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State-Specific Prevalence of Selected Health Behaviors, by Race and Ethnicity -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

Julie C. Bolen, Ph.D.
Luann Rhodes, M.P.A., M.P.H.
Eve E. Powell-Griner, Ph.D.
Shayne D. Bland, M.Sc.
Deborah Holtzman, Ph.D.
Division of Adult and Community Health
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

Abstract

Problem/Condition: In the United States, disparities in risks for chronic disease (e.g., diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer) and injury exist among racial and ethnic groups. This report summarizes findings from the 1997 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) of the distribution of access to health care, health-status indicators, health-risk behaviors, and use of clinical preventive services across five racial and ethnic groups (i.e., whites, blacks, Hispanics, American Indians or Alaska Natives, and Asians or Pacific Islanders) and by state.

Reporting Period Covered: 1997.

Description of System: The BRFSS is a state-based telephone survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized, adult (i.e., persons aged greater than or equal to 18 years) population. In 1997, all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico participated in the BRFSS.

Results: Variations in risk for chronic disease and injury among racial and ethnic groups exist both within states and across states. For example, in Arizona, 11.0% of whites, 26.2% of Hispanics, and 50.5% of American Indians or Alaska Natives reported having no health insurance. Across states, the median percentage of adults who reported not having this insurance ranged from 10.8% for whites to 24.5% for American Indians or Alaska Natives. Other findings are as follows. Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians or Alaska Natives, and Asians or Pacific Islanders were more likely than whites to report poor access to health care (i.e., no health-care coverage and cost as a barrier to obtaining health care). Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians or Alaska Natives were more likely than whites and Asians or Pacific Islanders to report fair or poor health status, obesity, diabetes, and no leisure-time physical activity. Blacks were substantially more likely than other racial or ethnic groups to report high blood pressure. Among all groups, American Indians or Alaska Natives were the most likely to report cigarette smoking. Except for Asians or Pacific Islanders, the median percentage of adults who reported not always wearing a safety belt while driving or riding in a car was greater than or equal to 30%. The Papanicolaou test was the most commonly reported screening measure: greater than or equal to 81% of white, black, and Hispanic women with an intact uterine cervix reported having had one in the past 3 years. Among white, black, and Hispanic women aged greater than or equal to 50 years, greater than or equal to 63% reported having had a mammogram in the past 2 years. Approximately two thirds of white, black, and Hispanic women aged greater than or equal to 50 years reported having had both a mammogram and a clinical breast examination in the past 2 years; this behavior was least common among Hispanics and most common among blacks. Screening for colorectal cancer was low among whites, blacks, and Hispanics aged greater than or equal to 50 years: in each racial or ethnic group, less than or equal to 20% reported having used a home-kit blood stool test in the past year, and less than or equal to 30% reported having had a sigmoidoscopy within the last 5 years.

Interpretation: Differences in median percentages between racial and ethnic groups, as well as between states within each racial and ethnic group, are likely mediated by various factors. According to published literature, socioeconomic factors (e.g., age distribution, educational attainment, employment status, and poverty), lifestyle behaviors (e.g., lack of physical activity, alcohol intake, and cigarette smoking), aspects of the social environment (e.g., educational and economic opportunities, neighborhood and work conditions, and state and local laws enacted to discourage high-risk behaviors), and factors affecting the health-care system (e.g., access to health care, and cost and availability of screening for diseases and health-risk factors) may be associated with these differences.

Action Taken: States will continue to use the BRFSS to collect information about health-risk behaviors among various racial and ethnic groups. Analysis of these data will enable states to monitor factors that may affect the rate of chronic disease- and injury-related morbidity and mortality and to develop public health programs and policies to address these problems.

INTRODUCTION

Behaviors (e.g., physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking) can contribute to chronic disease- and injury-related morbidity and mortality in the United States (1). Preventive health practices (e.g., cholesterol screening, mammography, the blood stool test, and sigmoidoscopy) can help identify early stages of chronic disease (e.g., heart disease, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer), thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality rates from these leading causes of death among the U.S. adult (i.e., persons aged greater than or equal to 18 years) population (2). Increasing the use of screening for chronic disease and reducing high-risk behaviors are among the year 2000 national health objectives (3).

In the United States, disparities in risk for chronic disease and injury exist between non-Hispanic whites and persons belonging to other racial or ethnic groups (4). For example, in 1996 blacks had the highest death rates for seven causes of deaths, and American Indians or Alaska Natives had the highest death rates for two of the causes (Table 1). Conversely, Asians or Pacific Islanders had the lowest death rates for six of the causes of death, and Hispanics had the lowest death rates for four causes. In 1970, persons in racial and ethnic minority groups accounted for 16% of the population; by 1998, this proportion had increased to 27%. The proportion is expected to continue increasing, to nearly 50% by 2050 (5).

Although persons in racial and ethnic minority groups are accounting for increasingly larger proportions of the U.S. population, information about the health behaviors of persons in minority groups is insufficient, especially at the state and local levels (6). Ongoing state-specific information is important in identifying or monitoring the prevalence of access to health care, health-status indicators, health-risk behaviors, and use of clinical preventive services among various racial and ethnic groups. These data can be used to identify disparities among racial and ethnic groups and to plan, implement, and evaluate culturally appropriate prevention programs at the state and local levels.

State-specific data about modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases and other leading causes of death among adults are collected each year through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an ongoing surveillance system. The BRFSS is administered by state health departments each month in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.* This system can be used to measure achievement toward national health objectives (3) and specific state objectives. The history, rationale and use of the BRFSS have been previously described (7-10). In this report, 1997 state-specific BRFSS estimates of access to health care, health-status indicators, health-risk behaviors, and use of clinical preventive services are presented for five racial and ethnic groups.

METHODS

Sampling

Each state health department used random digit dialing to select samples of adults in households with telephone. The samples represent each state's civilian, noninstitutionalized, adult population (7). States used the three-stage cluster sampling based on the Waksberg method (11) or simple random sampling, stratified random sampling, or other sampling designs.

Questionnaire

The BRFSS includes a core set of questions asked in all participating states each year and a rotating set of core questions asked every other year. Rotating core questions asked in 1997 were about awareness of high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol, alcohol use, safety belt use, testing for cholesterol, and colorectal cancer screening. Because the rotating core question regarding leisure-time physical activity was not asked in 1997, the 1996 data for this health behavior are used in this report.

Language Barriers

If a substantial portion of a state's population does not speak English proficiently, the state can use a Spanish version of the core questionnaire provided by CDC. If the interviewer determines that the respondent is not proficient in the available languages, the interviewer does not administer the survey and notes language barrier as the reason for ending the telephone call.

Data Collection and Processing

In each state, during the interview period in each month, BRFSS data are collected from randomly selected adults. The data are sent to CDC after the monthly interviewing cycle ends. CDC edits and checks the reliability of the data collected.

A computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) system, which permits direct entry of data into a computer file during an interview, was used in 49 states in 1997. CATI helps reduce errors in data collection by facilitating data coding and entry and by enabling monitoring of the interviewers.

Data Weighting and Analysis

CDC aggregates the edited monthly data files to create a yearly sample for each state. Each state's yearly data file is weighted to the respondent's probability of selection and to the age- and sex-specific or race-, age-, sex-specific population from the most current census data (or intercensal estimates) for each state (9,12). CDC uses these weighted data to estimate the prevalence of risk factors for each state's population. SUDAAN, a software package for analyzing complex survey data, is used to calculate the standard errors and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) around the prevalence estimates (13).

In 1997, the number of interviews completed in each state ranged from 1,505 to 4,923 (median: 2,340). Response rates were calculated according to the methodology of the Council of American Survey Research Organization (CASRO) (14) and ranged from 36.7% to 88.9% (median: 62.1%).

Each BRFSS respondent reports his or her race and ethnicity. These self-reports were the basis of the five categories used in this report: white, black, Hispanic, American Indian or Alaska Native, and Asian or Pacific Islander. Any respondent reporting Hispanic ethnicity was categorized as Hispanic, regardless of race. Survey respondents who reported they were of another race and not Hispanic (0.6% of respondents) and those who replied "don't know" or refused to answer the questions on both race and ethnicity (less than 0.5% of respondents) were excluded from this analysis. In this report, state-level estimates for any race- and ethnicity-specific group that had less than 50 respondents are considered unstable and are not shown. No statistical testing was performed for comparisons presented in this report; therefore, these findings should be considered descriptive.

RESULTS

In the 1997 BRFSS, whites comprised 75.4% of the respondent group (Table 2). Blacks represented 9.7% of the cohort, Hispanics represented 11.1%, American Indians or Alaska Natives accounted for 1.0%, and Asians or Pacific Islanders accounted for 2.8%. The number of respondents was sufficient (i.e., greater than or equal to 50) in 51 states for whites, 35 states for blacks, 36 states for Hispanics, 11 states for American Indians or Alaska Natives, and 10 states for Asians or Pacific Islanders. Survey questions that were restricted to adults of a certain age (e.g., colorectal cancer screening among persons aged greater than or equal to 50 years) or sex (e.g., breast cancer screening among women) further reduced the number of states that had a sufficient number of respondents for analysis.

The factors related to access to health care, health-status indicators, and health-risk behaviors (described in Tables 3-16) are those that place adults at high risk for chronic disease and injury. In contrast, use of clinical preventive services (described in Tables 17-23) reduces the risk of chronic disease, because screening allows early detection and treatment.

Access to Health Care

Low Educational Attainment

The median percentage of adults who reported having less than a high school education was 9.8% for whites (range: 0.7%-22.2%), 17.2% for blacks (range: 2.8%-31.0%), 20.9% for Hispanics (range: 11.3%-47.4%), 17.0% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (range: 3.4%-32.0%), and 9.5% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (range: 3.5%-23.9%) (Table 3).

Lack of Health-Care Coverage

The median percentage of adults who reported that they did not have any kind of health-care coverage, including prepaid plans (e.g., health maintenance organizations) and government plans (e.g., Medicare), varied considerably between states and between racial and ethnic groups (Table 4). Hispanics and American Indians or Alaska Natives were more than twice as likely as whites to lack health-care coverage. The median percentage of respondents who were uninsured was 10.8% for whites (range: 6.4%-18.4%), 16.4% for blacks (range: 5.8%-34.9%), 22.6% for Hispanics (range: 1.3%-44.9%), 24.5% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (range: 12.5%-50.5%), and 14.3% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (range: 4.8%-31.1%).

Cost as a Barrier to Obtaining Health Care

The median percentage of adults who reported they needed to see a doctor in the last 12 months but could not because of the cost, irrespective of insurance status, ranged from 9.4% to 16.2% (Table 5). Whites were the least likely racial or ethnic group to report that cost was a barrier to obtaining health care. The median percentage was 9.4% for whites (range: 5.4%-24.3%), 13.2% for blacks (range: 6.6%-27.7%), 16.2% for Hispanics (range: 7.9%-30.1%), 12.6% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (range: 9.2%-26.7%), and 11.6% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (range: 4.7%-16.3%).

No Routine Physical Examination

Blacks were the least likely racial or ethnic group to report having had no routine physical examination within the past 2 years (Table 6). The median percentage of BRFSS participants who reported not having had a recent, routine physical examination was 18.0% for whites (range: 11.6%-28.4%), 8.7% for blacks (range: 4.7%-19.3%), 18.2% for Hispanics (range: 7.7%-33.9%), 14.5% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (range: 8.8%-30.0%), and 17.1% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (range: 5.9%-25.2%).

Health-Status Indicators

Fair or Poor Health Status

The race- and ethnicity-specific median percentage of adults who reported fair or poor health status ranged from 8.8% to 19.4% (Table 7). The median percentage was 11.6% for whites (range: 3.4%-21.7%), 19.4% for blacks (range: 10.3%-30.5%), 16.1% for Hispanics (range: 2.1%-35.2%), 17.5% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (range: 10.1%-35.4%), and 8.8% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (range: 5.6%-17.2%).

Obesity

A U.S. man or woman having a body mass index of greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 is considered obese (15). This criterion conforms to World Health Organization guidelines (16). In the 1997 BRFSS, respondents were asked their weight and height, and body mass index was calculated. More than one-fourth of blacks and American Indians or Alaska Natives were determined to be obese (Table 8). The median percentage of respondents who were obese was 15.6% for whites (range: 5.8%-21.2%), 26.4% for blacks (range: 7.6%-33.2%), 18.2% for Hispanics (range: 8.1%-34.7%), 30.1% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (range: 13.0%-32.3%), and 4.8% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (range: 1.7%-16.9%).

Awareness of Certain Medical Conditions

High Blood Pressure. The median percentage of adults who reported having ever been told by a health professional that their blood pressure was high was 23.0% for whites (range: 11.0%-29.6%), 30.9% for blacks (range: 21.9%-45.4%), 18.6% for Hispanics (range: 11.4%-28.4%), 20.7% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (range: 16.6%-30.7%), and 16.3% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (range: 4.5%-27.9%) (Table 9).

Diabetes. The median percentage of adults who reported having ever been told by a health professional that they had diabetes was less than 8% in each racial and ethnic group (Table 10). The median percentage was 4.4% for whites (range: 0.7%-6.2%), 7.6% for blacks (range: 2.6%-17.9%), 5.5% for Hispanics (range: 0.4%-14.4%), 7.6% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (range: 3.3%-14.0%), and 4.6% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (range: 0.0%-8.2%).

High Blood Cholesterol. The racial- and ethnic-specific median percentages of adults who had had their blood cholesterol checked and reported having ever been told by a health professional that they had high blood cholesterol were very similar, from 25.6% for Hispanics to 29.7% for whites (Table 11). The median percentage was 29.7% for whites (range: 14.3%-35.2%), 26.0% for blacks (range: 7.6%-36.7%), 25.6% for Hispanics (range: 12.5%-41.0%), and 27.3% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (range: 16.3%-35.8%). In the states that had a sufficient number of American Indian or Alaska Native respondents for this question, the percentage was 26.0% (95% CI: 17.7%-34.2%) for Alaska, 28.6% (95% CI: 14.2%-42.9%) for Oklahoma, and 26.5% (95% CI: 9.3%-43.8%) for Washington.

Health-Risk Behaviors

No Leisure-Time Physical Activity

The BRFSS rotating core question on leisure-time physical activity was asked in 1996 but not in 1997. Leisure-time physical activity is exercise, recreation, or physical activities (e.g., running, calisthenics, golfing, gardening, or walking) that are not performed as part of regular job duties. The median percentage of persons who reported no leisure-time physical activity was greater than or equal to 25% in each racial and ethnic group (Table 12). For each group, the percentage varied by greater than or equal to 17 percentage points across states. The percentage ranged from 13.0% to 50.6% for whites (median: 25.1%), from 17.8% to 54.6% for blacks (median: 38.2%), from 15.0% to 51.9% for Hispanics (median: 34.2%), from 26.7% to 43.2% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (median: 37.2%), and from 21.5% to 40.3% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (median: 28.9%).

Alcohol Consumption

Current Drinking. For each racial and ethnic group, the median percentage of adults who reported current drinking (i.e., consumption of greater than or equal to 1 drink of beer, wine, wine cooler, or liquor in the past month) varied across states by greater than or equal to 33 percentage points (Table 13). The range was 27.0%-71.3% for whites (median: 55.4%), 25.1%-73.2% for blacks (median: 40.4%), 26.5%-70.0% for Hispanics (median: 50.8%), 30.8%-64.2% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (median: 50.5%), and 10.2%-58.5% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (median: 38.2%).

Binge Drinking. Asians or Pacific Islanders were the group least likely to report binge drinking (i.e., consumption of greater than or equal to 5 drinks on at least one occasion in the past month); American Indians or Alaska Natives were the most likely to report this behavior (Table 14). The median percentage of adults who reported binge drinking was 14.3% for whites (range: 7.2%-23.6%), 8.7% for blacks (range: 3.0%-23.6%), 16.2% for Hispanics (range: 4.3%-28.0%), 18.9% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (range: 11.4%-30.2%), and 6.7% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (range: 0.0%-31.9%).

Cigarette Smoking

The median percentage of adults who reported having ever smoked greater than or equal to 100 cigarettes and currently smoked varied almost fourfold across the racial and ethnic groups (Table 15). The median percentage was 23.6% for whites (range: 13.3%-30.8%), 22.8% for blacks (range: 14.8%-37.0%), 23.1% for Hispanics (range: 10.5%-43.6%), 41.3% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (range: 3.1%-48.6%), and 10.7% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (range: 4.7%-36.1%).

Lack of Safety Belt Use

The median percentage of adults who reported not always wearing a safety belt while driving or riding in a car was greater than or equal to 30% for each racial and ethnic group except Asians or Pacific Islanders (Table 16). The median percentage of adults who reported this behavior was 30.0% for whites (range: 13.0%-60.6%), 37.6% for blacks (range: 11.7%-63.0%), 30.3% for Hispanics (range: 10.9%-57.5%), 40.9% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (range: 20.6%-75.1%), and 18.6% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (range: 9.4%-27.4%).

Clinical Preventive Services

Blood Cholesterol Checked

The median percentage of adults who reported having had their blood cholesterol checked within the last 5 years was greater than or equal to 55% in each racial and ethnic group (Table 17). The median percentage was 71.2% for whites (range: 56.1%-82.8%), 67.4% for blacks (range: 45.3%-81.7%), 59.3% for Hispanics (range: 45.7%-81.7%), 54.7% for American Indians or Alaska Natives (range: 49.9%-75.4%), and 67.8% for Asians or Pacific Islanders (range: 36.7%-74.1%).

Papanicolaou (Pap) Test

The median percentage of white, black, or Hispanic women with an intact uterine cervix who reported having had a Pap test in the past 3 years was greater than or equal to 81% (Table 18). The median percentage was 84.7% for whites (range: 77.7%-93.4%), 91.1% for blacks (range: 83.5%-97.0%), and 80.9% for Hispanics (range: 69.2%-92.9%). In Alaska, the only state that had greater than or equal to 50 Native American or Alaska Native respondents for this question, the percentage of women with an intact uterine cervix who reported having had a recent Pap test was 95.5% (95% CI: 91.1%-100.0%). In the states that had a sufficient number of Asian or Pacific Islander respondents for this question, the percentage was 84.2% for Hawaii (95% CI: 80.5%-88.0%), 75.9% for New York (95% CI: 63.5%-88.3%), and 84.1% for Washington (95% CI: 73.6%-94.5%).

Breast Cancer Screening

Mammogram. The percentage of women aged greater than or equal to 50 years who reported having had a mammogram in the past 2 years was 73.7% for whites (range: 58.7%-89.7%), 76.1% for blacks (range: 44.3%-85.5%), and 63.5% for Hispanics (range: 59.7%-79.6%) (Table 19). Alaska was the only state that had greater than or equal to 50 Native American or Alaska Native respondents to this question; the percentage who reported having had a recent mammogram was 93.5% (95% CI: 87.7%-99.2%). Hawaii was the only state that had greater than or equal to 50 Asian or Pacific Islander respondents; the percentage was 80.7% (95% CI: 75.2%-86.2%).

Clinical Breast Examination. The median percentage of white, black, or Hispanic women aged greater than or equal to 50 years who reported having had a clinical breast exam in the past 2 years was greater than 75% (Table 20). The median percentage was 77.5% for whites (range: 64.7%-88.4%), 78.2% for blacks (range: 57.6%-90.0%), and 75.5% for Hispanics (range: 58.3%-78.7%). In Alaska, the only state that had greater than or equal to 50 American Indians or Alaska Native respondents for this question, the percentage of women who reported having had a recent clinical breast exam was 93.4% (95% CI: 87.1%-99.7%). In Hawaii, the only state with a sufficient number of Asian or Pacific Islander respondents, the percentage was 77.8% (95% CI: 71.3%-84.3%).

Mammogram plus Clinical Breast Exam. The median percentage of women aged greater than or equal to 50 years who reported having had both a mammogram and a clinical breast exam in the past 2 years was 67.6% for whites (range: 51.3%-81.3%), 67.8% for blacks (range: 35.7%-79.5%), and 57.8% for Hispanics (range: 53.7-72.3) (Table 21). Alaska was the only state that had greater than or equal to 50 American Indian or Alaska Native respondents for this question; 88.5% reported having had both a mammogram and a clinical breast exam in the past 2 years (95% CI: 80.1%-96.8%). Hawaii was the only state that had greater than or equal to 50 Asian or Pacific Islander respondents; 71.2% reported having had both screening procedures recently (95% CI: 64.3%-78.2%).

Colorectal Cancer Screening

Home-Kit Blood Stool Test. A blood stool test (also called fecal occult blood test) is a test to determine whether the stool contains blood. The test may be done at home with a special kit. The median percentage of adults aged greater than or equal to 50 years who reported having used a home-kit blood stool test in the past year was 18.2% for whites (range: 9.1%-31.2%), 20.3% for blacks (range: 3.0%-43.3%), and 14.2% for Hispanics (range: 5.8%-28.6%) (Table 22). In Alaska, the only state that had greater than or equal to 50 Native American or Alaska Native respondents, the percentage who reported having recently used a home-kit blood stool test was 12.3% (95% CI: 4.3%-20.4%). Two states had greater than or equal to 50 Asian or Pacific Islander respondents for this question; the percentage was 2.6% in California (95% CI: 0.0%-6.2%) and 23.8% in Hawaii (95% CI: 18.9%-28.7%).

Sigmoidoscopy. Sigmoidoscopy (also called proctoscopy) is a procedure involving a thin tube being inserted into the rectum to view the bowel for signs of cancer and other health problems. The median percentage of adults aged greater than or equal to 50 years who reported having had a sigmoidoscopy within the last 5 years was 30.4% for whites (range: 15.6%-49.1%), 28.2% for blacks (range: 10.9%-38.3%), and 22.4% for Hispanics (range: 18.1%-40.7%) (Table 23). In Alaska, the only state that had greater than or equal to 50 American Indian or Alaska Native respondents for this question, the percentage who reported having had a recent sigmoidoscopy was 27.6% (95% CI: 16.7%-38.5%). Two states had greater than or equal to 50 Asian or Pacific Islander respondents to this question; the percentage was 24.3% in California (95% CI: 11.4%-37.2%) and 40.7% in Hawaii (95% CI: 34.9%-46.5%).

DISCUSSION

Adults in the United States continue to engage in behaviors that increase their risk of chronic disease and injury (1). Since 1984, BRFSS data have documented substantial state-to-state variation in the prevalence of these behaviors (8,17-24). This report presents 1997 BRFSS data by state and documents disparities in the prevalence of health-status indicators, health-risk behaviors, and receipt of clinical preventive services across five racial and ethnic groups (a summary is provided in Table 24).

The differences in median percentages between racial and ethnic groups, as well as between states within each racial and ethnic group, are likely mediated by various factors. Socioeconomic factors (e.g., age distribution, educational attainment, employment status, and poverty), lifestyle behaviors (e.g., lack of physical activity, alcohol intake, and cigarette smoking), aspects of the social environment (e.g., educational and economic opportunities, neighborhood and work conditions, and state and local laws enacted to discourage high-risk behaviors), and factors affecting the health-care system (e.g., access to health care, and cost and availability of screening for diseases and health-risk factors) are thought to be major reasons for such differences (25-28). Level of education is highly correlated with the prevalence of many health risks (e.g., obesity, lack of physical activity, and cigarette smoking) (27,29-31). In this report, the percentage of adults who did not have at least a high school education in 1997 varied more than twofold across the five racial and ethnic groups. Persons in the United States who have more education usually have higher incomes, are more likely to have health-care coverage, and perhaps are better able to access and use the health-care system (4,31). In addition, having health insurance is closely associated with employment status. If a person is unemployed or is employed in a part-time or low-wage job, employee health benefits may not be available or the portion of the cost the employee must bear may be prohibitive (32). Persons in the United States who do not have health insurance are less likely to receive clinical preventive services (33,34). Thus, education, employment, and health insurance all affect the health and health behavior of U.S. adults.

The literature indicates that recent immigration and lack of fluency in English may affect the prevalence of risks for chronic disease and injury among certain racial and ethnic groups. In 1997, 61% of the Asian or Pacific Islander portion and 38% of the Hispanic portion of the U.S. population were foreign born; in contrast, only 8% of the white portion, 6% of the black portion, and 6% of the American Indian or Alaska Native portion were foreign born (5). Although some immigrants are highly educated and have high incomes (5), lack of familiarity with the U.S. public and private health systems, different cultural attitudes about the use of traditional and U.S. conventional medicine (6), and lack of fluency in English may pose barriers to obtaining appropriate health care (35).

Conditions associated with very poor urban areas (e.g., high rates of circulatory diseases, accidents, homicide, crime, infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, and exposure to environmental hazards) can negatively affect health (36). On the other hand, living outside metropolitan areas can also be a risk factor for poor health, because fewer opportunities may exist for health-care and clinical preventive services (37). Racial and ethnic groups tend to distribute differently in urban and rural settings. For example, American Indians or Alaska Natives are the most likely group to live outside metropolitan areas (5). More than one half of Hispanics and blacks and nearly one half of Asians or Pacific Islanders, but only one fourth of whites, live in central cities (5).

Of the five racial and ethnic groups in this report, Hispanics reported the highest median prevalence of three of the four factors associated with limited access to health care (i.e., less than a high school education, cost as a barrier to obtaining health care, and no routine physical examination). Hispanics also reported the second- highest prevalence of no health-care coverage. The latter finding is consistent with observations from the 1997 Current Population Survey (38), the 1998 National Health Interview Survey (4), and the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (39) that Hispanics and blacks were the groups most likely to report having no health insurance. These three surveys did not present data for American Indians or Alaska Natives or for Asians or Pacific Islanders. All four national surveys found that whites were the least likely racial and ethnic group to report that they had no health-care coverage. The BRFSS and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey also found that whites were the least likely to report that cost was a barrier to obtaining health care. In the BRFSS, blacks were the least likely to report not having a recent physical examination, and Asians or Pacific Islanders were the least likely to report having less than a high school education.

The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends that all adults in the United States have their total blood cholesterol checked every 5 years (40), but in this report, the median percentage of adults who reported having had this screening procedure within the last 5 years ranged from only 54.7% among American Indians or Alaska Natives to 71.2% among whites. Only seven states had achieved the year 2000 national health objective that greater than or equal to 75% of adults have had their blood cholesterol checked within the last 5 years (3). In this report, a timely Pap test was the most frequently reported clinical preventive service: the median percentage of white, black, or Hispanic women with an intact uterine cervix who reported having had a Pap test in the past 3 years was greater than or equal to 81%. For any racial or ethnic group, only three states had reached the national health objective that greater than or equal to 95% of women have had a timely Pap test, but most states had reached the objective that greater than or equal to 60% of women aged greater than or equal to 50 years have had both a mammogram and a clinical breast exam within the past 2 years (3). The median percentage of white, black, or Hispanic adults who reported having been screened for colorectal cancer was low. The data from this report and a previous report indicate that less than or equal to 20% had used the home-kit blood stool test in the past year and less than or equal to 30% had had a sigmoidoscopy within the last 5 years (41). The American Cancer Society recommends that all persons aged greater than or equal to 50 years have a blood stool test each year and a sigmoidoscopy every 5 years (42).

Caution must be used in interpreting these BRFSS data. In 1997, only 11 states had a sufficient number of (i.e., greater than or equal to 50) American Indian or Alaska Native respondents to produce stable state-level estimates, and only 10 states had a sufficient number of Asian or Pacific Islander respondents. When responses to BRFSS questions were stratified by age and sex, as few as one state had greater than or equal to 50 respondents in a racial or ethnic group. Thus, the prevalence reported may not be representative of the nation for these groups.

In addition, combining several populations into a broad category may mask important differences between the populations. BRFSS surveys conducted among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese persons in California have demonstrated that each subpopulation has some distinct characteristics in educational attainment, income, prevalence of health-risk behaviors, and use of clinical preventive services (6,35,43). Thus, a median prevalence for the broader category of Asian or Pacific Islander may not accurately reflect the prevalence among the subpopulations in this group.

The racial and ethnic categories used in this report may be not only too broad, but also imprecise. The proportion of persons in the United States who identify their race as American Indian or Alaska Native has increased since the 1960s (44). The increase is larger than can be accounted for by deaths, births, immigrations, and improvements in census coverage. This disproportionate increase suggests that persons are now more likely to identify themselves on censuses and surveys as American Indian or Alaska Native.

The BRFSS-estimated prevalences of access to health care, health-status indicators, health-risk behaviors, and clinical preventive services pertain only to the U.S. adult population living in households with telephones. Overall, 95% of U.S. households have telephones; coverage ranges from 87% to 98% across states and varies for subpopulations as well (45). In 1996 an estimated 5.0% of white; 14.6% of black; 14.6% of Hispanic; 16.8% of American Indian, Aleut, or Eskimo; and 4.7% of Asian or Pacific Islander households had no telephone (46). Approximately 8% of households in the South, 5.5% in both the Northeast and West, and 5.3% in the West had no telephone. Persons in lower socioeconomic groups also typically had lower telephone coverage. The BRFSS uses no direct method to compensate for no telephone in the home, but poststratification weights are used and may partially correct for any bias caused by non-telephone coverage. BRFSS weights adjust for differences in probability of selection, nonresponse, and non-telephone coverage, and they must be used to derive representative population-based prevalence estimates.

CONCLUSION

Most of the risks behaviors associated with chronic disease and injury and described in this report are modifiable. Lack of health insurance, cost as a barrier to obtaining health care, obesity, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, lack of leisure-time physical activity, binge drinking, cigarette smoking, not always wearing a safety belt, and screening for cancer could be improved through more effective state and local public health programs. Health-care practitioners could do more to encourage their patients to reduce harmful behaviors and adopt healthier behaviors (47). In addition, health-care delivery systems could offer patients more counseling on preventive measures (e.g., losing weight, stopping smoking, wearing safety belts, or getting a timely mammogram) and facilitate patients' access to clinical preventive services (e.g., by coordinating mammography vans that visit worksites or neighborhoods, or hosting health fairs at shopping centers that offer blood pressure and cholesterol screening) (48). Rapid improvements in modifiable risks and particularly in preventive services are possible, as evidenced by the doubling of timely screening for breast cancer in the United States from 1987 through 1992 (49). In the early 1980s, use of mammography had been underused by women, especially among black women, but the gap between whites and blacks disappeared by 1992.

State-specific data and racial- and ethnic-specific data from the BRFSS can provide a sound basis for developing and evaluating public health programs to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health risks. In Georgia, analysis of BRFSS data has prompted implementation of a parallel, local survey in a large urban county to further investigate such disparities (personal communication, Linda Martin, BRFSS coordinator, Georgia Department of Human Resources, Division of Public Health). In Alaska, according to BRFSS data, the median percentage of adults who smoke is higher than that for the nation, and in this state American Indians or Alaska Natives have the highest percentage of smokers of all racial or ethnic groups. Alaska is using BRFSS data to support state tobacco control efforts to reduce the prevalence of smoking and its harmful health effects (50).

This report is a first step toward understanding some of the reasons for racial and ethnic disparities in health and health behaviors. More analytic work is needed to shed light on the reasons for these differences. A better understanding of these differences should help states develop effective, culturally sensitive public health prevention programs to decrease the prevalence of high-risk behaviors and increase the use of preventive services. The BRFSS is also a valuable tool in monitoring progress toward national year 2000 and state health objectives for racial and ethnic populations.

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* For simplicity in this report, the term state hereafter includes the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.



Table 1

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TABLE 1. Death rates* for selected causes of death, by race or ethnicity, United States -- National Center for Health Statistics, 1996 (4)

Cause of death

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

Heart disease

129.8

191.5

88.6

100.8

71.7

Stroke

24.5

44.2

19.5

21.1

23.9

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

21.5

17.8

8.9

12.6

8.6

Diabetes

12.0

28.8

18.8

27.8

8.8

Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis

7.3

9.2

12.6

20.7

2.6

Lung cancer

38.9

48.9

15.4

24.4

17.4

Colorectal cancer

11.8

16.8

7.3

8.5

7.7

Breast cancer

19.8

26.5

12.8

12.7

8.9

Motor vehicle-related injuries

16.3

16.7

16.1

34.0

9.5

Pneumonia and influenza

12.2

17.8

9.7

14.0

9.9

* Age-adjusted rates per 100,000. Rates are adjusted to the 1940 population.
† In this table only, Hispanics may be of any race; therefore, this category is not mutually exclusive with the four categories for race.


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Table 2

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TABLE 2. Racial and ethnic distribution of survey respondents, by state -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

No.

%*

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

Alabama

1,632

74.9%

443

21.3%

48

2.1%

19

1.1%

9

0.6%

Alaska

1,077

76.5%

16

2.5%

66

4.5%

313

13.4%

38

3.1%

Arizona

1,516

78.0%

31

1.6%

244

16.4%

70

2.3%

30

1.7%

Arkansas

1,494

83.5%

207

11.0%

47

3.2%

31

2.0%

5

0.4%

California

2,570

54.0%

202

6.1%

969

28.6%

62

1.9%

260

9.5%

Colorado

1,492

81.9%

49

2.2%

218

13.4%

12

0.8%

29

1.7%

Connecticut

1,917

86.7%

116

4.4%

132

6.5%

6

0.3%

45

2.1%

Delaware

2,039

80.7%

401

14.9%

51

2.4%

12

0.4%

28

1.6%

District of Columbia

458

35.6%

972

59.8%

41

2.8%

3

0.2%

23

1.6%

Florida

2,583

72.3%

340

10.6%

476

15.1%

20

0.6%

44

1.5%

Georgia

1,634

71.1%

584

25.2%

51

2.4%

2

0.1%

26

1.2%

Hawaii

723

29.8%

32

1.8%

300

16.3%

5

0.3%

995

51.8%

Idaho

4,568

93.1%

7

0.2%

184

4.5%

72

1.4%

38

0.8%

Illinois

2,245

74.0%

330

13.2%

231

9.1%

12

0.5%

62

3.2%

Indiana

2,124

90.2%

141

5.2%

53

2.9%

15

0.7%

25

0.9%

Iowa

3,445

95.8%

40

0.9%

64

2.1%

15

0.5%

24

0.7%

Kansas

1,758

87.8%

113

5.5%

95

5.3%

7

0.3%

18

1.1%

Kentucky

3,325

92.7%

251

6.4%

13

0.5%

5

0.1%

10

0.2%

Louisiana

1,154

66.8%

394

26.0%

70

4.8%

13

1.3%

9

1.1%

Maine

1,654

97.7%

7

0.4%

17

1.1%

10

0.5%

4

0.4%

Maryland

3,509

69.0%

838

25.1%

88

2.8%

14

0.4%

76

2.7%

Massachusetts

1,555

89.5%

64

3.5%

75

4.4%

7

0.3%

38

2.2%

Michigan

2,106

84.2%

294

10.3%

65

2.9%

36

1.5%

23

1.1%

Minnesota

4,487

93.4%

104

2.1%

109

2.5%

39

0.7%

52

1.2%

Mississippi

1,090

65.9%

470

31.7%

26

1.6%

4

0.4%

5

0.4%

Missouri

1,557

87.0%

222

9.8%

32

1.7%

11

0.8%

12

0.6%

Montana

1,677

93.2%

5

0.4%

44

2.8%

60

3.3%

8

0.4%

Nebraska

2,386

93.4%

183

2.6%

77

2.6%

12

0.4%

15

0.9%

Nevada

2,063

81.2%

88

4.7%

208

9.9%

36

1.2%

53

3.0%

New Hampshire

1,460

96.8%

5

0.3%

20

1.4%

7

0.5%

12

1.0%

New Jersey

2,056

77.8%

250

8.8%

203

9.2%

15

0.6%

73

3.6%

New Mexico

1,017

53.4%

17

0.9%

661

39.9%

75

5.1%

12

0.7%

New York

2,480

73.3%

404

12.6%

312

9.6%

31

0.8%

105

3.7%

North Carolina

2,705

76.4%

751

19.3%

82

2.3%

40

1.1%

26

0.8%

North Dakota

1,717

95.2%

10

0.7%

13

0.8%

53

3.2%

3

0.2%

Ohio

2,644

88.0%

432

9.2%

41

1.6%

15

0.5%

19

0.9%

Oklahoma

1,596

84.0%

114

6.1%

54

3.2%

89

5.6%

15

1.1%

Oregon

3,021

91.5%

43

1.0%

104

3.5%

57

2.0%

52

2.0%

Pennsylvania

3,167

88.5%

275

7.8%

81

2.1%

17

0.5%

36

1.1%

Puerto Rico

23

0.9%

6

0.2%

2,218

98.9%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

Rhode Island

1,681

91.7%

58

3.2%

55

3.5%

4

0.3%

18

1.2%

South Carolina

1,518

71.1%

562

26.1%

36

1.9%

8

0.4%

10

0.6%

South Dakota

2,031

91.5%

14

0.6%

47

2.2%

92

5.5%

6

0.3%

Tennessee

2,466

83.2%

434

14.4%

47

1.6%

13

0.4%

12

0.5%

Texas

1,590

61.9%

225

8.4%

575

27.0%

22

0.9%

47

1.9%

Utah

2,633

91.6%

7

0.3%

142

5.8%

28

0.6%

34

1.7%

Vermont

3,052

95.7%

9

0.8%

52

1.7%

21

0.7%

32

1.1%

Virginia

2,734

78.3%

559

14.3%

123

4.2%

11

0.4%

36

2.8%

Washington

3,143

88.0%

68

2.1%

152

4.8%

51

1.5%

111

3.7%

West Virginia

2,329

95.9%

52

2.0%

40

1.8%

5

0.2%

4

0.2%

Wisconsin

2,085

92.4%

61

3.4%

37

2.0%

30

1.5%

17

0.8%

Wyoming

2,236

92.7%

8

0.7%

107

4.8%

33

1.5%

8

0.4%

Total

109,222

75.4%

11,308

9.7%

9,296

11.1%

1,640

1.0%

2,692

2.8%

* Weighted percentages.


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Table 3

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TABLE 3. Percentage of adults who reported having less than a high school education, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

19.9

(17.8-21.9)

19.4

(17.1-21.6)

24.8

(19.7-29.9)

           

Alaska

8.6

( 6.8-10.5)

5.9

( 4.0- 7.8)

   

12.1

( 0.0-24.8)

24.9

(18.3-31.5)

   

Arizona

7.2

( 5.4- 8.9)

5.1

( 3.4- 6.8)

   

18.0

(11.7-24.3)

3.4

( 0.0- 6.9)

   

Arkansas

19.9

(17.6-22.2)

18.1

(15.9-20.2)

8.6

( 0.0-17.8)

           

California

18.4

(16.9-19.9)

6.5

( 5.4- 7.6)

12.3

( 7.4-17.3)

47.4

(43.8-51.1)

15.7

( 5.7-25.7)

3.5

( 1.1- 5.9)

Colorado

10.0

( 8.4-11.7)

6.2

( 4.8- 7.6)

   

35.3

(27.8-42.9)

       

Connecticut

8.7

( 7.3-10.1)

7.2

( 5.9- 8.5)

23.3

(14.1-32.5)

20.5

(11.4-29.6)

       

Delaware

11.6

(10.2-13.0)

9.8

( 8.4-11.2)

19.8

(14.7-25.0)

22.3

( 8.8-35.8)

       

District of Columbia

10.6

( 9.0-12.3)

0.7

( 0.0- 1.5)

16.3

(13.8-18.8)

           

Florida

12.9

(11.5-14.2)

8.9

( 7.6-10.2)

27.4

(22.1-32.7)

22.1

(17.5-26.7)

       

Georgia

13.9

(12.2-15.6)

12.8

(10.8-14.7)

17.7

(13.9-21.5)

15.1

( 3.2-27.1)

       

Hawaii

7.8

( 6.5- 9.2)

4.5

( 2.5- 6.5)

   

11.4

( 7.2-15.6)

   

9.0

( 6.9-11.1)

Idaho

10.2

( 9.1-11.3)

9.3

( 8.2-10.3)

   

25.9

(15.9-35.9)

17.0

( 7.6-26.5)

   

Illinois

11.9

(10.5-13.3)

8.8

( 7.5-10.1)

15.5

(10.7-20.2)

36.1

(29.1-43.0)

   

16.0

( 4.7-27.2)

Indiana

13.9

(12.3-15.6)

13.2

(11.5-14.9)

19.3

(11.9-26.8)

23.0

( 9.2-36.8)

       

Iowa

10.9

( 9.7-12.1)

10.3

( 9.2-11.5)

   

28.5

(14.8-42.1)

       

Kansas

8.6

( 7.3- 9.9)

8.6

( 7.2- 9.9)

7.9

( 3.0-12.7)

11.3

( 3.6-19.1)

       

Kentucky

22.1

(20.5-23.7)

22.2

(20.5-23.9)

22.2

(16.1-28.2)

           

Louisiana

16.0

(13.9-18.1)

12.7

(10.6-14.9)

23.7

(18.5-28.9)

18.9

( 8.4-29.4)

       

Maine

11.0

( 9.3-12.7)

11.0

( 9.3-12.8)

               

Maryland

10.7

( 9.6-11.9)

9.5

( 8.3-10.7)

14.6

(11.7-17.5)

18.0

( 6.7-29.4)

   

9.9

( 0.0-28.3)

Massachusetts

8.7

( 7.2-10.3)

8.5

( 6.9-10.2)

10.3

( 3.0-17.6)

15.5

( 6.6-24.3)

       

Michigan

12.0

(10.6-13.4)

10.4

( 8.9-11.8)

18.4

(13.3-23.6)

37.4

(24.5-50.3)

       

Minnesota

9.4

( 8.5-10.4)

9.1

( 8.1-10.0)

16.9

( 9.6-24.2)

13.5

( 5.9-21.0)

   

10.0

( 0.4-19.5)

Mississippi

21.6

(19.0-24.2)

16.9

(14.2-19.5)

31.0

(25.3-36.7)

           

Missouri

14.5

(12.5-16.4)

14.4

(12.3-16.6)

13.1

( 8.2-18.0)

           

Montana

10.4

( 8.8-12.1)

9.7

( 8.1-11.2)

       

17.5

( 6.9-28.2)

   

Nebraska

10.3

( 8.9-11.8)

9.7

( 8.2-11.2)

11.5

( 6.9-16.2)

27.3

(14.6-40.0)

       

Nevada

8.0

( 5.8-10.1)

7.1

( 4.8- 9.3)

2.8

( 0.0- 6.1)

13.0

( 3.3-22.6)

   

23.9

( 2.6-45.1)

New Hampshire

9.4

( 7.6-11.1)

9.5

( 7.7-11.3)

               

New Jersey

9.5

( 8.2-10.9)

8.3

( 6.9- 9.8)

14.9

( 9.5-20.2)

19.2

(12.9-25.4)

   

6.5

( 0.0-13.9)

New Mexico

15.6

(13.5-17.7)

7.0

( 5.2- 8.9)

   

27.9

(23.7-32.2)

14.9

( 4.8-25.0)

   

New York

11.4

(10.1-12.7)

8.6

( 7.3- 9.9)

17.2

(12.8-21.7)

21.3

(15.9-26.8)

   

12.3

( 4.2-20.4)

North Carolina

19.9

(18.3-21.4)

18.5

(16.8-20.2)

23.7

(20.2-27.1)

32.9

(20.1-45.6)

       

North Dakota

14.5

(12.8-16.2)

14.6

(12.8-16.3)

       

15.5

( 5.9-25.0)

   

Ohio

11.0

( 9.6-12.5)

10.4

( 8.9-11.8)

17.0

(11.4-22.7)

           

Oklahoma

10.5

( 8.9-12.1)

10.1

( 8.4-11.8)

7.0

( 2.7-11.4)

12.6

( 2.6-22.6)

19.2

( 9.5-28.9)

   

Oregon

10.4

( 9.1-11.6)

9.8

( 8.5-11.1)

   

24.8

(12.4-37.2)

16.4

( 6.0-26.7)

5.2

( 0.0-12.8)

Pennsylvania

11.9

(10.7-13.0)

11.4

(10.1-12.6)

14.6

( 9.5-19.6)

19.8

(10.1-29.5)

       

Puerto Rico

29.6

(27.5-31.6)

       

29.5

(27.4-31.5)

       

Rhode Island

13.6

(11.9-15.4)

13.1

(11.3-14.9)

17.7

( 7.5-27.9)

24.2

(10.8-37.5)

       

South Carolina

16.5

(14.8-18.3)

14.4

(12.6-16.3)

23.0

(19.0-27.0)

           

South Dakota

12.3

(10.8-13.8)

11.1

( 9.5-12.6)

       

32.0

(22.2-41.8)

   

Tennessee

17.9

(16.2-19.5)

17.4

(15.6-19.2)

20.2

(15.4-25.1)

           

Texas

18.9

(17.1-20.8)

10.7

( 8.9-12.4)

19.2

(12.9-25.4)

39.9

(35.4-44.5)

       

Utah

7.0

( 5.8- 8.1)

5.8

( 4.7- 6.9)

   

22.7

(13.9-31.4)

       

Vermont

10.8

( 9.5-12.1)

10.9

( 9.6-12.2)

   

14.2

( 4.4-24.1)

       

Virginia

12.4

(10.7-14.1)

10.0

( 8.8-11.3)

23.4

(18.8-28.0)

11.7

( 6.0-17.4)

       

Washington

8.2

( 7.2- 9.2)

7.9

( 6.8- 8.9)

6.9

( 0.8-13.0)

13.7

( 7.8-19.5)

17.4

( 5.4-29.5)

4.9

( 0.6- 9.3)

West Virginia

20.2

(18.3-22.0)

20.0

(18.1-21.8)

26.2

(12.8-39.6)

           

Wisconsin

10.7

( 9.1-12.3)

10.2

( 8.5-11.9)

15.2

( 4.6-25.7)

           

Wyoming

8.0

( 6.8- 9.2)

7.5

( 6.3- 8.7)

   

12.1

( 5.4-18.9)

       

Median

11.2

 

9.8

 

17.2

 

20.9

 

17.0

 

9.5

 

Low

7.0

Utah

0.7

District of Columbia

2.8

Nevada

11.3

Kansas

3.4

Arizona

3.5

California

High

29.6

Puerto Rico

22.2

Kentucky

31.0

Mississippi

47.4

California

32.0

South Dakota

23.9

Nevada

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.


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Table 4

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TABLE 4. Percentage of adults who reported having no health-care coverage,* by race or ethnicity and by state -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI§)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

14.5

(12.7-16.2)

11.3

( 9.6-13.0)

24.6

(20.0-29.1)

           

Alaska

21.1

(18.0-24.3)

18.4

(14.7-22.0)

   

42.3

(24.9-59.8)

33.5

(26.2-40.8)

   

Arizona

14.4

(12.1-16.7)

11.0

( 8.8-13.2)

   

26.2

(18.5-33.8)

50.5

(34.7-66.3)

   

Arkansas

17.1

(14.8-19.4)

15.7

(13.2-18.2)

23.4

(16.4-30.3)

           

California

19.3

(17.8-20.8)

11.6

(10.2-13.1)

11.0

( 6.2-15.8)

38.5

(34.9-42.1)

16.8

( 6.1-27.5)

11.1

( 6.6-15.5)

Colorado

11.9

(10.0-13.7)

9.4

( 7.6-11.1)

   

25.9

(18.9-33.0)

       

Connecticut

9.2

( 7.6-10.9)

8.1

( 6.4- 9.9)

17.2

(10.0-24.5)

20.4

(11.2-29.6)

       

Delaware

10.6

( 9.0-12.1)

8.2

( 6.6- 9.7)

20.7

(15.5-25.9)

15.9

( 3.8-28.0)

       

District of Columbia

11.5

( 9.5-13.5)

8.5

( 5.5-11.5)

12.4

( 9.7-15.1)

           

Florida

17.4

(15.9-19.0)

14.0

(12.4-15.6)

21.3

(16.1-26.4)

30.4

(25.6-35.3)

       

Georgia

12.1

(10.4-13.8)

10.5

( 8.6-12.4)

14.8

(10.9-18.7)

35.2

(20.3-50.0)

       

Hawaii

6.1

( 4.8- 7.4)

6.4

( 4.3- 8.4)

   

10.3

( 6.2-14.5)

   

4.8

( 3.1- 6.4)

Idaho

16.5

(15.0-18.0)

16.0

(14.5-17.6)

   

26.5

(15.8-37.1)

16.6

( 7.8-25.5)

   

Illinois

11.4

(10.0-12.7)

7.5

( 6.4- 8.7)

15.3

(11.1-19.6)

33.2

(26.2-40.2)

   

16.0

( 4.7-27.2)

Indiana

12.3

(10.7-13.9)

11.9

(10.2-13.6)

19.0

(11.7-26.2)

15.7

( 5.2-26.1)

       

Iowa

9.6

( 8.5-10.8)

9.1

( 7.9-10.2)

   

16.2

( 6.4-26.0)

       

Kansas

9.4

( 7.9-10.9)

8.9

( 7.3-10.4)

7.6

( 2.2-13.0)

14.4

( 6.3-22.6)

       

Kentucky

13.8

(12.4-15.1)

13.6

(12.1-15.0)

16.0

(10.1-21.9)

           

Louisiana

20.6

(18.2-23.0)

15.1

(12.8-17.4)

34.9

(29.3-40.6)

19.2

( 8.6-29.8)

       

Maine

11.9

(10.2-13.6)

11.7

( 9.9-13.4)

               

Maryland

10.2

( 9.0-11.4)

7.3

( 6.2- 8.4)

16.4

(13.3-19.6)

18.8

( 7.8-29.8)

   

16.4

( 6.4-26.4)

Massachusetts

9.3

( 7.7-10.9)

8.7

( 7.0-10.4)

14.4

( 4.9-23.9)

16.2

( 6.9-25.5)

       

Michigan

9.6

( 8.3-10.9)

8.3

( 7.0- 9.6)

13.5

( 8.5-18.5)

26.4

(14.1-38.7)

       

Minnesota

8.4

( 7.5- 9.3)

8.5

( 7.6- 9.4)

11.2

( 4.7-17.7)

1.3

( 0.0- 2.8)

   

8.0

( 0.4-15.5)

Mississippi

15.2

(13.0-17.4)

12.5

(10.1-14.9)

21.6

(17.1-26.2)

           

Missouri

12.3

(10.4-14.2)

10.7

( 8.7-12.6)

21.5

(15.1-27.9)

           

Montana

14.5

(12.7-16.3)

14.3

(12.5-16.2)

       

24.3

(13.4-35.3)

   

Nebraska

7.5

( 6.2- 8.7)

6.9

( 5.6- 8.1)

13.3

( 7.6-18.9)

21.5

( 8.9-34.2)

       

Nevada

13.9

(11.1-16.7)

13.4

(10.6-16.1)

5.8

( 0.0-12.3)

23.3

( 9.2-37.5)

   

6.3

( 0.0-15.2)

New Hampshire

10.2

( 8.3-12.1)

10.1

( 8.2-12.1)

               

New Jersey

11.3

( 9.8-12.9)

8.9

( 7.3-10.4)

15.1

(10.2-19.9)

24.6

(17.5-31.7)

   

18.9

( 6.9-30.9)

New Mexico

22.1

(19.8-24.4)

15.4

(12.8-17.9)

   

28.6

(24.6-32.6)

41.8

(27.3-56.2)

   

New York

13.7

(12.3-15.1)

9.9

( 8.5-11.2)

20.0

(15.2-24.8)

26.2

(19.8-32.6)

   

31.1

(20.1-42.1)

North Carolina

14.7

(13.3-16.1)

12.8

(11.3-14.3)

20.4

(16.7-24.2)

21.4

(10.2-32.6)

       

North Dakota

11.8

(10.0-13.6)

10.8

( 9.1-12.5)

       

33.2

(19.9-46.4)

   

Ohio

10.4

( 9.0-11.9)

9.7

( 8.2-11.3)

13.3

( 8.8-17.8)

           

Oklahoma

17.0

(14.8-19.1)

16.3

(13.9-18.7)

17.7

( 9.3-26.0)

18.8

( 5.4-32.2)

24.5

(14.8-36.1)

   

Oregon

12.5

(11.1-14.0)

11.9

(10.4-13.4)

   

27.1

(15.9-38.2)

18.2

( 7.1-29.3)

15.0

( 1.7-28.3)

Pennsylvania

9.4

( 8.3-10.6)

8.8

( 7.6-10.0)

13.4

( 8.7-18.0)

15.1

( 6.3-23.8)

       

Puerto Rico

10.2

( 8.7-11.7)

       

10.2

( 8.7-11.7)

       

Rhode Island

10.8

( 9.0-12.6)

9.5

( 7.7-11.3)

23.5

( 9.6-37.4)

28.9

(14.2-43.5)

       

South Carolina

15.1

(13.0-17.1)

11.9

( 9.9-13.9)

24.1

(19.4-28.9)

           

South Dakota

13.2

(11.5-14.9)

12.0

(10.3-13.7)

       

32.7

(22.2-43.2)

   

Tennessee

11.8

(10.3-13.2)

11.4

( 9.8-12.9)

14.0

( 9.7-18.3)

           

Texas

24.2

(22.2-26.1)

15.8

(13.7-17.8)

23.0

(16.6-29.3)

44.9

(40.3-49.5)

       

Utah

11.1

( 9.5-12.6)

10.1

( 8.6-11.6)

   

21.9

(13.9-29.9)

       

Vermont

14.4

(12.9-15.9)

14.0

(12.6-15.5)

   

24.8

(10.3-39.2)

       

Virginia

11.1

( 9.8-12.5)

9.7

( 8.3-11.0)

18.6

(13.7-23.4)

13.6

( 7.2-20.1)

       

Washington

10.8

( 9.6-12.1)

10.6

( 9.3-11.9)

9.2

( 2.3-16.1)

13.3

( 7.4-19.2)

12.5

( 3.3-21.6)

13.5

( 3.5-23.4)

West Virginia

18.0

(16.3-19.8)

18.2

(16.4-20.0)

7.8

( 0.9-14.6)

           

Wisconsin

9.2

( 7.5-10.9)

7.8

( 6.3- 9.4)

31.9

(15.3-48.5)

           

Wyoming

19.0

(16.8-21.3)

17.7

(15.3-20.1)

   

28.8

(18.8-38.8)

       

Median

12.0

 

10.8

 

16.4

 

22.6

 

24.5

 

14.3

 

Low

6.1

Hawaii

6.4

Hawaii

5.8

Nevada

1.3

Minnesota

12.5

Washington

4.8

Hawaii

High

24.2

Texas

18.4

Alaska

34.9

Louisiana

44.9

Texas

50.5

Arizona

31.1

New York

* Does not have any kind of health-care coverage, including prepaid plans or government plans.
† Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
§ Confidence interval.


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Table 5

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TABLE 5. Percentage of adults who reported cost as a barrier to obtaining health care in the last 12 months, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

11.0

( 9.5-12.4)

9.8

( 8.3-11.4)

14.2

(10.3-18.0)

           

Alaska

14.0

(11.4-16.6)

13.9

(10.9-17.0)

   

24.0

( 7.8-40.2)

12.3

( 7.4-17.2)

   

Arizona

25.3

(22.6-28.0)

24.3

(21.4-27.2)

   

30.1

(22.8-37.3)

26.4

(12.5-40.4)

   

Arkansas

19.1

(17.0-21.3)

18.0

(15.7-20.2)

27.7

(19.5-35.9)

           

California

10.6

( 9.4-11.7)

8.2

( 7.1- 9.4)

10.2

( 5.5-14.9)

15.0

(12.4-17.5)

19.8

( 8.9-30.6)

8.8

( 4.5-13.0)

Colorado

8.0

( 6.7- 9.3)

7.2

( 5.8- 8.6)

   

12.5

( 7.9-17.0)

       

Connecticut

8.3

( 7.1- 9.6)

7.6

( 6.3- 9.0)

10.5

( 5.3-15.7)

17.0

( 9.7-24.3)

       

Delaware

9.6

( 8.2-11.0)

8.1

( 6.8- 9.5)

16.7

(11.6-21.8)

14.3

( 3.3-25.2)

       

District of Columbia

9.8

( 8.1-11.5)

5.4

( 3.3- 7.6)

11.6

( 9.2-14.0)

           

Florida

12.3

(11.1-13.6)

10.6

( 9.2-12.0)

12.0

( 8.1-15.9)

21.3

(17.1-25.5)

       

Georgia

7.9

( 6.6- 9.2)

7.9

( 6.4- 9.4)

8.1

( 5.6-10.5)

7.9

( 0.2-15.5)

       

Hawaii

7.0

( 5.7- 8.3)

7.6

( 5.3- 9.8)

   

10.8

( 6.7-14.9)

   

5.0

( 3.4- 6.6)

Idaho

12.0

(10.7-13.3)

11.6

(10.3-13.0)

   

18.5

(10.6-26.5)

12.5

( 4.3-20.6)

   

Illinois

8.7

( 7.5- 9.9)

7.3

( 6.2- 8.4)

8.4

( 5.0-11.8)

18.3

(12.5-24.2)

   

10.7

( 0.0-22.6)

Indiana

10.5

( 9.0-12.0)

9.6

( 8.2-11.1)

18.0

(10.8-25.1)

28.8

(13.7-44.0)

       

Iowa

6.3

( 5.4- 7.3)

5.9

( 5.0- 6.8)

   

13.0

( 3.0-23.1)

       

Kansas

8.1

( 6.8- 9.3)

7.7

( 6.4- 9.1)

6.6

( 1.6-11.7)

13.8

( 6.3-21.2)

       

Kentucky

13.3

(12.0-14.6)

13.2

(11.9-14.6)

15.1

( 9.2-20.9)

           

Louisiana

13.2

(11.3-15.1)

10.8

( 8.8-12.7)

18.2

(13.8-22.6)

16.4

( 5.5-27.4)

       

Maine

10.2

( 8.6-11.8)

10.2

( 8.6-11.3)

               

Maryland

7.9

( 6.9- 9.0)

6.1

( 5.1- 7.1)

12.1

( 9.4-14.9)

19.3

( 7.8-30.7)

   

4.7

( 0.4- 9.0)

Massachusetts

7.3

( 5.9- 8.7)

6.5

( 5.1- 7.9)

10.3

( 1.8-18.8)

15.9

( 6.5-25.3)

       

Michigan

8.7

( 7.5- 9.9)

7.6

( 6.4- 8.8)

10.9

( 6.8-14.9)

22.7

(11.4-33.9)

       

Minnesota

7.6

( 6.7- 8.4)

7.1

( 6.3- 7.9)

16.5

( 8.3-24.6)

13.7

( 6.1-21.4)

   

16.3

( 4.9-27.7)

Mississippi

15.3

(13.0-17.5)

11.4

( 9.4-13.5)

23.6

(18.2-29.0)

           

Missouri

10.9

( 9.2-12.6)

10.2

( 8.5-11.9)

13.3

( 7.9-18.6)

           

Montana

13.3

(11.6-14.9)

12.6

(10.9-14.3)

       

26.7

(15.4-37.9)

   

Nebraska

6.4

( 5.3- 7.5)

5.9

( 4.8- 7.0)

13.5

( 7.8-19.1)

15.3

( 4.9-25.6)

       

Nevada

13.2

( 9.8-16.6)

12.8

( 9.1-16.5)

15.1

( 3.3-26.8)

16.0

( 1.8-30.3)

   

14.8

( 0.8-28.9)

New Hampshire

9.6

( 8.0-11.2)

9.4

( 7.8-11.1)

               

New Jersey

10.6

( 9.2-12.0)

8.5

( 7.1- 9.9)

12.6

( 8.2-16.9)

24.1

(17.0-31.3)

   

12.4

( 2.2-22.6)

New Mexico

13.8

(11.9-15.6)

9.5

( 7.5-11.5)

   

19.8

(16.2-23.4)

11.2

( 2.0-20.4)

   

New York

11.7

(10.4-13.0)

9.7

( 8.4-11.0)

13.3

( 9.4-17.2)

23.3

(17.7-29.0)

   

13.9

( 6.1-21.8)

North Carolina

13.9

(12.5-15.2)

12.4

(10.9-13.8)

18.2

(14.9-21.5)

25.6

(13.2-38.0)

       

North Dakota

7.5

( 6.2- 8.9)

7.0

( 5.8- 8.3)

       

18.1

( 6.4-29.7)

   

Ohio

9.3

( 8.0-10.7)

8.7

( 7.3-10.1)

11.7

( 7.5-16.0)

           

Oklahoma

11.4

( 9.7-13.1)

11.3

( 9.5-13.2)

7.3

( 2.2-12.5)

12.5

( 1.2-23.9)

11.7

( 3.5-19.9)

   

Oregon

9.9

( 8.6-11.2)

9.6

( 8.3-10.9)

   

13.8

( 7.2-20.4)

14.9

( 4.7-25.1)

14.8

( 1.3-28.3)

Pennsylvania

7.1

( 6.1- 8.0)

6.6

( 5.6- 7.6)

9.6

( 5.7-13.6)

15.7

( 6.6-24.8)

       

Puerto Rico

8.8

( 7.5-10.0)

       

8.9

( 7.6-10.1)

       

Rhode Island

8.1

( 6.7- 9.6)

7.6

( 6.2- 9.0)

17.8

( 5.5-30.1)

17.0

( 4.5-29.5)

       

South Carolina

9.9

( 8.2-11.5)

7.9

( 6.3- 9.5)

15.1

(11.2-18.9)

           

South Dakota

8.8

( 7.6-10.1)

8.7

( 7.4-10.0)

       

9.2

( 3.0-15.4)

   

Tennessee

10.5

( 9.2-11.8)

10.3

( 9.0-11.6)

11.3

( 7.8-14.8)

           

Texas

13.5

(11.9-15.0)

10.1

( 8.4-11.7)

18.9

(13.0-24.7)

19.2

(15.5-22.8)

       

Utah

10.1

( 8.7-11.4)

9.7

( 8.3-11.1)

   

17.3

(10.1-24.4)

       

Vermont

9.0

( 7.6-10.4)

8.4

( 7.2- 9.6)

   

11.1

( 1.7-20.4)

       

Virginia

9.6

( 8.4-10.8)

8.8

( 7.5-10.0)

13.2

( 9.9-16.5)

16.0

( 5.9-26.2)

       

Washington

9.8

( 8.6-11.0)

9.6

( 8.4-10.9)

8.6

( 1.6-15.6)

13.8

( 7.2-20.4)

12.6

( 2.5-22.8)

8.4

( 2.7-14.1)

West Virginia

15.4

(13.8-17.0)

15.6

(13.9-17.2)

7.1

( 0.2-14.0)

           

Wisconsin

6.3

( 5.1- 7.5)

5.5

( 4.3- 6.6)

16.8

( 6.7-27.0)

           

Wyoming

11.1

( 9.6-12.6)

10.5

( 9.0-12.0)

   

17.7

( 8.7-26.7)

       

Median

9.9

 

9.4

 

13.2

 

16.2

 

12.6

 

11.6

 

Low

6.3

Iowa, Wisconsin

5.4

District of Columbia

6.6

Kansas

7.9

Georgia

9.2

South Dakota

4.7

Maryland

High

25.3

Arizona

24.3

Arizona

27.7

Arkansas

30.1

Arizona

26.7

Montana

16.3

Minnesota

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.


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Table 6

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TABLE 6. Percentage of adults who reported not having had a routine physical examination within the past 2 years, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

14.1

(12.4-15.8)

15.8

(13.8-17.8)

6.6

( 3.8- 9.4)

           

Alaska

18.7

(15.6-21.8)

20.4

(16.7-24.1)

   

17.7

( 4.6-30.8)

8.8

( 5.0-12.6)

   

Arizona

13.0

(10.9-15.2)

12.7

(10.2-15.2)

   

14.1

( 7.9-20.2)

18.2

( 7.8-28.6)

   

Arkansas

19.3

(17.0-21.6)

19.7

(17.2-22.1)

15.7

( 8.0-23.4)

           

California

29.1

(27.5-30.8)

28.4

(26.4-30.4)

19.3

(13.5-25.1)

33.9

(30.4-37.4)

30.0

(17.4-42.6)

25.2

(19.3-31.2)

Colorado

20.0

(17.9-22.2)

20.1

(17.8-22.3)

   

21.4

(14.4-28.4)

       

Connecticut

15.7

(13.7-17.7)

15.9

(13.8-18.1)

7.8

( 2.8-12.7)

18.7

( 9.2-28.2)

       

Delaware

16.3

(14.5-18.0)

17.0

(15.1-18.9)

10.9

( 6.6-15.1)

22.0

( 8.8-35.2)

       

District of Columbia

7.8

( 6.1- 9.4)

11.8

( 8.5-15.1)

5.5

( 3.7- 7.3)

           

Florida

13.3

(12.0-14.6)

13.8

(12.3-15.4)

8.3

( 4.8-11.7)

14.9

(11.2-18.5)

       

Georgia

14.0

(12.3-15.8)

15.4

(13.3-17.5)

10.3

( 7.0-13.7)

7.7

( 0.0-15.8)

       

Hawaii

13.5

(11.8-15.3)

19.2

(15.6-22.9)

   

11.6

( 7.5-15.6)

   

10.3

( 8.1-12.5)

Idaho

22.4

(20.9-23.9)

22.4

(20.8-24.0)

   

21.8

(14.5-29.1)

20.7

(10.3-31.1)

   

Illinois

16.7

(15.1-18.2)

17.3

(15.5-19.0)

10.3

( 6.7-13.8)

18.7

(13.2-24.2)

   

18.1

( 8.7-27.5)

Indiana

20.9

(18.9-22.8)

21.3

(19.2-23.4)

8.8

( 3.6-14.0)

30.6

(15.8-45.5)

       

Iowa

21.1

(19.5-22.6)

21.2

(19.6-22.7)

   

20.0

( 8.4-31.7)

       

Kansas

13.8

(12.1-15.5)

14.3

(12.4-16.1)

7.3

( 0.4-14.1)

7.9

( 2.5-13.3)

       

Kentucky

19.3

(17.8-20.8)

20.0

(18.4-21.5)

11.2

( 6.3-16.0)

           

Louisiana

16.1

(14.1-18.1)

18.3

(15.8-20.8)

10.6

( 6.8-14.4)

16.9

( 7.5-26.3)

       

Maine

15.0

(13.0-17.0)

14.7

(12.7-16.8)

               

Maryland

12.0

(10.7-13.2)

13.7

(12.2-15.2)

6.5

( 4.3- 8.6)

19.4

( 9.1-29.7)

   

12.9

( 4.8-20.9)

Massachusetts

11.6

( 9.8-13.3)

11.8

( 9.9-13.7)

8.7

( 0.1-17.3)

9.1

( 1.7-16.6)

       

Michigan

16.5

(14.8-18.1)

17.4

(15.6-19.2)

9.1

( 4.9-13.3)

19.0

( 7.9-30.0)

       

Minnesota

18.1

(16.9-19.2)

18.4

(17.1-19.6)

12.4

( 4.5-20.3)

11.6

( 5.5-17.6)

   

24.9

(12.6-37.2)

Mississippi

15.2

(13.1-17.3)

18.0

(15.4-20.7)

9.2

( 5.9-12.5)

           

Missouri

16.8

(14.8-18.9)

17.9

(15.6-20.2)

6.4

( 2.5-10.2)

           

Montana

22.0

(19.9-24.1)

22.8

(20.6-25.0)

       

11.8

( 3.3-20.3)

   

Nebraska

19.7

(17.7-21.8)

20.1

(17.9-22.2)

12.8

( 5.2-20.4)

9.2

( 2.5-15.9)

       

Nevada

20.4

(17.2-23.5)

20.7

(17.3-24.2)

6.2

( 0.0-12.6)

25.6

(14.5-36.7)

   

5.9

( 0.0-15.2)

New Hampshire

16.1

(14.0-18.2)

16.0

(13.9-18.1)

               

New Jersey

13.5

(12.0-15.0)

14.3

(12.5-16.1)

9.3

( 4.8-13.7)

10.4

( 5.7-15.2)

   

13.4

( 5.3-21.4)

New Mexico

20.1

(18.0-22.1)

20.2

(17.5-23.0)

   

21.2

(17.7-24.6)

10.6

( 1.1-20.2)

   

New York

12.9

(11.6-14.2)

13.6

(12.1-15.0)

9.2

( 5.7-12.7)

10.8

( 6.5-15.2)

   

16.0

( 7.8-24.2)

North Carolina

15.5

(14.2-16.9)

16.5

(14.9-18.1)

11.6

( 8.7-14.4)

21.6

( 9.5-33.6)

       

North Dakota

20.6

(18.4-22.8)

20.9

(18.7-23.1)

       

16.9

( 6.3-27.6)

   

Ohio

15.6

(13.7-17.5)

16.9

(14.8-19.0)

4.7

( 2.3- 7.0)

           

Oklahoma

17.5

(15.3-19.7)

18.6

(16.2-21.1)

8.7

( 2.4-15.0)

10.0

( 1.7-18.4)

14.5

( 6.5-22.6)

   

Oregon

19.3

(17.6-21.0)

19.4

(17.7-21.2)

   

17.5

( 9.3-25.6)

14.4

( 5.2-23.6)

22.8

( 9.0-36.6)

Pennsylvania

11.5

(10.3-12.6)

12.0

(10.7-13.2)

5.6

( 2.2- 8.9)

8.5

( 2.1-14.8)

       

Puerto Rico

9.7

( 8.2-11.1)

       

9.7

( 8.3-11.2)

       

Rhode Island

11.6

( 9.9-13.3)

11.6

( 9.8-13.3)

6.4

( 0.0-13.9)

20.4

( 6.6-34.2)

       

South Carolina

13.1

(11.4-14.9)

15.2

(13.0-17.3)

8.2

( 5.3-11.1)

           

South Dakota

18.9

(17.1-20.8)

19.4

(17.4-21.3)

       

12.9

( 6.3-19.4)

   

Tennessee

14.2

(12.7-15.8)

15.4

(13.7-17.1)

7.3

( 3.9-10.6)

           

Texas

18.5

(16.7-20.3)

18.8

(16.6-21.1)

9.8

( 5.0-14.6)

20.9

(17.0-24.8)

       

Utah

22.3

(20.2-24.3)

22.1

(20.0-24.2)

   

18.9

(11.4-26.4)

       

Vermont

17.2

(15.7-18.7)

17.4

(15.9-18.9)

   

13.6

( 4.4-22.8)

       

Virginia

17.3

(15.1-19.6)

18.0

(15.8-20.2)

6.2

( 3.9- 8.5)

16.2

( 8.5-24.0)

       

Washington

20.4

(18.9-22.0)

20.7

(19.0-22.3)

11.3

( 2.9-19.6)

20.5

(13.1-27.9)

25.3

(13.0-37.6)

18.1

(10.3-25.9)

West Virginia

18.5

(16.6-20.4)

18.6

(16.7-20.5)

8.4

( 0.0-18.1)

           

Wisconsin

22.1

(19.9-24.2)

22.7

(20.5-24.9)

8.5

( 0.0-17.8)

           

Wyoming

24.2

(22.1-26.3)

24.5

(22.2-26.7)

   

20.2

(12.3-28.0)

       

Median

16.8

 

18.0

 

8.7

 

18.2

 

14.5

 

17.1

 

Low

7.8

District of Columbia

11.6

Rhode Island

4.7

Ohio

7.7

Georgia

8.8

Alaska

5.9

Nevada

High

29.1

California

28.4

California

19.3

California

33.9

California

30.0

California

25.2

California

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.


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Table 7

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TABLE 7. Percentage of adults who reported fair or poor health status, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

19.0

(17.1-21.0)

17.7

(15.7-19.8)

24.7

(19.6-29.7)

           

Alaska

10.9

( 8.7-13.1)

9.4

( 7.0-11.7)

   

14.7

( 2.2-27.3)

17.5

(11.0-24.0)

   

Arizona

11.3

( 9.3-13.3)

10.2

( 8.1-12.4)

   

17.0

(10.5-23.6)

10.1

( 3.9-16.3)

   

Arkansas

21.0

(18.8-23.1)

20.2

(18.0-22.3)

30.5

(22.0-39.0)

           

California

15.3

(14.0-16.6)

10.3

( 9.1-11.6)

18.2

(12.3-24.2)

26.2

(23.0-29.4)

18.8

( 8.8-28.8)

8.1

( 4.3-11.8)

Colorado

10.0

( 8.5-11.4)

8.8

( 7.3-10.3)

   

15.9

(10.6-21.2)

       

Connecticut

10.1

( 8.7-11.5)

9.6

( 8.2-11.0)

13.0

( 5.5-20.6)

16.8

( 9.4-24.3)

       

Delaware

13.9

(12.3-15.4)

12.9

(11.3-14.5)

22.6

(17.0-28.1)

2.2

( 0.0- 5.3)

       

District of Columbia

9.5

( 7.8-11.3)

3.4

( 1.7- 5.2)

13.4

(10.8-16.0)

           

Florida

16.5

(15.1-17.9)

15.0

(13.4-16.5)

26.0

(20.6-31.3)

16.9

(13.1-20.8)

       

Georgia

11.4

( 9.9-13.0)

11.5

( 9.7-13.3)

12.4

( 9.0-15.7)

4.7

( 0.0-10.9)

       

Hawaii

14.2

(12.4-16.1)

8.7

( 6.2-11.3)

   

16.3

(11.1-21.4)

   

17.2

(14.4-20.0)

Idaho

12.3

(11.1-13.4)

12.4

(11.2-13.5)

   

8.6

( 4.3-12.7)

14.7

( 6.0-23.4)

   

Illinois

14.0

(12.5-15.5)

11.6

(10.1-13.0)

15.0

(10.8-19.2)

32.5

(25.4-39.6)

   

10.3

( 2.0-18.6)

Indiana

14.2

(12.6-15.7)

13.2

(11.6-14.8)

28.1

(18.9-37.2)

14.4

( 2.1-26.7)

       

Iowa

11.3

(10.1-12.4)

11.0

( 9.8-12.1)

   

13.3

( 5.0-21.5)

       

Kansas

10.7

( 9.3-12.1)

11.2

( 9.7-12.8)

10.3

( 4.6-16.0)

2.1

( 0.0- 5.3)

       

Kentucky

21.8

(20.3-23.3)

21.7

(20.1-23.3)

24.7

(18.9-30.5)

           

Louisiana

15.4

(13.5-17.3)

13.2

(11.1-15.3)

20.6

(16.2-24.9)

16.5

( 7.5-25.5)

       

Maine

13.9

(12.1-15.6)

13.7

(11.9-15.5)

               

Maryland

12.0

(10.8-13.2)

11.7

(10.3-13.0)

13.7

(11.0-16.4)

9.5

( 1.8-17.3)

   

5.6

( 0.0-12.4)

Massachusetts

11.9

(10.0-13.7)

11.4

( 9.6-13.2)

15.8

( 6.3-25.2)

18.2

( 2.8-33.6)

       

Michigan

12.7

(11.3-14.2)

11.4

( 9.9-12.9)

22.5

(17.0-28.0)

18.0

( 7.9-28.0)

       

Minnesota

9.4

( 8.5-10.3)

9.3

( 8.4-10.2)

11.7

( 5.3-18.0)

8.9

( 3.6-14.2)

   

8.3

( 0.0-17.0)

Mississippi

21.7

(19.5-23.9)

18.1

(15.6-20.6)

28.3

(23.5-33.0)

           

Missouri

15.0

(13.1-16.9)

14.5

(12.5-16.5)

20.6

(14.0-27.2)

           

Montana

10.1

( 8.6-11.5)

9.6

( 8.1-11.1)

       

23.4

(11.7-35.1)

   

Nebraska

11.4

(10.0-12.7)

11.1

( 9.7-12.5)

19.9

(13.1-26.7)

13.2

( 3.6-22.9)

       

Nevada

14.2

(11.4-17.0)

14.5

(11.3-17.7)

19.4

( 6.3-32.4)

10.5

( 3.8-17.3)

   

13.2

( 0.0-30.1)

New Hampshire

9.6

( 8.0-11.2)

9.5

( 7.9-11.2)

               

New Jersey

13.8

(12.3-15.3)

12.6

(11.0-14.3)

24.7

(18.3-31.0)

15.3

( 9.6-21.0)

   

9.1

( 0.0-18.7)

New Mexico

14.5

(12.6-16.3)

9.8

( 8.0-11.7)

   

20.7

(17.1-24.3)

14.6

( 5.5-23.7)

   

New York

13.2

(11.8-14.5)

11.3

( 9.9-12.7)

20.0

(15.4-24.5)

18.7

(13.5-23.9)

   

8.8

( 1.6-16.1)

North Carolina

16.1

(14.8-17.5)

15.3

(13.7-16.8)

19.6

(16.4-22.7)

15.1

( 6.7-23.5)

       

North Dakota

12.1

(10.5-13.7)

11.9

(10.3-13.6)

       

15.2

( 6.8-23.6)

   

Ohio

13.7

(12.1-15.3)

13.2

(11.4-14.9)

19.0

(13.9-24.0)

           

Oklahoma

13.4

(11.7-15.2)

12.8

(10.9-14.6)

15.8

( 9.0-22.6)

15.5

( 3.2-27.8)

19.9

(10.9-28.8)

   

Oregon

12.6

(11.2-14.0)

12.5

(11.0-13.9)

   

6.9

( 2.1-11.8)

35.4

(21.6-49.2)

5.8

( 0.1-11.5)

Pennsylvania

13.2

(11.9-14.4)

12.5

(11.2-13.8)

17.4

(12.2-22.6)

23.5

(12.9-34.1)

       

Puerto Rico

35.1

(32.9-37.3)

       

35.2

(33.0-37.4)

       

Rhode Island

12.5

(10.8-14.3)

12.2

(10.4-14.1)

18.1

( 8.5-27.8)

14.7

( 4.5-25.0)

       

South Carolina

16.7

(14.9-18.5)

15.1

(13.1-17.0)

20.8

(16.5-25.1)

           

South Dakota

11.2

( 9.7-12.8)

11.0

( 9.4-12.5)

       

15.3

( 6.1-24.5)

   

Tennessee

18.1

(16.5-19.6)

17.7

(16.0-19.4)

20.5

(16.3-24.8)

           

Texas

17.0

(15.3-18.6)

12.8

(11.0-14.6)

18.6

(13.0-24.2)

26.6

(22.6-30.6)

       

Utah

11.2

( 9.7-12.7)

11.0

( 9.4-12.5)

   

18.2

(10.0-26.5)

       

Vermont

11.3

(10.0-12.7)

11.5

(10.2-12.9)

   

3.4

( 0.0- 9.2)

       

Virginia

11.3

( 9.9-12.7)

9.7

( 8.4-11.0)

17.5

(13.4-21.5)

19.7

( 8.0-31.4)

       

Washington

10.5

( 9.4-11.6)

10.0

( 8.8-11.1)

14.9

( 5.3-24.6)

18.0

(10.9-25.1)

20.8

( 8.2-33.5)

6.8

( 2.4-11.2)

West Virginia

21.8

(20.0-23.6)

21.5

(19.7-23.3)

26.4

(12.8-39.9)

           

Wisconsin

9.6

( 8.2-10.9)

9.1

( 7.7-10.5)

15.6

( 5.9-25.2)

           

Wyoming

11.2

( 9.2-13.3)

10.6

( 8.5-12.7)

   

20.6

( 8.0-33.3)

       

Median

13.0

 

11.6

 

19.4

 

16.1

 

17.5

 

8.8

 

Low

9.4

Minnesota

3.4

District of Columbia

10.3

Kansas

2.1

Kansas

10.1

Arizona

5.6

Maryland

High

35.1

Puerto Rico

21.7

Kentucky

30.5

Arkansas

35.2

Puerto Rico

35.4

Oregon

17.2

Hawaii

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.


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Table 8

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TABLE 8. Percentage of adults who were obese,* by race or ethnicity and by state -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI§)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

18.2

(16.4-20.1)

15.6

(13.6-17.6)

27.3

(22.8-31.8)

           

Alaska

19.6

(16.6-22.5)

19.4

(15.9-22.9)

   

15.7

( 3.9-27.6)

23.3

(16.6-29.9)

   

Arizona

12.4

(10.4-14.4)

9.7

( 7.7-11.7)

   

22.8

(15.7-29.9)

23.4

(10.0-36.8)

   

Arkansas

18.1

(15.8-20.5)

16.4

(14.2-18.7)

30.1

(22.3-37.8)

           

California

16.0

(14.6-17.3)

14.4

(12.9-15.9)

22.3

(15.9-28.7)

22.0

(18.8-25.1)

13.0

( 4.6-21.0)

4.0

( 1.1- 6.9)

Colorado

11.9

(10.2-13.5)

11.3

( 9.5-13.1)

   

15.9

(10.4-21.3)

       

Connecticut

14.7

(12.7-16.7)

13.8

(11.7-15.9)

25.0

(15.4-34.5)

21.2

(12.3-30.1)

       

Delaware

18.8

(17.0-20.5)

17.9

(16.0-19.9)

26.8

(22.0-31.6)

8.1

( 0.2-16.0)

       

District of Columbia

14.5

(12.5-16.6)

5.8

( 3.5- 8.1)

20.4

(17.4-23.3)

           

Florida

16.2

(14.7-17.6)

14.4

(12.8-16.0)

26.4

(21.1-31.6)

18.4

(14.0-22.8)

       

Georgia

14.4

(12.7-16.0)

12.3

(10.4-14.3)

20.5

(16.6-24.3)

17.6

( 6.0-29.2)

       

Hawaii

13.7

(11.9-15.5)

13.0

(10.1-16.0)

   

15.3

(10.4-20.2)

   

13.4

(10.9-15.9)

Idaho

16.1

(14.8-17.5)

15.9

(14.6-17.3)

   

17.0

(10.3-23.7)

31.4

(18.9-43.8)

   

Illinois

17.2

(15.6-18.8)

15.3

(13.6-17.0)

29.5

(23.7-35.3)

19.5

(14.2-24.7)

   

4.7

( 0.0-11.2)

Indiana

21.2

(19.3-23.1)

20.7

(18.7-22.7)

23.9

(16.5-31.3)

32.9

(14.4-51.5)

       

Iowa

19.4

(18.0-20.9)

19.0

(17.5-20.5)

   

34.7

(20.3-49.0)

       

Kansas

14.6

(12.8-16.4)

14.5

(12.6-16.4)

17.6

( 9.8-25.4)

16.2

( 8.3-24.2)

       

Kentucky

21.8

(20.2-23.3)

21.2

(19.5-22.8)

28.8

(22.7-34.9)

           

Louisiana

19.7

(17.5-21.8)

16.4

(14.0-18.8)

27.6

(22.6-32.7)

21.9

(11.6-32.2)

       

Maine

16.3

(14.3-18.2)

16.2

(14.2-18.2)

               

Maryland

17.6

(16.1-19.1)

14.8

(13.2-16.3)

27.0

(23.1-30.8)

19.9

( 9.8-30.1)

   

1.7

( 0.0- 4.4)

Massachusetts

14.7

(12.6-16.8)

13.9

(11.8-16.0)

24.6

(11.1-38.1)

24.3

( 8.1-40.5)

       

Michigan

19.4

(17.6-21.1)

17.9

(16.1-19.7)

27.5

(21.4-33.6)

33.5

(20.8-46.2)

       

Minnesota

16.5

(15.3-17.7)

16.2

(15.1-17.4)

26.5

(16.0-36.9)

16.2

( 8.2-24.2)

   

14.3

( 2.5-26.0)

Mississippi

22.0

(19.5-24.6)

18.0

(15.5-20.5)

31.2

(25.4-36.9)

           

Missouri

19.0

(16.8-21.2)

18.2

(15.9-20.5)

26.2

(19.3-33.0)

           

Montana

14.5

(12.6-16.3)

13.4

(11.6-15.1)

       

30.2

(19.0-41.3)

   

Nebraska

17.1

(15.4-18.9)

16.7

(14.9-18.5)

33.2

(24.4-42.0)

22.6

(10.3-34.8)

       

Nevada

14.0

(11.1-17.0)

14.4

(11.0-17.8)

7.6

( 1.2-14.0)

13.1

( 4.7-21.5)

   

16.9

( 0.0-34.6)

New Hampshire

14.3

(12.2-16.4)

14.3

(12.2-16.4)

               

New Jersey

16.2

(14.4-18.0)

15.2

(13.3-17.2)

29.7

(22.7-36.6)

13.9

( 8.1-19.8)

   

7.0

( 0.0-18.0)

New Mexico

14.9

(13.0-16.7)

13.5

(11.3-15.7)

   

17.0

(13.9-20.2)

13.6

( 4.4-22.7)

   

New York

15.9

(14.5-17.3)

15.8

(14.1-17.4)

22.1

(17.1-27.0)

14.8

(10.4-19.3)

   

3.0

( 0.0- 6.4)

North Carolina

18.4

(16.9-19.8)

15.5

(14.0-17.1)

29.5

(25.5-33.4)

25.4

(13.7-37.1)

       

North Dakota

16.9

(15.1-18.8)

16.6

(14.6-18.4)

       

30.7

(17.4-43.9)

   

Ohio

17.7

(15.9-19.5)

17.4

(15.4-19.4)

21.4

(16.2-26.6)

           

Oklahoma

15.1

(13.1-17.0)

14.5

(12.3-16.6)

16.1

( 8.1-24.1)

27.7

(13.1-42.4)

17.9

( 8.8-26.9)

   

Oregon

19.4

(17.8-21.1)

19.7

(17.9-21.4)

   

16.1

( 7.2-25.0)

30.3

(16.6-44.0)

3.4

( 0.0- 8.0)

Pennsylvania

17.4

(16.0-18.9)

17.2

(15.7-18.7)

20.0

(14.6-25.4)

25.6

(14.5-36.6)

       

Puerto Rico

19.2

(17.4-21.0)

       

19.2

(17.4-21.0)

       

Rhode Island

13.9

(12.1-15.7)

13.7

(11.8-15.5)

27.7

(14.1-41.3)

9.8

( 0.7-18.9)

       

South Carolina

16.8

(14.9-18.8)

14.0

(12.0-15.9)

24.6

(20.1-29.0)

           

South Dakota

16.9

(15.1-18.8)

16.3

(14.5-18.2)

       

30.1

(19.1-41.1)

   

Tennessee

17.7

(16.1-19.4)

16.2

(14.5-17.9)

27.4

(22.3-32.6)

           

Texas

18.7

(16.9-20.4)

15.7

(13.8-17.7)

22.8

(16.7-28.8)

24.9

(20.8-28.9)

       

Utah

15.2

(13.5-16.9)

15.4

(13.6-17.2)

   

16.3

( 9.0-23.7)

       

Vermont

15.8

(14.4-17.3)

16.0

(14.5-17.5)

   

13.6

( 3.7-23.4)

       

Virginia

16.3

(14.6-18.0)

14.3

(12.5-16.0)

30.5

(24.9-36.0)

17.9

( 9.2-26.5)

       

Washington

15.2

(13.8-16.6)

14.8

(13.3-16.3)

19.7

( 6.4-33.0)

21.7

(13.6-29.8)

32.3

(18.0-46.5)

4.9

( 0.3- 9.4)

West Virginia

20.6

(18.8-22.4)

20.6

(18.8-22.4)

26.6

(14.3-38.8)

           

Wisconsin

16.6

(14.8-18.4)

16.2

(14.4-18.0)

25.2

(11.8-38.5)

           

Wyoming

15.1

(13.6-16.7)

15.3

(13.7-16.9)

   

11.2

( 4.5-17.8)

       

Median

16.6

 

15.6

 

26.4

 

18.2

 

30.1

 

4.8

 

Low

11.9

Colorado

5.8

District of Columbia

7.6

Nevada

8.1

Delaware

13.0

California

1.7

Maryland

High

22.0

Mississippi

21.2

Kentucky

33.2

Nebraska

34.7

Iowa

32.3

Washington

16.9

Nevada

* Body mass index >= 30 kg/m2 , as calculated from self-reported weight and height.
† Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
§ Confidence interval.


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Table 9

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TABLE 9. Percentage of adults who reported having ever been told by a health professional that they had high blood pressure, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

28.8

(26.7-31.0)

27.3

(24.9-29.7)

36.6

(31.1-42.0)

           

Alaska

22.6

(19.5-25.6)

21.7

(18.1-25.2)

   

23.7

( 7.9-39.6)

26.3

(18.9-33.6)

   

Arizona

16.2

(14.0-18.4)

16.9

(14.4-19.4)

   

11.9

( 7.2-16.6)

17.0

( 3.5-30.4)

   

Arkansas

26.4

(24.1-28.8)

25.9

(23.4-28.4)

33.6

(26.0-41.1)

           

California

21.3

(19.9-22.6)

24.2

(22.4-25.9)

33.6

(26.4-40.8)

14.9

(12.5-17.4)

18.9

( 8.7-29.2)

15.9

(11.0-20.8)

Colorado

20.4

(18.3-22.4)

20.3

(18.1-22.4)

   

19.0

(13.4-24.5)

       

Connecticut

20.6

(18.7-22.6)

20.9

(18.8-23.0)

27.7

(18.4-36.9)

16.2

( 8.9-23.5)

       

Delaware

25.5

(23.5-27.5)

24.9

(22.7-27.2)

32.2

(26.9-37.6)

14.0

( 2.5-25.5)

       

District of Columbia

19.4

(17.0-21.8)

11.0

( 7.6-14.3)

25.3

(22.0-28.6)

           

Florida

26.2

(24.6-27.9)

27.5

(25.6-29.4)

26.9

(21.6-32.2)

21.6

(17.2-26.0)

       

Georgia

21.5

(19.6-23.4)

20.3

(18.1-22.5)

25.7

(21.6-29.9)

19.3

( 8.3-30.3)

       

Hawaii

23.8

(21.6-26.0)

19.2

(15.8-22.6)

   

21.2

(15.6-26.7)

   

27.9

(24.6-31.2)

Idaho

24.0

(22.5-25.6)

24.3

(22.7-26.0)

   

18.0

(11.1-24.8)

24.9

(13.8-36.0)

   

Illinois

24.2

(21.8-26.6)

24.5

(21.7-27.2)

32.6

(24.4-40.7)

11.4

( 5.4-17.3)

   

25.8

(11.7-39.8)

Indiana

25.1

(23.1-27.0)

24.6

(22.6-26.7)

31.5

(22.1-40.9)

25.1

(11.5-38.7)

       

Iowa

23.3

(21.8-24.9)

23.5

(21.8-25.1)

   

16.7

( 8.1-25.4)

       

Kansas

20.9

(19.0-22.8)

21.2

(19.1-23.2)

22.8

(14.7-30.9)

16.8

( 8.8-24.7)

       

Kentucky

27.1

(25.5-28.7)

26.7

(25.1-28.3)

33.3

(26.7-39.8)

           

Louisiana

25.3

(22.8-27.7)

22.9

(20.1-25.7)

31.8

(26.5-37.1)

19.1

( 9.4-28.9)

       

Maine

22.9

(20.8-25.1)

22.7

(20.5-24.9)

               

Maryland

24.0

(22.4-25.6)

22.6

(20.8-24.3)

30.3

(26.3-34.2)

16.6

( 4.4-28.7)

   

9.4

( 0.6-18.1)

Massachusetts

19.7

(17.6-21.9)

20.2

(17.9-22.5)

21.9

( 8.6-35.1)

13.4

( 5.4-21.4)

       

Michigan

23.4

(21.6-25.3)

22.9

(20.9-24.8)

28.9

(22.9-34.9)

21.3

(10.7-31.9)

       

Minnesota

21.2

(20.0-22.5)

21.4

(20.1-22.6)

24.5

(15.6-33.3)

21.2

(12.8-29.5)

   

4.5

( 0.1- 9.0)

Mississippi

34.5

(31.8-37.2)

29.6

(26.7-32.5)

45.4

(39.8-51.0)

           

Missouri

27.3

(24.9-29.6)

26.5

(24.1-29.0)

38.1

(29.6-46.6)

           

Montana

22.9

(20.9-24.9)

23.0

(20.9-25.0)

       

30.7

(19.3-42.1)

   

Nebraska

22.4

(20.5-24.3)

22.5

(20.5-24.4)

30.5

(22.5-38.5)

18.3

( 9.1-27.4)

       

Nevada

23.9

(20.5-27.2)

24.6

(20.9-28.3)

23.7

( 9.3-38.1)

15.1

( 6.6-23.6)

   

26.1

( 3.8-48.4)

New Hampshire

22.6

(20.3-24.8)

22.6

(20.3-24.8)

               

New Jersey

23.6

(21.7-25.5)

23.4

(21.2-25.5)

33.8

(26.8-40.9)

16.5

(10.7-22.3)

   

20.5

( 8.1-32.9)

New Mexico

21.4

(19.3-23.5)

24.5

(21.7-27.4)

   

17.0

(13.9-20.1)

16.6

( 7.0-26.3)

   

New York

22.8

(21.2-24.4)

23.2

(21.4-25.1)

26.9

(21.7-32.0)

17.3

(12.4-22.1)

   

16.6

( 7.6-25.7)

North Carolina

23.4

(21.9-25.0)

22.3

(20.6-24.0)

28.8

(25.0-32.5)

17.5

( 8.7-26.1)

       

North Dakota

25.5

(23.3-27.7)

25.9

(23.7-28.1)

       

19.8

( 8.5-31.0)

   

Ohio

22.1

(20.2-23.9)

21.5

(19.4-23.5)

31.7

(26.1-37.3)

           

Oklahoma

21.8

(19.7-23.9)

21.8

(19.6-24.0)

28.1

(18.3-38.0)

17.3

( 6.7-28.0)

20.7

(10.6-30.7)

   

Oregon

22.8

(21.1-24.4)

22.8

(21.1-24.5)

   

23.7

(10.0-37.4)

27.3

(14.5-40.1)

4.8

( 0.0-10.7)

Pennsylvania

21.6

(20.1-23.1)

20.9

(19.3-22.4)

30.9

(24.5-37.4)

28.4

(17.1-39.7)

       

Puerto Rico

21.0

(19.1-22.8)

       

20.9

(19.1-22.8)

       

Rhode Island

22.4

(20.3-24.5)

22.2

(20.0-24.4)

27.3

(13.7-40.8)

25.9

(12.4-39.3)

       

South Carolina

26.7

(24.6-28.7)

24.4

(22.2-26.7)

34.3

(29.8-38.8)

           

South Dakota

20.6

(18.7-22.5)

20.3

(18.3-22.2)

       

23.3

(11.8-34.8)

   

Tennessee

27.8

(26.0-29.7)

27.3

(25.3-29.3)

32.5

(27.5-37.5)

           

Texas

23.1

(21.3-25.0)

25.1

(22.7-27.5)

29.7

(23.2-36.2)

17.0

(13.6-20.4)

       

Utah

22.5

(20.4-24.7)

23.0

(20.7-25.2)

   

18.8

( 9.9-27.6)

       

Vermont

21.0

(19.3-22.7)

20.6

(19.0-22.2)

   

23.7

(10.5-37.0)

       

Virginia

24.6

(22.6-26.6)

24.1

(21.8-26.3)

31.3

(26.0-36.5)

19.6

(11.5-27.7)

       

Washington

23.1

(21.4-24.7)

23.5

(21.8-25.3)

25.5

(11.5-39.6)

24.3

(15.4-33.1)

19.2

( 8.0-30.5)

10.3

( 3.9-16.8)

West Virginia

28.3

(26.4-30.2)

28.2

(26.2-30.1)

42.8

(27.7-57.9)

           

Wisconsin

23.2

(21.1-25.4)

23.2

(20.9-25.4)

34.2

(17.2-51.1)

           

Wyoming

22.1

(20.2-24.0)

22.3

(20.4-24.2)

   

21.5

(8.7-34.3)

       

Median

23.0

 

23.0

 

30.9

 

18.6

 

20.7

 

16.3

 

Low

16.2

Arizona

11.0

District of Columbia

21.9

Massachu-
setts

11.4

Illinois

16.6

New Mexico

4.5

Minnesota

High

34.5

Mississippi

29.6

Mississippi

45.4

Mississippi

28.4

Pennsylvania

30.7

Montana

27.9

Hawaii

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.


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Table 10

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TABLE 10. Percentage of adults who reported having ever been told by a health professional that they had diabetes, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

6.9

(5.8- 8.1)

5.9

(4.7-7.1)

11.0

(7.8-14.2)

           

Alaska

3.4

(2.1- 4.6)

3.0

(1.6-4.4)

   

0.6

(0.0- 1.4)

3.3

(0.9- 5.7)

   

Arizona

3.1

(2.0- 4.2)

2.4

(1.4-3.4)

   

6.5

(2.0-11.0)

5.1

(0.0-11.5)

   

Arkansas

5.2

(4.1- 6.3)

4.9

(3.7-6.1)

6.0

(2.9- 9.1)

           

California

5.6

(4.7- 6.4)

4.3

(3.5-5.2)

7.0

(3.0-11.0)

7.1

(5.3- 9.0)

7.6

(0.5-14.6)

6.8

(3.0-10.6)

Colorado

3.9

(2.8- 5.0)

3.3

(2.3-4.4)

   

7.2

(3.1-11.4)

       

Connecticut

5.2

(4.1- 6.3)

4.4

(3.4-5.5)

11.2

(4.1-18.2)

11.8

(3.5-20.0)

       

Delaware

6.4

(5.4- 7.5)

6.2

(5.1-7.4)

8.6

(5.3-11.9)

3.7

(0.0- 9.1)

       

District of Columbia

4.4

(3.2- 5.7)

0.7

(0.0-1.4)

7.1

(5.1- 9.0)

           

Florida

5.7

(4.9- 6.6)

5.3

(4.4-6.3)

8.9

(5.6-12.1)

5.7

(3.1- 8.3)

       

Georgia

4.1

(3.2- 5.0)

3.8

(2.7-4.8)

5.5

(3.4- 7.5)

2.8

(0.0- 7.4)

       

Hawaii

4.9

(3.7- 6.0)

3.8

(2.1-5.4)

   

4.6

(2.2- 7.0)

   

5.7

(3.9- 7.5)

Idaho

4.0

(3.4- 4.7)

4.0

(3.3-4.6)

   

3.9

(1.1- 6.8)

7.6

(1.0-14.1)

   

Illinois

7.0

(5.9- 8.2)

6.2

(5.0-7.3)

10.3

(6.5-14.2)

8.6

(3.8-13.4)

   

8.2

(0.0-16.8)

Indiana

5.2

(4.2- 6.2)

5.2

(4.1-6.4)

5.6

(1.6- 9.6)

2.7

(0.0- 6.8)

       

Iowa

4.6

(3.9- 5.4)

4.6

(3.8-5.3)

   

4.0

(0.0- 8.6)

       

Kansas

3.1

(2.3- 3.8)

2.9

(2.1-3.8)

4.0

(0.4- 7.6)

2.6

(0.0- 5.4)

       

Kentucky

5.3

(4.5- 6.0)

5.3

(4.5-6.0)

6.1

(3.0- 9.2)

           

Louisiana

5.3

(4.1- 6.5)

4.7

(3.4-6.1)

6.7

(4.0- 9.4)

4.7

(0.4- 9.0)

       

Maine

4.9

(3.8- 6.0)

4.9

(3.8-6.1)

               

Maryland

6.0

(5.0- 6.9)

4.6

(3.7-5.5)

9.6

(7.2-12.0)

7.6

(1.0-14.2)

   

5.9

(0.0-13.9)

Massachusetts

4.8

(3.6- 6.0)

4.8

(3.5-6.0)

3.0

(0.0- 7.2)

6.2

(0.0-14.2)

       

Michigan

5.9

(4.9- 6.9)

5.7

(4.6-6.7)

8.4

(5.0-11.7)

2.1

(0.0- 6.2)

       

Minnesota

3.9

(3.4- 4.5)

3.8

(3.2-4.4)

3.5

(0.3- 6.6)

5.1

(1.1- 9.0)

   

2.7

(0.0- 6.6)

Mississippi

6.1

(4.8- 7.4)

4.7

(3.4-6.1)

9.5

(6.6-12.3)

           

Missouri

4.8

(3.7- 5.9)

4.7

(3.5-5.8)

7.6

(3.7-11.6)

           

Montana

3.1

(2.3- 3.9)

2.7

(2.0-3.5)

       

14.0

(4.8-23.1)

   

Nebraska

4.2

(3.3- 5.0)

4.1

(3.2-5.0)

8.1

(3.9-12.3)

1.6

(0.0- 3.6)

       

Nevada

3.7

(2.0- 5.3)

4.2

(2.2-6.2)

2.6

(0.0- 5.3)

0.4

(0.0- 0.8)

   

0.3

(0.0- 0.6)

New Hampshire

3.9

(2.8- 4.9)

4.0

(2.9-5.1)

               

New Jersey

5.2

(4.2- 6.1)

4.7

(3.7-5.8)

8.9

(4.5-13.2)

7.5

(3.0-11.9)

       

New Mexico

4.9

(3.9- 6.0)

4.5

(3.2-5.9)

   

5.3

(3.4- 7.1)

4.6

(0.2- 8.9)

   

New York

4.7

(3.9- 5.5)

4.2

(3.3-5.0)

8.2

(5.2-11.2)

4.0

(1.1- 6.9)

   

6.7

(0.0-13.8)

North Carolina

5.0

(4.3- 5.8)

4.4

(3.6-5.2)

6.8

(4.9- 8.7)

7.5

(1.6-13.4)

       

North Dakota

3.5

(2.7- 4.4)

3.5

(2.6-4.4)

       

6.3

(0.0-12.6)

   

Ohio

4.7

(3.8- 5.6)

4.5

(3.5-5.5)

6.7

(4.0- 9.4)

           

Oklahoma

5.8

(4.7- 7.0)

5.1

(4.0-6.3)

6.7

(1.8-11.6)

8.5

(0.2-16.8)

13.3

(5.5-21.1)

   

Oregon

4.7

(3.9- 5.6)

4.5

(3.7-5.3)

   

5.1

(0.7- 9.7)

12.4

(1.1-25.6)

1.9

(0.0- 5.5)

Pennsylvania

5.1

(4.3- 5.8)

5.0

(4.1-5.8)

6.5

(3.2- 9.7)

6.0

(0.8-11.1)

       

Puerto Rico

10.5

(9.2-11.8)

       

10.5

(9.1-11.8)

       

Rhode Island

4.9

(3.9- 6.0)

4.8

(3.7-5.8)

8.2

(0.0-16.7)

6.8

(0.0-14.2)

       

South Carolina

4.9

(3.9- 5.8)

3.6

(2.7-4.5)

8.2

(5.6-10.7)

           

South Dakota

3.9

(3.0- 4.7)

3.7

(2.8-4.6)

       

6.6

(1.2-12.0)

   

Tennessee

4.4

(3.6- 5.1)

4.3

(3.4-5.1)

4.8

(2.7- 6.9)

           

Texas

5.9

(4.8- 6.9)

4.8

(3.7-5.9)

7.6

(3.8-11.3)

8.2

(5.6-10.8)

       

Utah

4.2

(3.1- 5.2)

4.1

(3.0-5.1)

   

6.6

(1.3-11.8)

       

Vermont

4.7

(3.6- 5.9)

4.1

(3.4-4.9)

   

14.4

(2.6-26.2)

       

Virginia

4.2

(3.5- 5.0)

3.5

(2.7-4.2)

8.8

(5.8-11.8)

6.0

(1.7-10.3)

       

Washington

4.1

(3.4- 4.8)

4.0

(3.2-4.7)

7.9

(1.4-14.8)

3.7

(0.5- 7.0)

9.5

(0.0-19.6)

3.4

(0.0- 6.8)

West Virginia

6.3

(5.3- 7.4)

6.2

(5.1-7.2)

17.8

(7.0-28.5)

           

Wisconsin

4.7

(3.4- 5.9)

4.2

(3.0-5.3)

17.9

(0.8-35.0)

           

Wyoming

3.0

(2.3- 3.7)

3.0

(2.2-3.7)

   

2.9

(0.0- 5.9)

       

Median

4.8

 

4.4

 

7.6

 

5.5

 

7.6

 

4.6

 

Low

3.0

Wyoming

0.7

District of Columbia

2.6

Nevada

0.4

Nevada

3.3

Alaska

0.0

New Jersey

High

10.5

Puerto Rico

6.2

Delaware, Illinois, West Virginia

17.9

Wisconsin

14.4

Vermont

14.0

Montana

8.2

Illinois

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.


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Table 11

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TABLE 11. Percentage of adults who had had their blood cholesterol checked and reported having ever been told by a health professional that they had high blood cholesterol, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

28.5

(26.1-30.9)

30.0

(27.2-32.7)

22.1

(16.8-27.4)

           

Alaska

25.3

(21.6-29.0)

24.9

(20.6-29.1)

       

26.0

(17.7-34.2)

   

Arizona

32.0

(28.5-35.5)

32.6

(28.9-36.3)

   

26.2

(16.4-36.1)

       

Arkansas

30.0

(27.0-33.0)

29.8

(26.6-32.9)

29.9

(20.2-39.5)

           

California

30.4

(28.5-32.2)

31.8

(29.6-34.0)

31.5

(22.8-40.3)

27.8

(23.6-32.1)

   

27.3

(20.2-34.5)

Colorado

27.9

(25.2-30.6)

28.7

(25.8-31.6)

   

24.1

(16.1-32.1)

       

Connecticut

24.3

(21.9-26.6)

24.3

(21.8-26.8)

22.6

(12.6-32.5)

28.6

(16.9-40.3)

       

Delaware

28.8

(26.5-31.1)

29.4

(26.8-31.9)

29.5

(23.2-35.7)

           

District of Columbia

18.2

(15.8-20.7)

14.3

(10.8-17.9)

21.2

(17.8-24.7)

           

Florida

32.0

(30.0-34.0)

33.7

(31.4-35.9)

31.5

(24.7-38.2)

25.0

(19.8-30.3)

       

Georgia

24.1

(21.9-26.3)

22.4

(19.8-24.9)

29.1

(24.3-33.9)

           

Hawaii

31.2

(28.4-34.0)

29.9

(25.5-34.4)

   

29.2

(21.2-37.2)

   

32.8

(28.9-36.8)

Idaho

29.9

(27.8-32.0)

29.5

(27.4-31.5)

   

41.0

(22.1-59.9)

       

Illinois

34.2

(30.9-37.5)

35.2

(31.6-38.7)

35.9

(25.1-46.7)

28.5

(15.5-41.5)

   

17.5

( 3.5-31.4)

Indiana

28.8

(26.3-31.3)

29.1

(26.5-31.7)

28.7

(17.1-40.2)

           

Iowa

28.1

(26.2-30.0)

28.3

(26.3-30.3)

               

Kansas

28.2

(25.4-31.0)

27.8

(24.9-30.8)

36.7

(22.4-51.1)

28.5

(15.7-41.3)

       

Kentucky

30.2

(28.1-32.2)

30.7

(28.6-32.8)

22.3

(15.8-28.8)

           

Louisiana

26.7

(23.9-29.6)

29.7

(26.3-33.0)

19.9

(14.4-25.3)

           

Maine

32.1

(29.3-35.0)

32.0

(29.1-34.9)

               

Maryland

28.8

(26.9-30.8)

31.3

(29.0-33.6)

21.9

(18.3-25.5)

29.0

(14.4-43.5)

       

Massachusetts

25.0

(22.3-27.6)

26.1

(23.2-28.9)

   

12.5

( 4.2-20.7)

       

Michigan

31.3

(29.1-33.6)

32.0

(29.5-34.5)

26.4

(19.6-33.2)

           

Minnesota

31.3

(29.5-33.1)

31.9

(30.1-33.7)

23.8

(11.5-36.2)

21.2

(10.6-31.9)

       

Mississippi

28.6

(25.7-31.5)

30.1

(26.7-33.5)

26.1

(20.2-32.0)

           

Missouri

30.6

(27.7-33.4)

31.3

(28.3-34.4)

27.0

(17.4-36.5)

           

Montana

31.0

(28.2-33.8)

31.7

(28.8-34.5)

               

Nebraska

29.9

(27.1-32.6)

30.2

(27.3-33.1)

24.3

(15.4-33.3)

31.8

(16.5-47.2)

       

Nevada

29.0

(24.7-33.3)

30.8

(25.9-35.6)

7.6

( 0.0-16.1)

23.1

( 9.7-36.5)

       

New Hampshire

30.7

(27.8-33.7)

30.9

(27.9-33.9)

               

New Jersey

27.7

(25.4-30.1)

27.5

(25.0-30.1)

29.4

(21.5-37.4)

26.7

(17.1-36.3)

   

35.8

(18.1-53.6)

New Mexico

27.8

(25.1-30.5)

28.3

(24.9-31.7)

   

27.4

(22.6-32.1)

       

New York

27.9

(25.9-30.0)

29.6

(27.3-32.0)

23.6

(17.8-29.3)

23.1

(16.8-29.3)

   

16.3

( 5.9-26.7)

North Carolina

26.5

(24.7-28.3)

28.6

(26.5-30.6)

19.2

(15.5-22.9)

21.3

(10.3-32.4)

       

North Dakota

29.8

(27.1-32.5)

29.9

(27.1-32.6)

               

Ohio

27.7

(25.2-30.2)

27.5

(24.8-30.2)

26.3

(20.1-32.5)

           

Oklahoma

22.1

(19.6-24.6)

22.1

(19.5-24.7)

16.0

( 7.6-24.4)

   

28.6

(14.2-42.9)

   

Oregon

31.7

(29.5-33.9)

31.6

(29.4-33.8)

   

33.5

(12.7-54.3)

       

Pennsylvania

25.9

(24.0-27.9)

25.9

(23.9-27.9)

   

24.6

(11.0-38.1)

       

Puerto Rico

24.3

(22.2-26.5)

       

24.2

(22.1-26.3)

       

Rhode Island

28.0

(25.4-30.6)

27.9

(25.2-30.6)

               

South Carolina

24.4

(22.0-26.7)

24.1

(21.5-26.7)

24.8

(19.7-29.9)

           

South Dakota

25.7

(23.4-28.1)

26.1

(23.6-28.6)

               

Tennessee

29.5

(27.3-31.6)

29.9

(27.6-32.2)

26.0

(19.9-32.1)

           

Texas

28.6

(26.3-30.9)

30.6

(27.8-33.4)

19.4

(12.7-26.1)

27.0

(21.8-32.3)

       

Utah

26.4

(23.8-29.1)

26.7

(24.0-29.4)

   

24.0

(12.0-36.1)

       

Vermont

26.0

(23.8-28.1)

24.9

(23.0-26.9)

               

Virginia

29.5

(26.9-32.1)

29.7

(26.9-32.5)

29.9

(23.0-36.7)

22.5

(12.0-33.1)

       

Washington

25.8

(23.9-27.6)

26.3

(24.3-28.2)

   

24.1

(14.9-33.3)

26.5

( 9.3-43.8)

   

West Virginia

32.2

(29.7-34.6)

31.8

(29.4-34.2)

               

Wisconsin

27.0

(24.5-29.5)

27.7

(25.0-30.3)

               

Wyoming

29.9

(27.5-32.2)

29.9

(27.5-32.3)

   

22.9

(11.2-34.6)

       

Median

28.6

 

29.7

 

26.0

 

25.6

 

§

 

27.3

 

Low

18.2

District of Columbia

14.3

District of Columbia

7.6

Nevada

12.5

Massachu-
setts

 

16.3

New York

High

34.2

Illinois

35.2

Illinois

36.7

Kansas

41.0

Idaho

35.8

New Jersey

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.
§ Median is not considered meaningful for three states that had >= 50 respondents who had had their blood cholesterol checked and is not shown.


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Table 12

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TABLE 12. Percentage of adults who reported no leisure-time physical activity* in the last 30 days, by race or ethnicity and by state -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1996

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI§)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

32.5

(30.2-34.7)

29.4

(26.9-31.8)

43.1

(37.7-48.6)

35.9

(21.4-50.4)

       

Alaska

25.6

(22.2-28.9)

22.5

(18.8-26.2)

       

37.2

(29.2-45.2)

   

Arizona

33.4

(30.4-36.3)

32.2

(29.0-35.3)

   

41.0

(32.2-49.7)

41.1

(25.2-57.1)

   

Arkansas

37.4

(34.8-40.1)

37.4

(34.5-40.2)

40.2

(32.0-48.3)

           

California

23.7

(22.1-25.2)

17.1

(15.5-18.7)

22.3

(15.4-29.3)

38.2

(34.5-41.8)

   

24.8

(18.4-31.3)

Colorado

20.3

(18.2-22.5)

18.2

(16.1-20.4)

   

34.4

(26.4-42.3)

       

Connecticut

25.6

(23.3-27.9)

23.9

(21.5-26.2)

37.8

(27.4-48.1)

44.9

(33.3-56.4)

       

Delaware

36.2

(33.8-38.7)

34.3

(31.8-36.8)

42.5

(35.4-49.6)

           

District of Columbia

30.4

(27.4-33.3)

19.3

(14.6-24.0)

37.4

(33.7-41.2)

           

Florida

27.2

(25.6-28.9)

24.0

(22.2-25.8)

39.2

(33.0-45.3)

36.1

(31.1-41.1)

       

Georgia

51.4

(49.1-53.7)

50.6

(47.8-53.4)

54.4

(49.5-59.2)

41.3

(27.7-55.0)

       

Hawaii

20.9

(18.8-23.1)

13.0

( 9.9-16.0)

   

23.6

(17.7-29.6)

   

25.2

(22.0-28.4)

Idaho

20.5

(18.7-22.2)

19.6

(17.9-21.4)

   

33.9

(23.3-44.4)

       

Illinois

24.9

(22.4-27.4)

23.0

(20.2-25.8)

31.3

(24.7-38.0)

31.5

(20.2-42.7)

       

Indiana

31.1

(29.0-33.2)

30.0

(27.7-32.2)

40.0

(32.0-48.0)

49.5

(35.2-63.7)

       

Iowa

26.9

(25.3-28.5)

26.7

(25.1-28.4)

34.9

(20.3-49.3)

28.0

(17.0-39.0)

       

Kansas

36.5

(34.2-38.8)

35.1

(32.7-37.5)

54.6

(42.7-66.5)

43.2

(32.6-53.7)

       

Kentucky

45.6

(43.7-47.5)

45.3

(43.4-47.3)

49.4

(41.1-57.6)

           

Louisiana

34.8

(32.1-37.4)

32.0

(29.0-35.0)

40.8

(34.9-46.7)

32.0

(21.9-42.1)

       

Maine

34.0

(31.5-36.6)

33.7

(31.1-36.2)

               

Maryland

33.8

(31.9-35.7)

32.4

(30.3-34.5)

38.4

(34.3-42.5)

29.1

(15.7-42.4)

   

32.5

(20.5-44.5)

Massachusetts

22.9

(20.6-25.1)

21.3

(18.9-23.5)

35.4

(22.7-48.1)

39.1

(27.8-50.3)

       

Michigan

23.1

(21.2-24.9)

22.3

(20.3-24.3)

32.3

(25.9-38.6)

16.2

( 6.1-26.4)

       

Minnesota

23.6

(22.2-25.0)

23.9

(22.4-25.3)

17.8

( 9.4-26.1)

15.0

( 8.8-21.3)

       

Mississippi

39.6

(36.7-42.5)

37.7

(34.5-40.9)

43.4

(37.9-49.0)

           

Missouri

30.4

(27.8-33.0)

29.5

(26.8-32.3)

40.3

(32.0-48.5)

           

Montana

21.1

(19.1-23.2)

20.7

(18.7-22.8)

       

26.7

(11.3-42.2)

   

Nebraska

22.9

(20.9-25.0)

22.5

(20.4-24.6)

22.9

(11.9-33.9)

35.3

(21.1-49.5)

       

Nevada

22.3

(19.6-25.0)

21.2

(18.3-24.1)

19.0

( 7.1-30.9)

26.4

(16.9-35.8)

       

New Hampshire

25.1

(22.5-27.7)

24.8

(22.2-27.4)

               

New Jersey

26.3

(24.5-28.1)

23.3

(21.3-25.3)

37.9

(32.0-43.7)

38.5

(31.7-45.3)

   

36.9

(24.5-49.3)

New Mexico

27.8

(24.2-31.3)

23.8

(19.7-27.8)

   

33.4

(27.0-39.8)

       

New York

30.4

(28.8-32.0)

28.6

(26.8-30.4)

34.7

(30.4-38.9)

34.8

(29.7-39.8)

   

40.3

(31.2-49.4)

North Carolina

40.8

(38.7-42.9)

38.6

(36.2-41.0)

47.7

(42.8-52.7)

51.9

(37.9-65.9)

       

North Dakota

33.8

(31.4-36.2)

34.1

(31.7-36.6)

               

Ohio

42.5

(39.7-45.3)

41.5

(38.5-44.4)

53.6

(44.0-63.2)

           

Oklahoma

38.3

(35.8-40.8)

37.2

(34.6-39.8)

44.8

(32.4-57.1)

44.5

(29.7-59.2)

43.2

(32.1-54.3)

   

Oregon

19.7

(18.1-21.2)

19.4

(17.8-21.0)

   

24.4

(13.2-35.7)

       

Pennsylvania

26.2

(24.6-27.9)

25.1

(23.4-26.8)

34.1

(28.2-40.0)

40.2

(29.2-51.2)

       

Puerto Rico

47.9

(45.2-50.5)

       

47.8

(45.2-50.5)

       

Rhode Island

26.6

(24.3-28.9)

26.0

(23.6-28.4)

25.1

(13.7-36.4)

33.3

(22.9-43.7)

       

South Carolina

29.8

(27.2-32.4)

28.1

(25.2-30.9)

34.9

(29.2-40.6)

           

South Dakota

34.7

(32.4-36.9)

34.6

(32.2-36.9)

       

35.3

(23.3-47.2)

   

Tennessee

40.8

(38.8-42.7)

40.3

(38.1-42.4)

46.5

(41.1-51.8)

31.1

(17.2-45.0)

       

Texas

28.1

(25.8-30.5)

23.2

(20.4-25.9)

31.0

(23.2-38.8)

38.6

(33.3-43.9)

       

Utah

17.2

(15.5-19.0)

16.5

(14.7-18.3)

   

23.8

(15.3-32.4)

       

Vermont

21.4

(19.6-23.3)

21.3

(19.4-23.2)

               

Virginia

29.2

(26.7-31.7)

27.4

(24.7-30.2)

39.8

(32.9-46.8)

24.9

(11.6-38.2)

       

Washington

19.0

(17.5-20.4)

18.3

(16.8-19.8)

27.9

(15.0-40.6)

27.1

(19.3-34.8)

   

21.5

(10.8-32.2)

West Virginia

42.8

(40.5-45.1)

42.7

(40.4-45.0)

45.0

(32.1-57.8)

           

Wisconsin

22.2

(20.0-24.4)

21.3

(19.0-23.6)

33.2

(24.8-41.5)

32.7

(18.3-47.1)

       

Wyoming

20.5

(18.8-22.2)

20.4

(18.7-22.2)

   

21.0

(13.2-28.7)

       

Median

28.0

 

25.1

 

38.2

 

34.2

 

37.2

 

28.9

 

Low

17.2

Utah

13.0

Hawaii

17.8

Minnesota

15.0

Minnesota

26.7

Montana

21.5

Washington

High

51.4

Georgia

50.6

Georgia

54.6

Kansas

51.9

North Carolina

43.2

Oklahoma

40.3

New York

* Exercise, recreation, or physical activities (e. g., running, calisthenics, golfing, gardening, or walking) that are not performed as part of regular job duties.
† Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown. Between 1996 and 1997, in some states the number of respondents in a racial or ethnic category fell to <50 or increased to >= 50.
§ Confidence interval.


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Table 13

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TABLE 13. Percentage of adults who reported they currently drank alcohol,* by race or ethnicity and by state -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI§)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

36.5

(34.1-38.9)

38.0

(35.3-40.8)

32.3

(27.0-37.6)

           

Alaska

55.3

(51.6-59.1)

57.7

(53.3-62.1)

   

47.3

(29.8-64.7)

43.9

(36.1-51.8)

   

Arizona

41.0

(37.8-44.2)

42.9

(39.4-46.5)

   

32.8

(25.4-40.2)

37.6

(20.7-54.5)

   

Arkansas

30.5

(27.9-33.1)

31.1

(28.3-33.9)

29.3

(20.9-37.6)

           

California

61.4

(59.7-63.1)

67.5

(65.5-69.5)

56.8

(49.2-64.4)

54.0

(50.4-57.6)

64.2

(51.5-77.0)

51.6

(44.7-58.6)

Colorado

62.1

(59.6-64.7)

64.8

(62.0-67.5)

   

48.4

(40.7-56.1)

       

Connecticut

62.3

(59.8-64.8)

64.2

(61.5-66.9)

40.4

(30.3-50.5)

54.9

(44.3-65.4)

       

Delaware

54.2

(51.9-56.5)

57.0

(54.5-59.5)

39.1

(32.9-45.3)

63.9

(49.4-78.5)

       

District of Columbia

43.6

(40.5-46.8)

64.6

(59.7-69.5)

31.0

(27.5-34.4)

           

Florida

54.8

(52.9-56.7)

59.5

(57.3-61.6)

34.4

(28.7-40.1)

47.2

(42.0-52.4)

       

Georgia

44.6

(42.2-47.0)

45.6

(42.7-48.4)

40.4

(35.6-45.2)

61.2

(46.3-76.0)

       

Hawaii

51.1

(48.5-53.6)

67.3

(63.2-71.4)

   

49.8

(43.1-56.6)

   

41.5

(37.9-45.1)

Idaho

47.4

(45.5-49.2)

46.9

(45.0-48.7)

   

55.7

(43.4-67.9)

51.7

(38.2-65.3)

   

Illinois

54.8

(51.9-57.7)

57.9

(54.8-61.0)

48.7

(39.3-58.0)

44.3

(34.3-54.3)

   

10.2

( 2.3-18.1)

Indiana

48.6

(46.3-51.0)

48.3

(45.9-50.8)

46.6

(36.4-56.7)

57.7

(41.6-73.8)

       

Iowa

54.0

(52.0-55.9)

54.1

(52.1-56.1)

   

42.4

(28.8-56.0)

       

Kansas

41.3

(38.9-43.7)

40.8

(38.2-43.3)

42.8

(32.8-52.7)

42.4

(31.1-53.7)

       

Kentucky

33.7

(31.8-35.6)

33.3

(31.2-35.3)

39.1

(32.0-46.2)

           

Louisiana

50.4

(47.5-53.3)

51.2

(47.9-54.5)

47.6

(41.7-53.5)

61.3

(48.2-74.4)

       

Maine

55.3

(52.6-58.0)

55.4

(52.7-58.1)

               

Maryland

44.4

(42.4-46.5)

49.3

(47.0-51.7)

32.9

(28.8-37.0)

42.7

(30.4-55.1)

   

28.9

(16.3-41.5)

Massachusetts

65.1

(62.5-67.6)

67.1

(64.4-69.7)

49.3

(34.0-64.7)

51.9

(37.9-65.9)

       

Michigan

57.4

(55.2-59.5)

58.5

(56.2-60.8)

49.1

(42.5-55.7)

61.1

(48.1-74.2)

       

Minnesota

53.5

(51.9-55.0)

54.3

(52.6-55.9)

42.1

(31.6-52.5)

52.3

(41.7-62.9)

   

26.1

(13.2-38.9)

Mississippi

35.3

(32.5-38.0)

38.1

(34.8-41.4)

29.9

(24.7-35.2)

           

Missouri

49.0

(46.3-51.8)

49.3

(46.4-52.3)

46.2

(37.4-55.0)

           

Montana

57.1

(54.6-59.7)

57.8

(55.2-60.4)

       

32.1

(20.5-43.7)

   

Nebraska

58.0

(55.6-60.3)

58.6

(56.2-61.1)

34.8

(26.1-43.5)

61.5

(48.3-74.6)

       

Nevada

62.9

(59.1-66.7)

64.3

(60.1-68.4)

56.5

(38.2-75.8)

70.0

(59.0-81.0)

   

15.6

( 3.6-27.5)

New Hampshire

61.3

(58.6-64.1)

61.6

(58.8-64.4)

               

New Jersey

58.6

(56.3-60.9)

62.2

(59.7-64.8)

41.2

(34.0-48.3)

48.5

(40.2-56.8)

   

51.6

(37.5-65.7)

New Mexico

53.4

(50.6-56.1)

56.2

(52.8-59.6)

   

52.8

(48.4-57.1)

30.8

(19.0-42.7)

   

New York

53.9

(51.9-55.8)

57.7

(55.5-59.9)

42.5

(36.8-48.0)

49.3

(42.8-55.9)

   

34.9

(24.2-45.5)

North Carolina

37.6

(35.7-39.5)

39.1

(36.9-41.3)

33.4

(29.2-37.5)

41.2

(28.7-53.7)

       

North Dakota

53.7

(51.1-56.2)

53.6

(51.0-56.2)

       

52.4

(36.3-68.5)

   

Ohio

33.6

(31.4-35.8)

34.2

(31.8-36.6)

26.6

(21.4-31.8)

           

Oklahoma

32.7

(30.0-35.3)

32.5

(29.6-35.4)

25.1

(15.8-34.3)

44.6

(28.2-60.9)

39.1

(26.8-51.4)

   

Oregon

56.7

(54.7-58.7)

56.7

(54.6-58.8)

   

60.6

(48.4-72.9)

52.2

(37.9-66.5)

58.5

(39.9-77.2)

Pennsylvania

49.3

(47.4-51.3)

50.2

(48.1-52.2)

40.4

(33.5-47.1)

46.5

(34.3-58.8)

       

Puerto Rico

26.6

(24.5-28.7)

       

26.5

(24.4-28.6)

       

Rhode Island

59.5

(57.0-62.0)

60.5

(57.9-63.1)

52.6

(37.1-68.1)

39.7

(24.8-54.6)

       

South Carolina

39.5

(37.1-42.0)

41.8

(39.0-44.7)

32.8

(28.1-37.5)

           

South Dakota

55.6

(53.2-57.9)

55.9

(53.5-58.3)

       

50.5

(37.8-63.3)

   

Tennessee

28.8

(26.8-30.7)

28.7

(26.5-30.8)

28.6

(23.6-33.6)

           

Texas

49.2

(47.0-51.4)

51.7

(48.9-54.4)

46.3

(38.9-53.7)

44.8

(40.3-49.4)

       

Utah

28.1

(26.0-30.3)

27.0

(24.8-29.2)

   

47.3

(37.3-57.3)

       

Vermont

60.3

(58.3-62.2)

60.3

(58.3-62.2)

   

52.7

(37.0-68.5)

       

Virginia

54.6

(52.2-57.1)

56.7

(54.1-59.3)

42.7

(37.0-48.4)

56.4

(43.3-69.4)

       

Washington

60.6

(58.6-62.5)

61.1

(59.0-63.1)

73.2

(60.2-86.1)

54.9

(44.8-65.1)

58.0

(42.9-73.1)

50.6

(39.2-62.0)

West Virginia

31.0

(28.8-33.1)

30.9

(28.7-33.1)

29.7

(16.4-43.1)

           

Wisconsin

70.4

(68.1-72.6)

71.3

(69.0-73.6)

66.4

(52.2-80.6)

           

Wyoming

52.6

(50.0-55.1)

52.7

(50.1-55.2)

   

51.7

(39.9-63.5)

       

Median

53.5

 

55.4

 

40.4

 

50.8

 

50.5

 

38.2

 

Low

26.6

Puerto Rico

27.0

Utah

25.1

Oklahoma

26.5

Puerto Rico

30.8

New Mexico

10.2

Illinois

High

70.4

Wisconsin

71.3

Wisconsin

73.2

Washington

70.0

Nevada

64.2

California

58.5

Oregon

* Consumed >= 1 drink of beer, wine, wine cooler, or liquor in the past month.
† Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
§ Confidence interval.


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Table 14

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TABLE 14. Percentage of adults who reported binge drinking,* by race or ethnicity and by state -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI§)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

11.4

( 9.7-13.0)

12.3

(10.4-14.1)

9.7

( 6.0-13.4)

           

Alaska

16.7

(13.8-19.5)

17.1

(13.7-20.6)

   

14.3

( 0.9-27.8)

17.7

(11.9-23.4)

   

Arizona

8.8

( 6.9-10.7)

8.4

( 6.1-10.6)

   

9.7

( 5.0-14.3)

13.2

( 0.3-26.2)

   

Arkansas

9.1

( 7.4-10.8)

9.5

( 7.6-11.3)

8.4

( 1.4-15.2)

           

California

15.2

(13.9-16.5)

15.5

(13.8-17.2)

15.2

( 9.6-20.8)

17.0

(14.2-19.8)

19.0

( 8.6-29.4)

7.0

( 3.9-10.1)

Colorado

15.4

(13.5-17.4)

15.9

(13.7-18.0)

   

15.1

( 9.4-20.8)

       

Connecticut

15.7

(13.4-18.0)

15.3

(12.8-17.8)

8.3

( 2.1-14.4)

27.8

(17.6-39.0)

       

Delaware

11.9

(10.2-13.5)

12.0

(10.2-13.7)

10.6

( 6.2-15.0)

22.2

( 6.7-37.6)

       

District of Columbia

12.1

(10.1-14.1)

19.0

(14.9-23.1)

7.8

( 5.8- 9.9)

           

Florida

13.1

(11.8-14.4)

14.2

(12.7-15.8)

8.5

( 4.8-12.3)

11.3

( 7.8-14.7)

       

Georgia

9.3

( 7.9-10.8)

9.8

( 8.1-11.6)

7.7

( 5.4-10.0)

15.0

( 3.4-26.4)

       

Hawaii

17.3

(15.3-19.3)

19.1

(15.7-22.5)

   

20.5

(15.0-26.0)

   

15.0

(12.4-17.7)

Idaho

15.0

(13.5-16.4)

14.2

(12.7-15.7)

   

28.0

(18.9-37.0)

18.9

( 8.8-28.9)

   

Illinois

16.3

(14.2-18.4)

16.7

(14.2-19.2)

12.6

( 6.9-18.3)

19.4

(10.8-28.0)

   

 

Indiana

12.6

(11.1-14.2)

12.5

(10.8-14.1)

11.1

( 5.3-16.8)

20.7

( 8.3-33.0)

       

Iowa

17.9

(16.4-19.4)

17.6

(16.1-19.2)

   

21.5

(10.4-32.7)

       

Kansas

13.4

(11.6-15.2)

13.5

(11.6-15.4)

10.6

( 4.4-16.8)

17.8

( 7.6-27.9)

       

Kentucky

9.4

( 8.2-10.6)

9.4

( 8.2-10.6)

8.4

( 3.8-13.0)

           

Louisiana

15.0

(12.9-17.1)

16.8

(14.3-19.2)

8.6

( 5.0-12.2)

19.4

( 8.2-30.5)

       

Maine

13.8

(11.6-16.0)

13.5

(11.3-15.7)

               

Maryland

6.3

( 5.4- 7.3)

7.5

( 6.3- 8.7)

4.1

( 2.4- 5.8)

4.3

( 0.4- 8.3)

   

0.0

 

Massachusetts

17.9

(15.6-20.2)

19.0

(16.5-21.5)

8.1

( 0.4-15.8)

11.7

( 4.7-18.6)

       

Michigan

18.9

(17.2-20.7)

19.5

(17.6-21.4)

12.7

( 8.0-17.3)

27.7

(15.7-39.7)

       

Minnesota

15.6

(14.4-16.7)

15.6

(14.4-16.8)

13.1

( 5.9-20.2)

21.2

(12.6-29.7)

   

4.7

( 0.0-10.2)

Mississippi

9.6

( 7.7-11.4)

10.1

( 7.8-12.4)

8.7

( 5.2-12.3)

           

Missouri

15.0

(12.9-17.0)

15.4

(13.2-17.7)

11.3

( 5.9-16.7)

           

Montana

14.0

(12.2-15.8)

13.8

(12.0-15.7)

       

12.9

( 4.0-21.8)

   

Nebraska

16.3

(14.3-18.3)

16.4

(14.3-18.5)

3.0

( 1.0- 5.1)

27.2

(13.2-41.1)

       

Nevada

19.2

(15.5-23.0)

20.0

(15.8-24.1)

15.0

( 2.0-27.9)

22.7

( 8.6-36.7)

   

2.3

( 0.0- 5.6)

New Hampshire

16.3

(14.1-18.4)

16.5

(14.3-18.7)

               

New Jersey

13.1

(11.4-14.7)

13.4

(11.5-15.2)

9.0

( 4.5-13.5)

12.3

( 6.2-18.5)

   

16.3

( 4.5-28.2)

New Mexico

14.6

(12.5-16.7)

12.6

(10.2-15.0)

   

17.2

(13.7-20.7)

16.3

( 5.9-26.7)

   

New York

9.3

( 8.2-10.5)

10.3

( 8.9-11.7)

4.9

( 2.3- 7.5)

8.5

( 4.9-12.1)

   

6.7

( 0.5-13.0)

North Carolina

9.1

( 7.9-10.2)

9.5

( 8.2-10.8)

7.8

( 5.1-10.6)

8.9

( 1.1-16.7)

       

North Dakota

18.4

(16.4-20.5)

18.1

(16.1-20.2)

       

24.0

( 9.1-39.0)

   

Ohio

8.6

( 7.2-10.0)

9.0

( 7.5-10.6)

4.7

( 2.6- 6.8)

           

Oklahoma

8.8

( 7.0-10.6)

9.2

( 7.1-11.2)

5.0

( 1.0- 9.1)

6.4

( 0.0-13.7)

11.4

( 3.1-19.7)

   

Oregon

14.3

(12.7-15.9)

13.5

(11.9-15.1)

   

21.6

(11.6-31.6)

21.0

( 9.4-32.6)

31.9

( 7.1-56.7)

Pennsylvania

14.6

(13.1-16.1)

15.0

(13.4-16.6)

8.4

( 4.9-11.8)

15.7

( 6.7-24.6)

       

Puerto Rico

10.9

( 9.3-12.4)

       

11.0

( 9.4-12.6)

       

Rhode Island

14.8

(12.7-16.9)

14.9

(12.7-17.1)

17.8

( 1.8-33.7)

11.3

( 1.7-20.9)

       

South Carolina

9.8

( 8.2-11.4)

11.3

( 9.4-13.2)

5.6

( 3.0- 8.2)

           

South Dakota

20.9

(18.9-22.8)

20.3

(18.3-22.3)

       

30.2

(18.6-41.8)

   

Tennessee

7.2

( 6.0- 8.3)

7.6

( 6.3- 8.8)

3.8

( 1.5- 6.0)

           

Texas

17.4

(15.7-19.2)

16.4

(14.4-18.4)

17.0

(10.9-23.2)

20.4

(16.5-24.3)

       

Utah

7.7

( 6.5- 8.8)

7.2

( 6.0- 8.4)

   

15.5

( 8.7-22.4)

       

Vermont

16.2

(14.4-17.9)

15.7

(14.0-17.3)

   

9.7

( 0.0-22.4)

       

Virginia

14.3

(12.4-16.2)

14.8

(12.6-17.0)

12.4

( 7.9-17.0)

14.9

( 6.3-23.5)

       

Washington

14.5

(13.0-16.0)

14.3

(12.8-15.8)

23.6

( 0.0-49.6)

16.7

( 9.6-23.7)

29.5

(15.8-43.2)

4.5

( 0.6- 8.4)

West Virginia

8.4

( 7.1- 9.7)

8.1

( 6.8- 9.4)

10.8

( 2.2-19.5)

           

Wisconsin

23.2

(21.0-25.3)

23.6

(21.3-25.8)

18.4

( 5.6-31.2)

           

Wyoming

15.4

(13.6-17.3)

15.6

(13.6-17.5)

   

15.2

( 7.5-22.8)

       

Median

14.4

 

14.3

 

8.7

 

16.2

 

18.9

 

6.7

 

Low

6.3

Maryland

7.2

Utah

3.0

Nebraska

4.3

Maryland

11.4

Oklahoma

0.0

Maryland

High

23.2

Wisconsin

23.6

Wisconsin

23.6

Washington

28.0

Idaho

30.2

South Dakota

31.9

Oregon

* Consumption of >= 5 alcoholic drinks on at least one occasion in the past month.
† Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
§ Confidence interval.
¶ In Illinois, the use of dual questionnaires for the question regarding binge drinking reduced the number of Asian or Pacific Islander respondents to <50.


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Table 15

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TABLE 15. Percentage of adults who reported current cigarette smoking,* by race or ethnicity and by state -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI§)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

24.7

(22.6-26.7)

27.2

(24.8-29.7)

16.4

(12.1-20.7)

           

Alaska

26.5

(23.2-29.8)

24.7

(20.9-28.6)

   

23.8

( 9.6-38.1)

41.3

(33.4-49.1)

   

Arizona

21.2

(18.6-23.7)

22.0

(19.3-24.8)

   

20.0

(13.1-26.9)

3.1

( 0.0- 6.9)

   

Arkansas

28.3

(25.7-30.9)

29.6

(26.8-32.5)

19.7

(11.9-27.4)

           

California

18.4

(17.0-19.8)

19.1

(17.4-20.8)

27.3

(20.4-34.1)

17.1

(14.1-20.0)

41.7

(28.3-55.1)

8.3

( 4.8-11.8)

Colorado

22.6

(20.4-24.8)

22.3

(19.9-24.7)

   

23.1

(16.6-29.6)

       

Connecticut

21.6

(19.5-23.7)

20.2

(18.1-22.3)

31.3

(21.8-40.8)

36.2

(25.2-47.1)

       

Delaware

26.5

(24.4-28.7)

26.9

(24.5-29.3)

25.5

(20.1-31.0)

25.4

(10.9-39.9)

       

District of Columbia

18.8

(16.4-21.2)

17.6

(13.4-21.8)

20.0

(17.0-22.9)

           

Florida

23.5

(21.9-25.1)

25.4

(23.6-27.3)

17.1

(12.3-21.8)

17.7

(13.8-21.6)

       

Georgia

22.5

(20.3-24.6)

24.1

(21.5-26.7)

17.4

(13.9-20.9)

30.8

(16.5-45.1)

       

Hawaii

18.6

(16.7-20.6)

18.3

(15.1-21.5)

   

23.1

(17.6-28.5)

   

17.3

(14.5-20.1)

Idaho

19.8

(18.3-21.2)

19.4

(17.9-20.9)

   

19.0

(12.2-25.8)

46.2

(32.6-59.8)

   

Illinois

23.3

(21.5-25.0)

23.6

(21.7-25.6)

24.2

(19.0-29.4)

22.6

(16.7-28.4)

   

10.2

( 2.3-18.1)

Indiana

26.2

(24.1-28.3)

26.2

(24.0-28.4)

26.2

(17.9-34.4)

26.2

(13.3-39.2)

       

Iowa

23.1

(21.5-24.7)

22.8

(21.2-24.4)

   

23.6

(12.1-35.1)

       

Kansas

22.6

(20.6-24.7)

22.6

(20.5-24.8)

19.7

(11.2-28.2)

24.7

(14.9-34.4)

       

Kentucky

30.8

(29.0-32.5)

30.8

(29.0-32.6)

32.7

(25.6-39.8)

           

Louisiana

24.6

(22.2-26.9)

27.0

(24.3-29.7)

19.2

(14.4-24.1)

22.3

(10.9-33.7)

       

Maine

22.7

(20.5-24.9)

22.6

(20.3-24.8)

               

Maryland

20.4

(18.8-22.0)

21.1

(19.3-22.9)

20.4

(17.1-23.7)

19.8

( 9.6-29.9)

   

4.7

( 0.0-10.5)

Massachusetts

20.4

(18.1-22.6)

21.1

(18.7-23.5)

14.8

( 6.2-23.4)

10.5

( 3.6-17.3)

       

Michigan

26.1

(24.2-27.9)

25.7

(23.7-27.8)

24.1

(18.6-29.6)

43.6

(30.3-57.0)

       

Minnesota

21.8

(20.5-23.1)

21.4

(20.1-22.7)

26.3

(17.0-35.7)

28.7

(20.0-37.4)

   

11.1

( 1.8-20.3)

Mississippi

22.9

(20.4-25.3)

25.4

(22.3-28.5)

17.7

(13.5-21.9)

           

Missouri

28.5

(26.1-31.0)

27.5

(24.9-30.2)

36.6

(28.4-44.7)

           

Montana

20.6

(18.6-22.5)

19.8

(17.8-21.8)

       

41.6

(27.5-55.7)

   

Nebraska

22.0

(20.0-24.1)

21.6

(19.6-23.7)

25.8

(18.1-33.5)

21.3

( 8.3-34.2)

       

Nevada

27.8

(24.4-31.3)

28.7

(24.8-32.6)

22.1

( 6.3-37.9)

30.2

(18.6-41.7)

   

7.3

( 0.0-17.5)

New Hampshire

24.7

(22.2-27.2)

24.6

(22.0-27.2)

               

New Jersey

21.4

(19.5-23.3)

22.1

(19.9-24.3)

22.8

(17.0-28.5)

20.8

(13.7-27.9)

   

7.2

( 1.0-13.3)

New Mexico

22.1

(20.0-24.3)

21.4

(18.7-24.0)

   

24.4

(20.8-28.1)

14.0

( 4.8-23.2)

   

New York

23.3

(21.7-24.9)

24.1

(22.2-26.0)

21.3

(16.7-25.9)

22.5

(17.0-27.9)

   

15.4

( 7.6-23.2)

North Carolina

26.0

(24.3-27.6)

26.0

(24.1-27.9)

26.6

(22.5-30.6)

28.3

(15.7-40.9)

       

North Dakota

22.2

(20.1-24.4)

21.6

(19.5-23.8)

       

42.5

(27.9-57.1)

   

Ohio

25.0

(23.0-27.0)

25.1

(22.9-27.3)

25.8

(20.8-30.8)

           

Oklahoma

24.7

(22.3-27.1)

24.1

(21.5-26.6)

23.6

(14.7-32.5)

32.3

(15.8-48.9)

33.4

(21.5-45.2)

   

Oregon

20.7

(19.0-22.4)

20.0

(18.4-21.7)

   

26.3

(14.1-38.5)

27.4

(15.9-39.0)

36.1

(12.5-59.6)

Pennsylvania

24.3

(22.6-25.9)

23.6

(21.9-25.3)

32.6

(26.1-39.1)

26.6

(15.8-37.4)

       

Puerto Rico

14.4

(12.7-16.0)

       

14.4

(12.7-16.0)

       

Rhode Island

24.2

(21.8-26.5)

24.4

(21.9-26.8)

29.8

(13.6-46.0)

14.9

( 4.9-24.9)

       

South Carolina

23.3

(21.3-25.4)

24.9

(22.4-27.3)

19.8

(15.4-23.8)

           

South Dakota

24.3

(22.2-26.4)

22.5

(20.4-24.6)

       

48.6

(34.9-62.2)

   

Tennessee

26.9

(25.1-28.8)

28.2

(26.1-30.2)

20.3

(15.3-25.2)

           

Texas

22.5

(20.6-24.4)

23.3

(20.9-25.6)

25.3

(18.4-32.1)

20.3

(16.5-24.1)

       

Utah

13.7

(12.1-15.4)

13.3

(11.7-15.0)

   

18.2

(10.9-25.5)

       

Vermont

23.3

(21.4-25.1)

22.8

(21.1-24.6)

   

22.5

( 8.5-36.4)

       

Virginia

24.6

(22.5-26.7)

25.7

(23.2-28.2)

21.9

(17.6-26.1)

23.0

(14.1-31.9)

       

Washington

23.7

(21.9-25.5)

23.7

(21.8-25.5)

37.0

(14.7-59.2)

21.4

(12.7-30.1)

36.3

(22.4-50.2)

14.6

( 8.1-21.2)

West Virginia

27.4

(25.4-29.4)

27.3

(25.2-29.3)

19.8

( 8.3-31.3)

           

Wisconsin

23.2

(21.0-25.4)

22.8

(20.6-25.1)

19.1

( 8.4-29.9)

           

Wyoming

24.0

(21.6-26.4)

23.4

(21.0-25.9)

   

29.3

(18.6-40.0)

       

Median

23.3

 

23.6

 

22.8

 

23.1

 

41.3

 

10.7

 

Low

13.7

Utah

13.3

Utah

14.8

Massachu-
setts

10.5

Massachu-
setts

3.1

Arizona

4.7

Maryland

High

30.8

Kentucky

30.8

Kentucky

37.0

Washington

43.6

Michigan

48.6

South Dakota

36.1

Oregon

* Ever smoked >= 100 cigarettes and currently smoked.
† Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
§ Confidence interval.


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Table 16

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TABLE 16. Percentage of adults who reported not always wearing a safety belt while driving or riding in a car, by race or ethnicity and by state* Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

34.0

(31.6-36.4)

31.9

(29.3-34.5)

41.9

(35.8-48.1)

           

Alaska

34.6

(31.0-38.2)

33.4

(29.2-37.5)

   

33.8

(17.4-50.1)

40.9

(32.9-49.0)

   

Arizona

19.4

(16.9-21.9)

18.6

(15.7-21.4)

   

22.4

(15.9-28.9)

27.9

(12.9-42.8)

   

Arkansas

34.6

(31.8-37.4)

34.4

(31.4-37.4)

43.8

(34.8-52.8)

           

California

12.8

(11.6-13.9)

13.3

(11.9-14.8)

18.4

(12.3-24.4)

10.9

( 8.7-13.1)

20.6

( 9.7-31.4)

10.0

( 5.7-14.2)

Colorado

28.6

(26.2-31.0)

27.8

(25.3-30.3)

   

35.1

(27.4-42.8)

       

Connecticut

30.9

(28.5-33.3)

29.8

(27.3-32.3)

43.8

(33.6-53.9)

40.6

(30.4-50.8)

       

Delaware

30.1

(27.9-32.2)

29.2

(26.9-31.6)

35.5

(30.0-40.9)

35.7

(19.7-51.7)

       

District of Columbia

22.1

(19.4-24.8)

16.6

(12.0-21.2)

25.6

(22.3-29.0)

           

Florida

24.0

(22.3-25.7)

23.1

(21.2-25.0)

31.0

(25.1-37.0)

23.7

(19.2-28.3)

       

Georgia

24.7

(22.5-26.9)

24.4

(21.8-27.0)

26.2

(21.5-31.0)

20.9

( 9.7-32.0)

       

Hawaii

12.9

(11.1-14.6)

13.0

( 9.9-16.1)

   

11.7

( 7.3-16.0)

   

13.6

(11.1-16.1)

Idaho

40.4

(38.7-42.2)

40.5

(38.6-42.3)

   

37.4

(27.4-47.4)

51.9

(38.4-65.4)

   

Illinois

32.0

(29.3-34.6)

30.0

(27.0-32.9)

41.6

(33.1-50.2)

36.3

(26.1-46.4)

   

§

 

Indiana

38.2

(35.9-40.4)

37.1

(34.7-39.4)

46.8

(36.9-56.7)

57.5

(41.5-73.5)

       

Iowa

32.8

(31.0-34.6)

32.8

(31.0-34.7)

   

23.7

(12.0-35.3)

       

Kansas

46.1

(43.7-48.6)

44.8

(42.2-47.4)

60.0

(50.1-69.8)

57.5

(46.4-68.5)

       

Kentucky

34.7

(32.8-36.5)

34.6

(32.6-36.5)

38.8

(31.6-45.9)

           

Louisiana

25.6

(23.0-28.2)

24.3

(21.3-27.2)

30.2

(24.5-35.9)

20.2

(10.4-29.9)

       

Maine

30.5

(27.9-33.0)

30.7

(28.1-33.3)

               

Maryland

23.9

(22.2-25.6)

23.5

(21.6-25.4)

25.5

(21.7-29.3)

26.0

(14.9-37.1)

   

18.7

( 7.6-29.7)

Massachusetts

37.2

(34.5-39.8)

37.3

(34.5-40.0)

45.9

(29.9-61.8)

33.6

(21.1-46.2)

       

Michigan

27.7

(25.7-29.6)

25.8

(23.7-27.8)

37.6

(31.2-44.0)

42.1

(28.7-55.5)

       

Minnesota

40.4

(38.8-41.9)

40.3

(38.7-41.8)

40.9

(30.4-51.3)

48.6

(37.9-59.3)

   

27.4

(13.8-41.0)

Mississippi

43.4

(40.6-46.3)

42.4

(39.1-45.7)

45.0

(39.4-50.5)

           

Missouri

38.2

(35.4-40.9)

37.9

(34.9-40.9)

41.0

(33.0-49.0)

           

Montana

42.4

(39.8-45.0)

42.4

(39.7-45.1)

       

44.2

(31.1-57.3)

   

Nebraska

42.3

(39.8-44.7)

42.6

(40.0-45.1)

37.1

(28.2-46.0)

40.4

(26.0-54.8)

       

Nevada

26.3

(22.5-30.1)

26.8

(22.5-31.0)

11.7

( 0.7-22.7)

31.5

(18.4-44.2)

   

12.4

( 0.0-24.7)

New Hampshire

41.6

(38.6-44.6)

41.6

(38.6-44.6)

               

New Jersey

27.9

(25.8-29.9)

27.3

(25.0-29.6)

36.7

(29.7-43.8)

25.7

(18.4-33.0)

   

18.6

( 7.1-30.1)

New Mexico

16.6

(14.6-18.6)

16.7

(14.1-19.3)

   

15.1

(11.7-18.6)

27.3

(16.2-38.5)

   

New York

26.1

(24.3-28.0)

23.7

(21.8-25.7)

39.8

(33.7-45.9)

28.2

(22.1-34.3)

   

25.0

(14.5-35.5)

North Carolina

15.4

(14.0-16.7)

15.9

(14.3-17.5)

13.8

(10.9-16.7)

14.3

( 5.2-23.5)

       

North Dakota

59.8

(57.3-62.4)

60.6

(58.0-63.2)

       

45.7

(31.5-59.8)

   

Ohio

30.0

(27.7-32.2)

29.2

(26.8-31.6)

41.6

(35.5-47.7)

           

Oklahoma

37.2

(34.6-39.9)

36.4

(33.7-39.2)

35.7

(24.8-46.5)

43.1

(27.1-59.2)

48.1

(36.3-59.9)

   

Oregon

16.0

(14.4-17.5)

15.8

(14.2-17.4)

   

21.7

( 8.9-34.6)

20.9

( 7.7-34.1)

9.4

( 0.2-18.5)

Pennsylvania

32.6

(30.8-34.5)

32.3

(30.3-34.2)

40.6

(33.6-47.5)

29.6

(18.3-40.9)

       

Puerto Rico

24.8

(22.7-26.8)

       

24.7

(22.6-26.7)

       

Rhode Island

43.2

(40.6-45.9)

43.6

(40.8-46.3)

42.7

(26.6-58.7)

39.0

(24.3-53.7)

       

South Carolina

19.3

(17.4-21.3)

19.6

(17.2-21.9)

18.9

(14.8-23.1)

           

South Dakota

58.2

(55.8-60.6)

57.3

(54.8-59.8)

       

75.1

(65.9-84.3)

   

Tennessee

33.6

(31.7-35.6)

32.4

(30.3-34.5)

40.7

(34.9-46.4)

           

Texas

18.8

(17.1-20.6)

21.0

(18.7-23.2)

16.7

(10.8-22.5)

14.1

(11.0-17.3)

       

Utah

35.0

(32.7-37.3)

35.1

(32.7-37.5)

   

31.2

(21.9-40.5)

       

Vermont

26.3

(24.5-28.2)

26.6

(24.7-28.4)

   

27.6

(12.4-42.8)

       

Virginia

28.0

(25.9-30.2)

26.9

(24.5-29.2)

34.8

(29.2-40.4)

31.0

(19.5-42.5)

       

Washington

24.1

(22.3-25.9)

24.5

(22.6-26.5)

19.5

( 8.3-30.6)

21.0

(13.5-28.6)

24.7

(12.3-37.1)

20.3

(10.3-30.5)

West Virginia

29.4

(27.3-31.4)

29.5

(27.5-31.6)

15.2

( 3.9-26.6)

           

Wisconsin

38.7

(36.2-41.2)

37.8

(35.3-40.3)

63.0

(48.2-77.7)

           

Wyoming

49.7

(47.2-52.2)

49.7

(47.2-52.2)

   

46.4

(34.9-57.8)

       

Median

30.7

 

30.0

 

37.6

 

30.3

 

40.9

 

18.6

 

Low

12.8

California

13.0

Hawaii

11.7

Nevada

10.9

California

20.6

California

9.4

Oregon

High

59.8

North Dakota

60.6

North Dakota

63.0

Wisconsin

57.5

Indiana, Kansas

75.1

South Dakota

27.4

Minnesota

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.
§ In Illinois, the use of dual questionnaires for the question regarding safety belt use reduced the number of Asian or Pacific Islander respondents to <50.


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Table 17

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TABLE 17. Percentage of adults who reported having had their blood cholesterol checked within the last 5 years, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

71.2

(68.9-73.5)

72.4

(69.9-74.9)

68.7

(62.9-74.6)

           

Alaska

62.6

(58.9-66.3)

65.0

(60.6-69.4)

   

46.1

(28.4-63.7)

50.5

(42.5-58.6)

   

Arizona

68.5

(65.2-71.7)

71.2

(67.5-74.8)

   

56.0

(47.6-64.4)

52.0

(36.2-67.7)

   

Arkansas

58.6

(55.8-61.4)

60.3

(57.2-63.3)

54.6

(45.9-63.3)

           

California

65.8

(64.0-67.5)

74.0

(72.0-76.0)

67.2

(59.9-74.5)

48.9

(45.2-52.5)

64.0

(50.7-77.4)

69.1

(62.6-75.6)

Colorado

69.8

(67.3-72.3)

71.7

(69.0-74.3)

   

57.9

(50.0-65.7)

       

Connecticut

73.7

(71.2-76.1)

74.6

(72.0-77.2)

68.6

(58.8-78.4)

65.8

(55.8-75.7)

       

Delaware

69.5

(67.2-71.7)

71.6

(69.2-74.0)

62.2

(56.0-68.5)

53.6

(37.4-69.9)

       

District of Columbia

79.3

(76.7-81.9)

82.8

(78.7-86.9)

77.5

(74.1-80.9)

           

Florida

75.4

(73.7-77.1)

77.9

(76.0-79.8)

66.2

(60.2-72.2)

71.0

(66.2-75.7)

       

Georgia

72.5

(70.3-74.8)

74.2

(71.7-76.8)

68.3

(63.3-73.2)

81.7

(70.3-93.1)

       

Hawaii

69.8

(67.4-72.3)

70.7

(66.6-74.7)

   

63.2

(56.7-69.7)

   

71.0

(67.5-74.5)

Idaho

64.9

(63.1-66.8)

65.8

(63.9-67.7)

   

54.1

(43.2-65.0)

51.9

(37.7-66.1)

   

Illinois

67.1

(64.2-70.0)

71.5

(68.5-74.6)

60.1

(51.7-68.5)

45.7

(35.6-55.7)

   

§

 

Indiana

66.4

(64.1-68.7)

66.6

(64.2-69.0)

67.4

(57.7-77.0)

62.4

(46.0-78.8)

       

Iowa

66.2

(64.3-68.1)

66.7

(64.7-68.6)

   

58.4

(43.2-73.6)

       

Kansas

55.0

(52.6-57.5)

56.1

(53.5-58.7)

45.3

(34.9-55.8)

48.3

(37.0-59.6)

       

Kentucky

65.6

(63.7-67.5)

65.5

(63.5-67.5)

64.8

(58.0-71.5)

           

Louisiana

66.1

(63.5-68.8)

66.6

(63.6-69.6)

65.8

(60.0-71.6)

63.5

(51.3-75.7)

       

Maine

71.8

(69.2-74.3)

72.0

(69.5-74.6)

               

Maryland

74.5

(72.8-76.2)

76.0

(74.1-77.8)

73.0

(69.4-76.7)

64.1

(51.8-76.4)

   

60.4

(46.7-74.2)

Massachusetts

74.8

(72.3-77.2)

75.2

(72.7-77.8)

64.8

(50.9-78.6)

76.7

(65.6-87.7)

       

Michigan

71.2

(69.2-73.2)

72.1

(70.0-74.3)

69.3

(63.0-75.6)

56.5

(43.0-70.0)

       

Minnesota

61.3

(59.7-62.8)

62.4

(60.8-63.9)

47.9

(37.1-58.7)

47.9

(37.8-58.0)

   

36.7

(22.5-50.8)

Mississippi

62.5

(59.5-65.5)

66.1

(62.8-69.4)

54.6

(49.0-60.3)

           

Missouri

70.5

(67.9-73.1)

70.5

(67.6-73.3)

74.1

(67.0-81.2)

           

Montana

63.2

(60.6-65.8)

63.3

(60.7-65.9)

       

65.1

(51.2-79.0)

   

Nebraska

65.5

(63.1-67.8)

65.8

(63.4-68.3)

59.4

(49.8-69.0)

61.7

(47.5-75.9)

       

Nevada

68.2

(64.5-72.0)

72.1

(68.3-75.9)

63.3

(45.6-80.9)

46.9

(33.1-60.7)

   

48.2

(26.0-70.5)

New Hampshire

73.2

(70.6-75.9)

73.7

(71.0-76.4)

               

New Jersey

75.6

(73.6-77.7)

77.9

(75.8-80.1)

71.1

(64.0-78.1)

62.9

(54.7-71.0)

   

67.8

(54.1-81.6)

New Mexico

62.9

(60.3-65.6)

69.2

(66.0-72.5)

   

55.6

(51.1-60.1)

49.9

(35.8-64.0)

   

New York

72.8

(71.0-74.6)

75.0

(73.0-77.0)

65.8

(60.0-71.5)

70.5

(64.4-76.6)

   

62.2

(51.0-73.4)

North Carolina

72.2

(70.4-73.9)

74.1

(72.1-76.0)

65.4

(61.1-69.6)

60.1

(46.6-73.5)

       

North Dakota

63.7

(61.1-66.3)

63.9

(61.3-66.6)

       

58.1

(42.1-74.0)

   

Ohio

66.5

(64.3-68.8)

66.5

(64.0-68.9)

71.7

(66.2-77.2)

           

Oklahoma

74.5

(72.0-76.9)

76.2

(73.6-78.8)

64.2

(53.0-75.3)

71.9

(58.3-85.5)

64.3

(52.8-75.8)

   

Oregon

68.2

(66.2-70.3)

69.0

(66.9-71.1)

   

46.4

(33.5-59.3)

75.4

(61.6-89.3)

73.0

(57.8-88.2)

Pennsylvania

68.6

(66.7-70.4)

68.8

(66.8-70.7)

67.7

(60.8-74.6)

69.1

(58.3-79.9)

       

Puerto Rico

79.3

(77.3-81.3)

       

79.2

(77.2-81.2)

       

Rhode Island

74.6

(72.2-77.0)

75.4

(72.9-77.8)

81.7

(71.1-92.3)

54.8

(38.9-70.6)

       

South Carolina

72.1

(69.7-74.5)

73.0

(70.2-75.8)

69.2

(64.3-74.2)

           

South Dakota

63.5

(61.0-65.9)

64.0

(61.5-66.6)

       

50.6

(38.3-62.8)

   

Tennessee

70.3

(68.4-72.3)

72.0

(69.9-74.1)

61.4

(55.6-67.1)

           

Texas

67.5

(65.3-69.6)

74.1

(71.6-76.6)

69.7

(62.7-76.7)

52.5

(47.8-57.1)

       

Utah

65.6

(63.3-67.9)

66.3

(63.9-68.7)

   

57.8

(47.7-67.8)

       

Vermont

68.9

(66.9-70.8)

68.7

(66.7-70.6)

   

63.9

(48.3-79.4)

       

Virginia

73.5

(71.1-75.8)

75.2

(72.9-77.5)

69.4

(64.1-74.6)

75.7

(66.0-85.4)

       

Washington

69.5

(67.6-71.4)

69.8

(67.8-71.8)

74.1

(61.0-87.2)

63.3

(53.1-73.5)

54.7

(39.1-70.2)

74.1

(65.2-83.0)

West Virginia

67.2

(65.0-69.4)

67.3

(65.0-69.5)

69.5

(54.3-84.8)

           

Wisconsin

70.3

(67.9-72.7)

70.9

(68.4-73.3)

75.4

(62.5-88.4)

           

Wyoming

70.2

(68.0-72.5)

71.7

(69.4-73.9)

   

51.7

(40.9-62.4)

       

Median

69.2

 

71.2

 

67.4

 

59.3

 

54.7

 

67.8

 

Low

55.0

Kansas

56.1

Kansas

45.3

Kansas

45.7

Illinois

49.9

New Mexico

36.7

Minnesota

High

79.3

District of Columbia, Puerto Rico

82.8

District of Columbia

81.7

Rhode Island

81.7

Georgia

75.4

Oregon

74.1

Washington

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.
§ In Illinois, the use of dual questionnaires for the question regarding blood cholesterol testing reduced the number of Asian or Pacific Islander respondents to <50.


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Table 18

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TABLE 18. Percentage of women with an intact uterine cervix who reported having had a Papanicolaou test in the past 3 years, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

85.9

(83.4-88.4)

84.2

(81.2-87.1)

91.3

(87.6-95.0)

           

Alaska

90.1

(86.5-93.7)

91.0

(87.1-94.9)

       

95.5

(91.1-100.0)

   

Arizona

79.1

(74.9-83.3)

81.3

(76.8-85.7)

   

69.2

(57.5-80.9)

       

Arkansas

78.2

(74.4-82.0)

77.7

(73.4-82.0)

84.7

(76.9-92.5)

           

California§

                       

Colorado

87.7

(85.0-90.3)

88.9

(86.2-91.6)

   

82.9

(73.6-92.2)

       

Connecticut

83.2

(80.3-86.1)

84.2

(81.4-87.0)

83.5

(71.3-95.8)

74.9

(56.7-93.1)

       

Delaware

89.9

(88.0-91.8)

89.9

(87.8-92.0)

91.5

(86.7-96.3)

           

District of Columbia

92.1

(89.9-94.2)

93.4

(89.2-97.6)

92.4

(90.0-94.8)

           

Florida

84.8

(82.7-86.9)

85.0

(82.5-87.5)

89.1

(83.9-94.2)

81.3

(75.6-86.9)

       

Georgia

92.3

(90.5-94.2)

92.3

(90.0-94.6)

94.3

(91.6-97.0)

           

Hawaii

86.5

(83.8-89.1)

90.5

(85.9-95.0)

   

86.8

(80.1-93.5)

   

84.2

(80.5-88.0)

Idaho

81.5

(79.5-83.5)

81.6

(79.6-83.7)

   

74.1

(61.6-86.6)

       

Illinois

82.7

(80.4-84.9)

82.2

(79.6-84.7)

91.1

(86.7-95.6)

77.5

(68.6-86.4)

       

Indiana

84.6

(81.9-87.2)

84.3

(81.6-87.1)

97.0

(91.3-100.0)

           

Iowa

80.6

(78.3-82.9)

80.5

(78.2-82.9)

               

Kansas

86.1

(83.7-88.5)

85.3

(82.7-87.9)

96.4

(91.0-100.0)

           

Kentucky

81.7

(79.6-83.8)

81.0

(78.7-83.2)

89.9

(84.4-95.4)

           

Louisiana

83.7

(80.6-86.7)

81.3

(77.4-85.1)

91.3

(86.9-95.6)

           

Maine

88.1

(85.3-90.9)

88.0

(85.1-90.9)

               

Maryland

88.8

(86.9-90.6)

88.0

(85.7-90.3)

93.2

(90.8-95.6)

           

Massachusetts

88.4

(85.8-90.9)

89.0

(86.3-91.7)

               

Michigan

86.6

(84.4-88.8)

86.7

(84.3-89.1)

88.9

(83.2-94.5)

           

Minnesota

83.3

(81.5-85.2)

83.4

(81.5-85.2)

   

84.2

(72.7-95.8)

       

Mississippi

85.9

(83.1-88.7)

85.6

(81.8-89.3)

87.2

(83.1-91.3)

           

Missouri

84.0

(80.9-87.1)

84.4

(81.2-87.5)

87.7

(79.4-96.1)

           

Montana

84.7

(81.5-87.8)

84.7

(81.8-87.6)

               

Nebraska

84.0

(81.6-86.3)

83.9

(81.4-86.3)

86.1

(77.1-95.1)

           

Nevada

85.6

(81.6-89.6)

85.9

(81.7-90.1)

   

83.9

(69.3-98.5)

       

New Hampshire

87.2

(84.3-90.1)

87.4

(84.5-90.3)

               

New Jersey

81.3

(78.7-84.0)

81.9

(78.9-84.9)

85.6

(79.1-92.1)

77.8

(68.2-87.4)

       

New Mexico

80.4

(77.0-83.8)

82.4

(78.3-86.4)

   

76.9

(71.1-82.7)

       

New York

87.3

(85.5-89.1)

86.9

(84.7-89.0)

92.3

(88.4-96.3)

90.3

(85.1-95.4)

   

75.9

(63.5-88.3)

North Carolina

87.6

(85.7-89.5)

87.5

(85.3-89.8)

87.5

(83.5-91.5)

           

North Dakota

82.4

(79.4-85.3)

81.7

(78.6-84.7)

               

Ohio

87.2

(85.0-89.5)

86.5

(84.0-89.0)

91.0

(86.3-95.6)

           

Oklahoma

84.8

(81.6-87.9)

84.6

(81.0-88.1)

               

Oregon

86.0

(83.9-88.1)

86.3

(84.2-88.5)

               

Pennsylvania

82.4

(79.9-84.9)

81.8

(79.1-84.6)

93.1

(89.4-96.8)

           

Puerto Rico

71.8

(68.5-75.1)

       

71.5

(68.2-74.8)

       

Rhode Island

87.5

(85.0-89.9)

86.8

(84.2-89.4)

               

South Carolina

89.6

(87.5-91.8)

88.2

(85.3-91.0)

93.1

(89.8-96.4)

           

South Dakota

84.9

(82.5-87.4)

84.3

(81.8-86.8)

               

Tennessee

88.0

(86.0-90.0)

87.9

(85.7-90.0)

89.3

(84.9-93.8)

           

Texas

81.0

(78.2-83.7)

83.9

(80.6-87.1)

87.5

(80.2-94.9)

73.9

(68.2-79.6)

       

Utah

78.5

(75.1-81.9)

78.6

(75.1-82.1)

   

80.4

(68.5-92.2)

       

Vermont

84.3

(81.8-86.7)

84.4

(81.9-86.9)

               

Virginia

87.8

(84.3-91.3)

88.9

(86.7-91.1)

94.3

(91.1-97.5)

89.0

(79.2-98.8)

       

Washington

87.0

(84.6-89.3)

86.8

(84.2-89.4)

   

87.8

(79.6-96.0)

   

84.1

(73.6-94.5)

West Virginia

78.8

(76.1-81.6)

78.7

(75.9-81.5)

               

Wisconsin

84.2

(81.3-87.1)

83.9

(80.9-86.9)

               

Wyoming

83.9

(80.5-87.3)

82.9

(79.2-86.5)

   

92.9

(85.6-100.0)

       

Median

84.8

 

84.7

91.1

 

80.9

 

 

**

 

Low

71.8

Puerto Rico

77.7

Arkansas

83.5

Connecticut

69.2

Arizona

       

High

92.3

Georgia

93.4

District of Columbia

97.0

Indiana

92.9

Wyoming

       

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.
§ Data for California are excluded because of different wording of the question regarding the Papanicolaou test.
¶ Only one state had >= 50 respondents with an intact uterine cervix.
** Median is not considered meaningful for three states that had >= 50 respondents with an intact uterine cervix and is not shown.


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Table 19

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TABLE 19. Percentage of women aged >=50 years who reported having had a mammogram in the past 2 years, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

74.9

(71.1-78.8)

76.8

(72.6-81.0)

67.1

(57.7-76.5)

           

Alaska

79.3

(71.0-87.5)

76.6

(66.8-86.3)

       

93.5

(87.7-99.2)

   

Arizona

73.7

(67.9-79.4)

74.1

(68.1-80.1)

               

Arkansas

56.5

(51.7-61.3)

58.7

(53.7-63.8)

44.3

(29.1-59.5)

           

California§

                       

Colorado

76.2

(71.7-80.7)

78.1

(73.4-82.9)

               

Connecticut

77.6

(73.3-81.9)

79.4

(75.4-83.4)

               

Delaware

79.6

(76.2-83.1)

79.6

(75.9-83.3)

82.5

(74.7-90.2)

           

District of Columbia

83.6

(79.4-87.8)

89.7

(82.9-96.6)

81.0

(75.7-86.3)

           

Florida

79.1

(76.3-81.9)

78.5

(75.4-81.6)

85.5

(76.7-94.3)

79.6

(70.5-88.7)

       

Georgia

75.5

(71.0-80.0)

77.1

(72.3-82.0)

69.8

(59.4-80.1)

           

Hawaii

82.3

(78.1-86.5)

81.7

(73.3-90.1)

           

80.7

(75.2-86.2)

Idaho

64.9

(61.3-68.5)

64.8

(61.3-68.3)

               

Illinois

73.0

(69.3-76.7)

72.2

(68.2-76.3)

75.4

(64.3-86.5)

           

Indiana

65.4

(60.7-70.0)

66.5

(61.7-71.2)

               

Iowa

67.9

(64.6-71.1)

67.7

(64.5-71.0)

               

Kansas

70.0

(65.6-74.5)

69.6

(65.0-74.2)

               

Kentucky

69.6

(66.6-72.6)

70.1

(67.0-73.2)

60.7

(47.7-73.6)

           

Louisiana

69.5

(64.3-74.8)

68.6

(62.8-74.3)

75.7

(63.5-88.0)

           

Maine

77.6

(73.0-82.2)

77.4

(72.7-82.0)

               

Maryland

80.4

(77.1-83.7)

80.2

(76.6-83.8)

80.8

(72.8-88.7)

           

Massachusetts

80.9

(76.5-85.4)

81.8

(77.3-86.2)

               

Michigan

79.8

(76.2-83.4)

79.7

(75.8-83.5)

               

Minnesota

73.7

(70.9-76.5)

73.7

(70.9-76.5)

               

Mississippi

64.7

(59.8-69.6)

67.9

(62.2-73.5)

56.1

(46.5-65.8)

           

Missouri

69.5

(64.5-74.4)

68.9

(63.7-74.1)

78.0

(63.0-92.9)

           

Montana

70.7

(66.3-75.1)

70.6

(66.1-75.0)

               

Nebraska

67.3

(63.5-71.2)

67.5

(63.5-71.4)

64.7

(49.7-79.7)

           

Nevada

68.4

(60.7-76.0)

70.9

(63.2-78.6)

               

New Hampshire

79.9

(75.2-84.7)

79.9

(75.1-84.7)

               

New Jersey

73.8

(69.8-77.7)

73.7

(69.5-77.8)

               

New Mexico

67.4

(62.4-72.5)

68.5

(62.5-74.5)

   

65.2

(55.6-74.7)

       

New York

78.3

(75.0-81.6)

77.3

(73.6-81.1)

83.9

(75.7-92.0)

           

North Carolina

74.5

(71.3-77.7)

73.2

(69.5-76.9)

80.0

(73.6-86.5)

           

North Dakota

72.6

(68.3-76.9)

72.5

(68.1-76.9)

               

Ohio

74.9

(70.9-78.8)

74.5

(70.3-78.7)

77.1

(65.5-88.6)

           

Oklahoma

65.1

(60.3-69.8)

65.0

(60.1-69.9)

               

Oregon

79.2

(76.1-82.3)

78.7

(75.5-81.9)

               

Pennsylvania

73.9

(70.5-77.3)

73.4

(69.8-77.0)

85.0

(76.0-93.9)

           

Puerto Rico

61.8

(57.3-66.2)

       

61.7

(57.2-66.2)

       

Rhode Island

83.4

(79.7-87.2)

83.1

(79.3-86.9)

               

South Carolina

75.6

(71.8-79.4)

77.2

(73.0-81.3)

70.0

(61.4-78.6)

           

South Dakota

70.8

(66.4-75.1)

71.4

(66.9-75.8)

               

Tennessee

74.2

(70.9-77.5)

75.1

(71.5-78.6)

65.6

(54.1-77.1)

           

Texas

67.8

(63.3-72.3)

69.4

(64.4-74.4)

   

59.7

(47.1-72.3)

       

Utah

70.2

(64.9-75.4)

71.2

(65.8-76.5)

               

Vermont

73.5

(69.9-77.1)

73.8

(70.1-77.4)

               

Virginia

76.2

(72.5-79.8)

76.8

(72.8-80.8)

76.4

(67.4-85.4)

           

Washington

73.4

(69.8-76.9)

73.7

(70.1-77.3)

               

West Virginia

69.3

(65.6-73.1)

68.9

(65.0-72.7)

               

Wisconsin

71.6

(67.1-76.1)

72.1

(67.5-76.6)

               

Wyoming

69.4

(65.2-73.6)

69.0

(64.7-73.3)

               

Median

73.7

 

73.7

 

76.1

 

63.5

 

 

 

Low

56.5

Arkansas

58.7

Arkansas

44.3

Arkansas

59.7

Texas

       

High

83.6

District of Columbia

89.7

District of Columbia

85.5

Florida

79.6

Florida

       

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.
§ Data for California are excluded because of different wording of the question regarding mammograms.
¶ Only one state had >= 50 respondents aged >= 50 years.


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Table 20

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TABLE 20. Percentage of women aged >=50 years who reported having had a clinical breast examination in the past 2 years, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

Alabama

73.9

(70.1-77.8)

74.2

(69.9-78.4)

72.8

(64.4-81.2)

           

Alaska

79.3

(70.6-87.9)

76.5

(66.2-86.7)

       

93.4

(87.1-99.7)

   

Arizona

75.5

(69.3-81.6)

75.7

(69.3-82.1)

               

Arkansas

63.5

(58.8-68.2)

64.7

(59.7-69.6)

57.6

(42.4-72.8)

           

California

77.2

(73.8-80.6)

79.6

(76.4-82.7)

   

75.5

(65.6-85.4)

       

Colorado

78.3

(73.8-82.7)

80.4

(75.8-84.9)

               

Connecticut

76.7

(72.3-81.2)

77.5

(73.2-81.8)

               

Delaware

81.2

(78.0-84.5)

81.2

(77.7-84.6)

83.5

(75.2-91.9)

           

District of Columbia

83.2

(78.7-87.8)

88.4

(79.8-97.1)

82.1

(76.8-87.4)

           

Florida

78.1

(75.2-80.9)

78.4

(75.3-81.5)

76.4

(65.7-87.2)

78.7

(69.4-88.0)

       

Georgia

82.9

(79.0-86.8)

84.8

(80.5-89.1)

78.3

(69.8-86.9)

           

Hawaii

80.6

(75.8-85.3)

82.6

(74.4-90.7)

           

77.8

(71.3-84.3)

Idaho

71.9

(68.8-75.0)

71.9

(68.9-74.9)

               

Illinois

72.4

(68.8-76.1)

70.4

(66.3-74.4)

79.5

(70.3-88.8)

           

Indiana

69.3

(64.6-74.0)

70.6

(65.9-75.4)

               

Iowa

73.7

(70.7-76.8)

73.6

(70.6-76.7)

               

Kansas

76.4

(72.2-80.6)

76.3

(71.9-80.6)

               

Kentucky

73.2

(70.3-76.2)

73.3

(70.2-76.4)

73.2

(60.8-85.6)

           

Louisiana

65.4

(60.1-70.7)

64.9

(58.9-70.8)

72.1

(59.8-84.4)

           

Maine

83.0

(78.7-87.2)

82.8

(78.5-87.1)

               

Maryland

84.6

(81.8-87.4)

84.9

(82.0-87.8)

83.7

(76.4-91.0)

           

Massachusetts

83.8

(79.6-87.9)

83.8

(79.5-88.0)

               

Michigan

77.7

(73.9-81.4)

78.5

(74.5-82.5)

               

Minnesota

78.7

(76.1-81.3)

79.0

(76.4-81.7)

               

Mississippi

73.4

(68.7-78.1)

79.1

(74.1-84.1)

59.4

(49.1-69.7)

           

Missouri

74.7

(69.9-79.6)

74.6

(69.5-79.7)

79.2

(65.7-92.7)

           

Montana

78.7

(74.9-82.6)

78.5

(74.5-82.5)

               

Nebraska

71.0

(67.3-74.7)

70.7

(66.8-74.5)

72.3

(58.5-86.1)

           

Nevada

70.3

(62.9-77.7)

74.5

(67.3-81.7)

               

New Hampshire

85.6

(81.5-89.7)

85.7

(81.5-89.8)

               

New Jersey

73.3

(69.2-77.3)

73.1

(68.7-77.4)

               

New Mexico

72.3

(67.3-77.3)

75.9

(70.4-81.3)

   

66.3

(56.5-76.0)

       

New York

86.4

(83.7-89.1)

85.2

(82.1-88.2)

90.0

(81.8-98.2)

           

North Carolina

82.5

(79.7-85.2)

82.3

(79.2-85.5)

82.1

(75.4-88.7)

           

North Dakota

75.6

(71.3-79.8)

75.1

(70.8-79.5)

               

Ohio

81.7

(78.4-85.0)

81.0

(77.4-84.6)

88.1

(81.8-94.3)

           

Oklahoma

81.8

(78.0-85.6)

81.7

(77.7-85.8)

               

Oregon

79.9

(76.8-83.0)

79.8

(76.6-83.0)

               

Pennsylvania

70.4

(66.9-74.0)

70.0

(66.2-73.7)

78.1

(65.2-91.1)

           

Puerto Rico

76.8

(72.9-80.6)

       

76.9

(73.0-80.8)

       

Rhode Island

79.9

(75.7-84.1)

79.9

(75.7-84.2)

               

South Carolina

83.1

(79.9-86.4)

85.1

(81.6-88.7)

75.9

(67.9-84.0)

           

South Dakota

75.9

(72.0-79.9)

76.7

(72.8-80.6)

               

Tennessee

79.9

(76.9-82.8)

79.9

(76.7-83.1)

79.3

(69.6-88.9)

           

Texas

71.6

(67.2-76.0)

73.3

(68.5-78.2)

   

58.3

(45.5-71.1)

       

Utah

77.2

(72.5-81.9)

77.4

(72.7-82.1)

               

Vermont

75.5

(71.8-79.1)

75.5

(71.8-79.2)

               

Virginia

78.5

(74.9-82.0)

80.2

(76.5-84.0)

70.8

(60.4-81.1)

           

Washington

77.6

(74.3-80.9)

78.6

(75.3-82.0)

               

West Virginia

72.7

(69.0-76.3)

72.6

(68.8-76.3)

               

Wisconsin

75.7

(70.9-80.5)

75.2

(70.3-80.2)

               

Wyoming

71.1

(66.9-75.3)

70.7

(66.3-75.0)

               

Median

77.0

 

77.5

 

78.2

 

75.5

 

§

 

§

 

Low

63.5

Arkansas

64.7

Arkansas

57.6

Arkansas

58.3

Texas

       

High

86.4

New York

88.4

District of Columbia

90.0

New York

78.7

Florida

       

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.
§ Only one state had >= 50 respondents aged >= 50 years.


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Table 21

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TABLE 21. Percentage of women aged >=50 years who reported having had both a mammogram and a clinical breast examination in the past 2 years, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

66.2

(62.0-70.4)

68.0

(63.4-72.6)

57.6

(47.8-67.4)

           

Alaska

71.9

(62.7-81.1)

68.5

(57.7-79.2)

       

88.5

(80.1-96.8)

   

Arizona

69.4

(63.1-75.6)

69.4

(62.8-76.0)

               

Arkansas

49.2

(44.3-54.0)

51.3

(46.2-56.5)

35.7

(21.1-50.4)

           

California§

                       

Colorado

68.8

(63.8-73.8)

71.6

(66.4-76.7)

               

Connecticut

69.3

(64.6-74.0)

70.9

(66.3-75.5)

               

Delaware

73.2

(69.3-77.0)

73.5

(69.4-77.5)

76.2

(66.6-85.7)

           

District of Columbia

74.5

(69.4-79.6)

81.3

(71.6-91.1)

72.4

(66.3-78.4)

           

Florida

70.3

(67.2-73.5)

70.5

(67.0-73.9)

67.8

(55.4-80.3)

72.3

(62.3-82.4)

       

Georgia

70.8

(65.9-75.6)

73.5

(68.2-78.7)

62.8

(52.1-73.5)

           

Hawaii

74.8

(69.7-79.9)

77.3

(68.6-86.0)

           

71.2

(64.3-78.2)

Idaho

58.3

(54.5-62.0)

58.0

(54.4-61.5)

               

Illinois

64.3

(60.4-68.2)

63.6

(59.3-67.8)

63.2

(51.3-75.1)

           

Indiana

57.0

(52.1-61.9)

58.0

(53.0-63.0)

               

Iowa

62.2

(58.9-65.5)

62.0

(58.7-65.4)

               

Kansas

63.1

(58.3-67.8)

63.6

(58.7-68.4)

               

Kentucky

66.4

(63.3-69.5)

66.8

(63.5-70.0)

60.7

(47.7-73.6)

           

Louisiana

58.6

(53.3-63.9)

57.0

(51.0-63.0)

68.5

(56.0-81.0)

           

Maine

73.1

(68.2-78.0)

72.8

(67.9-77.8)

               

Maryland

76.1

(72.6-79.6)

76.2

(72.3-80.0)

75.0

(66.3-83.6)

           

Massachusetts

74.7

(69.8-79.7)

75.8

(70.8-80.8)

               

Michigan

71.6

(67.5-75.7)

71.7

(67.3-76.1)

               

Minnesota

69.0

(66.0-72.0)

69.2

(66.2-72.2)

               

Mississippi

60.5

(55.4-65.6)

64.9

(59.1-70.7)

49.2

(39.0-59.4)

           

Missouri

64.2

(59.0-69.4)

64.0

(58.5-69.5)

68.9

(53.5-84.2)

           

Montana

67.2

(62.6-71.9)

67.1

(62.5-71.8)

               

Nebraska

59.8

(55.7-63.8)

59.6

(55.4-63.8)

               

Nevada

59.4

(51.3-67.4)

63.0

(54.7-71.3)

               

New Hampshire

75.8

(70.7-80.9)

75.7

(70.5-80.9)

               

New Jersey

63.9

(59.5-68.3)

64.2

(59.5-68.8)

               

New Mexico

61.3

(55.9-66.7)

63.7

(57.3-70.1)

   

57.0

(47.0-67.0)

       

New York

74.7

(71.2-78.2)

73.6

(69.6-77.5)

79.5

(69.5-89.5)

           

North Carolina

70.8

(67.4-74.2)

70.0

(66.2-73.8)

73.2

(65.8-80.6)

           

North Dakota

66.3

(61.7-70.8)

65.9

(61.2-70.6)

               

Ohio

71.4

(67.4-75.5)

71.1

(66.8-75.4)

73.9

(62.3-85.6)

           

Oklahoma

61.6

(56.7-66.5)

61.6

(56.6-66.6)

               

Oregon

73.1

(69.6-76.5)

72.9

(69.4-76.5)

               

Pennsylvania

63.7

(60.0-67.4)

63.2

(59.3-67.1)

73.4

(60.0-86.7)

           

Puerto Rico

58.7

(54.2-63.2)

       

58.6

(54.0-63.1)

       

Rhode Island

73.4

(68.8-78.0)

73.1

(68.4-77.8)

               

South Carolina

71.6

(67.6-75.6)

73.4

(69.0-77.8)

65.3

(56.3-74.4)

           

South Dakota

63.3

(58.7-68.0)

63.8

(59.0-68.5)

               

Tennessee

67.7

(64.2-71.2)

69.0

(65.2-72.7)

56.5

(44.4-68.5)

           

Texas

62.0

(57.3-66.7)

63.0

(57.7-68.3)

   

53.7

(40.8-66.6)

       

Utah

63.7

(58.1-69.2)

64.6

(59.0-70.3)

               

Vermont

65.7

(61.7-69.7)

65.7

(61.7-69.8)

               

Virginia

68.6

(64.4-72.8)

70.6

(66.0-75.1)

61.5

(50.6-72.3)

           

Washington

67.0

(63.2-70.7)

68.2

(64.4-72.0)

               

West Virginia

64.0

(60.0-68.0)

63.6

(59.6-67.7)

               

Wisconsin

65.5

(60.5-70.5)

66.0

(60.9-71.1)

               

Wyoming

62.1

(57.6-66.6)

61.5

(56.9-66.1)

               

Median

66.4

 

67.6

 

67.8

 

57.8

 

 

 

Low

49.2

Arkansas

51.3

Arkansas

35.7

Arkansas

53.7

Texas

       

High

76.1

Maryland

81.3

District of Columbia

79.5

New York

72.3

Florida

       

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.
§ Data for California are excluded because of different wording of the question regarding mammograms.
¶ Only one state had >= 50 respondents aged >= 50 years who answered both the question regarding mammograms and the question regarding clinical breast exams.


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Table 22

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TABLE 22. Percentage of adults aged >=50 years who reported having used a home-kit blood stool test in the past year, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

14.2

(11.6-16.8)

13.3

(10.6-15.9)

19.2

(10.8-27.7)

           

Alaska

15.6

(10.4-20.7)

15.6

( 9.8-21.5)

       

12.3

( 4.3-20.4)

   

Arizona

16.9

(13.2-20.7)

16.5

(12.7-20.2)

               

Arkansas

13.4

(10.7-16.1)

14.6

(11.6-17.6)

3.0

( 0.0- 7.9)

           

California

16.5

(14.4-18.5)

19.7

(17.2-22.2)

18.9

( 7.9-30.0)

7.6

( 3.3-11.9)

   

2.6

( 0.0- 6.2)

Colorado

24.1

(20.4-27.8)

24.1

(20.2-27.9)

   

12.5

( 4.4-20.7)

       

Connecticut

24.1

(20.7-27.5)

24.8

(21.3-28.4)

               

Delaware

22.6

(19.7-25.6)

22.8

(19.6-26.1)

21.3

(13.7-28.9)

           

District of Columbia

25.7

(21.3-30.1)

31.2

(22.7-39.6)

23.2

(18.0-28.5)

           

Florida

23.9

(21.6-26.2)

26.3

(23.6-28.9)

15.8

( 7.0-24.5)

11.3

( 6.0-16.6)

       

Georgia

14.8

(12.0-17.6)

15.9

(12.6-19.2)

11.9

( 6.3-17.5)

           

Hawaii

21.9

(18.3-25.5)

17.0

(11.7-22.3)

   

25.7

(13.0-38.5)

   

23.8

(18.9-28.7)

Idaho

17.6

(15.4-19.8)

18.2

(16.0-20.5)

               

Illinois

14.5

(11.1-17.8)

13.7

(10.2-17.2)

26.1

(12.8-39.5)

           

Indiana

15.8

(12.8-18.8)

15.4

(12.6-18.2)

               

Iowa

18.6

(16.3-20.8)

18.3

(16.1-20.6)

               

Kansas

23.1

(19.8-26.3)

22.7

(19.3-26.1)

               

Kentucky

18.2

(16.0-20.3)

17.6

(15.4-19.8)

28.2

(17.8-38.6)

           

Louisiana

17.1

(13.8-20.3)

16.3

(12.5-20.0)

22.3

(13.6-30.9)

           

Maine

28.5

(24.8-32.2)

28.8

(25.1-32.4)

               

Maryland

25.2

(22.5-27.8)

25.2

(22.2-28.1)

24.5

(18.0-31.1)

           

Massachusetts

28.2

(23.9-32.4)

28.9

(24.5-33.2)

               

Michigan

22.4

(19.3-25.5)

23.2

(19.9-26.5)

16.7

( 7.3-26.1)

           

Minnesota

22.0

(19.9-24.0)

22.3

(20.1-24.4)

               

Mississippi

9.3

( 7.1-11.6)

9.1

( 6.6-11.7)

10.3

( 5.3-15.4)

           

Missouri

17.3

(14.4-20.2)

16.9

(13.9-20.0)

21.2

(11.0-31.3)

           

Montana

16.7

(13.7-19.7)

16.6

(13.6-19.7)

               

Nebraska

18.0

(15.4-20.5)

17.5

(14.9-20.1)

24.5

(11.9-37.1)

           

Nevada

11.0

( 6.3-15.6)

11.8

( 6.6-17.0)

               

New Hampshire

26.9

(22.5-31.3)

26.5

(22.1-30.9)

               

New Jersey

21.4

(18.4-24.4)

21.7

(18.5-24.9)

22.4

(10.0-34.7)

           

New Mexico

15.2

(12.2-18.2)

15.1

(11.5-18.6)

   

15.8

(10.1-21.5)

       

New York

25.0

(22.2-27.7)

22.5

(19.7-25.4)

43.3

(32.7-53.8)

28.6

(16.1-41.1)

       

North Carolina

27.3

(24.7-29.9)

28.6

(25.6-31.5)

21.4

(15.6-27.1)

           

North Dakota

14.6

(11.8-17.4)

14.2

(11.4-16.9)

               

Ohio

18.4

(15.8-21.1)

18.7

(15.9-21.5)

17.0

(10.3-23.7)

           

Oklahoma

10.8

( 8.5-13.1)

10.8

( 8.3-13.3)

               

Oregon

24.0

(21.3-26.6)

23.9

(21.1-26.6)

               

Pennsylvania

22.1

(19.6-24.6)

22.1

(19.4-24.7)

22.2

(12.6-31.8)

           

Puerto Rico

16.1

(13.6-18.7)

       

16.3

(13.7-18.9)

       

Rhode Island

20.8

(17.6-24.1)

21.6

(18.2-25.0)

               

South Carolina

15.6

(13.0-18.2)

17.0

(14.0-19.9)

11.9

( 6.4-17.5)

           

South Dakota

15.0

(12.5-17.5)

15.1

(12.5-17.7)

               

Tennessee

15.8

(13.4-18.1)

16.5

(13.9-19.1)

10.6

( 5.0-16.1)

           

Texas

19.6

(16.5-22.6)

22.8

(19.0-26.5)

18.9

( 8.5-29.4)

5.8

( 1.3-10.2)

       

Utah

14.8

(11.5-18.1)

14.4

(11.1-17.7)

               

Vermont

26.6

(23.7-29.4)

26.8

(23.9-29.7)

               

Virginia

19.6

(16.2-23.0)

19.6

(15.9-23.4)

19.4

(11.0-27.7)

           

Washington

24.5

(21.9-27.1)

24.6

(21.9-27.3)

               

West Virginia

11.9

( 9.8-14.0)

11.7

( 9.6-13.9)

               

Wisconsin

17.3

(14.3-20.3)

17.9

(14.8-21.0)

               

Wyoming

14.4

(11.9-16.9)

14.4

(11.8-17.0)

               

Median

18.1

 

18.2

 

20.3

 

14.2

 

§

 

 

Low

9.3

Mississippi

9.1

Mississippi

3.0

Arkansas

5.8

Texas

       

High

28.5

Maine

31.2

District of Columbia

43.3

New York

28.6

New York

       

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a racial or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.
§ Only one state had >= 50 respondents who were aged >= 50 years.
¶ Median is not considered meaningful for two states that had >= 50 respondents aged >= 50 years and is not shown.


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Table 23

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TABLE 23. Percentage of adults aged >=50 years who reported having had a sigmoidoscopy within the last 5 years, by race or ethnicity and by state* -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

State

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

%

(95% CI)

Alabama

29.5

(26.1-32.9)

28.3

(24.7-32.0)

36.5

(27.8-45.3)

           

Alaska

33.0

(26.3-39.8)

34.0

(26.2-41.7)

       

27.6

(16.7-38.5)

   

Arizona

31.4

(27.0-35.9)

31.9

(27.3-36.4)

               

Arkansas

23.1

(19.7-26.4)

24.4

(20.7-28.0)

10.9

( 2.3-19.5)

           

California

35.4

(32.7-38.1)

38.2

(35.1-41.2)

27.8

(15.6-40.1)

31.1

(23.0-39.2)

   

24.3

(11.4-37.2)

Colorado

31.0

(27.2-34.9)

32.2

(28.0-36.4)

   

18.1

( 7.9-28.4)

       

Connecticut

35.1

(31.3-38.9)

36.3

(32.3-40.3)

               

Delaware

36.9

(33.7-40.2)

38.0

(34.4-41.6)

30.7

(22.3-39.0)

           

District of Columbia

41.5

(36.4-46.5)

49.1

(40.0-58.2)

38.3

(32.2-44.4)

           

Florida

28.6

(26.1-31.1)

29.6

(26.9-32.3)

20.7

(12.0-29.4)

23.6

(15.4-31.8)

       

Georgia

38.4

(34.4-42.4)

39.4

(34.9-44.0)

36.2

(27.4-45.0)

           

Hawaii

39.6

(35.3-43.9)

37.7

(30.6-44.8)

   

40.7

(26.3-55.1)

   

40.7

(34.9-46.5)

Idaho

26.0

(23.6-28.5)

26.1

(23.6-28.6)

               

Illinois

29.0

(24.7-33.4)

31.1

(26.2-36.0)

26.0

(12.6-39.5)

           

Indiana

24.0

(20.7-27.3)

23.2

(20.0-26.4)

               

Iowa

28.0

(25.4-30.6)

28.2

(25.6-30.8)

               

Kansas

30.1

(26.5-33.6)

29.0

(25.4-32.7)

               

Kentucky

25.3

(22.9-27.8)

25.1

(22.5-27.6)

28.3

(17.8-38.7)

           

Louisiana

26.1

(22.3-29.9)

25.4

(21.2-29.7)

28.6

(19.7-37.6)

           

Maine

32.2

(28.3-36.0)

31.5

(27.6-35.3)

               

Maryland

25.8

(23.0-28.6)

24.1

(21.2-27.0)

33.6

(26.2-40.9)

           

Massachusetts

31.3

(26.8-35.7)

32.1

(27.5-36.7)

               

Michigan

34.7

(31.3-38.1)

35.0

(31.3-38.6)

31.0

(19.2-42.9)

           

Minnesota

39.6

(37.1-42.1)

40.0

(37.5-42.6)

               

Mississippi

25.9

(22.2-29.6)

26.0

(21.7-30.2)

24.8

(17.4-32.2)

           

Missouri

29.8

(26.1-33.6)

30.2

(26.3-34.1)

26.8

(14.1-39.5)

           

Montana

25.5

(22.2-28.8)

25.3

(21.9-28.7)

               

Nebraska

24.2

(21.2-27.1)

24.3

(21.3-27.4)

16.0

( 6.8-25.2)

           

Nevada

29.3

(23.0-35.7)

29.5

(22.6-36.3)

               

New Hampshire

33.5

(29.1-37.9)

33.6

(29.1-38.0)

               

New Jersey

30.0

(26.6-33.3)

31.4

(27.7-35.0)

21.7

( 9.3-34.2)

           

New Mexico

27.4

(23.7-31.1)

30.4

(25.7-35.1)

   

20.4

(14.3-26.4)

       

New York

32.0

(29.0-35.0)

31.2

(28.0-34.3)

36.1

(26.2-46.0)

36.6

(22.7-50.5)

       

North Carolina

30.9

(28.1-33.7)

30.2

(27.2-33.2)

36.2

(29.1-43.3)

           

North Dakota

30.4

(26.8-33.9)

30.4

(26.7-34.0)

               

Ohio

30.1

(27.1-33.1)

30.2

(27.0-33.5)

28.0

(19.3-36.6)

           

Oklahoma

15.6

(12.9-18.2)

15.6

(12.7-18.5)

               

Oregon

30.9

(28.1-33.7)

30.5

(27.7-33.4)

               

Pennsylvania

32.0

(29.2-34.8)

31.8

(28.9-34.7)

36.8

(24.8-48.8)

           

Puerto Rico

20.6

(17.8-23.5)

       

20.4

(17.5-23.2)

       

Rhode Island

33.1

(29.2-37.0)

32.9

(28.9-36.9)

               

South Carolina

21.1

(18.1-24.2)

21.9

(18.4-25.3)

18.6

(11.7-25.5)

           

South Dakota

27.9

(24.4-31.3)

27.6

(24.1-31.1)

               

Tennessee

26.4

(23.5-29.2)

26.8

(23.7-29.9)

23.1

(14.7-31.5)

           

Texas

27.2

(23.7-30.6)

28.4

(24.4-32.3)

25.5

(13.8-37.1)

21.1

(12.6-29.7)

       

Utah

30.1

(26.1-34.2)

30.5

(26.4-34.6)

               

Vermont

28.5

(25.6-31.4)

28.9

(25.9-31.9)

               

Virginia

33.3

(29.4-37.2)

34.2

(29.9-38.5)

31.6

(21.9-41.4)

           

Washington

31.0

(28.1-33.8)

31.2

(28.3-34.2)

               

West Virginia

24.7

(22.0-27.5)

24.8

(22.0-27.6)

               

Wisconsin

34.4

(30.6-38.3)

34.9

(31.0-38.8)

               

Wyoming

30.1

(26.8-33.5)

29.7

(26.3-33.1)

               

Median

30.1

 

30.4

 

28.2

 

22.4

 

§

 

 

Low

15.6

Oklahoma

15.6

Oklahoma

10.9

Arkansas

18.1

Colorado

       

High

41.5

District of Columbia

49.1

District of Columbia

38.3

District of Columbia

40.7

Hawaii

       

* Estimates for states that had <50 respondents in a race or ethnic category are considered unstable and are not shown.
† Confidence interval.
§ Only one state had >= 50 respondents who were aged >= 50 years.
¶ Median is not considered reliable for two states that had >= 50 respondents aged >= 50 years and is not shown.


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Table 24

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TABLE 24. Medians and ranges of values for access to health care, health-status indicators, health-risk behaviors, and clinical preventive services, by race or ethnicity -- Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1997

 

Total

White

Black

Hispanic

American Indian or Alaska Native

Asian or Pacific Islander

Health behavior

%

(Range*)

%

(Range)

%

(Range)

%

(Range)

%

(Range)

%

(Range)

Access to health care

                       

Low educational attainment

11.2

( 7.0-29.6)

9.8

( 0.7-22.2)

17.2

( 2.8-31.0)

20.9

(11.3-47.4)

17.0

( 3.4-32.0)

9.5

( 3.5-23.9)

Lack of health-care coverage

12.0

( 6.1-24.2)

10.8

( 6.4-18.4)

16.4

( 5.8-34.9)

22.6

( 1.3-44.9)

24.5

(12.5-50.5)

14.3

( 4.8-31.1)

Cost as a barrier to obtaining health care

9.9

( 6.3-25.3)

9.4

( 5.4-24.3)

13.2

( 6.6-27.7)

16.2

( 7.9-30.1)

12.6

( 9.2-26.7)

11.6

( 4.7-16.3)

No routine physical examination

16.8

( 7.8-29.1)

18.0

(11.6-28.4)

8.7

( 4.7-19.3)

18.2

( 7.7-33.9)

14.5

( 8.8-30.0)

17.1

( 5.9-25.2)

Health-status indicators

                       

Fair or poor health status

13.0

( 9.4-35.1)

11.6

( 3.4-21.7)

19.4

(10.3-30.5)

16.1

( 2.1-35.2)

17.5

(10.1-35.4)

8.8

( 5.6-17.2)

Obesity

16.6

(11.9-22.0)

15.6

( 5.8-21.2)

26.4

( 7.6-33.2)

18.2

( 8.1-34.7)

30.1

(13.0-32.3)

4.8

( 1.7-16.9)

Awareness of certain medical conditions

                       

High blood pressure

23.0

(16.2-34.5)

23.0

(11.0-29.6)

30.9

(21.9-45.4)

18.6

(11.4-28.4)

20.7

(16.6-30.7)

16.3

( 4.5-27.9)

Diabetes

4.8

( 3.0-10.5)

4.4

( 0.7- 6.2)

7.6

( 2.6-17.9)

5.5

( 0.4-14.4)

7.6

( 3.3-14.0)

4.6

( 0.0- 8.2)

High blood cholesterol

28.6

(18.2-34.2)

29.7

(14.3-35.2)

26.0

( 7.6-36.7)

25.6

(12.5-41.0)

 

27.3

(16.3-35.8)

Health-risk behaviors

                       

No leisure-time physical activity

28.0

(17.2-51.4)

25.1

(13.0-50.6)

38.2

(17.8-54.6)

34.2

(15.0-51.9)

37.2

(26.7-43.2)

28.9

(21.5-40.3)

Alcohol consumption

                       

Current drinking

53.5

(26.6-70.4)

55.4

(27.0-71.3)

40.4

(25.1-73.2)

50.8

(26.5-70.0)

50.5

(30.8-64.2)

38.2

(10.2-58.5)

Binge drinking

14.4

( 6.3-23.2)

14.3

( 7.2-23.6)

8.7

( 3.0-23.6)

16.2

( 4.3-28.0)

18.9

(11.4-30.2)

6.7

( 0.0-31.9)

Cigarette smoking

23.3

(13.7-30.8)

23.6

(13.3-30.8)

22.8

(14.8-37.0)

23.1

(10.5-43.6)

41.3

( 3.1-48.6)

10.7

( 4.7-36.1)

Lack of safety belt use

30.7

(12.8-59.8)

30.0

(13.0-60.6)

37.6

(11.7-63.0)

30.3

(10.9-57.5)

40.9

(20.6-75.1)

18.6

( 9.4-27.4)

Clinical preventive services

                       

Blood cholesterol checked

69.2

(55.0-79.3)

71.2

(56.1-82.8)

67.4

(45.3-81.7)

59.3

(45.7-81.7)

54.7

(49.9-75.4)

67.8

(36.7-74.1)

Papanicolaou test

84.8

(71.8-92.3)

84.7

(77.7-93.4)

91.1

(83.5-97.0)

80.9

(69.2-92.9)

 

 

Breast cancer screening

                       

  Mammogram

73.7

(56.5-83.6)

73.7

(58.7-89.7)

76.1

(44.3-85.5)

63.5

(59.7-79.6)

 

 

  Clinical breast examination

77.0

(63.5-86.4)

77.5

(64.7-88.4)

78.2

(57.6-90.0)

75.5

(58.3-78.7)

 

 

  Mammogram plus clinical breast examination

66.4

(49.2-76.1)

67.6

(51.3-81.3)

67.8

(35.7-79.5)

57.8

(53.7-72.3)

 

 

Colorectal cancer screening

                       

  Home-kit blood stool test

18.1

( 9.3-28.5)

18.2

( 9.1-31.2)

20.3

( 3.0-43.3)

14.2

( 5.8-28.6)

 

 

  Sigmoidoscopy

30.1

(15.6-41.5)

30.4

(15.6-49.1)

28.2

(10.9-38.3)

22.4

(18.1-40.7)

 

 

* Lowest and highest state estimates.
† Median is not considered meaningful for the three or fewer states that had <= 50 respondents in this racial or ethnic category and is not shown.


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