Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Notice to Readers: Availability of Case Definition for Acute Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Infants

In response to CDC recommendations published in March 2000 (1), CDC has established procedures for the surveillance of acute idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage in infants (AIPHI) and for conducting investigations and special studies. As part of these activities, CDC convened three meetings to 1) establish a case definition and classification scheme for public health surveillance of AIPHI, 2) recommend a standard home environment investigation protocol, and 3) outline a plan for surveillance and investigation of AIPHI. An AIPHI case definition for public health surveillance would facilitate case finding to document the burden of the condition and studies to identify possible etiologic agents or risk factors. Following are the recommended clinical description and case definition.

Proposed Clinical Description of AIPHI

Cases of AIPHI are characterized by the sudden onset of pulmonary hemorrhage in a previously healthy infant. Evidence of pulmonary hemorrhage includes hemoptysis, and finding blood in the nose or airway with no evidence of upper respiratory or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients present with acute, severe respiratory distress or failure requiring mechanical ventilation and often demonstrate bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph.

Proposed Criteria for a Clinically Confirmed Case of AIPHI

A clinically confirmed case is an illness in a previously healthy infant aged <1 year with a gestational age of >32 weeks with no history of neonatal medical problems that could cause pulmonary hemorrhage and who meets criteria A, B, and C.

  1. Abrupt or sudden onset of overt bleeding or frank evidence of blood in the airway.
  2. Severe presentation leading to acute respiratory distress or respiratory failure, resulting in hospitalization in a pediatric intensive care unit with intubation and mechanical ventilation.
  3. Diffuse, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph or computerized tomography of the chest.

Additional information about the report and copies of the case definition are available from CDC's Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Branch, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Mailstop E-17, 1600 Clifton Rd, N.E., Atlanta, GA 30333; telephone (404) 639-2520. The full proposed case definition and classification scheme "Case Definition for Acute Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Infants" is available at


  1. CDC. Update: pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants---Cleveland, Ohio, 1993--1996. MMWR 2000;49:180--4.

Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

References to non-CDC sites on the Internet are provided as a service to MMWR readers and do not constitute or imply endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CDC is not responsible for the content of pages found at these sites. URL addresses listed in MMWR were current as of the date of publication.

All MMWR HTML versions of articles are electronic conversions from typeset documents. This conversion might result in character translation or format errors in the HTML version. Users are referred to the electronic PDF version ( and/or the original MMWR paper copy for printable versions of official text, figures, and tables. An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402-9371; telephone: (202) 512-1800. Contact GPO for current prices.

**Questions or messages regarding errors in formatting should be addressed to The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO
A-Z Index
  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #