22.6 20.6–24.6 29.1 26.1–32.3 25.9 24.0–28.0
Nevada 12.7 10.4–15.5 12.2 9.6–15.5 12.6 10.6–14.8 22.5 19.8–25.4 26.5 23.7–29.6 24.6 22.6–26.7
New Hampshire 10.3 8.1–12.9 12.6 10.1–15.7 11.5 9.5–13.8 13.7 11.0–16.8 22.4 18.7–26.6 18.1 15.3–21.2
New Mexico 15.0 10.9–20.3 20.6 18.0–23.4 18.0 15.0–21.5 27.8 24.3–31.6 33.2 31.2–35.2 30.7 28.1–33.5
New York 10.1 8.8–11.5 12.0 10.4–13.8 11.1 10.1–12.2 20.2 18.2–22.4 25.5 23.0–28.2 22.9 21.1–24.7
North Carolina 14.8 12.0–18.1 19.5 17.4–21.9 17.3 15.0–19.7 15.7 12.8–19.0 23.5 21.3–25.9 19.7 17.4–22.2
North Dakota 13.8 11.0–17.3 13.6 10.9–16.8 13.8 11.7–16.3 18.2 15.4–21.5 21.0 18.2–24.1 19.7 17.3–22.4
Ohio 12.6 10.0–15.9 15.9 12.6–19.8 14.3 11.7–17.4 17.5 14.3–21.3 23.1 19.7–26.9 20.3 17.5–23.4
Oklahoma 13.0 10.3–16.2 18.1 15.7–20.7 15.6 13.7–17.8 19.2 16.8–21.9 27.2 24.3–30.2 23.3 21.3–25.4
Rhode Island 10.3 8.0–13.1 12.5 9.7–16.1 11.5 9.2–14.2 16.4 13.1–20.3 25.8 22.7–29.1 21.1 19.3–23.1
South Carolina 13.0 9.6–17.3 17.4 13.3–22.4 15.3 12.3–18.9 20.8 17.9–24.0 29.6 26.0–33.4 25.3 22.8–27.9
South Dakota 14.8 9.6–22.1 19.4 13.8–26.7 17.3 12.4–23.6 16.2 12.5–20.7 25.1 20.4–30.5 20.8 17.2–24.9
Tennessee 13.5 10.7–16.8 22.3 19.3–25.6 17.9 15.3–20.9 18.3 15.0–22.1 26.4 23.0–30.2 22.3 19.9–24.9
Texas 12.5 10.6–14.7 16.0 14.2–18.0 14.3 12.7–15.9 25.9 22.9–29.1 29.7 26.9–32.7 27.8 25.4–30.3
Utah 5.2 3.2–8.2 11.2 6.7–17.9 8.6 5.9–12.4 9.7 6.6–13.9 15.4 12.8–18.5 13.0 11.0–15.3
Vermont 11.3 8.1–15.5 13.4 9.7–18.3 12.6 9.2–17.0 15.9 12.7–19.7 22.1 18.3–26.4 19.3 16.1–22.8
West Virginia 19.5 15.2–24.7 23.4 18.4–29.2 21.5 17.2–26.5 23.0 19.1–27.3 31.9 26.7–37.5 27.6 23.7–31.9
Wisconsin 10.9 8.6–13.7 12.1 9.6–15.1 11.5 9.6–13.7 19.6 16.4–23.3 27.2 22.8–32.2 23.5 20.2–27.2
Wyoming 19.0 15.9–22.6 18.8 16.1–21.8 19.0 16.6–21.7 26.3 23.1–29.8 31.0 27.4–34.9 28.8 26.0–31.8
Median 13.0 15.6 14.1 19.2 25.8 23.0
Range 5.2–21.2 9.7–26.3 8.6–23.8 9.7–27.8 15.4–33.2 13.0–30.7
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 10.0 7.7–13.1 12.3 10.0–15.2 11.2 9.6–13.0 19.6 17.2–22.3 24.5 21.0–28.3 22.0 19.9–24.3
Boston, MA 8.6 6.7–11.0 9.4 6.7–13.0 9.2 7.4–11.4 25.4 21.5–29.6 25.5 21.9–29.5 25.5 22.9–28.3
Broward County, FL 5.8 3.9–8.4 12.8 9.7–16.8 9.3 7.2–11.8 25.0 22.0–28.3 25.5 21.5–30.0 25.2 22.3–28.4
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 9.4 7.2–12.2 13.6 10.5–17.3 11.7 9.5–14.3 13.8 11.4–16.7 22.4 19.0–26.3 18.3 15.9–20.9
Chicago, IL 12.8 10.1–16.0 13.9 10.5–18.3 13.4 10.8–16.5 22.9 17.9–28.7 27.5 21.5–34.5 25.1 20.1–30.8
Dallas, TX 9.9 7.7–12.7 25.4 19.7–32.1 17.4 13.8–21.6 25.8 22.6–29.2 33.0 27.6–38.8 29.2 25.4–33.4
DeKalb County, GA 7.4 5.8–9.4 15.0 12.7–17.6 11.2 9.7–12.8 24.6 22.0–27.5 31.2 28.2–34.4 28.0 25.8–30.3
Detroit, MI 9.1 7.6–10.9 13.7 11.1–16.7 11.4 9.9–13.2 21.9 18.6–25.5 26.1 22.9–29.5 23.9 21.5–26.5
District of Columbia 9.2 7.3–11.4 15.2 11.8–19.3 12.2 10.2–14.6 20.4 17.4–23.6 30.1 26.0–34.6 25.5 22.7–28.7
Hillsborough County, FL 10.7 7.8–14.6 10.8 8.2–14.2 10.9 8.3–14.0 22.8 18.6–27.5 23.5 19.3–28.3 23.3 19.8–27.2
Houston, TX 9.3 7.4–11.7 15.5 13.1–18.4 12.4 10.7–14.3 19.9 17.4–22.8 28.0 24.8–31.5 23.9 21.7–26.3
Los Angeles, CA 9.1 6.0–13.4 14.0 10.3–18.7 11.6 8.3–15.8 19.4 13.4–27.1 29.3 23.3–36.0 24.4 19.0–30.8
Memphis, TN 4.9 3.0–8.0 12.5 9.8–15.7 8.5 6.9–10.6 17.5 14.3–21.3 23.5 20.3–27.1 20.5 18.3–22.9
Miami-Dade County, FL 7.7 6.3–9.4 11.6 9.4–14.1 9.8 8.5–11.4 25.8 22.9–28.8 28.7 25.5–32.1 27.3 25.0–29.7
Milwaukee, WI 12.5 10.4–14.9 15.6 12.9–18.8 14.0 12.2–15.9 25.1 21.5–29.0 28.7 24.7–33.0 26.9 24.1–30.0
New York City, NY 8.3 7.3–9.6 8.8 7.1–10.9 8.6 7.4–10.0 21.8 19.9–23.8 27.3 24.9–29.8 24.4 22.7–26.1
Orange County, FL 9.0 6.7–11.9 12.0 9.0–15.9 10.5 8.5–12.9 21.9 18.3–26.1 26.3 22.7–30.2 24.1 21.1–27.5
Palm Beach County, FL 5.8 4.3–7.7 10.2 7.9–13.2 8.0 6.5–9.8 19.0 16.4–22.0 24.9 21.7–28.4 21.9 19.7–24.2
Philadelphia, PA 10.8 9.0–13.0 15.2 12.7–18.1 12.6 11.2–14.2 20.7 18.6–22.9 22.2 18.8–26.1 21.3 19.3–23.6
San Bernardino, CA 8.1 6.2–10.5 11.7 8.9–15.2 9.9 8.2–11.8 23.8 20.4–27.7 28.1 24.6–31.8 26.0 23.4–28.8
San Diego, CA 6.8 4.8–9.5 12.7 10.0–15.9 9.8 8.1–11.9 22.5 18.9–26.5 27.3 23.4–31.6 24.9 22.0–28.1
San Francisco, CA 7.3 5.7–9.3 10.4 8.6–12.4 8.9 7.7–10.3 17.2 14.8–19.8 21.8 19.4–24.4 19.7 17.9–21.6
Median 9.0 12.7 11.0 21.9 26.8 24.4
Range 4.9–12.8 8.8–25.4 8.0–17.4 13.8–25.8 21.8–33.0 18.3–29.2
* Other than a few sips.
† 95% confidence interval.
§ Not available.
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Table 53

TABLE 53. Percentage of high school students who tried marijuana for the first time before age 13 years, by sex, race/ethnicity,
and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Category % CI* % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White† 4.4 3.3–5.8 10.0 7.3–13.6 7.2 5.6–9.3
Black† 4.9 3.5–6.6 14.2 11.1–18.1 9.5 7.4–12.0
Hispanic 7.1 5.3–9.6 12.4 9.8–15.6 9.8 8.2–11.7
Grade
9 6.1 4.6–8.1 13.3 10.4–16.9 9.8 7.9–12.2
10 5.7 4.1–7.8 11.7 9.1–14.8 8.7 7.0–10.7
11 4.2 3.2–5.7 10.1 7.8–12.9 7.2 5.7–9.0
12 4.2 3.0–5.8 9.1 6.8–12.0 6.6 5.2–8.4
Total 5.2 4.2–6.4 11.2 9.3–13.5 8.3 7.0–9.7
* 95% confidence interval.
†Non-Hispanic.
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Table 54

TABLE 54. Percentage of high school students who tried marijuana for the first time before age 13 years, by sex — selected U.S.
sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Site % CI* % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 9.5 7.3–12.4 14.1 10.6–18.5 11.9 9.7–14.7
Arizona 11.7 9.3–14.7 14.2 12.3–16.3 13.0 11.4–14.8
Arkansas 5.5 4.1–7.3 14.8 12.5–17.5 10.2 8.6–12.1
Connecticut 6.9 5.1–9.3 9.9 7.4–13.3 8.5 6.6–10.8
Delaware 6.6 5.0–8.6 12.8 10.9–14.9 10.0 8.6–11.5
Florida 6.0 4.7–7.6 11.5 9.8–13.4 8.8 7.6–10.2
Georgia 5.1 3.8–6.8 11.1 9.5–13.0 8.1 6.9–9.4
Hawaii 11.7 8.1–16.6 11.6 7.8–17.0 11.7 9.0–15.0
Idaho 5.5 4.1–7.2 10.7 8.3–13.8 8.2 6.6–10.2
Illinois 7.6 5.8–9.8 9.8 7.5–12.5 8.7 7.0–10.7
Indiana 6.4 4.8–8.4 11.5 9.6–13.8 9.1 7.6–10.9
Iowa 3.4 2.3–5.2 5.3 3.3–8.3 4.4 2.9–6.4
Kansas 6.0 4.2–8.3 10.4 7.7–13.9 8.3 6.5–10.5
Kentucky 6.9 5.6–8.4 13.4 10.8–16.6 10.2 8.5–12.1
Maine 6.1 3.5–10.6 7.7 4.9–12.1 7.1 4.5–10.9
Maryland 5.3 3.5–7.8 11.6 9.3–14.5 8.6 7.1–10.3
Massachusetts 6.8 5.3–8.7 11.5 9.7–13.6 9.2 7.9–10.7
Michigan 7.4 5.2–10.4 10.4 7.4–14.4 9.0 6.6–12.1
Mississippi 4.3 3.0–6.2 11.0 8.3–14.5 7.8 6.4–9.3
Missouri 6.8 4.3–10.5 8.7 6.8–10.9 7.8 6.0–10.2
Montana 7.8 6.2–9.8 10.9 9.2–12.9 9.5 8.0–11.2
Nevada 6.7 5.2–8.7 10.0 7.6–13.1 8.4 6.8–10.3
New Hampshire 5.9 4.5–7.9 9.8 7.6–12.5 7.9 6.4–9.9
New Mexico 15.4 11.1–21.1 20.6 16.3–25.8 18.2 14.2–23.2
New York 5.0 3.7–6.7 9.4 7.7–11.6 7.3 6.2–8.6
North Carolina 5.9 4.4–8.0 10.6 8.5–13.0 8.3 6.8–10.1
North Dakota 3.8 2.4–6.0 6.9 5.3–8.8 5.4 4.3–6.9
Ohio 6.7 4.9–9.0 10.3 7.5–13.9 8.5 6.5–11.2
Oklahoma 5.8 4.3–7.7 10.4 8.5–12.6 8.1 6.6–10.0
Rhode Island 5.4 3.6–7.9 13.0 10.7–15.8 9.2 7.1–11.8
South Carolina 6.0 4.0–8.7 13.5 10.8–16.7 9.7 7.8–12.0
South Dakota 6.0 2.6–13.3 11.3 6.2–19.7 8.7 4.5–16.1
Tennessee 6.9 4.9–9.7 14.2 12.4–16.2 10.6 9.1–12.3
Texas 7.7 6.2–9.5 11.0 9.5–12.8 9.4 8.3–10.6
Utah 3.4 1.7–6.8 10.9 5.1–21.8 7.6 3.7–15.1
Vermont 6.8 5.1–9.1 10.7 8.8–12.9 8.9 7.3–10.9
West Virginia 6.6 4.6–9.2 15.6 11.3–21.2 11.3 8.3–15.1
Wisconsin 5.5 3.8–7.9 10.0 7.9–12.5 7.8 6.0–10.0
Wyoming 8.1 6.5–10.0 12.7 10.1–15.9 10.6 8.9–12.6
Median 6.4 11.0 8.7
Range 3.4–15.4 5.3–20.6 4.4–18.2
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 5.8 4.4–7.6 15.2 12.6–18.2 10.3 8.8–11.9
Boston, MA 6.9 5.2–9.2 10.5 8.3–13.2 8.7 7.3–10.5
Broward County, FL 4.5 3.3–6.1 10.5 8.3–13.1 7.5 6.1–9.3
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 5.9 4.2–8.2 12.5 9.8–15.8 9.3 7.3–11.7
Chicago, IL 10.9 7.5–15.6 15.0 11.0–20.1 13.0 9.7–17.3
Dallas, TX 8.6 6.2–11.6 21.4 17.6–25.7 14.8 12.1–17.9
DeKalb County, GA 6.3 4.9–8.0 15.8 13.5–18.4 11.2 9.8–12.7
Detroit, MI 9.1 7.4–11.3 14.1 11.7–17.0 11.7 10.0–13.6
District of Columbia 8.0 6.3–10.0 15.9 12.6–19.9 11.9 10.0–14.0
Hillsborough County, FL 6.7 4.6–9.7 10.8 8.3–14.0 8.8 6.9–11.2
Houston, TX 5.8 4.3–8.0 13.7 10.6–17.5 9.8 8.1–11.8
Los Angeles, CA 6.7 4.0–10.9 12.5 8.8–17.5 9.7 6.9–13.4
Memphis, TN 5.7 4.0–7.8 15.9 12.7–19.6 10.5 8.4–13.1
Miami-Dade County, FL 4.3 3.1–6.0 8.8 7.1–10.8 6.7 5.5–8.0
Milwaukee, WI 11.2 9.4–13.3 21.2 17.9–24.8 16.1 14.1–18.3
New York City, NY 3.8 3.1–4.6 7.4 6.1–9.0 5.5 4.7–6.5
Orange County, FL 7.2 5.5–9.4 7.9 5.9–10.6 7.6 6.2–9.2
Palm Beach County, FL 4.1 2.9–5.7 9.3 7.0–12.1 6.7 5.3–8.4
Philadelphia, PA 6.2 4.8–8.0 15.1 12.8–17.7 10.0 8.6–11.6
San Bernardino, CA 7.2 5.2–9.9 11.2 8.4–14.7 9.2 7.4–11.4
San Diego, CA 8.4 6.0–11.7 13.0 10.6–15.8 10.7 8.8–13.0
San Francisco, CA 5.7 4.3–7.4 5.6 4.3–7.3 5.7 4.6–7.0
Median 6.5 12.8 9.7
Range 3.8–11.2 5.6–21.4 5.5–16.1
* 95% confidence interval.
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Table 55

TABLE 55. Percentage of high school students who used tobacco on school property, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United
States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Smoked cigarettes on school property* Used smokeless tobacco on school property†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 5.6 4.2–7.3 7.1 5.8–8.7 6.4 5.1–8.0 1.0 0.6–1.7 11.3 8.3–15.2 6.2 4.5–8.4
Blackĥ 1.7 1.1–2.7 5.1 3.6–7.3 3.4 2.5–4.7 0.2 0.0–1.0 1.5 0.9–2.6 0.9 0.5–1.4
Hispanic 4.2 2.8–6.4 5.6 4.4–7.1 4.9 4.0–6.1 1.5 0.8–2.6 4.9 3.2–7.4 3.2 2.2–4.5
Grade
9 3.7 2.5–5.4 4.7 3.2–6.9 4.2 3.2–5.6 0.9 0.4–1.8 6.9 4.2–11.2 4.0 2.5–6.2
10 5.0 3.5–7.2 5.8 4.3–7.7 5.4 4.3–6.7 1.3 0.6–2.6 10.4 7.6–13.9 5.9 4.4–7.9
11 4.7 3.1–6.9 7.2 5.5–9.5 6.0 4.5–8.0 0.6 0.3–1.2 7.9 5.5–11.2 4.2 2.9–6.0
12 5.9 4.1–8.6 8.9 7.1–11.0 7.4 5.8–9.4 1.0 0.3–3.0 10.2 7.4–13.9 5.5 3.9–7.7
Total 4.8 3.8–6.1 6.5 5.5–7.7 5.7 4.7–6.8 1.0 0.6–1.5 8.9 6.6–11.9 4.9 3.7–6.6
* On at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
†Chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 56

TABLE 56. Percentage of high school students who used tobacco on school property, by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk
Behavior Survey, 2007
Smoked cigarettes on school property* Used smokeless tobacco on school property†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 8.2 5.5–12.2 6.8 4.9–9.2 7.5 5.6–10.0 2.8 0.9–8.3 8.9 6.2–12.6 6.0 3.6–9.6
Arizona 4.0 2.9–5.5 5.9 4.7–7.4 5.0 4.0–6.2 —ĥ — — — — —
Arkansas 3.8 2.5–5.6 6.3 4.0–9.9 5.0 3.7–6.9 1.4 0.7–2.8 11.7 9.0–15.0 6.6 4.9–8.7
Connecticut — — — — — — — — — — — —
Delaware 7.4 5.4–10.1 8.3 6.7–10.1 8.0 6.7–9.5 0.9 0.5–1.8 4.8 3.6–6.4 2.9 2.2–3.7
Florida 3.9 2.9–5.2 6.9 5.7–8.4 5.5 4.6–6.5 — — — — — —
Georgia 4.8 3.6–6.5 5.5 3.9–7.9 5.2 4.1–6.7 0.7 0.3–1.4 10.2 6.9–14.8 5.5 3.8–8.1
Hawaii — — — — — — — — — — — —
Idaho 5.2 3.7–7.3 6.7 4.1–10.8 6.0 4.3–8.4 1.7 1.0–2.9 11.9 8.9–15.8 7.0 5.4–9.2
Illinois 6.7 4.7–9.6 5.5 3.7–8.1 6.1 4.8–7.7 0.9 0.3–2.3 3.9 2.7–5.6 2.4 1.7–3.3
Indiana 5.0 3.5–7.0 8.7 6.4–11.8 7.0 5.3–9.3 1.2 0.7–2.1 9.3 6.9–12.3 5.5 4.4–6.9
Iowa 4.4 2.8–7.0 4.6 2.4–8.5 4.6 3.0–6.8 0.7 0.3–1.7 7.2 4.7–10.8 4.1 2.8–5.9
Kansas 4.8 3.4–6.6 8.3 6.1–11.2 6.5 5.0–8.6 0.6 0.2–1.3 9.8 7.5–12.8 5.4 4.2–7.0
Kentucky 9.4 8.1–10.9 9.7 8.1–11.5 9.5 8.4–10.8 2.4 1.7–3.4 18.6 15.7–22.0 10.6 8.9–12.7
Maine 4.1 2.9–5.8 2.7 1.9–3.9 3.5 2.6–4.6 — — — — — —
Maryland 5.5 3.4–8.6 7.1 3.8–13.0 6.4 4.2–9.8 0.6 0.2–2.1 2.8 1.4–5.5 1.9 1.1–3.0
Massachusetts 6.9 5.5–8.6 7.7 5.9–10.0 7.3 6.0–8.8 — — — — — —
Michigan 5.5 4.0–7.6 6.3 4.3–9.2 6.0 4.6–7.7 — — — — — —
Mississippi 2.8 1.8–4.5 5.2 4.1–6.7 4.0 3.3–5.0 0.4 0.1–1.2 7.5 5.8–9.8 3.9 3.1–5.0
Missouri 6.3 4.2–9.4 9.0 7.0–11.5 7.7 6.0–9.8 0.7 0.4–1.5 8.7 5.5–13.7 4.8 3.0–7.7
Montana 6.3 5.0–8.0 6.2 4.7–8.0 6.2 5.0–7.6 2.4 1.8–3.3 12.0 10.0–14.3 7.3 6.1–8.7
Nevada 5.0 3.5–7.3 4.9 3.3–7.0 5.0 3.8–6.6 1.2 0.6–2.7 4.1 2.7–6.2 2.7 2.0–3.7
New Hampshire — — — — — — — — — — — —
New Mexico 6.2 4.3–8.9 8.8 6.8–11.3 7.5 6.0–9.4 — — — — — —
New York 4.7 3.7–6.0 5.2 4.1–6.5 5.0 4.2–5.8 — — — — — —
North Carolina — — — — — — — — — — — —
North Dakota 5.9 4.2–8.1 6.7 4.8–9.3 6.3 5.0–8.0 1.2 0.7–2.1 11.1 8.8–13.7 6.3 5.1–7.7
Ohio — — — — — — 1.2 0.6–2.3 9.1 7.0–11.9 5.2 4.0–6.8
Oklahoma 4.3 3.0–6.1 7.3 5.4–9.8 5.8 4.4–7.7 0.6 0.3–1.1 15.0 11.7–19.1 8.0 6.2–10.1
Rhode Island 6.0 3.7–9.7 8.6 5.7–12.9 7.4 4.9–10.9 1.4 0.8–2.5 6.4 3.9–10.4 3.9 2.6–6.0
South Carolina 5.7 3.4–9.4 7.0 4.7–10.2 6.3 4.5–8.8 1.5 0.8–3.0 7.3 5.1–10.4 4.5 3.1–6.4
South Dakota 6.8 3.4–13.1 9.9 4.9–19.1 8.3 4.3–15.6 1.4 0.6–3.6 9.7 7.0–13.3 5.7 4.0–7.9
Tennessee 5.4 3.9–7.5 9.8 7.1–13.4 7.6 5.9–9.7 1.5 0.8–2.8 15.0 11.5–19.4 8.3 6.4–10.8
Texas 4.2 2.8–6.2 6.0 4.8–7.6 5.1 3.9–6.8 0.9 0.4–2.0 8.8 6.5–11.8 4.9 3.6–6.6
Utah 1.3 0.5–3.0 3.5 1.7–7.0 2.4 1.5–3.8 0.8 0.4–1.6 3.5 1.7–7.0 2.6 1.3–5.0
Vermont — — — — — — — — — — — —
West Virginia 8.4 6.0–11.5 9.0 6.9–11.6 8.8 6.8–11.4 1.1 0.5–2.4 18.0 14.3–22.4 9.7 7.8–12.0
Wisconsin 6.0 4.6–7.8 6.8 5.0–9.3 6.4 5.0–8.2 0.8 0.4–1.6 5.4 3.7–7.8 3.2 2.2–4.5
Wyoming 7.1 5.5–9.2 7.7 5.7–10.2 7.5 6.2–9.2 3.7 2.7–4.9 14.3 12.4–16.5 9.3 8.1–10.6
Median 5.5 6.8 6.3 1.2 9.1 5.4
Range 1.3–9.4 2.7–9.9 2.4–9.5 0.4–3.7 2.8–18.6 1.9–10.6
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 2.5 1.5–4.4 5.8 4.3–7.8 4.2 3.3–5.4 0.7 0.3–1.9 1.3 0.7–2.6 1.0 0.6–1.8
Boston, MA 3.1 2.1–4.4 2.7 1.8–4.0 2.9 2.2–3.8 — — — — — —
Broward County, FL 1.5 0.8–2.8 5.0 3.1–7.9 3.2 2.2–4.7 0.2 0.0–1.1 3.3 2.4–4.6 1.8 1.3–2.4
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC — — — — — — — — — — — —
Chicago, IL 4.8 2.8–8.2 5.0 3.4–7.2 4.9 3.3–7.3 1.2 0.4–3.4 2.7 1.0–7.0 1.9 0.9–4.1
Dallas, TX 3.3 2.1–5.1 6.6 4.5–9.6 4.9 3.5–7.0 1.7 0.8–3.5 2.1 1.0–4.3 2.0 1.2–3.4
DeKalb County, GA 1.7 1.1–2.5 4.2 3.1–5.6 2.9 2.3–3.7 0.4 0.2–1.0 2.3 1.5–3.5 1.4 0.9–2.0
Detroit, MI 1.5 0.9–2.5 3.9 2.6–5.7 2.7 2.0–3.6 — — — — — —
District of Columbia 2.4 1.4–3.8 6.5 4.5–9.2 4.3 3.2–5.8 0.8 0.4–1.7 4.4 2.8–7.0 2.9 1.8–4.6
Hillsborough County, FL 4.5 3.3–6.2 4.8 2.9–7.9 4.8 3.4–6.8 1.1 0.6–2.1 6.5 4.3–9.8 3.8 2.6–5.4
Houston, TX 2.2 1.3–3.6 3.5 2.6–4.8 2.8 2.2–3.7 1.2 0.6–2.5 2.9 1.9–4.5 2.1 1.4–3.1
Los Angeles, CA 2.8 2.0–4.0 5.3 3.0–9.2 4.1 2.8–5.9 1.0 0.3–3.2 2.7 1.2–5.8 1.9 1.1–3.1
Memphis, TN 0.8 0.3–1.8 3.8 2.6–5.6 2.2 1.5–3.3 0.2 0.0–1.1 0.9 0.4–2.0 0.5 0.2–1.1
Miami-Dade County, FL 2.4 1.6–3.6 5.2 3.9–7.0 4.1 3.2–5.1 0.4 0.1–0.9 3.9 2.7–5.5 2.3 1.6–3.1
Milwaukee, WI 5.9 4.1–8.5 5.6 3.8–8.2 5.8 4.3–7.7 0.8 0.4–1.7 1.2 0.6–2.4 1.0 0.6–1.8
New York City, NY 3.6 2.8–4.5 3.7 2.6–5.3 3.7 3.0–4.5 — — — — — —
Orange County, FL 2.9 1.5–5.4 2.7 1.5–4.6 2.8 1.8–4.3 1.1 0.4–2.8 4.0 2.4–6.6 2.5 1.7–3.9
Palm Beach County, FL 2.9 1.9–4.3 4.4 3.2–6.1 3.7 2.9–4.8 1.3 0.6–2.6 5.0 3.3–7.5 3.1 2.1–4.6
Philadelphia, PA 4.5 3.3–6.0 4.7 3.5–6.4 4.6 3.7–5.8 — — — — — —
San Bernardino, CA 4.2 2.7–6.5 4.5 3.2–6.3 4.4 3.3–5.8 0.3 0.1–1.3 1.6 0.8–3.2 1.0 0.6–1.8
San Diego, CA 2.4 1.3–4.2 4.0 2.5–6.2 3.2 2.3–4.6 0.8 0.4–1.7 2.9 1.9–4.3 1.9 1.3–2.6
San Francisco, CA 1.9 1.2–3.0 4.0 3.1–5.3 3.1 2.4–3.9 — — — — — —
Median 2.8 4.5 3.7 0.8 2.8 1.9
Range 0.8–5.9 2.7–6.6 2.2–5.8 0.2–1.7 0.9–6.5 0.5–3.8
* On at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
† Chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 57

TABLE 57. Percentage of high school students who drank alcohol* and who used marijuana on school property,† by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Drank alcohol on school property Used marijuana on school property
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 2.6 2.0–3.4 3.8 2.9–4.8 3.2 2.6–4.0 2.7 1.9–3.7 5.2 3.7–7.3 4.0 2.9–5.5
Blackĥ 3.2 1.9–5.2 3.7 2.5–5.4 3.4 2.4–5.0 2.6 1.5–4.3 7.4 5.5–9.9 5.0 3.7–6.7
Hispanic 7.1 5.1–9.9 7.8 6.1–9.9 7.5 5.9–9.4 3.9 2.7–5.6 6.9 4.8–9.8 5.4 4.0–7.3
Grade
9 3.4 2.3–5.0 3.4 2.6–4.5 3.4 2.7–4.4 2.7 1.6–4.3 5.2 3.9–6.9 4.0 3.1–5.2
10 3.6 2.6–5.1 4.6 3.4–6.2 4.1 3.2–5.3 3.1 2.1–4.7 6.5 4.9–8.5 4.8 3.7–6.2
11 3.9 2.8–5.4 4.5 3.4–6.0 4.2 3.2–5.4 2.7 1.8–4.0 5.3 3.6–7.8 4.1 2.8–5.8
12 3.4 2.4–4.8 6.3 5.0–8.0 4.8 3.9–6.1 3.7 2.4–5.4 6.6 4.8–9.0 5.1 3.8–6.8
Total 3.6 2.9–4.4 4.6 4.0–5.4 4.1 3.5–4.8 3.0 2.3–3.9 5.9 4.8–7.3 4.5 3.6–5.5
* At least one drink of alcohol on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
†One or more times during the 30 days before the survey.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 58

TABLE 58. Percentage of high school students who drank alcohol* and who used marijuana on school property,† by sex — selected
U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Drank alcohol on school property Used marijuana on school property
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 4.0 2.5–6.4 4.0 2.7–6.0 4.1 3.1–5.4 5.6 3.6–8.8 6.2 4.7–8.1 5.9 4.7–7.5
Arizona 4.1 3.0–5.6 7.9 6.3–9.9 6.0 5.0–7.2 4.7 3.0–7.1 7.5 6.2–9.0 6.1 4.9–7.6
Arkansas 4.3 2.7–6.9 5.9 3.9–8.7 5.1 3.9–6.6 1.8 1.0–3.1 3.8 2.4–5.9 2.8 1.9–4.0
Connecticut 4.8 3.2–7.2 6.4 4.2–9.5 5.6 3.9–8.0 5.0 3.3–7.4 6.8 4.8–9.7 5.9 4.5–7.7
Delaware 3.4 2.4–4.7 5.5 4.3–7.1 4.5 3.6–5.5 3.4 2.5–4.7 6.9 5.4–8.8 5.4 4.4–6.5
Florida 4.2 3.4–5.2 6.2 5.3–7.3 5.3 4.7–6.0 3.1 2.3–4.1 6.1 5.1–7.4 4.7 4.0–5.6
Georgia 3.4 2.4–4.8 5.3 3.8–7.3 4.4 3.3–5.8 2.6 1.6–4.2 4.5 3.0–6.8 3.6 2.6–5.0
Hawaii 6.7 4.4–10.0 5.5 3.0–9.7 6.0 4.4–8.2 5.3 3.2–8.8 6.2 3.7–10.1 5.7 4.2–7.7
Idaho 5.2 3.9–6.9 7.1 4.9–10.1 6.2 4.8–8.1 2.7 1.6–4.7 6.4 4.1–9.8 4.7 3.3–6.6
Illinois 4.5 3.2–6.5 6.3 4.6–8.6 5.5 4.2–7.3 3.0 1.8–4.8 5.5 3.6–8.2 4.2 2.9–6.1
Indiana 2.7 2.0–3.7 4.9 3.5–6.9 4.1 3.3–5.2 2.1 1.2–3.5 5.8 4.9–7.0 4.1 3.3–5.2
Iowa 2.5 1.2–5.0 4.3 2.6–6.9 3.4 2.1–5.5 2.4 1.0–5.3 2.6 1.5–4.5 2.5 1.4–4.3
Kansas 3.4 2.1–5.4 6.3 4.7–8.3 4.8 3.7–6.4 1.6 0.8–3.0 5.7 4.3–7.5 3.8 2.8–5.1
Kentucky 3.2 2.4–4.4 6.0 4.7–7.5 4.7 3.8–5.8 2.2 1.5–3.2 5.6 4.5–6.9 3.9 3.1–4.9
Maine 4.7 2.8–7.6 6.4 4.6–8.9 5.6 4.0–7.9 3.9 2.4–6.3 6.3 4.2–9.4 5.2 3.9–6.8
Maryland 4.7 3.1–7.0 7.5 4.6–11.9 6.2 4.2–9.0 2.6 1.4–4.9 6.7 3.9–11.4 4.7 2.8–7.8
Massachusetts 3.7 2.7–4.9 5.6 4.3–7.2 4.7 3.8–5.7 3.6 2.9–4.3 6.1 4.8–7.8 4.8 4.0–5.8
Michigan 3.9 2.7–5.6 3.2 2.1–4.8 3.6 2.7–4.8 3.1 2.0–4.8 4.7 3.5–6.3 4.0 3.0–5.3
Mississippi 3.0 1.8–5.1 7.2 5.2–9.9 5.1 3.8–6.8 1.4 0.7–2.9 3.9 2.6–5.8 2.7 2.1–3.5
Missouri 2.5 1.6–3.9 4.4 2.4–8.1 3.4 2.1–5.5 2.7 1.7–4.0 4.6 2.9–7.3 3.6 2.5–5.3
Montana 4.7 3.7–5.9 6.6 5.4–8.0 5.7 4.8–6.7 3.8 2.8–5.1 6.2 5.0–7.7 5.0 4.1–6.1
Nevada 4.2 2.9–6.0 4.6 3.2–6.5 4.4 3.4–5.7 3.3 2.2–4.8 3.8 2.5–5.8 3.6 2.6–4.8
New Hampshire 4.1 2.8–6.1 6.1 4.4–8.4 5.1 3.9–6.8 2.2 1.3–3.7 7.0 5.2–9.4 4.7 3.5–6.1
New Mexico 7.5 4.7–11.8 10.1 7.3–13.7 8.7 6.2–12.2 6.4 4.1–9.6 9.5 7.8–11.7 7.9 6.3–10.1
New York 3.6 2.7–4.9 6.3 4.8–8.1 5.1 4.1–6.4 3.1 2.4–4.0 5.1 3.9–6.7 4.1 3.3–5.1
North Carolina 3.3 2.1–4.9 6.2 4.7–8.0 4.7 3.6–6.2 2.4 1.4–4.2 6.1 4.6–8.0 4.3 3.3–5.5
North Dakota 4.0 2.6–6.0 4.8 3.2–7.1 4.4 3.2–5.9 1.5 0.8–2.6 3.9 2.7–5.5 2.7 1.9–3.7
Ohio 2.8 1.9–4.1 3.6 2.4–5.3 3.2 2.3–4.4 2.2 1.4–3.6 5.0 3.3–7.4 3.7 2.5–5.3
Oklahoma 4.1 3.1–5.4 5.8 4.2–7.9 5.0 3.9–6.3 1.6 0.9–2.7 3.6 2.6–5.0 2.6 1.9–3.6
Rhode Island 4.0 2.7–6.0 5.6 4.5–6.9 4.8 3.8–6.1 4.2 2.4–7.1 8.8 7.1–10.8 6.5 4.8–8.7
South Carolina 4.2 2.7–6.3 5.0 3.4–7.3 4.7 3.4–6.5 1.7 1.0–2.8 4.8 3.1–7.5 3.3 2.3–4.6
South Dakota 2.8 1.6–4.7 4.4 2.2–8.5 3.6 2.1–6.1 3.7 1.3–9.9 6.4 2.2–17.0 5.0 1.8–13.1
Tennessee 3.1 1.9–5.0 5.1 3.6–7.3 4.1 3.1–5.4 2.4 1.6–3.7 5.7 3.9–8.4 4.1 3.0–5.5
Texas 4.4 3.1–6.3 5.3 4.0–7.1 4.9 3.8–6.2 3.1 2.3–4.2 4.1 3.3–5.1 3.6 3.1–4.3
Utah 4.6 2.1–9.5 4.0 2.1–7.5 4.7 2.3–9.5 3.1 1.0–9.0 4.5 2.9–7.0 3.8 2.0–7.2
Vermont 3.3 2.4–4.7 5.8 4.8–7.0 4.6 3.8–5.6 4.1 3.4–5.0 8.3 6.5–10.6 6.3 5.1–7.9
West Virginia 4.6 3.0–7.1 6.2 4.3–8.7 5.5 3.9–7.7 4.0 2.3–7.1 7.4 5.0–10.9 5.8 4.1–8.2
Wisconsin —ĥ — — — — — — — — — — —
Wyoming 4.9 3.7–6.4 8.6 6.7–10.9 6.9 5.7–8.3 2.6 1.9–3.6 6.6 5.2–8.5 4.7 3.8–5.8
Median 4.0 5.8 4.8 3.0 5.9 4.2
Range 2.5–7.5 3.2–10.1 3.2–8.7 1.4–6.4 2.6–9.5 2.5–7.9
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 3.7 2.4–5.5 6.2 4.6–8.2 4.8 3.7–6.2 3.8 2.6–5.5 9.6 7.6–12.1 6.5 5.3–8.0
Boston, MA 3.6 2.5–5.3 6.8 4.8–9.5 5.2 3.9–7.0 3.4 2.3–5.0 6.0 4.3–8.4 4.7 3.6–6.1
Broward County, FL 2.2 1.3–3.8 5.7 3.8–8.6 4.0 2.8–5.6 1.5 0.8–3.1 6.0 4.4–8.0 3.8 2.8–5.0
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 4.4 3.1–6.3 6.4 4.6–8.7 5.5 4.4–6.9 2.8 1.7–4.4 7.6 5.8–9.9 5.2 4.2–6.5
Chicago, IL 6.1 3.7–9.9 7.2 4.5–11.5 6.7 4.7–9.6 4.1 2.2–7.5 7.0 4.6–10.6 5.5 3.5–8.6
Dallas, TX 6.7 4.0–11.1 9.0 6.5–12.4 7.8 5.6–10.9 4.7 3.0–7.2 11.2 8.4–14.8 7.8 5.9–10.3
DeKalb County, GA 3.3 2.4–4.4 3.6 2.6–5.1 3.4 2.7–4.4 3.2 2.3–4.4 8.2 6.5–10.3 5.7 4.7–6.9
Detroit, MI 3.1 2.1–4.4 3.1 2.0–4.8 3.1 2.4–4.1 4.4 3.1–6.3 8.8 6.5–11.7 6.6 5.3–8.1
District of Columbia 3.3 2.1–4.9 8.9 6.2–12.7 6.1 4.5–8.2 3.7 2.4–5.5 7.4 5.4–10.0 5.8 4.6–7.3
Hillsborough County, FL 5.8 4.1–8.2 7.2 5.0–10.4 6.5 5.1–8.2 2.8 1.6–4.8 6.6 4.5–9.6 4.6 3.1–6.6
Houston, TX 3.5 2.4–5.2 5.9 4.4–7.9 4.7 3.8–5.9 1.6 0.9–2.9 6.5 4.9–8.5 4.1 3.2–5.2
Los Angeles, CA 8.9 5.7–13.6 12.4 7.9–19.0 10.9 7.1–16.2 5.2 3.0–8.9 11.6 7.7–17.2 8.4 6.1–11.5
Memphis, TN 2.8 1.5–5.2 4.9 3.4–6.9 3.9 2.8–5.4 4.4 3.2–6.0 9.0 6.6–12.3 6.6 5.3–8.2
Miami-Dade County, FL 3.5 2.5–4.8 5.6 4.4–6.9 4.8 3.9–5.8 3.0 2.0–4.5 6.8 5.3–8.9 5.1 4.0–6.4
Milwaukee, WI — — — — — — — — — — — —
New York City, NY 3.6 3.1–4.3 6.0 4.4–8.0 4.8 3.9–5.9 2.0 1.4–2.9 3.4 2.5–4.5 2.7 2.1–3.4
Orange County, FL 4.5 2.7–7.2 3.5 2.2–5.4 3.9 2.9–5.3 2.0 1.2–3.4 4.4 2.8–6.8 3.2 2.2–4.5
Palm Beach County, FL 3.5 2.4–5.1 5.0 3.5–7.2 4.3 3.2–5.8 2.4 1.5–3.6 6.1 4.5–8.2 4.2 3.3–5.4
Philadelphia, PA — — — — — — 4.3 3.2–5.8 6.5 4.9–8.8 5.3 4.2–6.7
San Bernardino, CA 8.8 6.7–11.5 6.8 5.1–9.1 7.8 6.5–9.4 5.8 4.2–7.9 7.4 5.4–10.0 6.6 5.2–8.4
San Diego, CA 6.9 5.0–9.5 7.4 5.0–10.8 7.1 5.3–9.5 3.8 2.6–5.6 5.7 3.9–8.2 4.7 3.5–6.4
San Francisco, CA 4.9 3.5–6.8 4.0 3.0–5.4 4.5 3.6–5.5 3.2 2.3–4.6 4.1 3.0–5.6 3.7 2.9–4.7
Median 3.6 6.1 4.8 3.4 6.8 5.2
Range 2.2–8.9 3.1–12.4 3.1–10.9 1.5–5.8 3.4–11.6 2.7–8.4
* At least one drink of alcohol on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
† One or more times during the 30 days before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 59

TABLE 59. Percentage of high school students who were offered, sold, or given an illegal drug by someone on school property,* by
sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 17.4 14.8–20.4 24.0 21.1–27.1 20.8 18.4–23.4
Black§ 13.4 10.7–16.8 25.1 21.5–29.1 19.2 16.6–22.1
Hispanic 27.2 22.8–32.2 30.9 26.9–35.2 29.1 25.3–33.2
Grade
9 17.2 14.3–20.5 25.0 21.8–28.5 21.2 18.8–23.8
10 21.0 17.7–24.8 29.5 26.5–32.6 25.3 22.8–28.0
11 19.8 15.8–24.4 25.7 22.9–28.6 22.8 20.0–25.8
12 16.8 14.5–19.5 22.4 18.6–26.8 19.6 17.2–22.3
Total 18.7 16.5–21.2 25.7 23.5–28.1 22.3 20.3–24.4
* During the 12 months before the survey.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
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Table 60

TABLE 60. Percentage of high school students who were offered, sold, or given an illegal drug by someone on school property,* by
sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Site % CI† % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 23.6 19.6–28.0 26.2 22.7–29.9 25.1 22.4–27.9
Arizona 35.4 31.7–39.3 38.4 35.2–41.8 37.1 34.2–40.1
Arkansas 25.2 20.8–30.2 30.9 27.6–34.4 28.1 25.5–30.8
Connecticut 27.0 23.1–31.3 33.8 30.0–37.9 30.5 27.4–33.7
Delaware 18.9 16.3–21.7 26.9 24.0–30.1 22.9 21.0–24.9
Florida 15.5 13.8–17.5 22.2 19.7–25.0 19.0 17.4–20.7
Georgia 26.3 23.6–29.1 37.7 34.5–41.1 32.0 29.5–34.6
Hawaii 34.0 29.5–38.7 38.2 31.3–45.6 36.2 31.3–41.3
Idaho 19.9 16.7–23.5 30.1 26.1–34.5 25.1 21.9–28.6
Illinois 18.1 15.1–21.7 24.3 20.9–28.1 21.2 18.9–23.8
Indiana 18.8 16.0–22.0 21.9 18.7–25.5 20.5 18.5–22.7
Iowa 7.6 5.7–10.1 12.5 9.9–15.7 10.1 8.0–12.6
Kansas 14.1 11.6–17.0 15.7 12.4–19.6 15.0 12.7–17.8
Kentucky 25.1 22.6–27.8 28.8 26.0–31.7 27.0 24.8–29.3
Maine 27.8 23.0–33.2 30.2 25.3–35.7 29.1 25.6–32.9
Maryland 23.4 19.9–27.4 31.0 27.4–34.8 27.4 24.4–30.6
Massachusetts 23.2 20.4–26.3 31.4 28.5–34.4 27.3 25.2–29.6
Michigan 26.0 22.9–29.3 32.2 28.9–35.8 29.1 27.0–31.3
Mississippi 11.3 8.0–15.8 20.3 16.7–24.5 15.6 12.7–19.1
Missouri 14.3 11.3–17.9 20.9 17.4–25.0 17.8 14.8–21.3
Montana 22.4 20.6–24.4 27.2 24.8–29.7 24.9 23.3–26.6
Nevada 26.1 22.1–30.5 31.3 28.0–34.7 28.8 26.1–31.7
New Hampshire 18.0 14.9–21.5 26.8 23.7–30.2 22.5 20.1–25.1
New Mexico 27.3 24.6–30.3 35.2 31.0–39.7 31.3 28.3–34.4
New York 23.5 21.5–25.8 29.7 26.3–33.3 26.6 24.5–28.8
North Carolina 23.5 20.6–26.7 33.4 30.2–36.7 28.5 25.9–31.3
North Dakota 18.5 15.9–21.3 19.0 15.8–22.7 18.7 16.7–20.9
Ohio 22.5 19.6–25.8 30.7 27.5–34.0 26.7 24.3–29.3
Oklahoma 15.2 12.8–17.9 22.7 19.6–26.2 19.1 16.9–21.4
Rhode Island 21.7 19.1–24.6 28.9 25.4–32.6 25.3 22.6–28.1
South Carolina 23.0 19.6–26.8 30.2 25.5–35.5 26.6 23.5–30.1
South Dakota 18.0 13.7–23.3 24.0 19.6–29.0 21.1 17.3–25.5
Tennessee 16.9 14.3–19.7 26.4 22.0–31.3 21.6 19.0–24.6
Texas 24.6 22.0–27.4 28.3 25.4–31.4 26.5 24.7–28.3
Utah 19.7 16.6–23.3 26.7 21.0–33.3 23.2 19.8–27.1
Vermont 17.6 14.9–20.7 26.2 23.6–28.9 22.0 19.8–24.2
West Virginia 26.7 22.2–31.8 30.2 22.7–38.8 28.6 23.1–34.7
Wisconsin 19.7 17.1–22.7 25.5 21.8–29.6 22.7 20.1–25.6
Wyoming 22.1 19.5–24.9 27.1 23.9–30.5 24.7 22.7–27.0
Median 22.4 28.3 25.1
Range 7.6–35.4 12.5–38.4 10.1–37.1
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 10.6 8.2–13.6 17.0 14.0–20.4 13.5 11.4–15.9
Boston, MA 20.4 17.7–23.3 28.6 25.3–32.3 24.5 22.2–26.9
Broward County, FL 16.3 12.4–21.1 25.7 23.1–28.4 21.1 18.8–23.5
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 25.7 22.5–29.2 37.9 33.9–42.0 31.8 28.6–35.1
Chicago, IL 28.7 24.5–33.2 37.6 33.1–42.4 32.9 29.1–36.9
Dallas, TX 35.2 30.6–40.0 43.5 38.9–48.2 39.2 35.9–42.7
DeKalb County, GA 23.8 21.1–26.9 37.0 33.8–40.3 30.4 28.2–32.7
Detroit, MI 25.6 22.6–28.9 40.4 36.5–44.6 32.9 30.4–35.6
District of Columbia 20.2 17.7–22.9 30.9 27.1–34.9 25.7 23.4–28.1
Hillsborough County, FL 26.9 22.1–32.2 35.4 31.0–40.1 31.0 27.5–34.8
Houston, TX 28.5 26.2–31.0 36.7 32.7–40.9 32.7 30.4–35.0
Los Angeles, CA 31.4 28.2–34.7 36.3 31.9–41.0 33.7 31.5–36.1
Memphis, TN 14.8 12.5–17.5 22.1 18.6–25.9 18.4 16.2–20.9
Miami-Dade County, FL 19.8 17.4–22.5 26.9 24.2–29.8 23.5 21.7–25.4
Milwaukee, WI 23.2 19.6–27.2 34.2 29.9–38.8 28.6 25.4–32.1
New York City, NY 21.5 19.4–23.8 25.2 22.8–27.9 23.3 21.9–24.7
Orange County, FL 15.9 12.7–19.7 25.1 21.4–29.2 20.5 17.7–23.5
Palm Beach County, FL 14.7 12.3–17.6 24.0 20.7–27.8 19.4 17.3–21.6
Philadelphia, PA 20.8 18.4–23.4 31.4 27.8–35.2 25.3 23.0–27.7
San Bernardino, CA 28.2 24.4–32.4 29.5 25.9–33.4 28.8 26.4–31.3
San Diego, CA 26.5 23.9–29.3 33.3 29.5–37.4 30.1 27.7–32.5
San Francisco, CA 23.7 20.9–26.8 26.2 22.9–29.7 24.9 22.5–27.5
Median 23.4 31.1 27.1
Range 10.6–35.2 17.0–43.5 13.5–39.2
* During the 12 months before the survey.
† 95% confidence interval.
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Table 61

TABLE 61. Percentage of high school students who ever had sexual intercourse and who had sexual intercourse for the first time
before age 13 years, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Ever had sexual intercourse Had first sexual intercourse before age 13 years
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI* % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White† 43.7 40.8–46.7 43.6 39.7–47.6 43.7 40.5–47.0 3.1 2.6–3.7 5.7 3.9–8.3 4.4 3.4–5.7
Black† 60.9 56.2–65.4 72.6 68.5–76.3 66.5 63.0–69.9 6.9 5.6–8.5 26.2 23.0–29.6 16.3 14.7–18.0
Hispanic 45.8 41.0–50.7 58.2 54.0–62.4 52.0 48.3–55.6 4.5 3.3–6.1 11.9 10.1–13.9 8.2 7.1–9.3
Grade
9 27.4 24.2–30.9 38.1 33.8–42.6 32.8 29.7–36.1 4.9 3.8–6.1 13.5 11.1–16.3 9.2 7.6–11.1
10 41.9 37.4–46.6 45.6 41.1–50.2 43.8 39.8–47.9 4.7 3.3–6.8 9.1 7.5–11.0 6.9 5.8–8.2
11 53.6 47.7–59.4 57.3 53.2–61.3 55.5 51.3–59.6 3.4 2.5–4.7 9.9 7.4–13.1 6.6 5.1–8.6
12 66.2 62.7–69.6 62.8 57.4–68.0 64.6 60.7–68.3 2.4 1.6–3.6 6.7 5.2–8.5 4.5 3.4–5.8
Total 45.9 43.1–48.6 49.8 46.7–52.9 47.8 45.1–50.6 4.0 3.5–4.5 10.1 8.6–12.0 7.1 6.2–8.1
* 95% confidence interval.
†Non-Hispanic.
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Table 62

TABLE 62. Percentage of high school students who ever had sexual intercourse and who had sexual intercourse for the first time
before age 13 years, by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Ever had sexual intercourse Had first sexual intercourse before age 13 years
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI* % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 46.4 40.1–52.8 43.9 38.2–49.7 45.1 40.9–49.3 3.6 2.2–5.8 5.1 3.4–7.6 4.4 3.3–6.0
Arizona 44.5 40.5–48.5 47.4 41.4–53.5 46.1 41.8–50.4 4.1 3.1–5.4 7.2 5.9–8.8 5.7 4.9–6.7
Arkansas 55.3 48.6–61.9 54.8 47.9–61.6 54.9 49.8–59.9 5.8 4.2–8.0 12.7 8.9–18.0 9.3 7.2–11.9
Connecticut 41.8 37.0–46.7 43.1 36.6–49.8 42.4 37.7–47.4 3.7 2.6–5.2 8.2 5.5–12.2 5.9 4.2–8.3
Delaware 56.5 52.2–60.8 61.7 58.2–65.1 59.3 56.1–62.4 4.8 3.5–6.4 14.5 12.2–17.1 9.6 8.1–11.3
Florida 44.8 41.7–48.0 54.3 51.0–57.5 49.5 47.1–51.8 3.6 2.8–4.7 12.9 10.9–15.2 8.2 7.1–9.6
Georgia —† — — — — — — — — — — —
Hawaii 39.8 34.8–45.0 32.8 25.8–40.6 36.2 31.4–41.3 4.9 2.9–8.3 5.4 3.0–9.3 5.1 3.2–8.0
Idaho 42.2 35.5–49.2 41.8 36.6–47.2 42.1 36.8–47.6 3.5 2.2–5.6 6.8 4.6–9.7 5.3 3.9–7.1
Illinois 48.8 40.5–57.2 51.6 42.3–60.8 50.1 41.8–58.5 2.8 1.6–4.7 10.6 7.2–15.4 6.7 4.6–9.7
Indiana 49.1 44.2–54.0 49.2 45.0–53.3 49.1 46.1–52.2 4.6 3.5–6.0 6.1 4.5–8.3 5.4 4.4–6.7
Iowa 43.6 38.0–49.4 42.9 34.8–51.5 43.3 37.6–49.1 3.3 2.1–5.0 4.2 2.6–6.7 3.7 2.6–5.4
Kansas 44.8 40.5–49.3 45.0 39.9–50.3 45.0 41.3–48.7 4.5 3.2–6.3 8.5 6.4–11.2 6.5 5.1–8.3
Kentucky 51.5 46.2–56.8 49.0 44.7–53.2 50.3 46.1–54.4 5.8 4.6–7.3 10.0 8.1–12.2 7.8 6.6–9.3
Maine 44.7 38.7–50.9 46.0 40.1–52.1 45.4 40.8–50.0 4.4 2.4–7.9 5.5 3.6–8.4 5.0 3.8–6.6
Maryland — — — — — — — — — — — —
Massachusetts 43.7 38.5–49.0 45.2 40.6–50.0 44.4 40.1–48.8 3.6 2.7–4.8 8.6 7.0–10.5 6.1 5.0–7.3
Michigan 41.0 36.6–45.6 43.8 37.8–50.0 42.4 38.1–46.9 3.3 2.4–4.6 7.1 4.7–10.6 5.3 3.9–7.2
Mississippi 54.0 47.8–60.0 65.2 58.3–71.6 59.5 53.9–64.9 5.5 4.1–7.3 21.4 16.9–26.7 13.3 11.1–15.8
Missouri 53.1 46.0–60.1 50.9 42.6–59.1 52.1 45.8–58.4 3.2 2.1–4.9 9.7 7.7–12.2 6.5 5.1–8.3
Montana 46.4 43.0–49.9 44.8 40.9–48.6 45.7 42.5–48.8 3.4 2.8–4.2 6.8 5.1–8.9 5.1 4.2–6.2
Nevada 40.3 35.0–45.7 45.3 39.9–50.8 42.8 38.3–47.4 3.1 2.0–4.8 8.1 5.8–11.4 5.6 4.2–7.5
New Hampshire 44.6 39.0–50.2 44.7 39.9–49.7 44.7 40.3–49.2 2.6 1.6–4.2 5.6 4.1–7.6 4.2 3.1–5.6
New Mexico — — — — — — 4.2 2.4–7.1 11.4 9.7–13.3 7.7 6.5–9.1
New York 41.5 36.9–46.3 45.8 41.7–50.0 43.6 40.1–47.3 3.6 2.8–4.6 10.4 8.1–13.4 7.0 5.7–8.5
North Carolina 50.3 46.6–53.9 54.0 50.1–57.8 52.1 48.9–55.4 4.4 3.0–6.4 12.0 9.6–14.9 8.3 6.5–10.5
North Dakota 44.3 39.1–49.6 41.0 37.4–44.8 42.6 38.9–46.4 1.5 0.9–2.7 4.4 3.1–6.2 3.0 2.2–4.1
Ohio 44.2 38.4–50.1 44.9 39.5–50.5 44.5 39.7–49.5 4.1 3.0–5.6 8.5 6.5–11.0 6.3 5.0–7.9
Oklahoma 49.3 43.0–55.5 52.5 46.1–58.9 50.9 45.0–56.7 3.1 2.2–4.4 8.6 6.5–11.2 5.8 4.5–7.5
Rhode Island 41.4 35.9–47.1 50.1 46.1–54.1 45.5 41.2–49.9 2.0 1.1–3.6 10.3 7.3–14.4 6.1 4.2–8.6
South Carolina 48.5 40.3–56.7 54.6 46.8–62.2 51.5 44.2–58.7 5.6 3.8–8.1 13.7 9.6–19.1 9.5 7.2–12.5
South Dakota 47.1 41.0–53.2 45.9 38.6–53.3 46.5 40.5–52.5 1.7 0.9–3.4 6.7 4.8–9.4 4.2 2.9–6.0
Tennessee 50.8 45.5–56.0 58.1 51.4–64.6 54.4 49.0–59.8 3.0 2.0–4.4 12.0 9.4–15.2 7.5 6.1–9.2
Texas 51.0 45.2–56.8 54.8 49.8–59.7 52.9 47.8–58.0 3.6 2.6–4.9 9.7 7.5–12.4 6.6 5.5–8.1
Utah — — — — — — — — — — — —
Vermont — — — — — — 3.6 2.6–4.9 7.4 6.5–8.5 5.7 4.8–6.7
West Virginia 53.0 48.2–57.8 54.1 49.7–58.3 53.7 50.2–57.3 4.3 2.6–7.1 8.5 5.8–12.4 6.5 4.3–9.7
Wisconsin 46.3 41.8–50.9 43.0 38.1–48.1 44.6 40.4–49.0 2.7 1.8–4.0 6.2 4.2–9.1 4.5 3.2–6.2
Wyoming 47.7 43.5–51.9 46.7 42.7–50.8 47.2 43.8–50.6 4.2 3.1–5.7 7.6 5.9–9.6 6.0 4.9–7.3
Median 46.3 46.3 45.9 3.6 8.5 6.0
Range 39.8–56.5 32.8–65.2 36.2–59.5 1.5–5.8 4.2–21.4 3.0–13.3
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 59.4 55.6–63.1 75.8 71.5–79.6 67.1 64.0–70.0 7.5 5.8–9.7 31.5 27.7–35.5 18.6 16.6–20.8
Boston, MA 48.8 44.3–53.4 63.6 59.4–67.6 56.0 52.6–59.4 4.4 2.9–6.5 20.3 17.4–23.5 12.2 10.5–14.0
Broward County, FL 43.8 37.7–50.2 56.2 50.7–61.5 49.8 45.0–54.7 4.0 2.5–6.5 14.2 10.7–18.6 9.0 7.0–11.5
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 43.9 38.5–49.4 50.8 46.3–55.3 47.3 43.1–51.4 4.3 2.9–6.3 14.0 11.0–17.7 9.0 7.2–11.3
Chicago, IL 53.0 47.5–58.4 61.9 55.1–68.3 56.9 52.4–61.3 5.8 3.9–8.6 18.7 12.3–27.5 11.5 8.4–15.7
Dallas, TX 47.7 41.9–53.6 67.3 62.2–72.0 57.1 52.6–61.4 4.5 2.9–6.8 23.0 18.8–27.8 13.3 10.9–16.0
DeKalb County, GA 47.9 43.7–52.1 66.1 61.8–70.1 56.7 53.6–59.8 5.7 4.6–7.1 23.1 20.0–26.6 14.1 12.2–16.3
Detroit, MI 50.6 45.9–55.4 69.0 64.6–73.0 59.3 55.7–62.8 4.4 3.2–6.1 23.9 20.9–27.3 13.6 11.9–15.5
District of Columbia 51.2 46.2–56.3 63.7 59.3–67.9 57.6 54.0–61.1 5.3 3.9–7.2 21.5 17.6–25.9 13.4 11.6–15.5
Hillsborough County, FL 45.4 38.4–52.5 54.1 47.1–61.0 49.4 44.1–54.7 4.5 3.1–6.4 9.6 6.9–13.2 6.8 5.2–8.9
Houston, TX 43.2 38.4–48.1 57.9 52.9–62.7 50.2 45.8–54.6 4.2 3.1–5.7 16.9 13.7–20.6 10.3 8.6–12.3
Los Angeles, CA 39.0 32.2–46.4 53.7 46.2–61.0 46.4 40.6–52.3 1.6 0.9–2.8 12.7 9.4–17.0 7.1 5.6–9.0
Memphis, TN 54.9 49.0–60.6 71.6 67.5–75.3 62.8 59.2–66.4 4.6 3.1–6.6 22.7 18.5–27.6 13.3 11.2–15.7
Miami-Dade County, FL 43.8 39.4–48.3 58.4 53.3–63.3 51.1 47.1–55.1 3.4 2.5–4.6 16.7 13.8–20.0 10.3 8.7–12.1
Milwaukee, WI 52.5 46.3–58.6 66.3 61.2–71.1 59.1 54.5–63.6 5.3 3.9–7.3 20.4 16.4–25.1 12.3 10.2–14.8
New York City, NY 41.2 37.0–45.6 51.6 46.5–56.7 46.1 42.2–50.0 3.8 3.0–4.9 15.5 12.1–19.7 9.4 7.6–11.5
Orange County, FL 44.0 37.6–50.7 49.9 44.3–55.5 46.8 42.2–51.5 3.5 2.2–5.5 11.8 8.5–16.3 7.5 5.5–10.0
Palm Beach County, FL 44.7 40.5–49.0 51.0 45.1–57.0 47.8 43.6–52.0 2.2 1.4–3.4 10.8 8.3–14.0 6.5 5.0–8.3
Philadelphia, PA 55.3 50.7–59.7 70.2 64.3–75.5 61.5 57.0–65.8 6.3 5.1–7.6 24.1 20.3–28.3 13.6 11.7–15.8
San Bernardino, CA 35.9 30.6–41.6 48.1 42.6–53.6 42.0 37.2–46.9 3.9 2.4–6.3 11.4 8.5–14.9 7.5 5.7–9.8
San Diego, CA 35.5 30.1–41.2 42.1 37.2–47.1 38.8 34.5–43.3 4.4 3.0–6.6 10.0 7.9–12.6 7.2 5.9–8.8
San Francisco, CA 25.0 21.6–28.8 27.8 24.6–31.2 26.4 23.8–29.1 1.8 1.1–2.8 5.9 4.5–7.6 3.9 3.1–4.9
Median 45.0 58.1 50.6 4.4 16.8 10.3
Range 25.0–59.4 27.8–75.8 26.4–67.1 1.6–7.5 5.9–31.5 3.9–18.6
* 95% confidence interval.
† Not available.
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Table 63

TABLE 63. Percentage of high school students who had sexual intercourse with four or more persons during their life and who
were currently sexually active,* by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Had sexual intercourse with four or more
persons during their life Currently sexually active
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 10.6 8.9–12.5 12.2 9.8–15.2 11.5 9.6–13.7 35.1 32.5–37.7 30.6 27.8–33.7 32.9 30.3–35.5
Black§ 18.1 15.9–20.5 37.6 33.6–41.8 27.6 24.8–30.6 43.5 39.2–47.8 48.7 43.8–53.6 46.0 42.3–49.7
Hispanic 11.3 9.4–13.6 23.3 20.4–26.5 17.3 15.2–19.5 35.3 30.9–39.9 39.6 35.6–43.7 37.4 33.8–41.1
Grade
9 5.5 4.2–7.0 11.9 9.5–14.7 8.7 7.1–10.6 18.0 15.5–20.8 22.2 19.4–25.2 20.1 18.1–22.3
10 10.2 8.4–12.4 16.7 14.1–19.7 13.4 11.7–15.5 31.8 27.5–36.3 29.4 25.9–33.0 30.6 27.2–34.2
11 13.1 11.2–15.4 20.6 17.5–24.1 17.0 14.8–19.4 41.5 36.6–46.4 42.0 38.0–46.1 41.8 38.1–45.6
12 20.1 17.3–23.2 24.7 21.4–28.3 22.4 19.8–25.2 56.7 53.0–60.3 48.3 43.4–53.2 52.6 49.0–56.2
Total 11.8 10.5–13.1 17.9 16.0–20.0 14.9 13.4–16.5 35.6 33.2–38.1 34.3 32.0–36.7 35.0 32.8–37.2
* Had sexual intercourse with at least one person during the 3 months before the survey.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
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Table 64

TABLE 64. Percentage of high school students who had sexual intercourse with four or more persons during their life and who
were currently sexually active,* by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Had sexual intercourse with four or more persons during their life Currently sexually active
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI† % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 13.7 10.2–18.0 13.2 10.3–16.7 13.4 11.0–16.3 34.8 29.8–40.2 27.3 23.0–32.1 30.9 27.3–34.7
Arizona 12.7 10.7–15.0 18.1 15.3–21.3 15.4 13.3–17.7 34.3 30.7–38.0 32.8 28.8–37.0 33.6 30.4–37.0
Arkansas 16.1 12.6–20.3 21.9 17.4–27.3 19.0 16.0–22.5 42.6 35.4–50.1 37.0 32.6–41.7 39.7 35.1–44.5
Connecticut 9.8 7.8–12.2 15.1 11.3–19.9 12.4 10.0–15.4 33.3 28.8–38.1 30.2 24.9–36.1 31.8 27.8–36.1
Delaware 16.7 14.2–19.7 27.3 24.5–30.3 21.8 19.7–24.1 46.5 42.6–50.4 44.3 40.7–48.0 45.3 42.3–48.4
Florida 11.6 9.7–13.8 21.2 18.7–23.9 16.4 14.7–18.1 34.5 31.7–37.4 38.4 36.2–40.7 36.4 34.5–38.4
Georgia —§ — — — — — — — — — — —
Hawaii 6.1 3.9–9.2 6.2 3.4–11.1 6.1 4.3–8.7 27.7 23.3–32.6 19.7 15.1–25.3 23.6 20.1–27.6
Idaho — — — — — — — — — — — —
Illinois 12.7 9.5–16.8 18.9 14.2–24.9 15.8 12.1–20.5 39.8 32.6–47.5 35.2 27.9–43.3 37.4 30.6–44.8
Indiana 11.9 9.9–14.3 14.6 11.3–18.5 13.3 11.5–15.4 39.2 34.8–43.8 34.4 31.1–37.8 37.0 34.4–39.6
Iowa 12.8 9.8–16.7 12.5 8.7–17.7 12.7 9.9–16.0 35.2 30.6–40.2 31.8 26.0–38.2 33.6 29.3–38.0
Kansas 14.0 11.2–17.3 16.8 13.8–20.4 15.4 13.1–17.9 36.0 32.9–39.3 32.8 28.3–37.6 34.4 31.3–37.7
Kentucky 13.9 11.7–16.5 14.8 12.7–17.3 14.4 12.6–16.5 39.6 35.0–44.4 33.2 29.7–36.9 36.5 33.0–40.2
Maine 12.1 8.9–16.2 11.5 8.4–15.4 11.8 9.0–15.4 35.3 31.2–39.7 31.4 25.6–37.9 33.4 29.6–37.5
Maryland — — — — — — — — — — — —
Massachusetts 10.6 8.8–12.8 14.1 11.3–17.5 12.3 10.4–14.6 34.0 29.2–39.1 31.4 27.5–35.5 32.7 29.0–36.6
Michigan 11.4 9.0–14.4 13.0 9.8–17.2 12.2 9.7–15.3 31.0 27.5–34.8 28.9 23.6–34.7 30.0 26.8–33.4
Mississippi 15.5 12.4–19.2 29.8 23.9–36.5 22.5 18.9–26.7 41.1 36.3–46.0 43.0 36.0–50.3 42.3 37.4–47.4
Missouri 12.3 9.9–15.2 18.9 13.5–25.9 15.6 12.2–19.6 43.7 37.6–50.0 37.2 31.5–43.2 40.6 35.4–46.1
Montana 12.7 10.6–15.2 14.5 12.4–16.9 13.7 12.3–15.3 34.8 31.5–38.3 27.6 24.8–30.5 31.2 28.6–33.9
Nevada 10.4 7.8–13.8 15.9 12.4–20.0 13.1 10.6–16.2 30.3 25.5–35.6 30.7 26.3–35.5 30.5 26.8–34.5
New Hampshire 10.8 8.5–13.5 12.4 9.8–15.5 11.6 9.8–13.8 35.7 30.9–40.9 32.4 28.2–36.9 34.1 30.3–38.0
New Mexico 11.5 8.1–16.1 16.2 13.5–19.3 13.8 11.2–16.9 32.9 26.6–39.8 29.8 25.0–35.1 31.5 27.3–36.1
New York 9.5 7.4–12.1 15.7 13.3–18.4 12.5 10.7–14.5 32.8 28.6–37.3 29.2 26.1–32.6 31.1 28.2–34.1
North Carolina 13.7 11.9–15.7 18.4 15.6–21.6 16.1 14.1–18.3 38.5 35.3–41.8 36.3 33.3–39.5 37.5 35.5–39.6
North Dakota 10.9 8.5–13.9 11.0 8.4–14.2 10.9 8.8–13.4 34.3 29.7–39.2 29.0 25.3–33.1 31.6 28.2–35.2
Ohio 11.8 9.3–14.8 16.4 13.2–20.1 14.1 11.6–17.0 36.3 31.1–41.7 34.2 29.2–39.4 35.1 30.9–39.7
Oklahoma 13.9 11.3–17.0 19.3 15.8–23.3 16.6 13.8–19.7 39.2 34.0–44.6 33.8 29.1–38.9 36.5 32.2–41.0
Rhode Island 7.4 4.5–12.1 14.6 11.5–18.2 10.9 8.2–14.4 31.6 27.2–36.5 34.8 32.0–37.7 33.1 30.0–36.4
South Carolina 14.6 11.5–18.4 21.0 15.5–27.7 17.7 14.2–21.9 37.3 30.1–45.1 34.5 28.8–40.8 35.9 30.3–41.9
South Dakota 13.7 10.2–18.2 13.9 8.9–21.0 13.8 9.9–18.9 37.8 33.1–42.8 30.7 25.5–36.5 34.4 30.0–39.0
Tennessee 11.1 8.9–13.8 22.5 17.8–28.1 16.8 13.9–20.2 39.3 34.5–44.4 41.4 36.0–47.0 40.3 35.7–45.0
Texas 13.7 11.3–16.5 20.4 17.0–24.3 17.1 14.5–20.1 38.8 33.2–44.8 38.7 34.2–43.3 38.7 34.2–43.5
Utah — — — — — — — — — — — —
Vermont 10.4 8.3–13.0 13.3 11.2–15.8 11.9 9.9–14.3 33.1 28.7–37.9 31.1 27.0–35.5 31.9 27.9–36.3
West Virginia 13.6 10.6–17.2 19.4 15.4–24.3 16.5 13.5–20.1 42.8 37.2–48.5 40.0 33.7–46.7 41.4 36.7–46.3
Wisconsin 12.6 10.4–15.2 12.8 9.8–16.6 12.7 10.4–15.4 35.9 32.2–39.8 29.8 26.4–33.5 32.9 29.8–36.1
Wyoming 13.5 10.9–16.7 15.3 12.9–18.2 14.5 12.6–16.7 36.5 32.5–40.6 31.1 27.6–34.7 33.7 30.6–37.0
Median 12.6 15.7 13.8 35.9 32.8 34.1
Range 6.1–16.7 6.2–29.8 6.1–22.5 27.7–46.5 19.7–44.3 23.6–45.3
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 17.0 14.0–20.3 45.1 41.2–49.1 29.6 27.0–32.4 43.1 39.0–47.4 57.2 53.4–61.0 49.7 46.6–52.7
Boston, MA 11.4 8.8–14.7 33.4 29.0–38.1 22.1 19.5–25.0 35.0 30.9–39.4 43.2 39.0–47.4 39.1 35.7–42.5
Broward County, FL 10.2 7.4–13.9 22.6 18.7–27.0 16.2 13.6–19.3 30.8 26.1–36.0 37.7 33.1–42.5 34.1 30.5–38.0
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 13.2 10.2–16.9 18.3 15.3–21.8 15.7 13.4–18.3 31.2 26.5–36.3 34.2 29.9–38.8 32.7 29.2–36.4
Chicago, IL 10.7 8.5–13.4 27.4 20.8–35.1 18.1 15.0–21.6 40.6 35.7–45.7 38.7 32.6–45.2 39.8 35.2–44.5
Dallas, TX 9.7 7.3–12.9 30.1 25.7–34.9 19.5 16.6–22.8 36.0 30.9–41.5 45.4 39.7–51.2 40.4 36.2–44.8
DeKalb County, GA 13.9 11.5–16.8 30.4 26.9–34.0 21.9 19.7–24.2 33.5 29.9–37.3 39.0 35.0–43.2 36.2 33.4–39.1
Detroit, MI 12.1 9.8–14.9 33.5 29.4–37.9 22.2 19.6–24.9 35.3 30.9–39.9 44.3 40.5–48.2 39.5 36.3–42.8
District of Columbia 14.3 11.3–18.1 29.3 24.6–34.5 21.5 18.7–24.5 38.8 33.8–44.1 42.1 36.7–47.7 40.5 36.7–44.4
Hillsborough County, FL 11.8 8.9–15.5 19.4 14.6–25.3 15.3 12.0–19.2 38.2 33.0–43.8 35.8 29.8–42.2 37.1 32.7–41.7
Houston, TX 9.5 7.5–11.8 23.8 19.9–28.1 16.3 13.7–19.1 32.8 28.8–37.2 37.7 33.6–42.0 35.2 31.8–38.8
Los Angeles, CA 3.9 2.6–5.7 20.2 13.3–29.4 12.0 8.0–17.6 27.2 20.6–35.1 36.7 29.9–44.2 32.1 26.2–38.7
Memphis, TN 14.1 11.0–17.8 36.1 31.6–41.0 24.6 21.6–27.8 39.2 33.3–45.3 49.2 44.8–53.6 44.0 39.8–48.3
Miami-Dade County, FL 8.4 6.6–10.6 25.2 21.6–29.2 16.9 14.5–19.6 34.9 30.8–39.3 39.7 34.7–44.9 37.5 33.5–41.5
Milwaukee, WI 15.8 13.0–19.0 36.4 32.0–40.9 25.4 22.7–28.3 39.5 34.6–44.7 45.1 40.7–49.7 42.2 38.6–46.0
New York City, NY 9.0 7.2–11.2 23.4 19.2–28.3 15.8 13.3–18.5 31.0 27.4–34.9 32.4 29.3–35.7 31.7 28.7–34.8
Orange County, FL 10.4 6.9–15.6 16.7 13.9–19.9 13.5 11.0–16.5 34.2 28.4–40.5 31.2 26.6–36.2 32.7 28.5–37.3
Palm Beach County, FL 8.1 5.7–11.3 20.9 17.3–25.1 14.4 11.9–17.2 36.1 32.2–40.3 34.9 30.4–39.7 35.6 32.1–39.2
Philadelphia, PA 14.2 11.6–17.2 37.2 32.6–42.0 23.7 20.9–26.7 40.6 36.3–45.0 49.7 44.9–54.5 44.5 40.6–48.4
San Bernardino, CA 5.2 3.5–7.8 14.9 11.3–19.2 9.9 7.9–12.5 23.8 19.5–28.8 32.1 28.1–36.5 27.9 24.3–31.8
San Diego, CA 5.8 3.7–9.0 14.5 11.6–17.9 10.1 7.9–12.8 27.7 23.0–32.9 28.3 24.0–33.1 28.0 24.1–32.3
San Francisco, CA 4.8 3.5–6.6 8.2 6.5–10.3 6.5 5.3–7.9 18.3 15.6–21.2 16.7 14.4–19.2 17.5 15.6–19.5
Median 10.5 24.5 16.6 34.9 38.2 36.6
Range 3.9–17.0 8.2–45.1 6.5–29.6 18.3–43.1 16.7–57.2 17.5–49.7
* Had sexual intercourse with at least one person during the 3 months before the survey.
† 95% confidence interval.
§ Not available.
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Table 65

TABLE 65. Percentage of high school students who used a condom during last sexual intercourse* and who used birth control pills
before last sexual intercourse,*† by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Condom use Birth control pill use
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 53.9 48.6–59.1 66.4 62.1–70.4 59.7 56.8–62.5 24.0 20.7–27.6 17.0 14.2–20.3 20.8 18.5–23.3
Blackĥ 60.1 53.5–66.3 74.0 69.8–77.8 67.3 62.6–71.6 12.1 8.6–16.8 6.3 3.9–10.0 9.1 6.6–12.5
Hispanic 52.1 45.3–58.8 69.9 65.2–74.1 61.4 56.7–65.9 9.1 6.3–13.1 9.0 6.7–12.0 9.1 7.1–11.5
Grade
9 61.0 54.1–67.4 75.8 68.8–81.6 69.3 63.4–74.6 9.2 6.0–14.0 8.3 5.4–12.6 8.7 6.0–12.5
10 59.5 52.6–66.1 73.2 67.6–78.2 66.1 62.5–69.5 13.7 9.5–19.4 9.5 6.2–14.1 11.6 8.9–15.1
11 55.1 50.1–60.1 69.3 62.9–75.0 62.0 58.1–65.8 18.9 15.2–23.2 11.0 7.4–16.0 15.0 12.2–18.3
12 49.9 44.9–54.9 59.6 55.2–63.9 54.2 50.7–57.7 25.6 21.4–30.3 20.8 16.7–25.7 23.5 20.5–26.8
Total 54.9 51.8–58.1 68.5 65.4–71.4 61.5 59.4–63.6 18.7 16.5–21.1 13.1 10.9–15.5 16.0 14.2–17.9
* Among the 35.0% of students nationwide who were currently sexually active.
†To prevent pregnancy.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 66

TABLE 66. Percentage of high school students who used a condom during last sexual intercourse* and who used birth control pills
before last sexual intercourse,*† by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Condom use Birth control pill use
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 58.9 51.0–66.3 63.3 52.6–72.8 60.8 54.0–67.2 26.8 20.1–34.8 18.1 11.7–27.0 22.9 17.5–29.5
Arizona 46.8 41.9–51.8 64.8 60.6–68.7 55.5 52.1–58.9 15.0 10.2–21.5 12.8 9.8–16.5 13.9 10.7–17.8
Arkansas 55.0 49.3–60.5 63.7 54.4–72.1 59.0 53.8–63.9 24.9 19.1–31.9 13.8 8.4–21.7 19.7 14.8–25.8
Connecticut 58.7 50.2–66.8 67.4 58.7–75.0 62.7 56.1–68.8 30.2 23.8–37.4 21.7 16.0–28.6 26.2 21.1–32.2
Delaware 62.8 58.4–66.9 75.9 71.1–80.1 69.2 65.7–72.4 19.3 15.9–23.2 10.7 7.8–14.6 15.4 13.0–18.0
Florida 59.2 53.9–64.2 73.4 70.4–76.2 66.4 63.6–69.1 19.9 16.1–24.4 11.2 8.7–14.4 15.4 13.0–18.1
Georgia —ĥ — — — — — — — — — — —
Hawaii 48.2 41.1–55.3 — — 54.2 46.8–61.4 12.5 7.5–20.1 — — 12.2 7.8–18.8
Idaho — — — — — — — — — — — —
Illinois 57.5 51.3–63.6 73.3 69.3–76.9 64.8 60.7–68.6 21.6 17.5–26.3 13.0 8.4–19.6 17.6 13.8–22.2
Indiana 51.2 47.4–54.9 63.8 59.4–67.9 57.1 53.9–60.3 27.4 22.8–32.6 20.1 15.5–25.7 24.1 20.0–28.6
Iowa 59.0 50.6–66.9 74.0 62.8–82.8 66.1 58.9–72.7 24.1 18.5–30.7 23.3 16.9–31.2 23.8 19.8–28.3
Kansas 62.6 55.7–69.0 69.8 62.7–76.0 65.8 61.0–70.3 19.4 14.2–25.8 15.2 10.5–21.5 17.3 13.1–22.5
Kentucky 52.6 47.7–57.4 67.5 63.2–71.5 59.0 55.5–62.4 25.0 21.9–28.4 14.9 11.1–19.9 20.5 17.5–23.9
Maine 50.6 41.7–59.5 68.8 57.4–78.2 58.9 52.7–64.8 41.4 35.6–47.5 30.1 20.2–42.2 36.1 30.1–42.5
Maryland — — — — — — — — — — — —
Massachusetts 59.2 54.4–63.8 63.2 57.9–68.3 61.1 57.6–64.4 — — — — — —
Michigan 58.1 50.6–65.2 72.8 66.5–78.3 65.0 59.7–70.0 24.9 21.0–29.3 13.0 8.6–19.2 19.3 15.9–23.2
Mississippi 60.3 53.9–66.5 74.2 69.6–78.2 67.2 62.5–71.6 19.5 16.2–23.3 11.7 7.4–17.8 15.4 12.6–18.7
Missouri 53.8 46.0–61.4 65.8 61.1–70.3 59.3 54.3–64.1 23.2 16.1–32.2 13.9 11.1–17.2 18.9 14.3–24.5
Montana 55.8 51.4–60.1 72.7 67.9–77.0 63.3 59.5–67.0 30.0 26.0–34.4 15.0 12.3–18.1 23.4 20.3–26.7
Nevada 57.3 49.4–64.9 81.1 73.4–87.0 69.1 62.9–74.6 18.5 13.8–24.4 14.5 9.6–21.3 16.5 12.8–21.0
New Hampshire 57.8 50.9–64.4 71.5 65.9–76.6 64.2 59.5–68.7 38.1 30.7–46.2 17.2 13.0–22.3 28.1 23.4–33.4
New Mexico 48.6 43.1–54.0 63.2 56.3–69.6 55.2 50.9–59.3 21.5 14.4–30.9 16.5 12.4–21.5 19.0 14.3–24.8
New York 61.9 58.8–64.9 72.5 68.3–76.4 66.7 64.5–68.9 16.6 12.7–21.4 13.9 10.6–17.9 15.4 12.8–18.5
North Carolina 56.7 51.9–61.5 67.2 61.2–72.8 61.5 57.2–65.7 20.5 15.4–26.8 14.1 11.6–16.9 17.4 14.4–20.8
North Dakota 62.1 54.3–69.3 65.6 57.2–73.1 63.6 57.4–69.4 30.4 22.6–39.6 18.8 14.3–24.4 25.3 20.4–30.9
Ohio 55.4 49.7–61.0 65.0 58.9–70.6 60.1 55.5–64.5 18.5 14.9–22.9 16.2 12.7–20.5 17.4 15.1–19.8
Oklahoma 55.0 49.0–60.9 64.3 57.0–70.9 59.6 54.4–64.5 20.4 15.4–26.6 12.4 9.0–16.8 16.7 13.0–21.2
Rhode Island 61.0 54.9–66.8 70.9 63.4–77.4 66.0 60.6–71.1 25.5 19.0–33.3 16.3 12.9–20.3 20.8 16.7–25.7
South Carolina 57.2 49.0–65.0 68.2 59.5–75.8 62.4 56.0–68.3 15.8 10.4–23.3 10.6 7.4–15.0 13.4 10.5–17.0
South Dakota 53.6 41.9–65.0 64.6 57.7–70.9 58.3 51.3–65.0 20.8 16.3–26.1 11.2 7.7–16.0 16.7 13.3–20.8
Tennessee 55.7 49.3–62.0 65.8 58.2–72.6 60.9 55.4–66.1 18.8 15.6–22.5 14.5 10.8–19.3 16.6 14.0–19.6
Texas 49.2 44.9–53.6 63.5 60.0–66.9 56.4 53.3–59.4 15.0 11.3–19.5 11.5 9.1–14.4 13.2 10.8–16.2
Utah — — — — — — — — — — — —
Vermont 58.4 53.7–63.0 67.1 62.0–71.8 62.8 59.0–66.5 38.4 34.3–42.8 28.4 25.4–31.5 33.5 31.2–35.7
West Virginia 56.9 51.8–61.8 65.7 59.5–71.3 61.0 57.7–64.2 31.2 24.7–38.5 18.0 12.9–24.6 25.0 19.5–31.3
Wisconsin 56.3 50.0–62.3 67.7 61.4–73.5 61.4 56.9–65.8 28.2 23.1–33.9 22.8 18.3–27.9 25.7 21.6–30.3
Wyoming 59.1 53.2–64.7 68.1 62.6–73.1 63.1 59.1–66.9 24.0 20.2–28.3 18.8 14.4–24.1 21.5 18.6–24.7
Median 57.2 67.4 61.5 22.4 14.9 18.9
Range 46.8–62.8 63.2–81.1 54.2–69.2 12.5–41.4 10.6–30.1 12.2–36.1
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 65.6 60.4–70.6 81.5 76.6–85.6 74.1 70.3–77.7 10.3 7.7–13.6 6.9 4.4–10.7 8.4 6.3–11.1
Boston, MA 60.9 54.9–66.6 74.3 67.6–80.1 68.1 63.4–72.5 — — — — — —
Broward County, FL 65.3 58.7–71.4 77.0 70.3–82.5 71.6 67.0–75.8 12.2 8.3–17.6 6.0 3.6–10.0 8.9 6.3–12.5
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 59.3 50.7–67.3 73.8 66.7–79.8 66.7 61.0–72.0 16.9 11.2–24.7 9.4 5.8–14.7 13.1 9.7–17.3
Chicago, IL 63.5 55.7–70.6 73.6 61.5–82.9 67.8 60.4–74.4 11.5 6.8–18.7 6.8 2.8–15.4 9.5 5.5–15.9
Dallas, TX 48.4 40.5–56.4 69.8 61.4–77.1 59.6 54.5–64.6 12.1 7.6–18.8 9.6 5.9–15.3 10.8 7.9–14.5
DeKalb County, GA 59.5 53.8–64.9 78.8 73.8–83.0 69.3 65.3–73.0 11.6 8.5–15.6 6.6 4.2–10.2 9.0 6.8–11.7
Detroit, MI 62.0 55.7–67.9 76.6 70.7–81.7 69.4 64.5–73.8 11.8 8.7–15.9 4.1 2.1–7.7 7.8 5.7–10.4
District of Columbia 67.3 61.2–72.9 73.8 65.0–81.1 70.7 66.2–74.8 14.3 10.2–19.5 4.2 2.0–8.7 9.2 6.9–12.2
Hillsborough County, FL 52.0 43.8–60.2 66.6 57.0–75.0 58.4 53.1–63.5 18.1 12.8–24.8 4.9 2.5–9.2 12.1 8.9–16.4
Houston, TX 57.5 50.6–64.1 70.1 63.5–75.9 63.4 58.1–68.3 8.0 4.8–13.0 9.6 6.6–13.7 9.0 6.6–12.2
Los Angeles, CA 51.7 43.5–59.8 76.2 63.4–85.5 65.7 60.1–71.0 6.2 2.6–14.1 11.3 5.5–22.0 9.2 5.1–16.0
Memphis, TN 69.2 61.0–76.4 78.9 73.3–83.7 74.3 68.9–79.1 8.6 3.9–17.7 7.6 5.4–10.6 8.0 5.3–11.8
Miami-Dade County, FL 60.8 55.3–66.1 80.1 75.1–84.4 70.7 67.2–74.0 6.7 4.4–10.1 6.3 4.2–9.4 6.4 4.9–8.4
Milwaukee, WI 50.4 44.8–56.0 72.2 64.2–78.9 61.1 55.9–65.9 13.7 10.1–18.2 11.5 7.7–16.8 12.5 9.6–16.0
New York City, NY 65.0 60.6–69.2 78.3 73.7–82.2 71.5 68.2–74.6 7.6 5.3–10.7 4.8 3.5–6.7 6.3 4.7–8.2
Orange County, FL 60.0 51.9–67.6 75.0 68.0–81.0 66.7 61.2–71.8 15.2 9.4–23.5 8.8 5.0–15.1 12.2 7.8–18.5
Palm Beach County, FL 66.2 60.8–71.2 71.1 63.0–78.0 68.5 63.7–72.9 19.4 14.6–25.4 10.1 6.8–14.8 14.9 11.5–19.1
Philadelphia, PA 57.0 50.6–63.1 73.0 68.3–77.2 64.4 60.2–68.4 14.1 11.1–17.7 10.0 7.0–14.1 12.2 10.0–14.8
San Bernardino, CA 57.4 48.6–65.7 77.0 69.6–83.1 68.2 61.5–74.3 7.6 4.6–12.3 7.0 4.2–11.5 7.2 4.9–10.5
San Diego, CA 50.3 43.0–57.7 63.4 56.9–69.3 57.0 52.2–61.6 18.6 13.2–25.7 15.3 10.7–21.4 16.9 12.8–22.0
San Francisco, CA 67.3 60.5–73.4 74.8 68.0–80.6 70.8 65.7–75.4 18.0 13.6–23.5 12.2 8.3–17.6 15.3 12.2–19.0
Median 60.4 74.5 68.1 12.1 7.6 9.2
Range 48.4–69.2 63.4–81.5 57.0–74.3 6.2–19.4 4.1–15.3 6.3–16.9
* Among students who were currently sexually active.
† To prevent pregnancy.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 67

TABLE 67. Percentage of high school students who drank alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse* and who were
ever taught in school about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, by
sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Drank alcohol or used drugs before
last sexual intercourse Were taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 19.8 16.3–23.9 30.5 26.1–35.2 24.8 22.3–27.5 91.7 89.8–93.3 90.5 88.8–92.0 91.1 89.6–92.4
Black§ 12.9 9.7–16.8 19.8 15.5–24.9 16.4 13.4–20.0 91.8 89.8–93.5 88.8 85.8–91.2 90.3 88.6–91.8
Hispanic 16.5 12.7–21.2 25.9 22.0–30.2 21.4 18.2–25.1 84.8 81.8–87.3 85.1 82.9–87.1 85.0 82.9–86.8
Grade
9 20.4 14.4–28.1 22.9 18.1–28.6 21.8 17.2–27.2 87.7 84.9–90.1 86.4 83.9–88.5 87.1 84.9–89.0
10 20.0 14.7–26.5 27.4 21.9–33.8 23.6 19.3–28.4 90.3 87.8–92.3 89.2 86.9–91.1 89.7 88.0–91.2
11 14.8 11.1–19.5 28.3 23.5–33.7 21.6 18.7–24.8 92.6 90.1–94.6 91.0 88.5–93.0 91.8 89.6–93.6
12 17.3 14.1–21.0 29.1 24.8–33.7 22.6 19.9–25.5 90.9 88.5–92.8 89.1 87.2–90.8 90.0 88.3–91.5
Total 17.7 15.1–20.7 27.5 24.6–30.6 22.5 20.7–24.5 90.2 88.5–91.7 88.7 87.4–89.9 89.5 88.1–90.7
* Among the 35.0% of students nationwide who were currently sexually active.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
Return to top.
Table 68

TABLE 68. Percentage of high school students who drank alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse* and who were
ever taught in school about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, by
sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Drank alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse Were taught in school about AIDS or HIV infection
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI† % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 21.5 14.7–30.5 22.9 16.9–30.2 22.1 17.0–28.2 84.6 80.0–88.3 86.9 83.3–89.8 85.8 83.3–88.0
Arizona 20.4 15.4–26.5 35.2 29.7–41.2 27.6 23.1–32.5 80.4 76.4–83.9 77.6 73.1–81.6 79.0 75.1–82.5
Arkansas 16.5 12.0–22.3 25.3 18.5–33.6 20.6 16.6–25.2 86.6 83.0–89.5 84.7 80.1–88.4 85.6 82.2–88.4
Connecticut 22.7 17.1–29.6 33.9 28.0–40.4 27.9 23.1–33.3 91.8 89.2–93.9 91.6 88.7–93.8 91.7 89.5–93.4
Delaware 16.1 13.0–19.9 26.3 22.0–31.1 21.6 18.8–24.6 91.7 89.9–93.2 89.5 87.6–91.2 90.4 89.0–91.6
Florida 17.5 14.6–20.7 25.6 22.7–28.6 21.8 19.7–24.0 90.4 88.3–92.1 85.9 83.8–87.8 88.0 86.2–89.6
Georgia —§ — — — — — 92.5 90.4–94.1 88.8 86.3–90.8 90.6 88.8–92.0
Hawaii 21.6 16.3–28.0 — — 27.2 20.3–35.4 86.4 83.1–89.1 87.9 84.3–90.8 87.1 84.4–89.5
Idaho — — — — — — 84.0 78.1–88.6 80.9 75.8–85.1 82.2 77.4–86.2
Illinois 19.7 15.4–24.8 24.9 19.9–30.5 22.0 18.3–26.4 91.8 89.2–93.8 89.4 86.0–92.0 90.6 88.0–92.7
Indiana 19.3 15.1–24.3 28.7 21.1–37.7 23.5 19.1–28.7 91.6 88.6–93.9 87.7 85.3–89.7 89.3 87.1–91.2
Iowa 16.4 13.2–20.2 19.9 13.5–28.4 18.0 14.1–22.8 89.3 83.9–93.0 85.7 80.9–89.4 87.5 83.0–90.9
Kansas 20.8 16.6–25.6 31.3 23.3–40.5 25.9 20.7–31.7 87.2 83.8–89.9 82.6 77.8–86.5 84.8 81.5–87.6
Kentucky 17.2 13.9–20.9 21.4 17.0–26.5 19.0 16.1–22.3 87.5 84.2–90.2 86.3 84.0–88.3 86.8 84.8–88.6
Maine 16.3 11.3–23.0 25.0 17.6–34.4 20.3 16.7–24.5 88.3 82.7–92.3 85.9 82.0–89.1 87.1 84.3–89.4
Maryland — — — — — — 88.7 85.3–91.5 82.5 78.1–86.1 85.3 82.5–87.7
Massachusetts 21.9 17.7–26.7 27.7 22.9–33.2 24.6 20.7–29.0 89.4 86.7–91.6 87.9 84.9–90.3 88.5 86.0–90.6
Michigan 21.3 17.2–26.0 25.2 19.9–31.3 23.2 19.9–26.9 90.2 86.9–92.7 89.2 86.8–91.2 89.6 87.4–91.5
Mississippi 10.7 8.5–13.5 24.0 18.6–30.4 17.6 14.1–21.9 83.2 78.5–87.0 80.6 76.6–84.0 81.7 78.0–84.9
Missouri 16.8 11.4–24.0 27.8 19.6–37.9 21.9 16.3–28.9 89.3 84.1–92.9 86.9 81.9–90.6 88.0 83.7–91.3
Montana 21.3 18.1–25.0 32.2 27.3–37.5 26.0 23.0–29.1 90.4 88.4–92.0 89.4 87.5–91.0 89.7 88.3–91.0
Nevada 18.3 13.9–23.6 24.7 19.4–30.9 21.5 17.9–25.6 82.5 78.3–85.9 82.1 78.6–85.2 82.3 79.7–84.6
New Hampshire 20.2 15.9–25.4 28.4 22.5–35.2 24.3 20.1–28.9 88.7 85.8–91.0 89.5 86.8–91.7 89.0 87.0–90.8
New Mexico 19.8 13.6–27.9 28.7 23.3–34.9 23.7 19.5–28.5 82.7 75.6–88.1 83.1 75.6–88.7 82.7 75.7–88.0
New York 19.3 14.9–24.5 26.8 21.5–32.8 22.8 18.7–27.5 89.8 87.6–91.6 86.0 83.2–88.5 87.8 85.9–89.6
North Carolina 17.4 13.2–22.6 24.3 20.2–28.9 20.7 17.6–24.1 — — — — — —
North Dakota 26.8 20.8–33.9 29.6 23.9–35.9 28.1 23.8–32.9 — — — — — —
Ohio 18.4 15.3–22.0 26.9 22.5–31.8 22.5 19.7–25.5 89.0 87.1–90.7 88.5 86.2–90.5 88.8 87.1–90.3
Oklahoma 17.4 12.5–23.7 30.0 22.6–38.5 23.3 18.4–29.0 89.7 86.7–92.0 88.4 86.1–90.4 89.0 86.8–90.9
Rhode Island 14.8 11.0–19.6 25.2 19.8–31.5 20.1 16.3–24.5 90.8 88.0–93.0 88.0 84.5–90.8 89.4 87.0–91.4
South Carolina 16.8 12.8–21.9 21.1 13.7–30.9 18.8 13.7–25.3 89.2 86.0–91.8 85.4 80.2–89.4 87.1 84.7–89.3
South Dakota 25.7 18.4–34.6 29.5 24.1–35.5 27.3 21.6–33.9 85.9 80.8–89.8 84.7 80.6–88.0 85.3 81.0–88.8
Tennessee 13.7 10.0–18.4 24.8 18.9–31.8 19.4 15.3–24.3 90.9 88.1–93.2 87.0 83.2–90.1 88.9 86.0–91.3
Texas 18.9 15.1–23.5 25.5 21.1–30.5 22.2 19.3–25.4 86.9 84.6–88.9 84.0 80.3–87.2 85.5 82.9–87.7
Utah — — — — — — 85.0 81.7–87.8 81.7 75.1–86.8 82.9 78.4–86.7
Vermont 21.9 17.8–26.7 32.8 27.4–38.8 27.2 22.6–32.4 — — — — — —
West Virginia 20.3 16.1–25.3 23.9 17.7–31.3 22.3 18.3–26.8 88.5 83.5–92.1 87.1 79.6–92.1 87.8 81.9–91.9
Wisconsin 21.7 17.1–27.0 32.7 27.4–38.4 26.6 23.1–30.5 — — — — — —
Wyoming 20.0 16.5–23.9 30.4 25.7–35.6 25.0 21.9–28.3 87.3 84.1–89.8 84.7 82.1–87.0 85.7 83.7–87.6
Median 19.3 26.5 22.5 88.7 86.3 87.5
Range 10.7–26.8 19.9–35.2 17.6–28.1 80.4–92.5 77.6–91.6 79.0–91.7
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 8.1 5.7–11.4 16.1 12.3–20.8 12.2 9.7–15.3 89.6 87.4–91.5 85.7 82.7–88.3 87.7 85.9–89.3
Boston, MA 16.0 11.9–21.3 25.6 19.9–32.1 21.2 17.8–25.1 77.7 73.2–81.6 76.1 71.2–80.3 76.9 73.2–80.1
Broward County, FL 14.0 8.2–22.9 23.5 16.5–32.4 19.2 13.7–26.2 92.0 89.6–94.0 86.1 82.8–88.8 89.0 87.6–90.3
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 11.6 8.1–16.5 18.8 14.1–24.5 15.2 11.8–19.3 — — — — — —
Chicago, IL 8.7 5.0–14.9 17.4 10.0–28.6 12.5 8.1–18.7 87.7 82.3–91.6 80.3 72.2–86.5 84.1 79.1–88.1
Dallas, TX 9.2 5.6–14.6 25.4 19.5–32.3 17.7 13.9–22.3 77.6 73.5–81.2 75.8 69.0–81.5 76.7 73.3–79.8
DeKalb County, GA 11.5 8.3–15.7 17.5 14.0–21.6 14.6 12.0–17.6 90.5 88.5–92.2 85.3 83.0–87.3 87.8 86.1–89.2
Detroit, MI 12.4 8.7–17.4 14.2 10.5–18.8 13.5 10.9–16.7 85.6 82.9–88.0 81.5 77.8–84.6 83.7 81.1–85.9
District of Columbia 14.9 11.1–19.6 20.6 15.0–27.6 17.4 14.2–21.1 88.4 85.5–90.7 82.4 78.4–85.8 85.7 83.2–87.9
Hillsborough County, FL 16.5 11.2–23.6 25.6 19.2–33.2 20.5 16.3–25.3 94.7 92.3–96.4 89.9 86.7–92.3 92.3 90.4–93.9
Houston, TX 10.5 7.5–14.6 18.8 14.1–24.7 14.6 11.6–18.2 80.8 77.0–84.1 76.9 73.0–80.5 78.7 75.7–81.5
Los Angeles, CA 14.6 9.0–22.8 23.8 16.9–32.4 19.8 15.7–24.7 81.1 73.1–87.2 82.8 75.9–88.1 82.1 75.4–87.2
Memphis, TN 7.7 4.7–12.5 16.7 12.4–22.1 12.3 9.4–15.9 87.6 84.3–90.3 83.6 79.3–87.2 85.7 83.1–88.0
Miami-Dade County, FL 15.5 11.8–19.9 23.7 19.2–28.8 20.2 17.3–23.3 87.7 84.6–90.2 84.8 81.0–87.9 85.9 82.9–88.4
Milwaukee, WI 12.8 9.5–17.2 23.9 18.4–30.5 18.2 15.0–21.9 — — — — — —
New York City, NY 10.1 7.7–13.1 17.0 13.5–21.1 13.4 11.3–15.7 89.6 87.2–91.6 86.1 83.7–88.2 88.0 86.0–89.7
Orange County, FL 16.7 9.4–28.0 18.8 12.7–26.8 17.5 11.9–25.1 89.1 86.2–91.4 87.9 84.7–90.5 88.5 86.3–90.4
Palm Beach County, FL 21.6 15.4–29.4 29.9 24.9–35.5 25.5 21.4–30.1 86.9 83.6–89.6 84.4 80.5–87.6 85.6 82.6–88.1
Philadelphia, PA 11.5 8.2–15.8 18.4 14.5–23.1 14.8 12.2–17.9 86.3 83.1–88.9 81.8 78.3–84.8 84.4 81.6–86.9
San Bernardino, CA 17.0 11.9–23.8 21.0 15.0–28.7 19.3 15.3–24.1 82.8 78.4–86.4 82.1 78.0–85.6 82.5 78.8–85.6
San Diego, CA 14.4 9.8–20.6 27.5 20.5–36.0 20.9 16.8–25.8 86.3 83.4–88.8 87.0 83.1–90.1 86.5 83.9–88.8
San Francisco, CA 15.0 11.2–19.8 13.6 9.3–19.4 14.4 11.5–17.9 86.3 82.8–89.2 84.7 81.6–87.3 85.5 82.9–87.8
Median 13.4 19.7 17.4 87.2 84.0 85.6
Range 7.7–21.6 13.6–29.9 12.2–25.5 77.6–94.7 75.8–89.9 76.7–92.3
* Among students who were currently sexually active.
† 95% confidence interval.
§ Not available.
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Table 69

TABLE 69. Percentage of high school students who were tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),* by sex, race/ethnicity,
and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 12.0 10.2–14.2 9.4 8.1–11.0 10.7 9.4–12.3
Black§ 27.2 22.1–32.9 17.3 14.6–20.5 22.4 19.1–25.9
Hispanic 13.8 11.5–16.4 11.5 9.4–14.0 12.7 11.0–14.5
Grade
9 9.9 7.7–12.6 8.3 6.2–11.1 9.1 7.5–10.9
10 11.6 9.8–13.5 10.5 8.4–13.0 11.0 9.7–12.4
11 16.2 12.6–20.4 11.5 9.1–14.4 13.9 11.3–16.9
12 22.9 19.4–26.7 14.9 12.5–17.6 18.9 16.4–21.8
Total 14.8 13.0–16.8 11.1 9.9–12.4 12.9 11.6–14.4
* Does not include tests conducted when donating blood.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
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Table 70

TABLE 70. Percentage of high school students who ate fruits and vegetables* five or more times/day† and who drank three or more
glasses/day of milk,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Ate fruits and vegetables five or more times/day Drank three or more glasses/day of milk
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 17.6 15.3–20.1 20.1 18.2–22.1 18.8 17.1–20.7 9.9 7.4–13.1 22.2 19.5–25.2 16.1 13.7–18.7
Blackĥ 23.4 20.6–26.4 26.6 22.7–30.8 24.9 22.8–27.2 5.7 4.4–7.5 13.6 11.0–16.6 9.7 8.0–11.7
Hispanic 22.1 19.4–25.2 25.9 23.0–28.9 24.0 22.2–25.8 8.1 6.8–9.6 17.3 15.3–19.6 12.7 11.4–14.2
Grade
9 22.0 19.5–24.8 25.4 22.4–28.6 23.7 21.3–26.2 10.2 8.3–12.4 19.0 16.1–22.3 14.7 12.8–17.0
10 21.6 18.5–25.1 23.1 20.3–26.3 22.4 19.9–25.0 9.3 7.2–11.9 20.7 18.0–23.7 15.0 12.9–17.5
11 17.2 14.7–20.0 22.6 19.4–26.2 19.9 17.8–22.1 7.6 5.9–9.7 19.4 16.4–22.9 13.5 11.4–15.8
12 18.3 15.5–21.4 19.0 16.2–22.2 18.6 16.3–21.2 7.9 5.4–11.4 18.4 15.3–21.9 13.1 10.9–15.6
Total 19.9 18.0–22.0 22.9 21.1–24.8 21.4 19.8–23.1 8.8 7.1–10.8 19.4 17.3–21.8 14.1 12.4–16.0
* 100% fruit juice, fruit, green salad, potatoes (excluding French fries, fried potatoes, or potato chips), carrots, or other vegetables.
†During the 7 days before the survey.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 71

TABLE 71. Percentage of high school students who ate fruits and vegetables* five or more times/day† and who drank three or more
glasses/day of milk,† by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Ate fruits and vegetables five or more times/day Drank three or more glasses/day of milk
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 14.8 11.9–18.3 16.2 13.7–19.2 15.7 13.9–17.7 8.2 5.9–11.1 14.1 11.3–17.5 11.3 9.3–13.6
Arizona 16.3 14.4–18.5 17.8 14.8–21.2 17.1 15.3–19.1 5.8 4.6–7.3 14.6 12.3–17.4 10.2 8.9–11.7
Arkansas 11.9 9.2–15.2 14.7 12.5–17.2 13.3 11.4–15.4 6.2 4.6–8.2 14.9 12.7–17.4 10.5 9.4–11.8
Connecticut 20.0 16.5–24.1 22.9 20.4–25.6 21.5 19.2–24.1 —ĥ — — — — —
Delaware — — — — — — 7.5 6.2–9.0 16.2 14.2–18.6 12.1 10.8–13.6
Florida 19.0 17.4–20.7 25.1 23.1–27.1 22.1 20.5–23.7 6.8 5.9–7.9 16.4 14.8–18.1 11.6 10.7–12.5
Georgia 16.7 14.5–19.1 21.4 19.0–23.9 19.0 17.5–20.7 5.2 3.9–7.1 13.1 11.1–15.4 9.2 7.9–10.8
Hawaii 15.9 12.5–20.1 18.5 14.3–23.6 17.2 14.6–20.3 7.7 5.4–10.9 8.8 5.5–13.9 8.3 6.1–11.2
Idaho 15.8 12.4–20.0 19.0 15.9–22.4 17.4 14.9–20.3 14.6 11.3–18.6 27.1 23.5–31.1 20.9 18.0–24.2
Illinois 18.5 15.5–22.0 23.8 20.9–27.0 21.1 18.7–23.8 10.3 7.7–13.6 19.8 16.8–23.3 15.1 12.9–17.5
Indiana 17.2 15.4–19.2 18.9 16.3–21.9 18.2 16.4–20.2 11.9 10.0–14.0 21.2 17.9–25.0 16.7 14.7–19.0
Iowa 19.8 16.5–23.5 18.2 15.1–21.8 18.9 16.9–21.1 17.0 13.6–21.1 32.4 27.8–37.4 24.9 21.6–28.6
Kansas 15.7 13.4–18.2 25.7 21.7–30.2 20.8 18.2–23.7 10.6 9.1–12.3 22.9 19.7–26.5 17.0 15.3–18.9
Kentucky 11.8 10.2–13.5 14.5 12.6–16.7 13.2 11.9–14.5 — — — — — —
Maine 20.0 16.6–24.0 20.7 16.5–25.8 20.4 17.5–23.6 11.4 9.7–13.4 21.5 16.7–27.2 16.6 13.9–19.7
Maryland 17.6 14.4–21.4 20.3 16.4–24.9 19.0 16.6–21.7 7.1 5.1–9.8 12.1 9.8–14.8 9.7 7.8–12.0
Massachusetts — — — — — — 10.2 8.9–11.6 18.7 16.9–20.7 14.5 13.3–15.8
Michigan 16.4 14.1–19.0 17.7 15.0–20.8 17.0 15.2–19.1 10.6 8.1–13.7 18.5 15.9–21.4 14.5 12.4–16.9
Mississippi 17.8 15.0–21.1 21.2 16.8–26.3 19.4 16.3–23.1 8.2 5.6–11.8 15.0 12.5–17.8 11.5 9.2–14.1
Missouri 17.3 13.6–21.7 18.9 16.0–22.2 18.1 15.7–20.9 9.1 7.3–11.4 19.2 16.0–22.9 14.3 12.5–16.2
Montana 14.9 12.9–17.2 19.1 17.3–21.0 17.1 15.6–18.6 14.3 12.7–16.2 22.9 20.9–25.0 18.7 17.3–20.1
Nevada 17.0 14.1–20.4 20.9 17.7–24.4 19.0 16.8–21.4 8.5 6.8–10.6 20.1 17.4–23.1 14.4 12.7–16.3
New Hampshire 22.9 19.5–26.7 21.7 18.8–25.0 22.3 20.0–24.8 13.9 11.5–16.8 26.1 23.0–29.5 20.2 18.0–22.5
New Mexico 16.2 12.5–20.7 19.5 16.8–22.5 17.9 15.1–21.2 7.7 5.5–10.7 14.5 12.2–17.1 11.2 9.2–13.5
New York — — — — — — 9.0 7.1–11.3 15.1 12.8–17.7 12.0 10.3–14.0
North Carolina 14.3 11.9–17.1 15.1 12.9–17.7 14.8 13.3–16.5 5.6 4.1–7.6 10.6 8.7–12.7 8.2 7.1–9.5
North Dakota 16.1 13.4–19.3 16.9 14.1–20.1 16.6 14.6–18.8 18.9 16.2–21.8 31.7 28.1–35.5 25.4 23.1–28.0
Ohio 16.8 14.4–19.6 14.0 11.9–16.4 15.5 13.8–17.5 10.0 7.8–12.7 19.1 16.2–22.3 14.6 12.6–16.9
Oklahoma 13.0 11.0–15.2 18.2 15.7–21.1 15.7 14.1–17.5 6.4 5.0–8.2 15.1 13.1–17.3 10.8 9.6–12.2
Rhode Island 18.1 15.1–21.5 20.1 17.1–23.4 19.0 17.0–21.2 11.8 9.6–14.3 19.6 16.7–22.8 15.6 13.3–18.3
South Carolina 17.0 13.3–21.4 17.0 12.9–22.0 17.1 14.5–20.0 5.1 3.8–6.8 10.8 8.0–14.3 8.0 6.6–9.6
South Dakota 15.5 12.2–19.5 16.5 14.3–19.1 16.0 13.6–18.8 17.7 14.3–21.5 31.9 27.2–36.9 24.8 21.2–28.7
Tennessee 16.6 13.8–19.7 19.7 16.8–23.0 18.3 16.2–20.5 8.2 6.5–10.3 17.0 14.0–20.4 12.6 10.6–15.0
Texas 14.6 13.1–16.3 20.2 18.2–22.3 17.4 16.1–18.9 6.7 5.3–8.5 15.6 13.8–17.4 11.2 10.0–12.5
Utah 15.6 13.9–17.5 19.0 15.5–23.1 17.7 16.0–19.6 15.2 11.7–19.7 27.3 23.9–31.0 21.3 17.9–25.2
Vermont 24.0 20.2–28.4 23.5 19.8–27.7 23.8 20.1–28.0 15.5 14.4–16.7 29.4 27.4–31.5 22.7 21.3–24.2
West Virginia 17.5 15.6–19.6 21.7 17.8–26.1 19.8 17.6–22.3 9.7 7.2–13.0 23.4 20.5–26.6 16.7 14.4–19.3
Wisconsin 17.9 15.4–20.7 18.0 15.3–21.1 17.9 15.9–20.1 17.6 15.1–20.5 26.7 23.4–30.3 22.2 19.8–24.8
Wyoming 15.4 13.2–17.9 18.9 16.6–21.5 17.3 15.7–19.1 13.1 11.3–15.1 21.3 18.5–24.5 17.4 15.7–19.2
Median 16.6 19.0 17.9 9.7 19.1 14.5
Range 11.8–24.0 14.0–25.7 13.2–23.8 5.1–18.9 8.8–32.4 8.0–25.4
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 21.6 19.1–24.4 23.5 20.4–26.8 22.5 20.4–24.8 6.4 4.9–8.2 11.0 9.0–13.4 8.5 7.2–9.9
Boston, MA — — — — — — 5.8 4.3–8.0 13.6 10.9–16.7 9.7 8.0–11.7
Broward County, FL 20.5 17.3–24.1 25.7 21.9–29.8 23.1 20.6–25.8 7.2 5.3–9.7 14.6 10.7–19.6 10.9 8.7–13.5
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC — — — — — — — — — — — —
Chicago, IL 19.7 16.1–24.0 21.1 15.7–27.7 20.4 17.5–23.6 5.2 3.1–8.3 9.6 6.7–13.8 7.3 5.8–9.2
Dallas, TX 16.8 13.9–20.1 19.1 16.2–22.5 17.9 15.6–20.4 6.4 4.2–9.7 8.5 6.3–11.4 7.4 5.8–9.5
DeKalb County, GA 19.4 17.0–21.9 22.7 20.5–25.1 21.0 19.5–22.6 4.4 3.3–5.8 11.6 9.5–14.1 8.0 6.8–9.4
Detroit, MI 15.8 13.6–18.4 18.1 15.2–21.3 16.9 15.0–19.0 5.0 3.8–6.7 8.4 6.7–10.4 6.7 5.6–7.9
District of Columbia 17.3 14.4–20.5 20.9 17.2–25.2 19.3 16.8–22.0 3.8 2.6–5.7 6.8 4.9–9.5 5.1 4.0–6.7
Hillsborough County, FL 16.1 13.2–19.5 20.7 16.7–25.3 18.4 16.1–20.9 7.3 4.7–11.0 14.3 11.0–18.2 10.6 8.7–12.8
Houston, TX 15.9 13.2–19.0 18.4 15.4–21.8 17.1 14.9–19.4 6.0 4.1–8.6 10.5 8.2–13.2 8.2 6.4–10.3
Los Angeles, CA 22.9 18.7–27.7 32.0 27.3–37.1 27.4 23.7–31.6 6.0 3.7–9.7 17.4 13.1–22.8 11.9 8.9–15.8
Memphis, TN 19.8 17.1–22.9 23.8 19.9–28.2 21.8 19.4–24.5 6.0 4.1–8.8 11.7 9.6–14.3 8.8 7.6–10.3
Miami-Dade County, FL 19.8 17.6–22.1 27.0 24.4–29.7 23.6 21.9–25.3 7.2 5.8–8.9 16.3 13.9–19.0 11.9 10.3–13.7
Milwaukee, WI 18.7 15.9–21.9 24.3 20.2–28.9 21.6 18.9–24.6 9.7 7.8–12.0 18.1 14.6–22.2 14.0 11.8–16.5
New York City, NY — — — — — — 4.6 3.8–5.6 9.1 7.5–10.9 6.7 5.7–7.9
Orange County, FL 17.9 14.8–21.5 23.5 19.5–28.1 20.9 18.1–23.9 7.0 5.2–9.4 12.5 10.4–14.9 9.8 8.4–11.4
Palm Beach County, FL 20.1 17.2–23.4 25.1 21.9–28.7 22.8 20.2–25.6 6.9 5.3–9.0 13.0 10.8–15.7 10.1 8.6–11.7
Philadelphia, PA 16.8 14.1–19.9 19.2 16.4–22.2 18.0 15.8–20.3 4.8 3.5–6.5 10.0 7.4–13.3 7.0 5.6–8.8
San Bernardino, CA 25.8 22.4–29.6 31.6 27.5–36.1 28.8 26.1–31.6 9.6 7.1–12.8 18.8 15.8–22.2 14.2 11.9–16.8
San Diego, CA 20.9 17.9–24.3 20.1 17.4–23.0 20.4 18.5–22.4 6.5 4.8–8.8 11.9 9.6–14.6 9.3 7.7–11.2
San Francisco, CA — — — — — — 3.9 2.9–5.3 10.5 8.7–12.7 7.3 6.2–8.5
Median 19.5 23.1 20.9 6.0 11.7 8.8
Range 15.8–25.8 18.1–32.0 16.9–28.8 3.8–9.7 6.8–18.8 5.1–14.2
* 100% fruit juice, fruit, green salad, potatoes (excluding French fries, fried potatoes, or potato chips), carrots, or other vegetables.
† During the 7 days before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 72

TABLE 72. Percentage of high school students who drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda or pop* at least one time/day† — United
States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 27.3 22.9–32.3 40.6 36.8–44.5 34.0 30.0–38.2
Blackĥ 37.2 34.0–40.5 38.0 33.7–42.4 37.6 35.0–40.4
Hispanic 29.5 25.3–34.2 37.3 34.4–40.4 33.4 31.0–36.0
Grade
9 31.5 27.7–35.6 39.5 36.0–43.0 35.6 32.5–38.9
10 29.8 25.4–34.7 36.6 32.6–40.8 33.2 29.6–37.1
11 26.5 22.4–31.1 39.0 35.5–42.6 32.8 29.4–36.4
12 27.2 24.0–30.6 39.2 34.6–44.1 33.1 29.6–36.9
Total 29.0 25.9–32.2 38.6 35.6–41.6 33.8 31.0–36.8
* Not including diet soda or diet pop.
†During the 7 days before the survey.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 73

TABLE 73. Percentage of high school students who drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda or pop* at least one time/day† — selected
U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 18.3 15.3–21.8 25.1 21.4–29.1 21.8 19.1–24.7
Arizona 24.6 21.3–28.2 34.1 31.1–37.2 29.5 26.9–32.2
Arkansas 36.3 33.2–39.5 42.4 38.3–46.7 39.4 36.6–42.2
Connecticut —ĥ — — — — —
Delaware 26.4 23.4–29.5 37.9 35.0–40.9 32.4 30.1–34.8
Florida 26.8 24.0–29.8 35.3 32.4–38.3 31.0 29.1–33.1
Georgia 31.8 28.6–35.1 36.2 32.5–40.0 34.0 31.3–36.8
Hawaii 21.7 16.9–27.4 23.5 19.2–28.4 22.6 19.5–26.1
Idaho 16.6 13.5–20.2 29.4 26.1–32.9 23.2 20.6–26.0
Illinois 28.3 24.5–32.3 39.3 35.7–43.0 33.7 30.3–37.2
Indiana 27.6 23.4–32.3 43.4 39.5–47.4 35.6 32.1–39.2
Iowa 23.1 18.9–27.9 41.7 37.4–46.3 32.6 29.3–36.2
Kansas 29.5 26.5–32.8 36.5 32.5–40.7 33.1 30.2–36.2
Kentucky 36.9 33.4–40.5 44.1 40.6–47.6 40.5 37.6–43.4
Maine 13.3 10.2–17.3 26.3 20.6–32.8 19.9 16.1–24.4
Maryland — — — — — —
Massachusetts 18.3 15.7–21.2 31.5 28.3–34.8 24.9 22.2–27.8
Michigan 23.1 18.9–27.8 34.6 31.1–38.2 28.9 25.7–32.2
Mississippi 45.1 40.9–49.3 49.5 45.8–53.2 47.0 44.1–50.0
Missouri 27.5 21.2–34.8 37.9 33.4–42.6 32.8 28.4–37.5
Montana 21.1 18.9–23.5 31.1 28.9–33.5 26.2 24.5–28.1
Nevada 20.3 17.5–23.3 26.5 23.1–30.3 23.5 21.2–26.0
New Hampshire 14.8 11.8–18.3 33.2 29.2–37.5 24.2 21.2–27.4
New Mexico 25.3 21.4–29.7 30.7 26.8–34.9 28.0 24.8–31.5
New York 20.4 17.7–23.4 27.3 25.2–29.6 24.0 22.1–25.9
North Carolina 35.2 31.4–39.2 38.5 35.7–41.5 36.9 34.4–39.6
North Dakota 19.8 16.6–23.5 37.2 33.2–41.3 28.6 26.0–31.5
Ohio 23.8 20.4–27.5 36.6 33.2–40.2 30.3 27.5–33.3
Oklahoma 35.8 32.8–39.0 45.2 41.8–48.7 40.7 38.0–43.5
Rhode Island 20.4 16.5–25.0 30.1 26.9–33.4 25.2 21.8–29.0
South Carolina 33.7 29.0–38.8 34.9 29.5–40.7 34.3 30.5–38.2
South Dakota 20.2 15.8–25.4 35.8 31.3–40.6 28.2 25.2–31.5
Tennessee 41.7 38.4–45.1 51.2 47.0–55.3 46.4 43.6–49.3
Texas 32.6 30.0–35.4 42.7 39.4–46.1 37.8 35.4–40.2
Utah 11.8 9.3–14.9 21.0 16.2–26.6 16.9 14.3–19.8
Vermont 16.5 12.9–20.8 31.9 26.4–38.0 24.5 20.0–29.6
West Virginia 40.6 35.2–46.3 50.8 44.8–56.7 45.9 41.1–50.7
Wisconsin 18.3 15.7–21.3 31.4 27.7–35.5 25.0 22.1–28.2
Wyoming 20.9 18.4–23.6 34.6 30.7–38.7 27.9 25.3–30.7
Median 23.8 35.3 29.5
Range 11.8–45.1 21.0–51.2 16.9–47.0
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 36.0 32.6–39.6 39.1 34.9–43.5 37.5 34.9–40.3
Boston, MA 25.9 22.5–29.7 28.6 25.5–31.8 27.3 24.9–29.8
Broward County, FL 22.9 18.7–27.6 35.2 30.7–40.0 29.2 26.0–32.7
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 22.0 18.9–25.5 29.1 25.8–32.7 25.4 22.8–28.3
Chicago, IL 23.2 19.5–27.3 32.9 27.6–38.8 27.8 23.9–32.1
Dallas, TX 28.2 24.0–32.9 33.9 30.3–37.7 31.0 28.3–33.9
DeKalb County, GA 23.9 21.1–27.1 29.4 26.6–32.3 26.7 24.6–28.9
Detroit, MI 28.5 25.7–31.5 28.2 24.8–31.9 28.4 26.1–30.8
District of Columbia 29.1 25.8–32.7 31.6 27.0–36.5 30.3 27.7–33.1
Hillsborough County, FL 25.2 21.5–29.4 28.2 23.6–33.2 26.7 23.7–29.8
Houston, TX 26.8 23.5–30.2 33.2 29.2–37.4 29.9 27.2–32.7
Los Angeles, CA 23.7 18.5–29.8 31.9 26.8–37.5 27.9 23.0–33.4
Memphis, TN 37.6 33.4–42.1 42.3 37.0–47.7 39.9 36.4–43.5
Miami-Dade County, FL 25.6 23.1–28.3 31.3 28.5–34.3 28.8 26.7–30.9
Milwaukee, WI 27.2 24.0–30.7 32.8 28.9–36.9 30.0 27.4–32.6
New York City, NY 21.8 19.2–24.7 25.4 22.6–28.4 23.5 21.6–25.6
Orange County, FL 24.7 20.6–29.4 34.4 29.7–39.5 29.6 26.0–33.5
Palm Beach County, FL 24.2 21.0–27.7 31.6 27.4–36.0 28.0 25.0–31.2
Philadelphia, PA 30.9 27.2–34.9 31.3 27.8–34.9 31.1 28.3–34.1
San Bernardino, CA 29.6 25.6–34.0 29.3 25.6–33.3 29.6 26.4–33.0
San Diego, CA 14.2 11.6–17.2 25.1 21.1–29.5 19.8 17.2–22.6
San Francisco, CA 11.1 9.3–13.2 17.7 15.2–20.4 14.4 12.7–16.3
Median 25.4 31.4 28.6
Range 11.1–37.6 17.7–42.3 14.4–39.9
* Not including diet soda or diet pop.
† During the 7 days before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 74

TABLE 74. Percentage of high school students who met recommended levels of physical activity* and who did not participate in
60 or more minutes of physical activity on any day,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 2007
Did not participate in 60 or more minutes
Met recommended levels of physical activity of physical activity on any day
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 27.9 23.7–32.6 46.1 42.6–49.6 37.0 33.9–40.3 28.2 24.4–32.3 16.7 14.6–19.0 22.4 20.1–24.9
Blackĥ 21.0 18.1–24.2 41.3 38.9–43.7 31.1 29.3–32.9 42.1 38.5–45.8 21.8 19.0–24.9 32.0 29.3–34.8
Hispanic 21.9 18.7–25.4 38.6 35.5–41.9 30.2 27.6–33.0 35.2 31.6–39.0 18.8 16.1–21.8 27.1 24.3–30.0
Grade
9 31.5 27.6–35.8 44.4 41.2–47.7 38.1 35.3–41.0 26.1 22.8–29.7 17.1 14.6–20.0 21.5 19.4–23.8
10 24.4 20.4–28.9 45.1 41.8–48.3 34.8 32.2–37.6 31.7 27.6–36.2 16.3 13.9–19.1 24.0 21.6–26.6
11 24.6 21.2–28.3 45.2 41.0–49.4 34.8 31.9–37.7 34.3 30.4–38.3 18.0 15.6–20.6 26.2 24.0–28.5
12 20.6 17.2–24.4 38.7 34.7–42.8 29.5 26.4–32.9 36.2 32.5–40.0 21.5 18.6–24.7 28.9 26.2–31.8
Total 25.6 22.8–28.6 43.7 41.1–46.4 34.7 32.5–37.0 31.8 29.2–34.5 18.0 16.4–19.8 24.9 23.2–26.6
* Were physically active doing any kind of physical activity that increased their heart rate and made them breathe hard some of the time for a total of
at least 60 minutes/day on 5 or more days during the 7 days before the survey.
†Did not participate in 60 or more minutes of any kind of physical activity that increased their heart rate and made them breathe hard some of the time
on at least 1 day during the 7 days before the survey.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 75

TABLE 75. Percentage of high school students who met recommended levels of physical activity* and who did not participate in
60 or more minutes of physical activity on any day,† by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Did not participate in 60 or more
Met recommended levels of physical activity minutes of physical activity on any day
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 36.8 32.3–41.6 47.8 42.9–52.8 42.5 38.9–46.2 19.1 15.8–22.9 14.0 11.5–17.0 16.5 14.6–18.6
Arizona 25.1 21.1–29.6 38.7 34.1–43.5 32.0 28.6–35.6 33.1 30.7–35.6 20.5 18.1–23.0 26.7 24.7–28.8
Arkansas 30.7 25.7–36.2 53.3 48.3–58.1 42.0 37.9–46.2 21.6 18.3–25.3 17.2 14.1–20.8 19.4 17.2–21.8
Connecticut 37.4 33.7–41.3 52.7 47.8–57.5 45.1 41.8–48.5 17.8 14.9–21.1 11.3 8.9–14.2 14.5 12.2–17.2
Delaware 32.1 28.6–35.8 49.2 45.3–53.2 40.4 37.9–42.9 24.1 21.4–27.0 12.9 10.8–15.4 18.3 16.7–20.1
Florida 25.8 23.6–28.0 51.0 48.6–53.4 38.4 36.5–40.2 25.1 22.9–27.5 15.7 13.7–17.9 20.4 19.0–22.0
Georgia 30.5 26.7–34.5 57.2 54.2–60.1 43.8 40.5–47.0 25.0 20.4–30.2 12.8 10.3–15.9 18.9 16.2–22.0
Hawaii 27.6 23.6–32.2 40.6 34.0–47.6 34.3 29.6–39.4 22.3 18.1–27.1 15.7 11.6–20.9 18.9 15.6–22.7
Idaho 35.7 31.4–40.2 57.3 51.3–63.1 46.8 42.9–50.7 16.1 12.8–20.1 10.3 8.6–12.2 13.1 11.2–15.3
Illinois 32.8 29.2–36.6 54.3 50.4–58.2 43.5 40.1–47.0 18.6 15.7–21.9 10.9 9.4–12.6 14.7 13.4–16.1
Indiana 36.6 33.2–40.1 50.9 47.3–54.4 43.7 41.1–46.3 19.6 16.8–22.6 12.5 10.5–14.8 15.9 13.9–18.1
Iowa 42.7 36.4–49.3 56.9 51.0–62.5 49.9 44.9–55.0 12.5 8.9–17.3 8.6 5.7–12.9 10.6 7.6–14.5
Kansas 34.4 30.5–38.4 55.4 50.6–60.2 45.1 41.9–48.4 16.7 13.8–20.2 12.5 9.7–15.9 14.5 12.7–16.6
Kentucky 24.1 21.3–27.1 41.6 38.6–44.8 32.9 30.3–35.6 26.8 24.8–28.9 18.1 15.3–21.2 22.4 20.4–24.5
Maine 37.0 31.4–43.0 49.1 42.9–55.4 43.1 38.0–48.4 15.4 13.2–18.0 11.0 7.9–15.1 13.3 11.0–15.9
Maryland 25.0 20.9–29.7 36.4 32.1–41.0 30.6 27.4–34.0 33.6 29.0–38.5 19.4 17.5–21.4 26.6 24.0–29.4
Massachusetts 32.2 29.6–35.0 49.7 46.0–53.3 41.0 38.4–43.6 19.9 17.6–22.5 14.1 12.2–16.1 16.9 15.3–18.8
Michigan 35.5 30.9–40.4 52.7 48.6–56.7 44.0 40.4–47.8 18.7 15.3–22.8 11.3 8.9–14.2 15.0 12.3–18.1
Mississippi 23.5 20.5–26.8 49.2 43.8–54.7 36.1 32.9–39.3 31.3 27.4–35.4 15.0 11.1–20.1 23.4 20.6–26.3
Missouri 30.7 27.1–34.5 56.0 50.0–61.8 43.5 39.1–48.0 21.5 18.4–24.9 11.1 8.8–13.8 16.2 13.8–18.8
Montana 36.9 33.4–40.6 52.6 49.2–55.9 44.9 41.9–47.9 15.3 13.0–17.8 11.1 9.7–12.8 13.3 11.8–14.9
Nevada 38.1 34.0–42.4 54.1 49.3–58.9 46.2 42.5–49.9 14.4 11.8–17.5 12.3 10.2–14.9 13.4 11.7–15.3
New Hampshire 40.9 36.7–45.2 52.5 49.0–56.0 46.9 43.9–49.9 13.5 11.3–16.2 9.9 7.8–12.5 11.7 9.9–13.7
New Mexico 37.0 33.0–41.1 50.3 44.4–56.2 43.6 38.9–48.5 20.4 18.6–22.3 14.0 11.3–17.1 17.2 15.5–19.0
New York 29.2 26.8–31.7 46.9 43.4–50.4 38.0 35.8–40.2 20.3 18.3–22.4 13.8 11.9–16.0 17.1 15.7–18.5
North Carolina 34.8 30.8–39.0 54.0 48.7–59.2 44.3 41.0–47.7 23.0 20.4–25.8 11.9 10.2–13.7 17.4 15.5–19.5
North Dakota 37.3 32.5–42.3 57.7 54.0–61.4 47.8 44.2–51.3 15.1 12.2–18.6 9.5 7.8–11.6 12.3 10.6–14.3
Ohio 35.7 32.5–39.0 53.6 49.9–57.4 44.7 42.4–47.1 18.4 16.1–20.9 10.5 9.0–12.3 14.4 13.1–15.9
Oklahoma 36.1 32.3–40.2 62.4 58.4–66.2 49.6 47.1–52.1 18.8 15.8–22.3 9.7 7.9–11.9 14.1 12.4–16.0
Rhode Island 33.4 30.8–36.2 50.6 46.2–55.0 41.9 38.7–45.2 17.3 13.5–21.8 9.2 7.3–11.5 13.3 10.9–16.1
South Carolina 30.7 26.5–35.4 45.1 38.2–52.3 38.0 33.6–42.6 26.6 22.4–31.1 16.3 12.5–21.0 21.5 18.8–24.4
South Dakota 35.8 31.3–40.7 52.0 46.4–57.5 44.0 39.7–48.3 14.9 12.1–18.3 10.4 7.6–14.0 12.6 10.8–14.7
Tennessee 26.9 23.3–30.9 56.9 51.8–61.8 42.0 39.2–44.9 22.2 18.8–26.0 12.0 9.5–15.1 17.1 14.5–20.0
Texas 34.7 31.7–37.9 55.3 51.2–59.2 45.2 42.3–48.2 20.8 18.0–24.0 11.3 9.1–13.8 15.9 13.6–18.6
Utah 37.8 32.4–43.6 56.3 44.7–67.2 47.5 40.0–55.2 9.9 7.5–12.9 11.1 5.4–21.6 10.5 6.9–15.6
Vermont 40.5 36.9–44.3 55.0 51.9–58.0 48.0 44.9–51.1 13.5 11.6–15.7 9.4 8.0–11.1 11.4 9.8–13.1
West Virginia 31.8 28.0–35.9 53.1 47.4–58.6 42.8 39.7–45.9 19.6 15.6–24.3 14.0 10.5–18.5 16.8 14.5–19.4
Wisconsin 31.9 28.8–35.1 44.4 41.3–47.6 38.3 36.0–40.6 25.6 22.4–29.0 17.4 14.9–20.2 21.4 19.3–23.6
Wyoming 41.5 37.5–45.5 54.8 51.3–58.3 48.2 45.0–51.4 15.7 13.4–18.4 12.9 10.9–15.2 14.3 12.7–16.1
Median 34.7 52.7 43.6 19.6 12.3 15.9
Range 23.5–42.7 36.4–62.4 30.6–49.9 9.9–33.6 8.6–20.5 10.5–26.7
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 25.6 22.6–28.7 42.1 38.2–46.1 33.4 30.8–36.0 31.4 28.2–34.7 20.4 17.4–23.9 26.1 24.0–28.3
Boston, MA 25.3 21.5–29.5 34.3 30.5–38.2 29.7 27.0–32.7 33.0 29.4–36.8 20.8 17.5–24.5 26.9 24.9–29.1
Broward County, FL 21.8 17.7–26.6 43.4 38.8–48.1 32.8 28.9–36.9 27.7 21.8–34.5 17.3 13.1–22.3 22.4 18.0–27.6
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 35.0 31.1–39.1 51.8 47.8–55.7 43.2 40.2–46.2 20.4 17.3–23.9 11.8 9.4–14.7 16.1 13.9–18.7
Chicago, IL 21.7 16.1–28.7 36.9 28.5–46.2 28.8 22.8–35.8 23.9 18.7–30.0 17.4 12.8–23.1 20.9 16.7–25.8
Dallas, TX 25.2 21.8–28.8 42.2 36.7–47.9 33.4 30.0–36.9 28.3 24.2–32.7 19.3 15.9–23.2 24.0 21.3–27.0
DeKalb County, GA 26.8 24.0–29.7 44.8 41.8–47.8 35.7 33.6–37.9 27.3 24.6–30.2 16.8 14.6–19.3 22.1 20.2–24.1
Detroit, MI 27.9 25.3–30.6 33.1 29.6–36.9 30.4 28.1–32.8 29.3 26.5–32.1 22.0 18.7–25.7 25.8 23.6–28.0
District of Columbia 26.0 23.3–29.0 33.9 29.8–38.3 30.2 27.8–32.7 28.7 25.6–32.0 18.6 15.3–22.4 23.5 21.2–25.9
Hillsborough County, FL 27.6 22.7–33.1 42.1 36.8–47.5 34.4 30.8–38.2 24.6 20.9–28.8 15.5 12.2–19.5 20.3 18.0–22.8
Houston, TX 21.3 17.0–26.5 36.7 33.5–40.1 28.9 26.2–31.8 28.9 24.7–33.5 17.9 14.7–21.6 23.6 20.9–26.5
Los Angeles, CA 34.3 28.5–40.6 49.4 37.8–61.1 42.1 35.0–49.6 17.8 13.8–22.6 12.6 7.7–20.1 15.1 11.9–19.1
Memphis, TN 28.1 22.8–34.0 44.8 40.8–48.9 36.1 32.5–39.9 26.8 22.4–31.7 18.7 15.8–22.1 22.8 20.1–25.8
Miami-Dade County, FL 22.1 19.6–24.9 42.5 39.5–45.6 32.4 30.3–34.6 28.0 25.0–31.2 17.8 15.3–20.5 22.9 20.8–25.1
Milwaukee, WI 21.5 19.3–24.0 34.8 30.9–38.9 28.1 25.9–30.5 40.2 36.4–44.2 25.2 21.7–29.1 32.7 30.0–35.5
New York City, NY 32.8 30.1–35.5 46.6 43.4–49.9 39.2 37.0–41.4 21.3 19.2–23.7 14.4 12.2–17.0 18.1 16.1–20.3
Orange County, FL 25.6 21.9–29.6 45.7 40.3–51.2 35.6 32.2–39.1 22.9 19.3–26.9 19.3 15.5–23.8 21.1 18.2–24.4
Palm Beach County, FL 25.4 22.0–29.0 48.0 43.4–52.6 36.4 33.0–39.9 26.1 22.6–30.0 15.2 12.4–18.4 20.9 18.4–23.6
Philadelphia, PA 25.5 22.6–28.5 38.5 34.7–42.4 31.1 28.6–33.7 28.9 26.2–31.7 18.1 15.1–21.5 24.3 22.0–26.6
San Bernardino, CA 38.2 33.2–43.4 58.5 53.5–63.4 48.5 44.5–52.4 18.8 15.0–23.2 9.8 7.2–13.3 14.4 11.6–17.6
San Diego, CA 41.1 36.2–46.2 51.3 46.3–56.3 46.2 42.2–50.2 18.1 15.3–21.2 12.9 10.2–16.1 15.5 13.5–17.8
San Francisco, CA 26.1 23.2–29.2 41.3 37.7–45.0 33.8 31.2–36.6 28.2 25.2–31.5 17.6 15.2–20.2 22.8 20.7–25.0
Median 25.8 42.3 33.6 27.5 17.7 22.6
Range 21.3–41.1 33.1–58.5 28.1–48.5 17.8–40.2 9.8–25.2 14.4–32.7
* Were physically active doing any kind of physical activity that increased their heart rate and made them breathe hard some of the time for a total of at least 60 minutes/day
on 5 or more days during the 7 days before the survey.
† Did not participate in 60 or more minutes of any kind of physical activity that increased their heart rate and made them breathe hard some of the time on at least 1 day during
the 7 days before the survey.
§ 95% confidence interval.
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Table 76

TABLE 76. Percentage of high school students who played video or computer games or used a computer* for 3 or more hours/day†
and who watched 3 or more hours/day of television,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 2007
Used computers 3 or more hours/day Watched television 3 or more hours/day
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 18.2 16.2–20.5 26.9 24.0–30.1 22.6 20.4–25.0 24.0 21.8–26.3 30.4 28.1–32.8 27.2 25.1–29.3
Blackĥ 26.7 24.2–29.4 34.0 30.3–37.9 30.5 28.4–32.6 60.6 55.9–65.1 64.6 61.9–67.3 62.7 59.6–65.6
Hispanic 21.8 18.2–26.0 30.7 26.9–34.7 26.3 23.3–29.5 43.6 39.6–47.8 42.4 37.8–47.0 43.0 39.5–46.6
Grade
9 24.9 21.5–28.6 30.5 27.3–33.9 27.8 25.3–30.5 37.2 32.5–42.1 42.0 38.5–45.5 39.7 36.4–43.0
10 22.6 19.5–26.0 30.0 25.7–34.6 26.3 23.4–29.4 35.9 32.6–39.3 38.1 34.9–41.4 37.0 34.3–39.8
11 17.9 15.0–21.3 29.5 26.7–32.5 23.7 21.2–26.5 29.6 26.2–33.4 35.4 31.1–40.0 32.5 29.4–35.7
12 14.8 12.2–17.9 25.6 22.2–29.4 20.1 17.7–22.9 28.9 25.9–32.0 32.8 29.2–36.6 30.8 28.3–33.5
Total 20.6 18.6–22.7 29.1 26.6–31.8 24.9 22.9–27.0 33.2 30.7–35.9 37.5 35.0–40.0 35.4 33.1–37.7
* For something that was not school work.
†On an average school day.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 77

TABLE 77. Percentage of high school students who played video or computer games or used a computer* for 3 or more
hours/day† and who watched 3 or more hours/day of television,† by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Used computers 3 or more hours/day Watched television 3 or more hours/day
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 17.6 14.0–21.9 29.1 24.8–33.8 23.4 20.1–27.0 22.5 19.2–26.3 23.3 19.1–28.0 23.0 20.1–26.3
Arizona 15.0 13.1–17.1 27.9 23.5–32.8 21.4 18.9–24.1 27.3 23.5–31.5 29.2 25.7–33.0 28.2 25.0–31.7
Arkansas 15.0 12.7–17.7 22.9 19.1–27.3 19.0 16.7–21.5 31.6 26.2–37.5 37.3 33.0–41.7 34.3 30.0–38.9
Connecticut 24.4 21.2–27.9 30.8 27.7–34.0 27.6 25.9–29.4 28.7 24.7–33.0 31.5 27.6–35.7 30.1 26.8–33.6
Delaware 23.4 20.4–26.6 32.1 29.0–35.3 28.1 25.8–30.6 38.6 35.2–42.2 40.2 36.9–43.5 39.0 36.5–41.6
Florida 25.4 22.6–28.4 30.6 28.1–33.3 28.1 26.0–30.2 39.7 35.7–43.8 40.6 36.9–44.4 40.2 36.7–43.8
Georgia 20.9 18.3–23.9 27.4 24.8–30.2 24.2 22.5–26.0 42.8 39.0–46.8 43.4 38.4–48.6 43.1 38.9–47.4
Hawaii 32.1 28.8–35.5 30.2 24.6–36.6 31.1 27.6–34.9 34.0 28.7–39.7 32.0 26.7–37.7 32.9 29.5–36.6
Idaho 11.1 8.0–15.2 19.2 16.8–21.8 15.4 13.6–17.5 18.0 13.8–23.1 25.6 21.8–29.8 22.0 18.9–25.3
Illinois 18.9 16.2–22.0 28.7 25.3–32.3 23.8 21.7–26.0 32.8 27.4–38.8 37.3 31.3–43.7 35.0 29.7–40.7
Indiana 14.0 11.9–16.4 27.3 23.7–31.1 20.9 18.6–23.4 26.1 22.8–29.6 30.9 26.7–35.4 28.7 25.6–32.1
Iowa 11.4 9.0–14.2 20.7 17.1–24.8 16.2 13.5–19.3 23.4 18.5–29.1 26.4 22.8–30.4 24.9 21.8–28.3
Kansas 14.7 12.3–17.5 25.4 21.6–29.6 20.1 17.8–22.6 23.5 20.0–27.3 28.3 24.3–32.7 25.9 23.1–28.9
Kentucky 18.1 16.0–20.5 24.6 22.6–26.7 21.3 19.8–22.9 27.1 24.4–30.1 27.7 25.2–30.4 27.4 25.5–29.4
Maine 16.0 11.9–21.1 26.6 21.9–31.8 21.4 18.5–24.6 22.9 18.7–27.7 24.0 19.2–29.5 23.6 20.0–27.6
Maryland —ĥ — — — — — 42.1 34.8–49.9 41.5 34.3–49.2 41.9 34.9–49.2
Massachusetts 25.9 23.5–28.4 32.2 28.8–35.9 29.0 26.7–31.4 26.2 23.0–29.6 30.7 27.2–34.5 28.4 25.6–31.4
Michigan 18.2 14.6–22.6 27.5 24.8–30.3 22.9 20.5–25.5 30.5 25.4–36.2 34.7 29.3–40.6 32.6 28.0–37.6
Mississippi 19.5 16.5–22.9 27.3 23.3–31.6 23.3 20.7–26.1 46.6 42.2–51.1 48.3 43.8–52.8 47.4 43.7–51.2
Missouri 18.0 14.9–21.5 25.2 21.1–29.8 21.5 18.5–24.8 29.1 23.9–34.9 30.1 25.3–35.4 29.6 24.9–34.8
Montana 12.0 10.2–14.0 20.1 17.8–22.7 16.2 14.6–17.8 19.5 17.7–21.5 24.9 22.3–27.7 22.2 20.4–24.1
Nevada 20.6 17.3–24.4 27.1 23.7–30.7 24.0 21.5–26.6 32.9 29.3–36.7 37.2 33.5–41.1 35.1 32.3–38.1
New Hampshire 21.6 18.4–25.2 27.9 24.2–31.9 24.8 22.1–27.8 18.3 15.4–21.6 31.5 28.2–35.0 25.1 22.8–27.5
New Mexico 14.2 12.3–16.2 23.3 20.8–25.9 18.7 17.1–20.4 28.6 24.1–33.7 26.9 23.2–31.0 27.9 24.7–31.2
New York 27.6 24.8–30.6 31.0 27.7–34.6 29.4 27.0–32.0 35.1 30.6–39.9 35.6 32.8–38.5 35.3 32.3–38.5
North Carolina 18.5 15.9–21.6 23.8 20.7–27.2 21.2 19.0–23.6 34.1 30.3–38.1 36.5 33.8–39.2 35.3 32.5–38.2
North Dakota 15.0 12.1–18.5 21.8 18.6–25.3 18.6 16.4–21.1 20.5 17.7–23.7 29.0 25.2–33.2 25.0 22.3–27.8
Ohio 20.6 17.8–23.7 24.8 21.6–28.4 22.7 20.4–25.2 31.4 27.5–35.5 32.8 29.6–36.1 32.0 29.1–35.1
Oklahoma 14.5 11.9–17.5 23.4 20.1–27.1 19.1 17.1–21.3 30.3 27.3–33.5 36.3 31.6–41.4 33.3 30.0–36.8
Rhode Island 24.3 21.2–27.7 28.5 25.3–32.0 26.4 24.5–28.5 26.7 21.5–32.5 28.1 24.7–31.7 27.4 23.3–31.8
South Carolina 22.0 18.3–26.2 24.7 20.9–28.8 23.3 20.3–26.6 42.2 37.2–47.4 35.0 29.5–41.0 38.6 34.3–43.1
South Dakota 14.2 10.6–18.8 19.8 17.3–22.5 17.1 14.4–20.0 22.9 18.7–27.6 24.8 21.0–29.1 23.8 20.8–27.1
Tennessee 19.3 16.6–22.3 26.8 23.3–30.5 23.1 20.9–25.4 39.5 34.4–44.9 37.2 33.0–41.5 38.3 34.2–42.6
Texas 18.5 15.6–21.8 28.8 26.6–31.1 23.7 21.6–26.0 38.6 34.9–42.4 38.5 35.1–41.9 38.5 35.3–41.9
Utah 8.7 5.6–13.4 16.1 12.2–21.0 12.5 9.8–15.7 18.2 15.2–21.6 18.4 15.6–21.6 18.2 16.2–20.5
Vermont — — — — — — — — — — — —
West Virginia 23.1 19.6–27.1 32.1 27.8–36.8 27.7 24.9–30.6 31.3 26.2–36.8 32.7 28.3–37.4 32.0 28.3–36.0
Wisconsin 15.5 13.2–18.1 23.7 20.3–27.5 19.8 17.4–22.3 23.5 19.2–28.4 27.3 23.4–31.6 25.4 21.8–29.5
Wyoming 9.3 7.8–11.1 22.7 20.0–25.6 16.3 14.5–18.2 17.5 15.1–20.1 24.0 21.5–26.6 20.8 19.0–22.8
Median 18.2 26.8 22.7 28.9 31.5 29.8
Range 8.7–32.1 16.1–32.2 12.5–31.1 17.5–46.6 18.4–48.3 18.2–47.4
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 25.2 22.5–28.1 37.2 33.5–41.0 30.7 28.5–33.0 59.8 56.0–63.5 59.5 55.2–63.6 59.5 56.5–62.5
Boston, MA 23.1 20.0–26.5 29.6 26.4–33.0 26.3 23.9–28.9 39.8 35.9–43.8 40.6 36.8–44.5 40.1 37.1–43.2
Broward County, FL 25.6 21.7–29.9 31.5 26.5–37.1 28.5 24.8–32.6 40.4 33.8–47.2 41.3 37.0–45.7 40.7 35.8–45.9
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 16.8 14.0–20.0 23.9 20.8–27.4 20.2 18.2–22.5 36.3 31.8–41.1 38.2 33.6–43.1 37.2 33.8–40.7
Chicago, IL 21.5 16.5–27.6 21.7 16.7–27.8 21.6 17.4–26.4 45.4 38.6–52.4 45.1 37.1–53.5 45.2 38.8–51.9
Dallas, TX 20.1 16.5–24.2 27.1 22.8–31.9 23.5 21.2–25.9 52.1 47.0–57.3 49.5 46.0–53.0 50.8 47.6–54.0
DeKalb County, GA 21.7 19.6–24.0 26.0 23.2–29.0 23.8 22.1–25.6 53.1 49.2–57.0 51.7 48.0–55.4 52.3 49.3–55.3
Detroit, MI 24.7 21.2–28.5 32.1 28.8–35.6 28.4 25.7–31.1 62.1 58.5–65.6 57.8 53.3–62.2 60.0 56.7–63.3
District of Columbia 24.8 22.3–27.5 29.6 25.4–34.3 27.3 24.9–29.9 53.0 49.1–56.8 50.7 45.3–56.0 52.5 49.5–55.4
Hillsborough County, FL 20.7 16.6–25.4 27.4 23.5–31.8 23.9 21.4–26.7 34.4 28.5–40.9 34.1 29.8–38.8 34.2 30.0–38.7
Houston, TX 21.5 18.0–25.3 26.6 23.7–29.8 24.0 21.8–26.4 43.0 39.2–46.8 42.7 38.5–47.0 42.8 39.8–45.8
Los Angeles, CA 26.2 20.8–32.4 33.3 28.3–38.8 29.9 25.9–34.2 41.6 37.7–45.6 46.3 38.9–54.0 43.8 39.6–48.0
Memphis, TN 23.0 19.6–26.9 32.5 28.3–37.0 27.7 24.9–30.6 60.6 54.3–66.5 60.4 54.5–66.0 60.5 55.6–65.3
Miami-Dade County, FL 29.2 26.2–32.4 34.9 31.7–38.4 32.2 29.8–34.6 46.1 42.4–49.7 44.8 41.4–48.3 45.4 42.6–48.2
Milwaukee, WI 20.7 17.8–23.9 29.1 24.7–33.9 24.7 22.4–27.2 48.3 45.2–51.4 50.6 46.2–55.1 49.4 46.6–52.2
New York City, NY 33.4 31.2–35.6 37.6 34.7–40.6 35.4 33.3–37.6 47.7 43.4–52.0 49.2 46.6–51.9 48.4 45.4–51.4
Orange County, FL 27.1 23.6–30.9 30.1 25.5–35.0 28.6 25.4–32.1 38.5 34.4–42.8 43.7 38.3–49.3 41.0 37.2–44.8
Palm Beach County, FL 24.6 21.5–28.0 27.8 25.1–30.7 26.1 24.0–28.4 38.4 35.0–41.9 37.6 33.2–42.2 37.8 34.7–40.9
Philadelphia, PA 28.6 24.9–32.7 32.0 28.3–35.9 30.1 27.5–32.9 53.5 48.9–58.1 46.4 41.9–51.0 50.6 46.9–54.2
San Bernardino, CA 19.8 17.1–22.7 31.8 27.7–36.1 25.9 23.4–28.6 46.0 42.5–49.5 46.6 41.4–51.9 46.3 43.0–49.6
San Diego, CA 21.8 19.0–24.9 32.5 29.4–35.7 27.2 25.1–29.3 36.5 32.5–40.7 39.1 34.7–43.6 37.9 35.0–40.9
San Francisco, CA 31.8 28.7–35.0 44.6 41.5–47.8 38.3 36.0–40.6 31.6 28.5–34.9 34.7 31.3–38.3 33.2 30.7–35.7
Median 23.8 30.8 27.2 45.7 45.7 45.3
Range 16.8–33.4 21.7–44.6 20.2–38.3 31.6–62.1 34.1–60.4 33.2–60.5
* For something that was not school work.
† On an average school day.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 78

TABLE 78. Percentage of high school students who attended physical education (PE) classes, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade —
United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Attended PE classes* Attended PE classes daily†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 46.8 38.2–55.6 54.0 47.6–60.2 50.4 43.1–57.7 25.6 19.1–33.3 32.2 26.8–38.1 28.9 23.0–35.5
Blackĥ 50.6 41.0–60.1 61.0 52.6–68.8 55.9 47.6–63.8 27.8 21.9–34.7 35.8 28.6–43.8 31.9 26.0–38.4
Hispanic 57.3 47.7–66.5 64.7 55.5–73.0 61.0 51.7–69.5 35.5 27.4–44.4 36.4 28.6–45.0 36.0 28.4–44.3
Grade
9 65.1 58.9–70.7 68.3 61.8–74.2 66.8 60.9–72.2 40.4 33.7–47.5 39.7 32.6–47.3 40.1 33.5–47.0
10 51.2 41.6–60.8 62.3 54.3–69.7 56.8 48.2–65.0 26.1 19.5–34.0 35.7 29.3–42.5 30.9 24.7–38.0
11 38.8 29.2–49.4 51.4 43.9–58.8 45.1 36.7–53.7 19.8 13.7–27.8 27.9 23.0–33.5 23.9 18.7–30.1
12 38.5 28.5–49.7 44.6 37.9–51.5 41.5 33.4–50.1 20.2 13.9–28.4 27.5 21.5–34.3 23.8 17.8–30.9
Total 49.4 41.8–56.9 57.7 51.7–63.5 53.6 47.0–60.1 27.3 22.1–33.2 33.2 28.4–38.5 30.3 25.4–35.8
* On 1 or more days in an average week when they were in school.
†5 days in an average week when they were in school.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 79

TABLE 79. Percentage of high school students who attended physical education (PE) classes, by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth
Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Attended PE classes* Attended PE classes daily†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 39.5 34.5–44.7 54.2 48.9–59.5 47.0 43.3–50.8 12.4 10.2–15.1 22.9 19.4–26.9 17.7 15.3–20.5
Arizona 33.3 28.0–39.0 48.0 42.0–54.1 40.7 35.6–46.0 21.5 16.8–27.2 32.2 26.1–39.0 26.9 21.8–32.6
Arkansas 38.8 31.8–46.2 39.3 33.4–45.6 39.0 33.3–45.1 32.7 26.4–39.7 30.0 24.8–35.8 31.3 26.1–37.0
Connecticut —ĥ — — — — — — — — — — —
Delaware 40.3 34.1–46.8 45.0 39.9–50.2 42.9 38.0–48.0 28.2 23.0–34.1 28.7 24.9–32.8 28.3 24.5–32.5
Florida 30.0 26.8–33.5 45.3 41.3–49.5 37.7 34.4–41.0 17.0 14.3–20.2 29.0 24.5–34.0 23.0 19.5–26.9
Georgia 30.8 26.3–35.7 53.8 49.6–58.0 42.4 38.4–46.5 24.8 21.2–28.7 43.9 39.4–48.6 34.3 30.8–38.1
Hawaii 32.0 24.3–40.7 44.4 35.6–53.5 38.5 30.9–46.7 6.6 3.3–12.9 9.0 5.4–14.6 7.8 4.8–12.6
Idaho 44.3 37.7–51.2 61.7 54.0–68.8 53.2 46.7–59.7 23.2 16.5–31.6 40.6 32.8–48.9 32.0 25.2–39.7
Illinois 72.6 64.5–79.4 78.1 71.2–83.7 75.3 68.6–81.0 45.0 32.2–58.6 49.6 38.2–60.9 47.3 35.8–59.1
Indiana 32.7 27.1–38.9 46.9 39.7–54.1 40.2 34.5–46.2 20.4 15.5–26.4 30.1 21.8–39.9 25.2 19.2–32.5
Iowa 65.4 51.1–77.4 73.6 63.6–81.6 69.6 58.0–79.1 16.8 9.9–27.0 23.1 14.1–35.4 20.0 12.3–31.0
Kansas 44.2 37.8–50.7 61.2 55.1–66.9 53.0 48.0–57.9 18.0 13.0–24.4 32.8 24.5–42.3 25.7 19.7–32.7
Kentucky 24.4 18.2–31.9 37.3 32.2–42.6 31.0 25.6–36.9 16.6 11.4–23.6 23.5 19.3–28.3 20.0 15.6–25.3
Maine 32.9 26.0–40.5 42.7 36.4–49.3 37.8 31.8–44.1 6.1 2.3–15.2 7.3 3.8–13.6 6.7 3.2–13.7
Maryland 29.8 21.8–39.2 44.4 36.6–52.5 37.0 30.1–44.5 13.3 9.0–19.1 18.2 13.7–23.6 15.6 12.1–20.0
Massachusetts 59.3 51.2–66.9 61.8 54.0–69.1 60.5 53.0–67.6 17.8 13.3–23.5 18.7 13.8–24.9 18.2 13.8–23.7
Michigan 37.3 29.8–45.5 52.1 45.9–58.1 44.8 38.4–51.3 26.1 18.9–34.9 33.5 26.7–41.0 29.8 23.4–37.1
Mississippi 25.1 19.4–31.8 47.5 41.3–53.9 35.9 30.7–41.4 16.5 11.5–23.1 30.8 25.9–36.3 23.4 18.7–28.7
Missouri 41.5 34.9–48.4 60.6 51.6–69.0 51.2 44.5–57.9 17.4 11.4–25.8 30.6 24.1–38.0 24.1 18.7–30.6
Montana 48.5 43.3–53.8 59.1 55.0–63.0 53.8 49.7–57.9 28.2 23.2–33.8 37.4 33.3–41.7 32.8 28.6–37.3
Nevada — — — — — — — — — — — —
New Hampshire 31.0 24.6–38.3 36.7 31.3–42.4 33.8 28.9–39.1 14.0 10.7–18.2 20.4 15.5–26.4 17.2 13.7–21.5
New Mexico 47.0 40.6–53.5 56.1 50.4–61.5 51.5 45.6–57.4 28.7 19.9–39.5 31.0 20.4–44.1 29.8 20.2–41.5
New York 90.9 88.4–92.9 90.9 88.5–92.8 90.8 88.7–92.5 11.9 10.0–14.1 14.3 12.0–16.9 13.1 11.3–15.1
North Carolina 33.5 27.8–39.7 49.8 45.0–54.6 41.7 36.7–46.8 22.5 18.5–27.1 35.4 31.9–39.1 29.0 25.5–32.7
North Dakota — — — — — — — — — — — —
Ohio 30.8 25.7–36.4 40.3 34.7–46.2 35.7 30.8–40.8 22.7 18.5–27.6 29.6 24.6–35.1 26.2 22.0–31.0
Oklahoma 32.3 28.3–36.6 46.6 42.0–51.3 39.7 36.3–43.2 27.5 23.7–31.8 40.7 36.2–45.3 34.3 31.1–37.7
Rhode Island 78.6 69.0–85.8 78.6 69.9–85.3 78.6 69.8–85.3 21.9 12.6–35.3 24.4 17.9–32.2 23.1 15.3–33.3
South Carolina 34.5 28.4–41.1 44.6 37.8–51.6 39.7 34.2–45.6 20.5 14.5–28.3 25.7 19.5–33.0 23.1 17.4–30.0
South Dakota 22.6 17.5–28.6 33.8 26.4–42.0 28.4 22.7–34.8 11.2 7.4–16.6 17.5 13.8–21.9 14.5 11.0–18.8
Tennessee 34.3 24.9–45.1 44.2 35.9–52.8 39.2 30.8–48.3 26.9 19.2–36.3 34.0 26.7–42.2 30.4 23.4–38.4
Texas 48.8 43.8–53.7 55.8 51.3–60.2 52.3 48.3–56.3 36.3 31.1–41.9 44.6 38.4–51.0 40.5 35.3–46.0
Utah 50.6 41.8–59.3 67.8 56.2–77.5 59.6 50.9–67.6 20.6 13.3–30.4 38.2 21.7–57.9 29.9 19.1–43.4
Vermont 36.4 33.3–39.6 46.3 41.7–50.9 41.7 38.2–45.2 15.9 9.9–24.5 20.9 15.3–27.7 18.6 12.8–26.2
West Virginia 26.9 21.0–33.7 39.1 31.6–47.1 33.2 26.6–40.5 21.0 15.8–27.5 29.7 24.2–35.8 25.5 20.5–31.2
Wisconsin — — — — — — — — — — — —
Wyoming 46.2 40.1–52.3 60.3 55.8–64.7 53.5 49.0–58.0 19.0 14.4–24.5 24.6 21.0–28.5 21.9 18.2–26.0
Median 36.4 48.0 41.7 20.5 29.7 25.2
Range 22.6–90.9 33.8–90.9 28.4–90.8 6.1–45.0 7.3–49.6 6.7–47.3
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 26.7 22.3–31.5 32.1 27.7–36.8 29.3 25.7–33.1 21.0 17.1–25.6 20.3 16.6–24.6 20.8 17.7–24.2
Boston, MA 32.1 26.7–37.9 36.6 31.3–42.2 34.3 29.6–39.3 5.9 3.8–8.9 7.1 5.0–9.9 6.5 4.6–9.0
Broward County, FL 30.3 25.1–36.1 37.7 32.6–43.0 34.0 29.3–38.9 18.0 13.7–23.2 25.3 19.8–31.7 21.6 17.2–26.7
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 32.2 25.7–39.3 47.3 40.6–54.0 39.7 34.0–45.6 18.6 13.3–25.3 25.3 19.7–31.9 21.8 16.7–27.9
Chicago, IL 55.8 44.7–66.3 66.9 56.7–75.7 61.1 51.0–70.4 39.9 31.4–48.9 47.9 38.6–57.3 43.6 35.3–52.2
Dallas, TX 41.8 35.9–48.0 54.4 47.9–60.7 47.9 42.7–53.2 21.1 17.0–25.9 31.1 27.1–35.4 25.9 23.0–29.0
DeKalb County, GA 35.6 29.3–42.5 45.3 40.1–50.6 40.4 35.4–45.6 27.0 21.2–33.7 29.5 25.2–34.2 28.2 23.8–33.0
Detroit, MI 39.6 35.0–44.3 49.8 44.5–55.1 44.6 40.1–49.1 27.9 23.8–32.3 34.0 29.7–38.6 30.8 27.0–34.9
District of Columbia 41.5 36.0–47.2 49.1 42.7–55.5 44.8 40.1–49.5 16.4 12.7–20.8 16.9 13.0–21.6 16.3 13.2–19.8
Hillsborough County, FL 28.7 23.0–35.1 34.4 28.1–41.2 31.6 26.8–36.8 20.3 15.5–26.2 22.1 17.6–27.3 21.1 17.4–25.4
Houston, TX 54.1 47.3–60.7 57.9 52.1–63.6 56.0 50.4–61.4 14.7 10.3–20.6 13.9 10.8–17.7 14.4 11.2–18.2
Los Angeles, CA 62.8 49.8–74.3 63.7 55.5–71.1 63.2 53.3–72.1 48.6 38.2–59.1 52.3 43.6–60.9 50.5 42.1–58.9
Memphis, TN 36.6 29.4–44.5 47.7 38.6–56.9 42.1 35.2–49.4 29.0 22.7–36.4 36.0 29.3–43.2 32.4 26.7–38.7
Miami-Dade County, FL 34.3 30.6–38.2 46.2 41.5–51.0 40.3 36.7–43.9 7.6 5.6–10.3 14.0 11.2–17.3 10.8 8.8–13.3
Milwaukee, WI 39.7 34.8–44.8 47.8 43.1–52.7 44.0 39.9–48.1 26.5 22.7–30.8 28.7 24.7–33.2 27.7 24.5–31.1
New York City, NY 77.9 71.9–82.9 80.2 75.5–84.2 78.9 73.8–83.3 40.9 34.2–48.0 43.8 36.6–51.3 42.3 35.8–49.0
Orange County, FL 21.4 15.2–29.3 38.1 31.5–45.2 29.7 24.2–35.9 11.5 6.6–19.2 21.0 16.9–25.9 16.1 12.3–20.9
Palm Beach County, FL 37.7 31.8–44.0 50.9 45.4–56.4 44.1 39.2–49.2 15.1 11.5–19.5 22.3 18.4–26.8 18.6 15.4–22.1
Philadelphia, PA 41.1 34.7–47.8 53.4 46.7–60.0 46.3 40.3–52.5 19.9 15.5–25.2 29.1 22.8–36.2 23.8 19.2–29.0
San Bernardino, CA 62.9 54.6–70.5 71.0 62.9–77.9 66.9 59.1–73.8 52.7 44.6–60.6 55.4 47.9–62.7 54.0 46.8–61.1
San Diego, CA 57.3 49.9–64.3 61.1 54.4–67.4 59.2 52.8–65.3 39.7 33.9–45.9 42.9 37.0–48.9 41.3 36.2–46.5
San Francisco, CA 50.0 42.8–57.1 58.6 52.0–64.8 54.2 47.9–60.4 35.2 29.4–41.5 36.9 31.9–42.3 36.0 31.0–41.4
Median 39.6 49.4 44.3 21.0 28.9 24.8
Range 21.4–77.9 32.1–80.2 29.3–78.9 5.9–52.7 7.1–55.4 6.5–54.0
* On 1 or more days in an average week when they were in school.
† 5 days in an average week when they were in school.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 80

TABLE 80. Percentage of high school students who played on at least one sports team* and who saw a doctor or nurse for an injury
that happened while exercising or playing sports,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey,
2007
Played on at least one sports team Injured while exercising or playing sports
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 54.8 50.3–59.2 63.0 59.0–66.8 58.9 55.1–62.5 19.9 17.3–22.8 23.6 21.3–26.1 21.8 19.9–24.0
Blackĥ 44.7 38.9–50.7 65.1 61.1–68.9 54.9 50.3–59.5 19.3 14.9–24.7 26.7 22.8–31.1 23.4 20.0–27.1
Hispanic 41.8 37.5–46.2 58.1 54.8–61.3 50.0 46.8–53.1 18.7 16.0–21.8 24.7 22.2–27.4 22.0 20.0–24.2
Grade
9 54.7 50.0–59.4 63.4 60.3–66.3 59.2 56.5–61.8 21.7 18.7–25.0 26.0 22.6–29.7 24.0 21.5–26.6
10 50.8 46.3–55.4 64.7 60.5–68.7 57.8 54.3–61.3 20.8 17.7–24.3 24.5 21.5–27.7 22.8 20.3–25.5
11 52.5 48.4–56.6 63.0 59.9–66.0 57.7 54.7–60.7 18.2 15.3–21.5 23.8 20.4–27.5 21.2 18.6–24.1
12 41.9 37.8–46.1 56.2 51.8–60.6 49.0 45.2–52.7 14.8 11.8–18.4 20.9 18.7–23.4 18.1 16.3–20.1
Total 50.4 47.1–53.7 62.1 59.5–64.7 56.3 53.7–58.9 19.3 17.4–21.3 24.1 22.3–26.0 21.9 20.4–23.4
* Run by their school or community groups during the 12 months before the survey.
†During the 30 days before the survey, among the 79.6% of students nationwide who exercised or played sports.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 81

TABLE 81. Percentage of high school students who played on at least one sports team,* by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk
Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Site % CI† % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 58.9 52.5–65.1 64.5 59.6–69.2 61.7 58.0–65.3
Arizona 41.8 36.7–47.0 50.0 45.4–54.5 46.0 41.8–50.2
Arkansas 47.4 43.3–51.6 54.8 48.8–60.7 51.1 47.4–54.7
Connecticut —§ — — — — —
Delaware 50.3 47.1–53.6 59.4 55.6–63.1 55.0 52.4–57.5
Florida 43.8 41.1–46.6 55.8 53.4–58.1 49.8 47.9–51.7
Georgia 44.1 40.6–47.8 59.6 56.2–62.9 51.9 49.0–54.7
Hawaii — — — — — —
Idaho 53.6 47.3–59.9 61.3 56.0–66.4 57.6 52.8–62.3
Illinois 51.4 46.1–56.7 64.7 60.7–68.5 58.0 54.3–61.7
Indiana 53.3 49.1–57.3 60.5 57.7–63.2 57.0 54.4–59.5
Iowa 61.4 55.9–66.6 69.0 64.7–73.0 65.4 61.8–68.8
Kansas 53.7 49.4–57.9 64.5 60.1–68.6 59.4 56.1–62.7
Kentucky 45.3 41.6–49.0 51.7 47.9–55.4 48.6 46.2–50.9
Maine — — — — — —
Maryland 46.5 40.8–52.2 62.4 59.3–65.3 54.3 50.5–58.1
Massachusetts 56.3 51.6–60.9 62.7 58.8–66.5 59.5 55.7–63.1
Michigan — — — — — —
Mississippi 43.6 40.0–47.4 63.9 57.2–70.0 53.4 50.1–56.6
Missouri 51.1 45.2–57.0 61.7 55.6–67.4 56.5 53.0–59.9
Montana 57.3 54.8–59.8 61.8 58.5–65.0 59.6 57.2–61.9
Nevada — — — — — —
New Hampshire 55.9 50.5–61.2 58.3 54.0–62.4 57.1 53.0–61.1
New Mexico — — — — — —
New York 49.5 45.9–53.1 61.4 58.1–64.5 55.3 52.5–58.1
North Carolina — — — — — —
North Dakota — — — — — —
Ohio 53.6 49.1–57.9 59.8 56.2–63.4 56.7 53.5–59.9
Oklahoma 54.1 50.4–57.8 62.8 58.6–66.7 58.6 55.5–61.6
Rhode Island — — — — — —
South Carolina 39.5 33.7–45.6 59.4 55.0–63.6 49.7 45.2–54.2
South Dakota 58.9 54.1–63.6 67.2 62.7–71.3 63.1 59.5–66.6
Tennessee 46.1 42.5–49.8 57.8 52.5–63.0 51.9 48.5–55.3
Texas 51.7 47.9–55.5 63.5 60.3–66.6 57.7 55.1–60.3
Utah 62.9 58.7–67.0 71.2 62.8–78.4 67.1 61.9–71.9
Vermont — — — — — —
West Virginia 48.1 43.6–52.6 55.2 50.8–59.6 51.8 48.4–55.1
Wisconsin — — — — — —
Wyoming 57.0 53.5–60.5 62.3 58.9–65.6 59.8 57.2–62.4
Median 51.5 61.5 56.8
Range 39.5–62.9 50.0–71.2 46.0–67.1
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 34.4 30.6–38.3 59.9 55.7–64.0 46.1 42.9–49.4
Boston, MA 42.4 38.5–46.4 57.5 53.6–61.4 49.9 47.0–52.9
Broward County, FL 42.1 38.1–46.3 56.1 51.5–60.6 49.3 46.1–52.5
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC — — — — — —
Chicago, IL 42.3 35.5–49.3 61.9 57.4–66.2 51.6 46.2–56.9
Dallas, TX 40.0 36.1–44.0 59.9 54.9–64.7 49.6 46.9–52.3
DeKalb County, GA 46.9 43.2–50.6 58.6 55.3–62.0 52.8 50.1–55.5
Detroit, MI — — — — — —
District of Columbia 40.7 37.2–44.3 60.3 55.4–65.1 50.3 47.2–53.4
Hillsborough County, FL 40.6 36.4–45.1 55.2 50.6–59.7 47.7 44.3–51.0
Houston, TX 46.2 41.2–51.4 59.1 54.9–63.1 52.5 49.1–55.9
Los Angeles, CA 40.6 32.7–49.0 60.8 54.4–66.8 50.9 45.7–56.1
Memphis, TN 42.8 38.8–46.8 64.4 60.3–68.3 53.2 50.1–56.2
Miami-Dade County, FL 34.5 31.4–37.7 57.2 54.2–60.2 46.0 43.6–48.5
Milwaukee, WI — — — — — —
New York City, NY 34.7 31.5–38.1 50.9 47.2–54.5 42.1 39.1–45.2
Orange County, FL 41.6 37.0–46.2 53.8 48.9–58.6 47.5 43.9–51.1
Palm Beach County, FL 42.9 39.4–46.5 55.5 51.3–59.5 48.9 46.3–51.6
Philadelphia, PA 36.2 32.3–40.4 55.2 51.9–58.5 44.3 41.0–47.6
San Bernardino, CA 43.9 38.6–49.3 62.2 57.1–67.1 52.8 48.7–56.9
San Diego, CA 50.3 45.9–54.7 58.6 54.6–62.5 54.5 51.6–57.4
San Francisco, CA 35.4 32.2–38.7 47.9 44.3–51.4 41.7 39.0–44.5
Median 41.6 58.6 49.6
Range 34.4–50.3 47.9–64.4 41.7–54.5
* Run by their school or community groups during the 12 months before the survey.
† 95% confidence interval.
§ Not available.
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Table 82

TABLE 82. Percentage of high school students who were obese*† and who were overweight,†§ by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade —
United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Obese Overweight
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CIĥ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White** 6.8 5.2–8.9 14.6 13.0–16.4 10.8 9.3–12.4 12.8 10.9–15.0 15.7 14.4–17.1 14.3 12.9–15.7
Black** 17.8 15.0–20.9 18.9 16.1–22.1 18.3 16.2–20.7 21.4 18.5–24.7 16.6 14.1–19.3 19.0 17.2–20.9
Hispanic 12.7 10.6–15.1 20.3 17.8–23.0 16.6 14.7–18.7 17.9 15.3–21.0 18.3 16.0–20.8 18.1 16.1–20.3
Grade
9 10.7 8.8–13.0 16.6 14.5–18.9 13.8 12.5–15.2 18.3 15.4–21.6 17.0 14.7–19.6 17.6 15.5–20.1
10 9.8 8.1–11.9 16.4 14.0–19.1 13.2 11.5–15.0 14.2 11.9–16.9 17.7 15.1–20.6 16.0 14.4–17.6
11 8.1 6.5–10.1 17.3 15.2–19.6 12.7 11.3–14.4 14.2 11.9–16.8 15.9 13.6–18.6 15.1 13.3–17.1
12 9.3 7.6–11.4 14.7 12.6–17.2 12.0 10.5–13.7 13.1 11.1–15.5 14.9 12.7–17.4 14.0 12.5–15.6
Total 9.6 8.3–11.0 16.3 15.1–17.5 13.0 11.9–14.1 15.1 13.8–16.5 16.4 15.4–17.5 15.8 14.8–16.8
* Students who were >95th percentile for body mass index, by age and sex, based on reference data.
† Previous Youth Risk Behavior Survey reports used the term “overweight” to describe youth with a BMI >95th percentile for age and sex and “at risk
for overweight” for those with a BMI >85th percentile and <95th percentile. However, this report uses the terms “obese” and “overweight” in
accordance with the 2007 recommendations from the Expert Committee on the Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment of Child and Adolescent
Overweight and Obesity convened by the American Medical Association (AMA) and cofunded by AMA in collaboration with the Health Resources and
Services Administration and CDC.
§ Students who were >85th percentile but <95th percentile for body mass index, by age and sex, based on reference data.
ĥ 95% confidence interval.
** Non-Hispanic.
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Table 83

TABLE 83. Percentage of high school students who were obese*† and who were overweight,†§ by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth
Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Obese Overweight
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CIĥ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 9.7 7.1–12.9 12.5 9.8–15.7 11.1 9.1–13.5 14.7 11.7–18.2 17.6 14.4–21.3 16.2 13.7–19.0
Arizona 8.5 5.7–12.6 14.7 12.1–17.8 11.7 9.5–14.5 12.2 9.7–15.2 16.0 13.3–19.1 14.2 12.0–16.6
Arkansas 9.1 6.9–12.0 18.4 14.6–22.8 13.9 11.6–16.5 16.8 14.4–19.7 14.8 11.9–18.2 15.8 13.6–18.2
Connecticut 8.2 5.9–11.5 16.2 14.1–18.6 12.3 10.9–14.0 11.5 9.5–13.8 14.9 12.6–17.6 13.3 11.5–15.2
Delaware 10.9 9.2–12.9 15.6 13.4–18.1 13.3 11.9–15.0 19.2 16.5–22.1 16.0 13.8–18.6 17.5 15.9–19.3
Florida 6.8 5.8–8.0 15.4 13.4–17.7 11.2 9.9–12.6 15.1 13.4–17.1 15.3 13.7–17.1 15.2 14.0–16.6
Georgia 11.1 9.0–13.5 16.6 14.2–19.2 13.8 12.0–15.9 18.9 16.4–21.6 17.5 15.3–19.9 18.2 16.2–20.3
Hawaii 11.3 7.4–16.9 19.4 16.3–22.9 15.6 13.0–18.8 15.5 11.1–21.2 13.3 10.0–17.4 14.3 11.9–17.2
Idaho 6.4 4.9–8.3 15.5 12.7–18.7 11.1 9.5–12.8 13.2 9.5–17.9 10.4 8.2–12.9 11.7 9.4–14.6
Illinois 9.9 7.8–12.4 15.9 13.2–19.1 12.9 10.9–15.1 15.8 13.2–18.8 15.5 13.0–18.4 15.7 13.8–17.7
Indiana 9.9 7.9–12.4 17.8 15.4–20.4 13.8 12.0–15.9 14.8 13.0–16.7 15.9 13.3–18.8 15.3 13.6–17.2
Iowa 8.8 5.4–14.1 13.7 10.6–17.5 11.3 8.6–14.7 10.6 8.6–13.1 16.2 12.4–21.0 13.5 11.4–15.8
Kansas 6.8 5.1–9.2 15.2 12.4–18.5 11.1 9.3–13.2 14.1 10.7–18.4 14.6 12.4–17.1 14.4 12.3–16.7
Kentucky 11.0 9.3–13.0 19.7 17.2–22.5 15.6 13.9–17.3 15.5 14.0–17.0 17.3 15.1–19.7 16.4 14.9–18.0
Maine 7.6 5.8–9.9 17.5 14.1–21.6 12.8 10.4–15.7 12.3 9.1–16.4 13.8 9.8–19.1 13.1 10.9–15.6
Maryland 9.2 6.4–13.2 16.7 14.5–19.3 13.1 10.9–15.6 15.4 11.8–20.0 15.1 12.5–18.1 15.2 12.7–18.2
Massachusetts 7.1 5.7–8.9 14.8 12.7–17.2 11.1 9.6–12.8 15.2 12.7–18.0 14.1 11.8–16.7 14.6 12.8–16.7
Michigan 9.8 7.5–12.7 15.0 12.4–17.9 12.4 10.6–14.5 15.6 12.0–20.0 17.3 14.9–20.1 16.5 14.6–18.6
Mississippi 14.7 12.1–17.8 21.2 17.3–25.8 17.9 15.6–20.5 18.8 15.9–22.0 16.9 14.3–19.9 17.9 16.1–19.8
Missouri 8.6 5.7–12.7 15.3 11.7–19.7 12.0 9.3–15.3 13.6 11.3–16.2 14.9 12.6–17.7 14.3 12.9–15.8
Montana 6.3 5.3–7.5 13.7 11.8–15.7 10.1 9.0–11.2 12.9 11.3–14.5 13.8 12.1–15.6 13.3 12.1–14.7
Nevada 7.6 5.6–10.2 14.2 11.3–17.7 11.0 9.0–13.5 13.9 11.3–17.0 15.1 12.4–18.3 14.5 12.7–16.5
New Hampshire 7.2 5.6–9.2 15.9 12.9–19.4 11.7 9.8–13.8 13.1 11.0–15.6 15.7 13.3–18.5 14.4 12.6–16.6
New Mexico 6.0 4.0–9.0 15.5 12.9–18.6 10.9 9.1–13.0 13.8 11.6–16.3 13.2 10.8–16.0 13.5 11.5–15.7
New York 7.6 6.2–9.3 14.1 12.6–15.9 10.9 9.9–12.1 16.3 14.3–18.6 16.3 14.8–17.9 16.3 15.1–17.6
North Carolina 9.5 6.9–12.9 15.9 13.2–19.1 12.8 10.6–15.3 17.2 14.6–20.1 17.0 14.2–20.3 17.1 15.3–19.0
North Dakota 8.0 5.9–10.8 11.8 9.1–15.3 10.0 8.2–12.0 11.2 9.4–13.2 16.0 13.7–18.6 13.7 12.1–15.4
Ohio 8.5 6.5–11.2 16.0 13.3–19.1 12.4 10.4–14.7 14.6 12.7–16.7 15.4 13.2–17.8 15.0 13.4–16.7
Oklahoma 9.8 8.1–11.9 19.2 16.2–22.7 14.7 12.9–16.7 16.8 14.3–19.7 13.7 11.6–16.0 15.2 13.4–17.1
Rhode Island 7.5 5.7–9.7 13.8 11.1–17.1 10.7 8.7–13.1 16.2 13.4–19.5 16.3 13.8–19.1 16.2 14.6–18.1
South Carolina 12.2 9.3–15.8 16.6 13.1–20.7 14.4 11.8–17.6 18.9 16.5–21.6 15.3 12.2–19.0 17.1 14.9–19.5
South Dakota 7.6 4.9–11.5 10.6 8.1–13.7 9.1 6.9–12.0 12.4 9.5–16.2 16.5 13.8–19.5 14.5 12.5–16.7
Tennessee 12.0 9.4–15.1 21.6 18.7–24.9 16.9 15.0–18.9 19.9 17.5–22.6 16.4 13.7–19.5 18.1 16.2–20.3
Texas 11.6 9.5–14.1 19.9 17.3–22.8 15.9 14.0–18.1 15.8 13.3–18.6 15.5 13.1–18.2 15.6 13.8–17.7
Utah 5.1 3.1–8.4 12.1 8.5–16.9 8.7 5.7–13.2 9.9 6.7–14.2 13.4 10.1–17.4 11.7 9.4–14.4
Vermont 8.0 5.9–10.8 15.1 11.5–19.8 11.8 8.9–15.5 13.8 10.2–18.4 15.0 13.1–17.2 14.5 11.9–17.5
West Virginia 11.7 8.6–15.6 17.6 14.0–22.0 14.7 12.5–17.2 19.0 14.4–24.5 15.0 12.3–18.1 17.0 14.0–20.4
Wisconsin 7.2 5.7–9.0 14.7 12.4–17.3 11.1 9.6–12.8 12.6 10.8–14.7 15.3 13.3–17.5 14.0 12.7–15.5
Wyoming 6.6 4.9–8.7 11.8 9.8–14.1 9.3 7.9–10.9 10.0 7.8–12.6 12.7 10.7–15.0 11.4 10.1–12.8
Median 8.5 15.5 12.0 14.8 15.3 15.0
Range 5.1–14.7 10.6–21.6 8.7–17.9 9.9–19.9 10.4–17.6 11.4–18.2
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 19.0 16.3–22.1 17.9 15.0–21.1 18.5 16.5–20.7 21.0 18.3–24.0 18.6 15.9–21.7 19.9 17.9–22.0
Boston, MA 11.7 9.3–14.6 17.2 14.6–20.2 14.5 12.6–16.7 22.0 18.8–25.4 15.2 12.8–18.0 18.5 16.6–20.7
Broward County, FL 6.5 4.2–9.9 10.2 7.1–14.4 8.4 6.5–10.7 17.2 14.9–19.9 13.7 11.0–16.8 15.4 13.6–17.4
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 8.9 6.9–11.4 10.7 8.5–13.5 9.8 8.2–11.7 14.8 11.8–18.5 18.2 15.2–21.6 16.5 14.6–18.7
Chicago, IL 13.6 9.6–18.9 18.0 14.3–22.6 15.8 13.1–18.9 20.7 18.1–23.6 16.6 12.2–22.1 18.7 16.0–21.7
Dallas, TX 15.7 12.1–20.1 22.9 19.3–27.1 19.3 16.1–22.9 21.2 17.4–25.5 16.7 13.1–21.1 19.0 16.0–22.4
DeKalb County, GA 13.4 11.5–15.5 12.8 10.7–15.3 13.1 11.7–14.7 16.9 14.8–19.2 15.8 13.4–18.6 16.3 14.9–17.9
Detroit, MI 17.1 14.7–19.8 19.9 17.4–22.6 18.4 16.7–20.3 24.6 21.7–27.7 17.8 15.2–20.8 21.3 19.1–23.6
District of Columbia 15.8 13.2–18.9 19.6 16.4–23.1 17.7 15.8–19.8 19.9 16.9–23.2 15.8 13.1–19.0 17.8 15.9–20.0
Hillsborough County, FL 8.4 5.7–12.3 14.6 11.6–18.4 11.5 9.0–14.7 13.0 9.7–17.3 14.1 10.9–18.2 13.6 11.4–16.1
Houston, TX 11.5 9.1–14.3 21.7 18.5–25.2 16.7 14.6–19.0 19.7 16.3–23.6 15.9 13.4–18.7 17.7 15.7–19.9
Los Angeles, CA 11.7 8.8–15.3 20.9 15.4–27.7 16.5 13.1–20.5 24.1 19.3–29.7 20.4 16.7–24.7 22.2 19.3–25.3
Memphis, TN 13.7 10.5–17.7 19.0 14.0–25.1 16.2 13.2–19.7 23.3 19.7–27.4 15.7 12.9–19.0 19.7 17.7–22.0
Miami-Dade County, FL 8.9 7.2–11.0 16.8 14.1–19.8 13.0 11.5–14.6 14.5 12.5–16.7 15.5 13.5–17.8 15.0 13.5–16.7
Milwaukee, WI 15.4 12.4–19.0 20.0 16.5–24.0 17.7 15.2–20.4 24.2 20.6–28.2 13.8 11.1–17.1 19.0 16.7–21.6
New York City, NY 9.4 7.9–11.2 13.6 11.7–15.6 11.5 10.2–12.9 17.7 15.9–19.7 14.9 13.5–16.4 16.3 15.0–17.8
Orange County, FL 8.6 6.3–11.6 16.5 12.8–21.0 12.6 10.3–15.3 14.7 12.1–17.8 14.1 11.3–17.5 14.4 12.7–16.3
Palm Beach County, FL 6.1 4.5–8.3 10.9 8.7–13.7 8.5 6.9–10.3 11.0 8.9–13.6 14.0 11.6–16.8 12.5 10.7–14.5
Philadelphia, PA 14.1 12.3–16.2 16.6 14.6–18.9 15.2 13.8–16.8 18.8 16.5–21.3 18.0 15.7–20.5 18.4 16.9–20.1
San Bernardino, CA 12.6 10.4–15.2 17.3 14.2–21.0 15.0 12.8–17.5 19.8 16.2–24.0 16.8 13.4–20.8 18.3 15.8–21.0
San Diego, CA 6.7 5.0–9.0 17.5 14.9–20.5 12.3 10.6–14.3 16.2 13.2–19.8 14.1 11.6–17.0 15.1 12.9–17.6
San Francisco, CA 3.7 2.4–5.7 13.0 10.8–15.5 8.5 7.1–10.2 12.1 10.0–14.5 12.9 10.9–15.3 12.5 11.1–14.1
Median 11.7 17.2 14.8 19.2 15.7 17.7
Range 3.7–19.0 10.2–22.9 8.4–19.3 11.0–24.6 12.9–20.4 12.5–22.2
* Students who were >95th percentile for body mass index, by age and sex, based on reference data.
† Previous Youth Risk Behavior Survey reports used the term “overweight” to describe youth with a BMI >95th percentile for age and sex and “at risk for overweight” for those
with a BMI >85th percentile and <95th percentile. However, this report uses the terms “obese” and “overweight” in accordance with the 2007 recommendations from the Expert
Committee on the Assessment, Prevention, and Treatment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity convened by the American Medical Association (AMA) and
cofunded by AMA in collaboration with the Health Resources and Services Administration and CDC.
§ Students who were >85th percentile but <95th percentile for body mass index, by age and sex, based on reference data.
ĥ 95% confidence interval.
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Table 84

TABLE 84. Percentage of high school students who described themselves as slightly or very overweight and who were trying to
lose weight, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Described themselves as overweight Were trying to lose weight
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI* % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White† 34.0 31.9–36.1 23.6 22.0–25.3 28.8 27.3–30.3 62.3 60.1–64.4 29.0 27.0–31.1 45.6 43.8–47.4
Black† 30.1 27.4–33.0 19.1 16.8–21.7 24.6 22.7–26.6 49.5 46.2–52.8 24.9 21.6–28.4 37.1 34.8–39.4
Hispanic 39.3 36.3–42.4 28.3 24.7–32.1 33.8 31.1–36.6 62.1 57.6–66.3 38.5 34.2–42.9 50.2 46.7–53.7
Grade
9 33.6 30.3–37.1 24.3 22.4–26.4 28.8 27.1–30.6 58.6 54.9–62.1 31.0 28.5–33.8 44.4 42.2–46.6
10 33.8 31.1–36.6 24.8 22.6–27.2 29.2 27.3–31.2 60.2 56.9–63.4 31.6 28.8–34.6 45.8 43.5–48.1
11 36.2 32.9–39.6 25.8 23.0–28.7 31.0 28.6–33.4 61.3 58.4–64.1 30.1 26.6–33.8 45.8 43.5–48.1
12 34.9 30.9–39.1 21.6 19.1–24.2 28.3 25.9–30.8 61.6 59.0–64.1 28.7 25.6–32.1 45.3 43.5–47.2
Total 34.5 32.9–36.1 24.2 23.0–25.3 29.3 28.2–30.4 60.3 58.4–62.1 30.4 28.8–32.1 45.2 43.8–46.7
* 95% confidence interval.
†Non-Hispanic.
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Table 85

TABLE 85. Percentage of high school students who described themselves as slightly or very overweight and who were trying to
lose weight, by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Described themselves as overweight Were trying to lose weight
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI* % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 38.9 33.8–44.3 23.1 19.6–27.0 30.7 27.6–34.0 60.3 55.9–64.6 29.2 25.8–32.8 44.3 41.1–47.5
Arizona 33.7 29.5–38.2 24.0 21.2–27.0 28.8 25.7–32.1 58.9 55.6–62.0 31.9 27.8–36.3 45.1 42.0–48.3
Arkansas 32.8 28.2–37.8 21.9 17.9–26.4 27.3 24.3–30.6 55.6 50.9–60.2 30.8 27.6–34.2 43.0 40.2–45.9
Connecticut 34.2 31.0–37.6 23.6 20.9–26.6 28.7 26.6–30.9 59.8 55.5–64.0 31.1 28.3–34.0 45.2 42.4–48.1
Delaware 31.8 29.0–34.7 22.6 20.1–25.3 27.3 25.4–29.3 56.7 53.8–59.5 28.4 25.8–31.3 42.4 40.2–44.6
Florida 29.7 27.6–31.9 23.4 20.8–26.2 26.6 24.7–28.7 55.1 52.6–57.7 28.6 26.1–31.1 41.8 39.8–43.8
Georgia 34.3 31.2–37.6 22.7 20.5–25.0 28.5 26.6–30.5 58.4 54.5–62.1 31.6 29.0–34.2 45.0 41.9–48.1
Hawaii 37.4 31.8–43.4 28.2 24.3–32.6 32.7 28.9–36.7 59.7 54.2–64.9 34.0 30.0–38.1 46.3 42.3–50.3
Idaho 35.0 30.3–39.9 21.3 17.8–25.2 28.0 24.6–31.7 62.5 57.3–67.4 26.4 22.7–30.4 43.8 40.4–47.3
Illinois 37.2 33.6–40.9 22.1 19.6–24.8 29.6 26.9–32.5 63.7 60.2–67.2 30.8 26.6–35.4 47.3 44.1–50.5
Indiana 37.3 34.7–40.1 25.5 22.2–29.0 31.5 28.8–34.5 63.7 60.4–67.0 34.0 30.3–37.9 48.7 45.2–52.1
Iowa 35.6 30.6–40.8 26.2 22.2–30.6 30.8 27.2–34.8 60.5 56.1–64.8 29.9 25.9–34.2 45.0 41.9–48.1
Kansas 35.5 32.1–39.2 22.8 20.1–25.7 28.9 26.6–31.4 59.5 56.5–62.3 30.7 27.6–33.9 44.6 42.2–47.0
Kentucky 37.5 34.9–40.2 25.0 22.1–28.1 31.2 29.0–33.4 61.7 58.1–65.1 33.4 30.6–36.4 47.5 44.9–50.2
Maine 33.9 30.1–37.9 25.3 21.5–29.5 29.5 26.2–33.1 64.0 58.9–68.7 29.3 24.5–34.6 46.3 42.8–49.8
Maryland 32.3 28.5–36.4 22.6 19.3–26.4 27.5 25.2–29.9 57.0 52.1–61.8 28.4 25.1–31.8 42.6 38.9–46.3
Massachusetts 36.4 34.0–38.9 22.2 19.6–25.0 29.3 27.5–31.2 62.9 60.6–65.2 28.5 25.2–31.9 45.6 43.0–48.2
Michigan 34.8 32.0–37.7 23.2 20.6–25.9 28.9 27.2–30.7 60.2 56.8–63.5 29.4 27.4–31.5 44.6 43.1–46.2
Mississippi 33.1 29.5–36.9 20.1 16.8–24.0 27.1 25.2–29.0 56.1 52.2–60.0 29.8 26.3–33.6 43.4 40.6–46.3
Missouri 33.8 28.6–39.4 23.1 19.6–26.9 28.3 25.2–31.6 61.3 57.3–65.1 29.2 26.1–32.5 45.1 42.1–48.3
Montana 36.4 34.1–38.7 21.9 19.9–24.1 29.1 27.5–30.7 61.7 59.4–64.0 26.1 23.7–28.7 43.6 41.6–45.5
Nevada 33.9 31.2–36.7 23.3 19.8–27.3 28.6 26.3–31.0 58.5 54.7–62.2 31.9 27.2–37.1 45.0 41.8–48.2
New Hampshire —† — — — — — — — — — — —
New Mexico — — — — — — — — — — — —
New York 34.9 32.6–37.4 23.8 21.4–26.4 29.4 27.6–31.2 58.4 55.5–61.2 34.2 32.1–36.2 46.3 44.4–48.2
North Carolina 31.6 29.3–34.0 21.2 19.0–23.6 26.3 25.0–27.7 59.1 56.2–61.9 30.5 27.1–34.2 44.7 42.2–47.2
North Dakota 36.6 32.8–40.6 24.8 21.7–28.1 30.5 28.2–32.9 67.2 63.9–70.4 28.2 25.1–31.4 47.2 44.8–49.7
Ohio 35.7 32.3–39.1 24.8 22.1–27.7 30.1 27.8–32.5 62.5 59.0–65.9 31.2 28.7–33.8 46.7 44.2–49.3
Oklahoma 37.0 33.9–40.1 24.6 21.1–28.4 30.8 28.2–33.5 61.2 58.3–63.9 33.5 29.4–37.9 46.9 44.3–49.5
Rhode Island 34.5 32.1–36.9 23.7 19.6–28.4 29.1 26.1–32.3 63.3 60.8–65.8 32.1 28.8–35.6 47.8 45.1–50.4
South Carolina 35.9 31.6–40.5 22.7 18.1–28.0 29.2 25.9–32.8 59.9 54.7–64.9 32.5 27.9–37.5 46.0 42.1–50.0
South Dakota — — — — — — 64.2 61.4–66.9 29.4 25.8–33.3 46.4 44.1–48.8
Tennessee 34.7 31.1–38.5 25.5 22.8–28.4 30.2 27.9–32.6 57.6 53.9–61.2 29.6 26.4–33.0 43.6 41.2–46.0
Texas 36.6 33.4–39.8 25.0 22.7–27.4 30.6 28.5–32.9 60.0 56.8–63.1 32.4 28.9–36.1 46.0 43.4–48.6
Utah 27.3 22.3–33.0 18.5 16.3–20.9 22.7 19.8–25.9 52.7 43.6–61.5 23.7 20.5–27.4 37.9 31.2–45.0
Vermont 34.9 30.7–39.3 25.3 21.3–29.7 29.9 26.2–33.9 58.7 52.4–64.7 28.3 24.7–32.2 42.9 38.4–47.6
West Virginia 37.7 32.2–43.5 24.8 22.1–27.7 31.0 27.8–34.4 62.2 56.6–67.4 29.3 25.5–33.4 45.4 42.0–48.7
Wisconsin — — — — — — — — — — — —
Wyoming 35.0 31.9–38.3 20.5 17.8–23.4 27.5 25.2–29.9 56.9 53.6–60.2 24.8 22.1–27.8 40.2 37.6–42.7
Median 34.9 23.3 29.1 59.9 29.8 45.0
Range 27.3–38.9 18.5–28.2 22.7–32.7 52.7–67.2 23.7–34.2 37.9–48.7
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 32.5 29.2–36.0 17.9 15.4–20.8 25.6 23.5–27.8 47.3 43.8–50.8 28.0 25.1–31.1 38.1 35.6–40.6
Boston, MA 36.6 32.9–40.4 23.8 20.8–27.1 30.1 27.4–33.0 55.7 52.1–59.3 31.9 28.6–35.4 43.8 40.9–46.7
Broward County, FL 31.8 28.1–35.8 21.2 17.3–25.8 26.6 24.4–28.9 51.1 46.5–55.8 27.0 20.8–34.3 39.0 35.0–43.1
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 29.6 25.8–33.6 18.8 16.1–21.7 24.2 21.9–26.6 52.5 48.5–56.4 27.9 24.3–31.7 40.3 37.5–43.1
Chicago, IL 34.0 27.6–41.1 23.9 17.9–31.2 29.2 24.1–34.9 53.4 45.1–61.5 36.5 28.9–44.9 45.4 38.8–52.2
Dallas, TX 35.4 31.2–39.8 24.3 20.4–28.6 29.9 26.7–33.4 56.8 52.1–61.3 36.5 32.2–41.0 46.8 43.6–50.1
DeKalb County, GA 30.1 27.4–32.9 16.1 13.8–18.6 23.1 21.3–25.0 51.3 48.4–54.1 26.1 23.4–28.9 38.6 36.3–41.0
Detroit, MI 32.3 29.3–35.5 18.6 16.2–21.4 25.8 23.8–27.9 48.0 45.2–50.7 29.3 25.7–33.1 38.9 36.6–41.2
District of Columbia 30.1 26.6–33.8 19.3 15.9–23.4 25.0 22.6–27.5 49.7 45.7–53.6 30.1 25.7–34.8 39.9 37.0–42.8
Hillsborough County, FL 30.5 26.8–34.5 21.7 18.3–25.6 26.4 23.8–29.2 58.9 54.4–63.2 29.1 24.8–33.8 44.6 40.9–48.3
Houston, TX 33.4 30.2–36.8 25.8 21.9–30.2 29.5 27.1–32.1 56.9 53.5–60.3 35.9 32.3–39.6 46.6 44.0–49.2
Los Angeles, CA 42.4 38.9–45.9 27.5 20.5–35.9 34.5 30.6–38.6 67.4 62.8–71.7 40.0 31.7–48.9 53.1 48.3–57.9
Memphis, TN 27.8 23.7–32.3 18.2 14.9–22.0 23.3 20.4–26.5 47.1 42.6–51.6 29.0 24.4–34.1 38.6 34.9–42.4
Miami-Dade County, FL 27.5 24.8–30.3 22.2 19.1–25.6 24.8 22.7–27.1 53.9 50.8–57.0 30.9 28.1–33.8 42.1 39.8–44.6
Milwaukee, WI — — — — — — — — — — — —
New York City, NY 32.3 30.0–34.7 21.9 19.3–24.8 27.3 25.2–29.5 53.6 50.4–56.7 31.7 28.1–35.6 43.1 40.3–46.1
Orange County, FL 30.6 26.7–34.7 23.7 20.9–26.9 27.1 24.6–29.8 56.3 51.6–60.9 29.7 26.4–33.2 43.1 40.0–46.2
Palm Beach County, FL 27.1 24.1–30.5 19.9 17.0–23.1 23.5 21.4–25.8 53.7 50.7–56.7 27.8 24.1–31.7 40.8 38.3–43.5
Philadelphia, PA 30.0 26.8–33.3 22.6 20.3–25.1 26.8 24.7–29.0 51.2 47.4–54.9 32.2 29.3–35.3 43.1 40.7–45.6
San Bernardino, CA 35.5 31.3–39.9 24.4 21.6–27.3 30.0 27.3–32.9 57.5 53.0–62.0 36.5 32.8–40.4 47.0 43.9–50.2
San Diego, CA 35.5 31.9–39.3 26.6 23.8–29.7 31.0 28.8–33.2 59.8 55.9–63.5 34.3 31.8–37.0 46.8 44.2–49.4
San Francisco, CA 37.0 33.9–40.2 25.5 22.9–28.2 31.2 29.2–33.2 53.2 49.8–56.6 31.5 28.7–34.4 42.2 39.9–44.5
Median 32.3 22.2 26.8 53.6 30.9 43.1
Range 27.1–42.4 16.1–27.5 23.1–34.5 47.1–67.4 26.1–40.0 38.1–53.1
* 95% confidence interval.
† Not available.
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Table 86

TABLE 86. Percentage of high school students who ate less food, fewer calories, or low-fat foods* and who exercised,* by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Ate less food, fewer calories, or low-fat foods Exercised to lose weight or
to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight to keep from gaining weight
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 58.4 56.3–60.5 28.3 26.8–29.8 43.3 41.8–44.8 71.5 69.0–73.9 53.3 51.4–55.2 62.4 60.8–63.9
Black§ 34.6 32.0–37.3 21.0 19.0–23.2 27.8 25.9–29.8 50.7 47.6–53.7 53.7 50.2–57.2 52.2 49.9–54.5
Hispanic 52.0 48.2–55.7 32.3 29.4–35.3 42.1 39.5–44.7 66.4 62.7–69.9 60.1 55.9–64.2 63.2 60.1–66.3
Grade
9 50.5 46.7–54.2 27.3 25.0–29.8 38.6 36.0–41.1 70.6 67.5–73.6 58.7 56.3–61.0 64.5 62.6–66.3
10 53.0 50.0–55.9 29.1 26.2–32.1 40.9 38.7–43.2 67.7 64.6–70.8 54.2 51.5–56.8 60.9 59.1–62.6
11 54.0 51.4–56.5 29.8 26.1–33.8 42.0 39.5–44.5 65.0 62.3–67.7 54.9 51.9–57.9 59.9 57.6–62.2
12 56.4 53.5–59.3 27.4 24.2–30.8 42.0 39.8–44.3 63.7 60.7–66.5 51.1 48.0–54.3 57.5 55.1–59.8
Total 53.2 51.2–55.1 28.3 27.2–29.5 40.6 39.4–41.9 67.0 65.2–68.7 55.0 53.6–56.4 60.9 59.8–62.1
* To lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days before the survey.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
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Table 87

TABLE 87. Percentage of high school students who ate less food, fewer calories, or low-fat foods* and who exercised,* by sex —
selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Ate less food, fewer calories, or low-fat foods
to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight Exercised to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI† % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 50.4 46.6–54.3 24.1 19.1–29.8 37.0 33.1–41.0 70.4 66.1–74.3 54.9 51.1–58.8 62.5 59.7–65.2
Arizona 50.5 47.2–53.8 25.9 23.5–28.6 38.1 35.9–40.2 67.5 64.8–70.1 55.1 51.9–58.2 61.2 59.6–62.9
Arkansas 50.0 45.0–54.9 25.6 21.4–30.4 37.6 34.2–41.1 64.6 60.3–68.6 54.9 51.7–58.0 59.7 57.1–62.2
Connecticut 55.7 51.0–60.3 28.2 24.7–32.0 41.8 39.2–44.4 68.2 64.3–71.8 54.4 51.1–57.7 61.1 58.8–63.4
Delaware 46.5 43.3–49.6 23.6 21.2–26.2 35.1 33.0–37.3 61.3 58.3–64.2 56.3 53.6–58.9 59.1 57.0–61.1
Florida 52.1 49.3–54.9 25.8 23.4–28.4 38.9 37.0–40.9 62.5 59.7–65.3 51.9 49.6–54.2 57.1 55.2–59.0
Georgia 51.3 47.8–54.8 26.7 24.6–28.9 39.1 36.5–41.7 67.2 63.0–71.2 56.5 53.4–59.5 61.8 58.6–64.9
Hawaii 43.3 37.8–48.9 29.0 24.6–33.9 35.9 32.4–39.5 66.3 61.3–71.0 59.1 54.1–64.0 62.6 59.1–66.0
Idaho 52.6 46.7–58.4 23.2 19.8–27.0 37.5 33.6–41.6 72.2 68.1–75.9 50.4 47.0–53.9 61.0 58.7–63.4
Illinois 55.0 51.1–58.8 29.0 26.6–31.5 41.9 38.6–45.3 72.4 69.0–75.5 53.7 50.2–57.1 63.0 60.6–65.5
Indiana 56.6 53.0–60.1 30.8 28.1–33.6 43.7 40.6–46.8 69.7 66.3–73.0 54.6 51.3–58.0 62.0 59.0–64.9
Iowa 56.8 51.9–61.5 24.9 21.6–28.6 40.6 37.4–43.9 69.9 65.6–74.0 50.0 46.2–53.9 59.8 56.5–63.1
Kansas 52.2 48.4–56.0 25.0 22.2–28.0 38.4 35.7–41.1 64.6 60.9–68.1 51.4 47.2–55.5 57.6 54.9–60.4
Kentucky 53.8 51.0–56.6 28.2 25.6–31.0 41.0 39.1–43.0 65.0 62.0–68.0 53.0 49.5–56.5 59.0 56.3–61.7
Maine 55.6 51.8–59.3 27.9 22.7–33.8 41.6 37.9–45.3 72.5 68.9–75.9 53.4 45.9–60.8 62.9 59.6–66.0
Maryland 49.2 44.0–54.4 28.4 24.2–33.1 38.8 35.0–42.7 63.2 57.2–68.7 51.2 48.9–53.5 57.1 54.2–59.9
Massachusetts —§ — — — — — — — — — — —
Michigan 54.0 50.3–57.7 27.5 24.4–30.7 40.5 38.5–42.6 73.5 69.3–77.3 57.7 53.9–61.4 65.4 62.7–68.0
Mississippi 47.5 43.8–51.3 25.8 22.9–29.0 37.2 34.6–39.9 61.7 58.0–65.3 51.9 47.4–56.4 56.8 53.4–60.2
Missouri 53.3 49.3–57.2 24.8 21.0–29.1 39.0 35.8–42.2 66.6 61.4–71.4 53.1 48.2–58.0 59.9 56.6–63.1
Montana 55.0 52.6–57.3 23.3 21.0–25.8 38.8 36.9–40.8 71.5 69.2–73.7 51.6 48.7–54.5 61.4 59.8–63.0
Nevada 49.7 46.3–53.1 26.1 22.5–30.0 37.7 35.1–40.4 69.9 66.2–73.3 57.8 53.5–62.0 63.8 61.2–66.3
New Hampshire — — — — — — — — — — — —
New Mexico 44.5 39.1–50.2 30.9 25.2–37.2 37.8 33.0–42.7 65.3 61.1–69.3 65.5 59.8–70.8 65.4 61.6–68.9
New York 52.0 48.8–55.2 29.8 27.4–32.4 41.0 38.8–43.3 66.8 63.5–70.0 56.5 53.1–59.9 61.6 58.7–64.5
North Carolina 51.5 47.1–55.9 25.3 22.8–28.1 38.4 35.5–41.3 67.4 63.3–71.2 54.9 51.7–58.2 61.1 58.5–63.7
North Dakota 57.8 54.7–60.9 21.5 18.6–24.8 39.4 37.3–41.5 74.9 71.6–78.0 50.9 47.4–54.3 62.7 60.2–65.1
Ohio 57.7 54.8–60.5 28.2 25.5–31.0 42.7 40.3–45.2 69.3 66.3–72.1 53.8 50.6–57.0 61.5 58.9–63.9
Oklahoma 54.0 50.6–57.4 28.6 25.6–31.8 41.0 38.8–43.2 67.8 64.7–70.8 54.2 50.0–58.2 60.8 58.4–63.2
Rhode Island 51.0 47.0–54.9 28.1 24.4–32.2 39.6 36.7–42.6 68.9 64.6–73.0 53.4 49.3–57.4 61.2 58.1–64.1
South Carolina 49.8 45.3–54.3 30.6 26.6–34.9 40.2 36.6–43.9 62.4 58.3–66.3 57.5 51.0–63.7 59.9 56.3–63.4
South Dakota 54.2 50.9–57.4 26.4 23.4–29.7 40.2 37.4–43.0 74.0 69.5–78.0 51.1 47.9–54.2 62.3 59.3–65.2
Tennessee 55.5 51.2–59.8 27.5 24.3–31.0 41.4 38.5–44.3 64.8 61.1–68.3 57.4 54.1–60.6 61.1 58.5–63.7
Texas 52.4 48.8–56.1 29.8 27.7–32.0 40.9 38.2–43.7 66.4 62.7–70.0 58.7 55.9–61.4 62.5 60.2–64.7
Utah 51.1 44.7–57.5 25.3 21.0–30.2 37.8 33.5–42.4 74.0 64.8–81.5 47.7 42.2–53.3 60.7 53.8–67.2
Vermont — — — — — — — — — — — —
West Virginia 60.6 56.7–64.4 26.5 22.9–30.5 43.3 40.1–46.4 69.2 64.4–73.7 51.8 46.0–57.5 60.1 56.1–64.0
Wisconsin — — — — — — — — — — — —
Wyoming 48.2 45.0–51.4 24.6 22.2–27.1 36.0 34.0–38.0 69.1 65.8–72.2 49.1 46.1–52.1 58.6 56.6–60.6
Median 52.2 26.5 39.1 67.8 53.8 61.1
Range 43.3–60.6 21.5–30.9 35.1–43.7 61.3–74.9 47.7–65.5 56.8–65.4
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 37.3 34.2–40.6 25.0 22.0–28.2 31.4 29.1–33.9 48.1 44.8–51.4 53.3 49.6–56.9 50.5 48.0–53.0
Boston, MA — — — — — — — — — — — —
Broward County, FL 50.1 46.0–54.3 24.7 20.3–29.7 37.4 34.6–40.4 61.3 56.8–65.6 51.3 44.9–57.6 56.2 52.4–59.9
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 45.7 41.2–50.3 25.4 22.1–29.1 35.7 32.4–39.2 63.1 59.0–67.1 54.1 49.7–58.3 58.7 55.5–61.8
Chicago, IL 41.2 35.8–46.9 25.0 19.3–31.8 33.6 30.3–37.2 57.4 53.1–61.5 55.5 49.3–61.6 56.5 52.2–60.8
Dallas, TX 43.0 38.6–47.4 26.3 22.2–30.9 35.0 31.9–38.2 62.8 57.9–67.5 58.4 53.2–63.3 60.6 56.8–64.3
DeKalb County, GA 39.2 36.3–42.2 25.6 22.8–28.7 32.5 30.3–34.8 56.8 53.9–59.6 54.2 50.6–57.8 55.6 53.2–57.9
Detroit, MI 35.7 32.9–38.6 25.2 21.7–28.9 30.6 28.1–33.3 54.0 50.8–57.2 53.3 49.6–56.9 53.5 50.8–56.2
District of Columbia 35.5 32.2–38.8 28.3 24.2–32.7 32.0 29.4–34.6 53.1 49.3–56.7 51.1 47.2–55.1 52.2 49.5–54.9
Hillsborough County, FL 52.4 47.4–57.4 29.1 24.7–33.9 41.3 37.9–44.7 63.8 59.2–68.1 58.0 54.0–61.9 60.9 58.1–63.7
Houston, TX 43.2 39.4–47.2 31.5 28.3–34.9 37.5 35.0–40.1 59.9 56.2–63.5 63.4 60.0–66.7 61.6 59.2–64.0
Los Angeles, CA 48.8 45.7–51.9 31.6 26.2–37.5 39.8 36.7–43.0 72.0 64.7–78.3 66.9 59.9–73.1 69.3 64.1–74.0
Memphis, TN 37.2 34.1–40.5 26.2 21.8–31.3 32.2 29.7–34.7 56.8 52.4–61.1 60.3 55.3–65.2 58.7 54.6–62.7
Miami-Dade County, FL 46.5 43.1–49.9 28.7 25.8–31.9 37.6 35.4–39.9 57.1 53.6–60.6 55.8 52.0–59.5 56.4 53.7–59.0
Milwaukee, WI — — — — — — — — — — — —
New York City, NY 43.4 40.1–46.7 27.6 24.5–30.8 35.9 33.2–38.6 61.4 58.3–64.4 58.3 56.0–60.6 59.8 57.8–61.9
Orange County, FL 52.2 48.1–56.2 26.1 22.1–30.6 39.3 36.0–42.8 62.7 59.2–66.0 54.1 49.4–58.7 58.4 55.3–61.5
Palm Beach County, FL 49.7 46.4–53.0 30.8 27.2–34.6 40.2 38.0–42.4 61.3 57.7–64.7 52.1 48.3–55.9 56.6 53.8–59.5
Philadelphia, PA 40.7 37.1–44.3 25.9 23.6–28.3 34.6 32.5–36.9 54.2 51.4–57.0 50.8 47.3–54.2 52.9 50.5–55.2
San Bernardino, CA 49.9 45.2–54.6 30.2 26.5–34.3 40.2 37.1–43.3 63.1 57.5–68.3 59.3 55.5–63.0 61.1 57.5–64.5
San Diego, CA 49.8 45.7–53.9 27.9 24.8–31.2 38.7 35.7–41.8 68.3 65.0–71.5 62.6 59.0–66.1 65.5 62.5–68.4
San Francisco, CA — — — — — — — — — — — —
Median 43.4 26.3 35.9 61.3 55.5 58.4
Range 35.5–52.4 24.7–31.6 30.6–41.3 48.1–72.0 50.8–66.9 50.5–69.3
* To lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days before the survey.
† 95% confidence interval.
§ Not available.
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Table 88

TABLE 88. Percentage of high school students who did not eat for 24 or more hours* and who took diet pills, powders, or liquids,*†
by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Did not eat for 24 or more hours Took diet pills, powders, or liquids
to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 16.7 15.5–18.1 5.7 4.3–7.3 11.2 10.3–12.1 8.3 7.1–9.6 3.7 3.0–4.7 6.0 5.3–6.8
Blackĥ 13.2 11.0–15.8 7.4 5.9–9.3 10.3 9.0–11.9 3.9 2.8–5.5 3.6 2.5–5.1 3.7 2.9–4.8
Hispanic 17.4 15.3–19.8 10.7 8.1–14.0 14.1 12.4–15.9 7.8 5.9–10.1 5.1 3.8–6.9 6.4 5.1–8.0
Grade
9 16.8 15.0–18.9 6.5 5.1–8.2 11.6 10.5–12.8 6.1 4.6–8.0 2.9 2.1–4.0 4.4 3.6–5.4
10 19.1 16.7–21.7 6.5 4.9–8.6 12.7 11.1–14.5 6.9 5.7–8.2 3.8 2.9–5.0 5.3 4.4–6.4
11 14.8 12.7–17.2 8.1 6.1–10.8 11.5 10.0–13.2 7.4 5.9–9.2 5.0 3.7–6.7 6.2 5.2–7.5
12 13.6 11.6–16.0 8.0 5.5–11.6 10.9 9.1–12.9 10.2 8.4–12.4 5.7 4.0–8.0 8.0 6.7–9.4
Total 16.3 15.2–17.3 7.3 6.1–8.6 11.8 11.0–12.6 7.5 6.6–8.4 4.2 3.5–5.1 5.9 5.2–6.5
* To lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days before the survey.
†Without a doctor’s advice.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 89

TABLE 89. Percentage of high school students who did not eat for 24 or more hours* and who took diet pills, powders, or liquids,*†
by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Did not eat for 24 or more hours Took diet pills, powders, or liquids
to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight†
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 17.8 14.1–22.2 7.3 5.1–10.2 12.5 9.9–15.7 8.6 6.2–11.8 3.5 2.3–5.3 6.0 4.6–7.8
Arizona 19.0 16.9–21.2 8.9 6.8–11.5 13.9 12.3–15.6 8.4 6.5–10.9 5.1 4.2–6.2 6.8 5.6–8.1
Arkansas 16.9 14.5–19.7 7.6 5.5–10.5 12.2 10.5–14.2 9.2 6.6–12.7 7.6 5.4–10.6 8.4 6.4–10.8
Connecticut 14.6 12.5–16.9 7.7 6.1–9.7 11.2 9.9–12.6 —ĥ — — — — —
Delaware 13.8 11.7–16.1 7.6 6.0–9.5 10.9 9.5–12.4 6.2 4.7–8.0 3.7 2.7–5.1 5.0 4.1–6.1
Florida 15.1 13.5–16.8 7.0 5.9–8.3 11.1 10.0–12.4 6.8 5.7–8.1 4.7 3.8–5.8 5.8 5.1–6.6
Georgia 16.6 13.7–20.1 8.1 6.4–10.2 12.5 10.7–14.5 8.3 6.3–10.8 6.4 4.8–8.5 7.5 6.0–9.3
Hawaii 13.9 10.9–17.5 10.7 6.6–16.9 12.2 9.6–15.4 5.6 3.9–8.1 10.9 7.0–16.4 8.3 6.1–11.2
Idaho 20.9 17.8–24.3 7.8 6.0–10.0 14.2 12.2–16.4 9.3 7.1–12.1 4.1 2.6–6.3 6.7 5.2–8.5
Illinois 15.9 12.8–19.7 7.6 5.7–10.0 11.7 9.6–14.3 5.6 4.1–7.6 5.0 3.7–6.6 5.3 4.3–6.5
Indiana 15.8 14.2–17.6 9.5 8.0–11.4 12.8 11.5–14.2 8.4 6.8–10.4 5.7 4.5–7.1 7.2 6.1–8.6
Iowa 14.9 12.3–18.1 6.4 4.8–8.5 10.6 8.6–13.0 7.5 5.3–10.6 3.7 2.4–5.8 5.6 4.3–7.2
Kansas 15.6 12.8–18.8 9.8 7.2–13.3 12.7 10.7–15.0 5.2 3.6–7.4 6.4 4.4–9.1 5.8 4.6–7.2
Kentucky 17.2 14.9–19.7 10.0 8.5–11.8 13.7 12.2–15.3 9.3 7.8–11.2 7.9 5.9–10.4 8.6 7.2–10.2
Maine 14.3 11.5–17.8 6.0 3.5–10.2 10.2 7.9–13.1 6.1 4.1–9.0 3.8 2.3–6.2 4.9 3.5–6.9
Maryland 15.1 12.5–18.2 7.9 5.4–11.4 11.5 9.4–14.1 6.2 4.6–8.4 5.0 3.4–7.4 5.7 4.6–7.0
Massachusetts 15.4 13.6–17.4 6.6 5.3–8.1 11.0 9.8–12.4 6.6 5.6–7.9 4.4 3.5–5.7 5.6 4.9–6.4
Michigan 18.8 16.4–21.6 9.3 7.0–12.2 14.0 12.2–16.0 8.3 6.5–10.4 5.9 4.4–7.8 7.1 5.7–8.7
Mississippi 17.2 14.0–20.9 9.0 6.7–11.9 13.3 11.2–15.7 8.3 6.3–10.9 5.1 3.7–7.1 6.9 5.6–8.5
Missouri 15.3 12.8–18.3 7.8 5.7–10.5 11.5 9.7–13.6 8.7 7.2–10.3 4.7 3.1–6.9 6.7 5.5–8.2
Montana 16.3 14.6–18.2 7.8 6.5–9.4 12.0 10.9–13.1 7.5 6.2–9.1 5.1 4.0–6.3 6.3 5.4–7.2
Nevada 15.2 12.8–17.9 7.1 5.3–9.4 11.1 9.5–13.0 7.3 5.5–9.5 6.0 4.4–8.3 6.6 5.3–8.2
New Hampshire — — — — — — — — — — — —
New Mexico — — — — — — — — — — — —
New York — — — — — — — — — — — —
North Carolina — — — — — — 7.5 6.3–8.8 8.6 6.5–11.4 8.1 6.9–9.4
North Dakota 15.2 12.7–18.1 4.4 3.0–6.2 9.7 8.2–11.5 7.2 5.4–9.4 3.9 2.6–6.0 5.6 4.5–7.0
Ohio 14.2 11.6–17.1 8.4 6.7–10.5 11.2 9.6–13.1 8.1 6.7–9.9 7.4 5.6–9.6 7.8 6.8–8.9
Oklahoma 15.8 13.8–18.0 7.5 5.5–10.0 11.6 10.3–13.0 9.3 7.4–11.6 5.9 4.4–7.8 7.5 6.4–8.8
Rhode Island 13.8 11.9–16.1 8.6 6.4–11.5 11.3 9.7–13.1 6.6 4.5–9.5 6.7 4.7–9.4 6.7 4.9–9.0
South Carolina 14.4 11.3–18.1 10.1 7.4–13.7 12.3 10.2–14.7 6.6 4.3–9.9 7.0 4.8–10.2 6.9 5.0–9.3
South Dakota 17.0 14.2–20.3 7.3 5.2–10.2 12.1 9.8–14.9 5.9 3.5–9.6 4.1 3.1–5.5 5.0 3.6–6.8
Tennessee 17.1 15.2–19.1 5.6 4.0–7.9 11.5 10.3–12.8 8.4 6.7–10.5 4.1 3.3–5.1 6.2 5.3–7.3
Texas 16.5 14.3–18.9 7.7 6.5–9.1 12.0 10.6–13.6 8.3 6.9–9.9 5.8 4.6–7.3 7.0 6.0–8.2
Utah 16.4 13.9–19.2 7.1 5.1–9.8 11.7 9.4–14.4 6.3 4.6–8.4 6.1 4.3–8.7 6.2 4.9–7.9
Vermont — — — — — — 5.1 3.9–6.7 2.8 2.2–3.5 3.9 3.4–4.6
West Virginia 19.6 17.1–22.3 7.2 5.8–8.9 13.4 12.0–14.9 8.9 6.7–11.6 6.1 4.4–8.3 7.5 5.9–9.5
Wisconsin — — — — — — — — — — — —
Wyoming 17.8 15.3–20.5 10.8 9.1–12.7 14.3 12.8–16.0 7.2 5.6–9.2 8.3 6.5–10.5 7.9 6.5–9.6
Median 15.8 7.7 12.0 7.5 5.4 6.7
Range 13.8–20.9 4.4–10.8 9.7–14.3 5.1–9.3 2.8–10.9 3.9–8.6
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 14.4 11.9–17.2 10.3 8.2–12.8 12.5 10.8–14.4 4.2 3.0–5.9 3.6 2.5–5.2 4.1 3.2–5.3
Boston, MA 14.5 12.0–17.6 10.6 8.8–12.8 12.7 10.9–14.7 5.1 3.6–7.2 5.9 4.0–8.5 5.6 4.3–7.2
Broward County, FL 13.1 10.5–16.3 7.5 4.9–11.4 10.3 8.3–12.7 4.7 2.9–7.6 3.8 2.1–6.7 4.3 2.8–6.6
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC — — — — — — 3.9 2.7–5.6 4.4 2.8–7.1 4.3 3.1–6.0
Chicago, IL 12.1 8.6–16.8 8.4 5.1–13.6 10.4 7.8–13.9 6.8 4.7–9.6 7.2 4.2–12.2 7.0 4.9–9.9
Dallas, TX 12.8 9.7–16.7 9.0 6.6–12.1 10.9 8.8–13.6 5.9 3.9–8.9 6.4 4.3–9.6 6.2 4.7–8.1
DeKalb County, GA 11.4 9.6–13.3 7.9 6.3–9.8 9.6 8.4–11.0 4.3 3.2–5.7 4.4 3.1–6.0 4.5 3.5–5.6
Detroit, MI 13.9 11.8–16.3 10.2 8.4–12.3 12.2 10.7–13.8 4.2 3.2–5.5 4.8 3.2–7.0 4.5 3.6–5.8
District of Columbia 14.1 11.8–16.9 12.5 9.7–15.8 13.1 11.3–15.1 4.6 3.4–6.3 9.8 6.8–14.0 7.2 5.5–9.3
Hillsborough County, FL 16.5 13.2–20.4 11.1 7.1–16.7 14.0 11.5–17.0 12.5 9.9–15.6 7.4 5.3–10.4 10.3 8.2–12.8
Houston, TX 15.1 12.7–18.0 12.5 9.6–16.0 13.9 12.1–16.0 7.2 4.9–10.4 8.2 6.2–10.8 7.8 5.9–10.1
Los Angeles, CA 12.9 8.2–19.8 11.5 7.1–17.9 12.1 9.6–15.1 8.5 5.5–13.0 2.6 1.6–4.1 5.4 3.8–7.7
Memphis, TN 15.4 12.4–19.0 8.5 6.0–12.1 12.3 10.4–14.5 3.5 2.1–5.7 2.8 1.7–4.5 3.3 2.4–4.5
Miami-Dade County, FL 13.9 11.9–16.2 7.8 6.1–9.8 11.0 9.7–12.4 4.8 3.9–6.0 5.5 4.1–7.5 5.4 4.3–6.6
Milwaukee, WI — — — — — — — — — — — —
New York City, NY — — — — — — — — — — — —
Orange County, FL 14.0 10.9–17.8 8.2 6.0–11.1 11.1 9.0–13.6 5.4 3.5–8.2 4.2 2.5–6.9 4.7 3.3–6.7
Palm Beach County, FL 9.7 7.8–12.1 8.0 6.1–10.3 8.9 7.5–10.6 5.6 4.2–7.3 5.9 4.3–8.2 5.8 4.6–7.1
Philadelphia, PA 13.2 11.2–15.4 9.7 8.1–11.7 11.8 10.4–13.3 5.4 4.1–7.0 4.9 3.6–6.5 5.3 4.3–6.5
San Bernardino, CA 17.1 14.2–20.5 7.8 6.0–10.2 12.4 10.7–14.4 6.4 4.7–8.5 4.1 2.6–6.3 5.2 4.0–6.8
San Diego, CA 13.1 10.6–16.1 7.8 6.0–10.1 10.6 8.9–12.5 5.7 3.8–8.3 5.9 4.0–8.5 5.8 4.3–7.9
San Francisco, CA — — — — — — — — — — — —
Median 13.9 8.8 11.9 5.4 4.9 5.4
Range 9.7–17.1 7.5–12.5 8.9–14.0 3.5–12.5 2.6–9.8 3.3–10.3
* To lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days before the survey.
† Without a doctor’s advice.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 90

TABLE 90. Percentage of high school students who vomited or took laxatives,* by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United States,
Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 6.9 5.6–8.5 1.3 0.9–2.1 4.1 3.4–5.0
Black§ 3.5 2.6–4.7 2.5 1.8–3.6 3.0 2.5–3.7
Hispanic 7.0 5.4–8.9 3.7 2.6–5.2 5.3 4.3–6.7
Grade
9 5.5 4.4–7.0 2.1 1.5–3.0 3.8 3.1–4.7
10 7.6 5.6–10.3 1.8 1.2–2.5 4.7 3.6–6.1
11 5.7 4.2–7.6 2.1 1.3–3.4 4.0 3.0–5.2
12 6.6 5.2–8.3 2.6 1.6–4.2 4.6 3.7–5.7
Total 6.4 5.5–7.4 2.2 1.7–2.8 4.3 3.7–5.0
* To lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days before the survey.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
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Table 91

TABLE 91. Percentage of high school students who vomited or took laxatives,* by sex — selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Site % CI† % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 5.8 4.4–7.7 3.3 1.9–5.5 4.6 3.4–6.1
Arizona 8.6 7.0–10.5 5.3 3.9–7.1 6.9 5.6–8.5
Arkansas 8.1 6.2–10.5 5.6 3.4–9.0 6.8 5.1–9.0
Connecticut —§ — — — — —
Delaware 5.2 4.0–6.8 2.4 1.6–3.4 3.9 3.1–4.9
Florida 6.4 5.0–8.1 3.8 3.0–4.7 5.1 4.3–6.1
Georgia 6.9 5.3–8.9 4.5 3.3–6.1 5.8 4.6–7.4
Hawaii 7.8 5.4–11.1 7.9 4.8–12.7 7.9 6.1–10.0
Idaho 8.6 6.4–11.4 3.7 2.4–5.8 6.1 4.8–7.8
Illinois 7.4 5.4–9.9 3.2 1.9–5.1 5.2 3.9–7.1
Indiana 6.1 4.6–8.1 4.0 2.6–6.0 5.1 3.8–6.8
Iowa 5.4 3.9–7.4 2.5 1.4–4.4 3.9 3.1–4.9
Kansas 5.6 4.4–7.1 3.9 2.2–6.9 4.8 3.5–6.6
Kentucky 7.6 6.4–9.0 5.2 3.8–7.1 6.4 5.5–7.5
Maine 6.7 4.8–9.2 5.7 3.6–8.9 6.3 4.8–8.3
Maryland 6.3 4.4–9.0 6.4 4.5–8.9 6.5 5.0–8.4
Massachusetts 7.2 6.0–8.6 2.8 2.1–3.8 5.2 4.5–5.9
Michigan 8.1 7.1–9.3 3.7 2.9–4.8 6.0 5.4–6.6
Mississippi 6.3 4.6–8.6 4.7 2.9–7.5 5.7 4.3–7.5
Missouri 5.5 3.7–8.0 2.4 1.5–4.1 4.1 3.2–5.3
Montana 7.7 6.6–9.0 3.6 2.7–4.8 5.6 4.9–6.5
Nevada 7.4 5.6–9.7 2.6 1.7–3.9 5.0 4.0–6.3
New Hampshire — — — — — —
New Mexico 7.5 5.4–10.3 8.0 6.5–9.8 7.8 6.4–9.5
New York 7.0 5.8–8.5 5.1 3.8–6.9 6.2 5.0–7.5
North Carolina 5.7 4.4–7.3 4.2 2.9–6.0 4.9 3.8–6.3
North Dakota 6.5 4.9–8.6 2.4 1.4–4.2 4.4 3.4–5.7
Ohio 6.0 4.6–7.8 3.9 2.8–5.3 5.0 4.0–6.0
Oklahoma 5.2 4.1–6.5 2.1 1.3–3.4 3.6 2.9–4.4
Rhode Island 5.8 4.1–8.0 5.1 3.9–6.7 5.4 4.6–6.5
South Carolina 8.8 6.1–12.6 6.3 4.2–9.4 7.6 5.9–9.8
South Dakota 7.6 5.7–10.2 4.3 2.6–7.1 6.0 4.3–8.2
Tennessee 5.9 4.3–8.0 2.4 1.4–3.9 4.1 3.2–5.2
Texas 7.2 6.0–8.5 2.6 1.8–3.7 4.8 4.0–5.8
Utah 7.1 5.1–9.8 5.7 3.4–9.7 6.4 5.1–8.0
Vermont 7.5 5.5–10.1 2.3 1.7–3.0 4.9 4.0–5.8
West Virginia 6.5 4.9–8.5 4.1 2.4–7.2 5.4 4.1–7.0
Wisconsin — — — — — —
Wyoming 7.4 5.6–9.8 5.9 4.6–7.4 6.8 5.5–8.2
Median 6.9 3.9 5.4
Range 5.2–8.8 2.1–8.0 3.6–7.9
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 3.5 2.5–5.1 2.2 1.5–3.4 3.0 2.3–4.0
Boston, MA 5.3 3.7–7.6 6.0 4.1–8.8 5.8 4.3–7.6
Broward County, FL 5.2 3.9–7.0 2.8 1.4–5.6 4.0 2.9–5.5
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 4.6 3.3–6.5 4.0 2.3–6.8 4.3 3.1–5.9
Chicago, IL 5.8 3.7–9.2 4.6 2.7–7.6 5.3 3.7–7.3
Dallas, TX 8.4 6.2–11.4 5.1 3.6–7.1 6.8 5.5–8.4
DeKalb County, GA 6.0 4.8–7.5 4.1 2.9–5.7 5.1 4.2–6.2
Detroit, MI 5.0 3.8–6.6 5.6 4.0–7.6 5.4 4.3–6.7
District of Columbia 5.3 3.8–7.5 7.5 5.2–10.6 6.4 5.1–7.9
Hillsborough County, FL 9.2 6.9–12.2 6.3 3.7–10.7 7.9 5.9–10.6
Houston, TX 8.4 6.3–11.2 9.3 7.2–11.8 9.0 7.3–11.0
Los Angeles, CA 5.1 3.6–7.2 2.3 1.7–3.3 3.7 2.8–4.7
Memphis, TN 2.7 1.7–4.3 2.1 0.9–4.7 2.4 1.7–3.5
Miami-Dade County, FL 7.3 5.8–9.3 4.2 3.0–5.7 6.0 4.9–7.3
Milwaukee, WI — — — — — —
New York City, NY 6.3 5.4–7.4 3.6 2.5–5.2 5.1 4.4–5.9
Orange County, FL 4.9 3.2–7.3 3.7 2.4–5.7 4.3 3.1–5.9
Palm Beach County, FL 5.7 4.4–7.3 3.3 1.9–5.5 4.5 3.5–5.9
Philadelphia, PA 5.2 3.9–7.0 6.4 5.0–8.1 5.7 4.6–7.0
San Bernardino, CA 6.2 4.7–8.2 1.2 0.5–2.6 3.7 2.8–4.7
San Diego, CA 7.3 5.4–9.7 5.5 3.7–8.2 6.4 5.0–8.0
San Francisco, CA — — — — — —
Median 5.5 4.1 5.2
Range 2.7–9.2 1.2–9.3 2.4–9.0
* To lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days before the survey.
† 95% confidence interval.
§ Not available.
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Table 92

TABLE 92. Percentage of high school students who had lifetime asthma* and who had current asthma,† by sex, race/ethnicity, and
grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Lifetime asthma Current asthma
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
Whiteĥ 20.3 18.4–22.3 18.9 17.3–20.6 19.6 18.4–20.9 12.2 10.9–13.7 8.8 7.4–10.4 10.5 9.4–11.8
Blackĥ 23.3 19.7–27.4 24.6 21.8–27.6 24.0 21.6–26.5 15.6 13.1–18.6 13.6 11.5–16.1 14.7 12.8–16.8
Hispanic 19.3 16.5–22.5 17.7 14.8–20.9 18.5 16.0–21.2 11.4 9.2–14.0 7.7 6.1–9.6 9.5 8.0–11.4
Grade
9 19.9 17.5–22.4 19.8 18.0–21.6 19.8 18.3–21.5 12.7 10.9–14.8 10.9 9.1–13.1 11.8 10.5–13.3
10 21.5 19.0–24.1 20.3 17.3–23.7 20.9 19.0–23.0 13.3 11.0–16.1 9.5 7.7–11.6 11.4 9.8–13.2
11 21.9 19.8–24.2 19.6 17.2–22.4 20.9 19.3–22.6 12.3 10.4–14.5 8.3 6.8–10.2 10.4 9.3–11.7
12 19.0 16.1–22.3 19.5 17.0–22.2 19.2 17.0–21.6 11.3 8.7–14.7 8.1 6.7–9.7 9.7 8.1–11.6
Total 20.7 19.2–22.2 19.9 18.6–21.3 20.3 19.2–21.4 12.5 11.3–13.8 9.3 8.4–10.3 10.9 10.1–11.9
*Ever told by a doctor or nurse that they had asthma.
†Ever told by a doctor or nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma.
§95% confidence interval.
ĥNon-Hispanic.
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Table 93

TABLE 93. Percentage of high school students who had lifetime asthma* and who had current asthma,† by sex — selected U.S.
sites, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Lifetime asthma Current asthma
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Site % CI§ % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
State surveys
Alaska 18.1 15.1–21.5 17.7 14.7–21.2 18.2 16.3–20.3 9.3 7.0–12.3 7.8 5.7–10.5 8.7 7.0–10.6
Arizona 24.6 21.9–27.5 21.3 18.2–24.8 23.0 21.0–25.1 13.5 11.0–16.5 7.9 6.2–10.2 10.8 9.4–12.3
Arkansas 20.7 17.4–24.5 21.1 17.5–25.2 21.1 18.0–24.5 11.3 8.5–14.9 8.7 6.2–12.0 10.1 7.9–12.7
Connecticut 28.6 25.4–32.1 26.2 23.5–29.0 27.4 25.0–30.0 16.0 13.5–18.8 12.4 10.2–15.1 14.2 12.5–16.0
Delaware —ĥ — — — — — — — — — — —
Florida 19.1 17.4–20.8 20.2 18.3–22.3 19.6 18.3–21.0 10.8 9.4–12.4 8.1 6.7–9.8 9.4 8.2–10.7
Georgia 19.8 18.0–21.8 24.3 20.8–28.2 22.1 20.1–24.2 10.4 9.0–12.0 9.3 7.4–11.7 9.9 8.6–11.3
Hawaii 26.9 23.4–30.8 30.3 25.3–35.9 28.7 25.4–32.2 13.2 10.3–16.7 10.6 6.7–16.2 11.9 9.0–15.5
Idaho 19.4 15.8–23.6 17.6 14.1–21.7 18.5 16.1–21.2 — — — — — —
Illinois 20.6 17.3–24.3 19.2 16.8–21.9 20.0 17.9–22.3 13.4 10.4–17.2 7.5 5.9–9.5 10.6 8.6–12.9
Indiana 24.7 20.6–29.2 20.5 17.8–23.5 22.5 19.6–25.6 15.5 12.7–18.8 8.9 6.5–12.0 12.2 9.9–15.0
Iowa 18.5 15.7–21.6 12.4 9.3–16.3 15.4 13.0–18.2 10.5 8.6–12.7 7.2 5.0–10.3 8.8 7.2–10.7
Kansas 18.9 15.4–23.0 21.3 17.9–25.2 20.1 17.7–22.7 10.4 8.3–12.9 10.6 8.7–12.9 10.4 9.1–11.9
Kentucky 25.4 23.2–27.6 26.6 24.5–28.9 26.1 24.5–27.7 13.1 11.2–15.3 11.2 9.5–13.1 12.1 10.8–13.6
Maine 23.4 19.4–28.0 28.0 24.0–32.4 25.8 22.7–29.1 13.6 10.6–17.2 14.1 12.7–15.7 13.9 12.3–15.6
Maryland 22.1 19.1–25.3 25.4 21.6–29.6 23.7 20.4–27.4 14.2 12.0–16.7 12.6 9.5–16.6 13.4 11.0–16.4
Massachusetts — — — — — — — — — — — —
Michigan 22.3 19.4–25.4 24.8 21.5–28.3 23.5 21.6–25.5 11.5 9.5–13.8 11.5 8.9–14.6 11.4 10.0–13.1
Mississippi 15.7 12.9–19.0 18.9 17.0–21.0 17.2 15.4–19.3 8.3 6.7–10.2 8.6 6.7–11.0 8.4 7.2–9.8
Missouri 20.9 17.9–24.3 20.6 15.9–26.4 20.8 18.4–23.5 13.2 10.5–16.5 9.9 7.2–13.6 11.6 9.5–14.0
Montana 21.4 19.4–23.5 20.3 18.4–22.4 20.9 19.3–22.6 12.4 11.0–14.0 9.8 8.3–11.6 11.1 9.9–12.4
Nevada — — — — — — — — — — — —
New Hampshire — — — — — — — — — — — —
New Mexico 24.5 21.9–27.3 25.3 20.8–30.5 24.9 22.0–28.0 13.8 11.5–16.6 10.2 7.9–13.0 12.1 10.7–13.5
New York 21.9 19.8–24.1 26.0 23.4–28.8 23.9 22.2–25.7 — — — — — —
North Carolina 20.6 17.3–24.3 20.1 17.8–22.6 20.3 18.1–22.8 12.6 10.3–15.3 6.4 5.1–8.1 9.5 8.2–11.0
North Dakota 18.0 15.0–21.5 20.8 18.2–23.7 19.4 17.5–21.5 10.7 8.7–13.1 10.0 8.0–12.4 10.3 8.9–12.0
Ohio 21.3 18.9–23.9 21.3 19.0–23.7 21.3 19.7–23.1 — — — — — —
Oklahoma 20.7 18.5–23.0 19.5 16.4–23.0 20.0 18.3–21.9 12.0 9.8–14.6 9.2 7.3–11.5 10.6 9.0–12.3
Rhode Island 24.4 21.7–27.3 27.2 24.7–29.8 25.8 24.1–27.6 14.5 12.0–17.4 12.6 10.6–14.9 13.6 12.1–15.2
South Carolina 18.1 14.1–22.9 26.5 23.6–29.5 22.5 20.3–24.9 9.0 6.6–12.2 10.7 8.5–13.5 9.9 8.4–11.7
South Dakota 15.9 12.7–19.7 16.3 13.5–19.5 16.1 13.7–18.8 — — — — — —
Tennessee 18.8 16.1–21.9 21.4 18.7–24.4 20.2 18.2–22.4 10.4 8.3–12.9 9.0 7.0–11.5 9.7 8.3–11.4
Texas 19.8 17.2–22.7 19.7 17.2–22.4 19.7 17.5–22.2 11.6 9.3–14.3 8.1 6.6–10.1 9.8 8.4–11.5
Utah 22.7 17.4–29.1 22.8 18.7–27.6 22.7 18.4–27.5 12.2 9.7–15.3 14.0 9.8–19.5 13.0 10.2–16.6
Vermont — — — — — — — — — — — —
West Virginia 25.9 21.4–30.9 23.7 19.4–28.5 24.6 21.5–28.1 16.8 13.1–21.3 11.4 8.8–14.8 14.0 11.7–16.8
Wisconsin 24.3 21.2–27.7 18.8 17.0–20.6 21.5 19.6–23.4 15.0 12.5–17.9 9.8 8.1–11.8 12.4 10.8–14.1
Wyoming 23.9 21.0–27.0 22.4 20.1–24.9 23.1 21.1–25.2 13.8 11.8–16.2 9.7 8.3–11.3 11.7 10.4–13.0
Median 21.1 21.3 21.4 12.5 9.8 10.9
Range 15.7–28.6 12.4–30.3 15.4–28.7 8.3–16.8 6.4–14.1 8.4–14.2
Local surveys
Baltimore, MD 27.6 24.4–31.1 28.6 25.2–32.2 27.9 25.6–30.3 21.1 18.1–24.4 18.8 15.5–22.7 19.9 17.7–22.4
Boston, MA 24.7 21.6–28.1 22.6 19.2–26.4 23.7 21.3–26.1 13.8 11.7–16.4 9.7 7.7–12.2 11.8 10.3–13.6
Broward County, FL 20.0 15.8–25.0 17.9 14.7–21.7 19.0 16.5–21.9 9.4 7.0–12.5 6.3 3.7–10.5 7.8 5.9–10.4
Charlotte-Mecklenburg, NC 16.2 13.6–19.1 19.7 16.7–23.2 18.1 16.1–20.3 — — — — — —
Chicago, IL 21.8 18.5–25.6 22.6 17.7–28.4 22.2 18.9–26.0 10.2 7.6–13.5 8.5 5.5–13.0 9.4 7.0–12.5
Dallas, TX 18.5 14.9–22.8 22.0 19.0–25.3 20.2 17.8–22.9 10.9 8.4–14.0 9.8 7.5–12.7 10.4 8.5–12.6
DeKalb County, GA 23.5 21.4–25.8 26.9 24.2–29.8 25.3 23.6–27.1 13.1 11.1–15.4 11.7 9.9–13.8 12.5 11.1–13.9
Detroit, MI 22.3 19.7–25.2 27.0 23.6–30.6 24.6 22.3–27.1 12.2 10.3–14.4 10.7 8.9–12.9 11.5 10.2–13.1
District of Columbia 24.1 21.1–27.4 27.7 23.7–32.1 26.1 23.6–28.7 14.1 11.8–16.8 10.8 8.4–13.8 12.9 11.2–14.8
Hillsborough County, FL 21.8 18.5–25.6 24.9 21.4–28.8 23.4 20.6–26.4 8.3 6.3–11.0 7.8 5.7–10.6 8.1 6.7–9.7
Houston, TX 17.6 14.5–21.3 21.0 18.1–24.3 19.3 17.0–21.8 8.1 5.8–11.4 5.4 3.9–7.4 6.8 5.3–8.7
Los Angeles, CA 13.6 9.6–19.1 16.6 12.2–22.3 15.1 11.4–19.6 6.4 3.9–10.5 7.6 4.4–12.6 6.9 4.4–10.8
Memphis, TN 17.9 14.9–21.3 20.5 16.2–25.5 19.2 16.3–22.5 11.7 9.6–14.2 9.5 6.4–13.8 10.7 8.9–12.8
Miami-Dade County, FL 18.8 16.6–21.2 20.9 18.2–24.0 19.8 18.0–21.7 8.6 6.9–10.6 6.9 5.5–8.8 7.8 6.7–9.1
Milwaukee, WI 27.3 24.3–30.5 23.8 20.5–27.3 25.5 23.4–27.9 15.7 13.2–18.6 11.7 9.3–14.4 13.8 12.1–15.8
New York City, NY 21.9 20.3–23.5 22.6 20.2–25.1 22.1 20.9–23.5 — — — — — —
Orange County, FL 16.4 13.6–19.6 21.8 17.9–26.2 19.1 16.3–22.2 9.8 7.6–12.5 8.9 6.1–12.8 9.3 7.4–11.8
Palm Beach County, FL 14.5 12.2–17.3 19.5 16.7–22.6 17.2 15.4–19.2 6.9 5.3–8.9 7.0 5.3–9.1 7.0 5.9–8.3
Philadelphia, PA 24.0 21.7–26.5 29.7 26.4–33.3 26.5 24.6–28.6 12.3 10.5–14.5 14.0 11.7–16.7 13.2 11.7–14.9
San Bernardino, CA 20.2 16.4–24.7 17.2 14.1–20.8 18.8 16.6–21.3 10.5 7.9–13.8 8.1 5.9–11.0 9.4 7.5–11.6
San Diego, CA 21.1 17.8–24.9 22.1 18.6–26.1 21.6 19.2–24.3 10.1 7.7–13.1 8.0 5.9–10.7 9.0 7.1–11.3
San Francisco, CA 16.4 14.0–19.0 20.8 18.4–23.6 18.6 16.8–20.5 — — — — — —
Median 20.6 22.0 20.9 10.5 8.9 9.4
Range 13.6–27.6 16.6–29.7 15.1–27.9 6.4–21.1 5.4–18.8 6.8–19.9
* Ever told by a doctor or nurse that they had asthma.
† Ever told by a doctor or nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma.
§ 95% confidence interval.
ĥ Not available.
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Table 94

TABLE 94. Percentage of high school students who most of the time or always wore sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher* and
who stayed in the shade, wore long pants, wore a long-sleeved shirt, or wore a hat that shaded their face, ears, and neck,* by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade — United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Routine sunscreen use Routine practice of sun-safety behaviors
Female Male Total Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI % CI % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 15.9 14.3–17.7 8.2 6.8–9.8 12.0 10.8–13.4 11.4 10.0–12.9 18.3 16.6–20.2 14.9 13.7–16.1
Black§ 6.2 4.5–8.4 3.5 2.5–4.8 4.9 3.8–6.2 23.3 20.0–26.9 18.9 16.1–22.1 21.1 19.2–23.2
Hispanic 10.6 8.8–12.7 5.2 3.7–7.2 7.9 6.7–9.2 19.1 16.1–22.6 22.7 20.5–25.0 20.9 18.7–23.3
Grade
9 14.4 12.3–16.8 7.4 5.7–9.5 10.8 9.2–12.6 15.4 13.1–18.0 21.0 18.4–23.7 18.2 16.2–20.5
10 13.6 11.5–16.1 6.4 5.0–8.2 10.0 8.6–11.5 16.5 14.0–19.3 18.3 15.3–21.7 17.4 15.2–19.8
11 12.9 10.9–15.3 6.5 4.8–8.8 9.7 8.3–11.4 14.8 12.7–17.2 18.0 15.3–21.1 16.4 14.3–18.7
12 13.8 11.7–16.1 7.4 5.7–9.6 10.6 9.2–12.3 14.8 12.7–17.1 20.1 17.5–23.1 17.4 15.8–19.2
Total 13.7 12.5–15.0 6.9 5.9–8.1 10.3 9.4–11.3 15.4 14.0–16.9 19.4 17.7–21.2 17.4 16.0–18.8
* When they were outside for more than 1 hour on a sunny day.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
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Table 95

TABLE 95. Percentage of high school students who had 8 or more hours of sleep,* by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade — United
States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007
Female Male Total
Category % CI† % CI % CI
Race/Ethnicity
White§ 27.5 24.7–30.5 34.2 30.9–37.6 30.8 28.1–33.7
Black§ 29.7 26.5–33.1 28.0 24.5–31.7 28.8 26.6–31.1
Hispanic 33.4 28.7–38.5 35.4 31.2–39.9 34.4 30.4–38.7
Grade
9 39.4 35.9–43.1 45.0 40.2–50.0 42.3 39.5–45.2
10 29.2 25.7–32.9 35.6 32.6–38.8 32.4 29.8–35.2
11 22.6 19.6–25.9 27.3 23.6–31.2 24.9 22.3–27.6
12 21.9 18.6–25.4 21.6 18.7–24.9 21.8 19.0–24.8
Total 28.7 26.8–30.8 33.4 30.9–35.9 31.1 29.1–33.1
* On an average school night.
†95% confidence interval.
§Non-Hispanic.
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Table 96

TABLE 96. National health objectives and leading health indicators from Healthy People 2010* measured by the Youth Risk
Behavior Survey (YRBS) — United States, 2007
Objective 2010 target 2007 YRBS
number Objective % %
3-9a Increase the proportion of adolescents in grades 9–12 who follow protective measures that may reduce the None 10.3
risk of skin cancer† set§
15-19 Increase use of safety beltsĥ 92.0 88.9
15-21 Increase the proportion of motorcyclists using helmets** 79.0 66.1
15-38 Reduce physical fighting among adolescents†† 32.0 35.5
15-39 Reduce weapon carrying by adolescents on school property§§ 4.9 5.9
18-2 Reduce the rate of suicide attempts by adolescentsĥĥ 1.0 2.0
22-6 Increase the proportion of adolescents who engage in moderate physical activity for at least 30 minutes on 35.0 26.2
5 or more of the previous 7 days***
22-7 Increase the proportion of adolescents who engage in vigorous physical activity that promotes cardiorespiratory 85.0 64.0
fitness 3 or more days per week for 20 or more minutes per occasion†††,§§§
22-9 Increase the proportion of adolescents who participate in daily school physical educationĥĥĥ 50.0 30.3
22-10 Increase the proportion of adolescents who spend at least 50% of school physical education class time being 50.0 38.4
physically active****
22-11 Increase the proportion of adolescents who view television 2 or fewer hours on a school day 75.0 64.6
25-11 Increase the proportion of adolescents who abstain from sexual intercourse or use condoms, if currently 95.0 86.7
sexually active††††,§§§
26-6 Reduce the proportion of adolescents who report that they rode, during the previous 30 days, with a driver 30.0 29.1
who had been drinking alcohol§§§§
27-2 Reduce tobacco use by adolescents
27-2a Reduce tobacco product use (past month)ĥĥĥĥ 21.0 25.7
27-2b Reduce cigarette use (past month)*****,§§§ 16.0 20.0
27-2c Reduce spit tobacco use (past month)††††† 1.0 7.9
27-2d Reduce cigar use (past month)§§§§§ 8.0 13.6
27-7 Increase tobacco-use cessation attempts by adolescent smokersĥĥĥĥĥ 84.0 57.3
* SOURCE: US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2010 (conference ed, in 2 vols). Washington, DC: US Department of
Health and Human Services; 2000. Available at http://www.healthypeople.gov.
† Wore sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher when outside for more than 1 hour on a sunny day most of the time or always.
§ Developmental objective: Healthy People 2010 target not set.
ĥ Wore a seat belt when riding in a car driven by someone else sometimes, most of the time, or always.
** Wore a helmet during the 12 months before the survey sometimes, most of the time, or always. Among the 24.3% of students nationwide who
had ridden a motorcycle during the 12 months before the survey.
†† Had been in a physical fight one or more times during the 12 months before the survey.
§§ Carried a weapon (e.g., a gun, knife, or club) on school property on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
ĥĥ Suicide attempt during the 12 months before the survey that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or an overdose that had to be treated by a doctor
or nurse.
*** Participated in physical activity that did not make students sweat and breathe hard (e.g., fast walking, slow bicycling, skating, pushing a lawn
mower, or mopping floors) for 30 or more minutes on 5 or more of the 7 days before the survey.
††† Exercised or participated in physical activity that made students sweat or breathe hard (e.g., basketball, soccer, running, swimming laps, fast
bicycling, fast dancing, or similar aerobic activities) for 20 or more minutes on 3 or more of the 7 days preceding the survey.
§§§ Leading health indicator.
ĥĥĥ Attended PE class 5 days in an average week when in school.
**** Spent more than 20 minutes exercising or playing sports during an average physical education class three to five times/week.
†††† Never had sexual intercourse, did not have sexual intercourse during the 3 months before the survey, or, among those currently sexually active,
used a condom during the last sexual intercourse.
§§§§ Rode in a car or other vehicle driven by someone who had been drinking alcohol one or more times during the 30 days before the survey.
ĥĥĥĥ Used cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, or cigars on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
***** Smoked cigarettes on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
††††† Used chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
§§§§§ Smoked cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.
ĥĥĥĥĥ Ever smoked cigarettes daily and tried to quit smoking cigarettes during the 12 months before the survey.
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Box

BOX. Weighted and unweighted state and local surveys
conducted as part of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance
System, by year of survey, number of states, and number of
large districts — United States, 1991–2007
Survey No. of states No. of districts
year Weighted Unweighted Weighted Unweighted
1991 9 17 7 4
1993 22 18 9 5
1995 22 17 12 5
1997 24 14 15 2
1999 22 19 14 3
2001 22 15 14 5
2003 32 11 20 2
2005 40 4 21 2
2007 39 5 22 0
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Date last reviewed: 5/20/2008

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