Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Appendix A

Public Health Action Steps from the International Agency for Research on Cancer

  1. Protection of the skin from solar damage ideally involves various actions that include wearing tightly woven protective clothing that adequately covers the arms, trunk, and legs and a hat that provides adequate shade to the whole of the head; seeking shade whenever possible; avoiding outdoor activities during periods of peak insolation; and using sunscreens. Sunscreens should not be used as the sole agent for protection against the sun.
  2. Sunscreens should not be used as a means of extending the duration of solar exposure (e.g., prolonging sunbathing) and it should not be used as a substitute for clothing on sites that are usually unexposed (e.g., the trunk and buttocks).
  3. Daily use of sunscreen with a high sun protection factor (>15) on exposed skin is recommended for residents of areas of high insolation who work outdoors or enjoy regular outdoor recreation. Daily use of a sunscreen can reduce the cumulative solar exposure that causes actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma.
  4. Adequate solar protection is more important during childhood than any other time in life, and parents and school managers should assiduously apply the first two recommendations.

Source: The International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group on the Evaluation of Cancer-Preventive Agents. Sunscreens. In: IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention. Vol 5. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2001.

Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

References to non-CDC sites on the Internet are provided as a service to MMWR readers and do not constitute or imply endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CDC is not responsible for the content of pages found at these sites. URL addresses listed in MMWR were current as of the date of publication.

All MMWR HTML versions of articles are electronic conversions from typeset documents. This conversion might result in character translation or format errors in the HTML version. Users are referred to the electronic PDF version ( and/or the original MMWR paper copy for printable versions of official text, figures, and tables. An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402-9371; telephone: (202) 512-1800. Contact GPO for current prices.

**Questions or messages regarding errors in formatting should be addressed to The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO
A-Z Index
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #