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Characteristics of Health Education Among Secondary Schools -- School Health Education Profiles, 1996


State and Local School Health Education Profiles Coordinators

Site Coordinator Affiliation

Alabama Judy Ryals State Department of Education Alaska Helen Mehrkens Department of Education Arkansas Kathleen Courtney Department of Education California Jana Kay Slater, PhD State Department of Education Chicago,IL Peggy Finnegan Chicago Public Schools Colorado Linda Tamayo State Department of Education Connecticut Catherine Oleksiw, PhD State Department of Education Dallas, TX Phyllis Simpson, PhD Dallas Independent School

District Delaware Janet Arns Department of Education Ft. Lauderdale, FL Diane Scalise School Board of Broward County Georgia John Roddy Department of Education Houston Gerri Moore Houston Independent School

District Idaho Barbara Eisenbarth Department of Education Indiana Brad Gumbert Department of Education Iowa Sara Peterson, MA Department of Education Jersey City, NJ David Chioda Jersey City Board of Education Kansas Darrel Lang, EdD State Department of Education Kentucky Glenda Donaho Department of Education Los Angeles, CA Ruth Rich, EdD Los Angeles Unified School

District Louisiana Dean Frost State Department of Education Maine Joni Foster Department of Education Massachusetts Carol Goodenow, PhD Department of Education Miami Nadine Gay, MSW School Board of Dade County Michigan Patricia Nichols, MS Department of Education Minnesota Geri Graham Department of Education Missouri Janet Wilson, Med Department of Elementary

and Secondary Education Montana Rick Chiotti Office of Public Instruction Nebraska LaVonne Uffelman, MPE Department of Education Newark, NJ Pat Joyner Board of Education New Hampshire Joyce Johnson, MA State Department of Education New Jersey Sarah Kleinman State Department of Education New Mexico Kristine Meurer Department of Education New Orleans, LA Charles Khoury New Orleans Public Schools North Dakota Linda Johnson, MS Department of Public

Instruction Ohio Meg Wagner, MS Department of Education Oregon Paul Kabarec Department of Education Philadelphia, PA Cathy Balsley, EdD School District of Philadelphia Rhode Island Cynthia Corbridge, Department of Education

MEd, MSW San Diego, CA Ellen Hohenstein San Diego Unified School

District San Francisco, CA Trish Bascom San Francisco Unified School

District South Carolina Joanne Fraser, EdD Department of Education South Dakota Laurie Jensen-Wunder Department of Education

and Cultural Affairs Tennessee Jerry Swaim State Department of Education Utah Jaqueline Morasco- State Office of Education

Engtow Instructional Services Washington Pamela Tollefsen, Med State Department of Education Washington, DC Johnnie Fairfax District of Columbia Public

Schools West Virginia Nancy Parr, MA Department of Education Wyoming Mike Smith Department of Education


Characteristics of Health Education Among Secondary Schools -- School Health Education Profiles, 1996

Jo Anne Grunbaum, Ed.D. (1) Laura Kann, Ph.D. (1) Barbara I. Williams, Ph.D. (2) Steven A. Kinchen (1) Janet L. Collins, Ph.D. (1) Lloyd J. Kolbe, Ph.D. (1) State and Local School Health Education Profiles Coordinators

(1) Division of Adolescent and School Health

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2) Westat

Rockville, Maryland

Abstract

Problem/Condition: School health education (e.g., classroom training) is an essential component of school health programs; such education promotes the health of youth and improves overall public health.

Reporting Period: February-May 1996.

Description of System: The School Health Education Profiles monitor characteristics of health education in middle or junior high schools and senior high schools. The Profiles are school-based surveys conducted by state and local education agencies. This report summarizes results from 35 state surveys and 13 local surveys conducted among representative samples of school principals and lead health education teachers. The lead health education teacher is the person who coordinates health education policies and programs within a middle or junior high school and senior high school.

Results: During the study period, almost all schools in states and cities required health education in grades 6-12; of these, a median of 87.6% of states and 75.8% of cities taught a separate health education course. The median percentage of schools that tried to increase student knowledge on certain topics (i.e., prevention of tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus {HIV} infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, violence, or suicide; dietary behaviors and nutrition; and physical activity and fitness) was greater than 72% for each of these topics. The median percentage of schools that tried to improve certain student skills (i.e., communication, decision making, goal setting, resisting social pressures, nonviolent conflict resolution, stress management, and analysis of media messages) was greater than 69% for each of these skills. The median percentage of schools that had a health education teacher coordinate health education was 33.0% across states and 26.8% across cities. Almost all schools taught HIV education as part of a required health education course (state median: 94.3%; local median: 98.1%), and more than half (state median: 69.5%; local median: 82.5%) had a written policy on HIV infection among students and school staff. A median of 41.0% of schools across states and a median of 25.8% of schools across cities had a lead health education teacher with professional preparation in health and physical education, and less than 25% of schools across states or cities had a lead health education teacher with professional preparation in health education only. Across states, the median percentage of schools, whose lead health education teacher had received in-service training on certain health education topics, ranged from 15.6% for suicide prevention to 51.4% for HIV prevention; across cities, the median percentage ranged from 26.2% for suicide prevention to 76.1% for HIV prevention. A median of 19.7% of schools across states and 18.1% of schools across cities had a school health advisory council. Of the schools that received parental feedback (state median: 59.1%; local median: 54.2%), greater than 78% reported receiving poitive feedback.

Interpretation: More than 75% of schools have a required course in health education to help provide students with the knowledge and skills they need to adopt healthy lifestyles.

Actions Taken: The School Health Education Profiles data are being used by state and local education officials to improve school health education and HIV education.

INTRODUCTION

School health education (e.g., classroom training) is an essential component of school health programs. In 1990, CDC developed an interim operational definition of health education that identifies eight elements of school health education: a) a documented, planned, and sequential program of health education for students in kindergarten through grade 12; b) a curriculum that addresses and integrates education about health problems and issues; c) activities that help young persons develop skills to avoid risk behaviors (i.e., tobacco use; alcohol and other drug {AOD} use; imprudent dietary patterns; inadequate physical activity; sexual behaviors that result in unintended pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus {HIV} infection, or infection by other sexually transmitted diseases {STD}; and behaviors that result in unintentional and intentional injuries); d) instruction provided for a prescribed amount of time at each grade level; e) management and coordination by an education professional trained to implement the health education program in each school; f) instruction from teachers trained to teach the subject; g) involvement of parents, health professionals, and other concerned community members; and h) periodic evaluation, updating, and improvement of the health education program (1).

The importance of school health education in promoting the health of youth and contributing to the overall public health is articulated in Healthy People 2000, which includes nine objectives to be attained through school health education by the year 2000 (2). The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has also recognized the importance of school health education. In 1997, the IOM Committee on Comprehensive School Health Programs in kindergarten through grade 12 recommended sequential health education at all grade levels during elementary school and middle or junior high school; a required one-semester health education course at the secondary school level taught by qualified health education teachers (i.e., health education teachers with preservice training in health education) that includes effective, up-to-date curricula and emphasizes the six categories of risk behaviors identified by CDC; and preservice training in health education content and methodology for elementary school teachers (3).

In 1995, to assess the status of school health education within interested states and cities, CDC, in collaboration with state and large local education agencies, developed School Health Education Profiles. Data were collected for the first time in 1996, and subsequently, have been used by interested state and local education agencies to monitor characteristics of health education in the middle or junior high schools and senior high schools in their jurisdiction. The Profiles include data from a questionnaire completed by school principals and a questionnaire completed by each school's lead health education teacher. The lead health education teacher is the person who coordinates health education policies and programs within a middle or junior high school and senior high school. This report summarizes baseline data from the 1996 Profiles (principals' surveys were conducted in 35 states and 13 cities, and lead health education teachers' surveys were conducted in 34 of those states and the same 13 cities). As of the publication of this report, 1998 data are being analyzed and will be compared with the 1996 Profiles in a future surveillance summary.

METHODS

Sampling

The School Health Education Profiles employ systematic equal-probability sampling strategies to produce representative samples of schools serving students in grades 6-12 in each jurisdiction. In most states and cities, the sampling frame consists of all regular secondary public schools having at least one of grades 6-12. Some sites modify this procedure by inviting all schools, rather than a sample of schools, to participate.

Data Collection

At each school, data are collected during the spring semester. The principal's questionnaire and the lead health education teacher's questionnaire are both mailed to the principal of each sampled school. The principal then determines who the lead health education teacher is and distributes the questionnaire accordingly. Participation in the surveys is confidential and voluntary. Responses are recorded on the questionnaire booklet by the principal or teacher, then returned directly to the state or local education agency. Follow-up telephone calls and written reminders encourage participation.

Data Analysis

A weighting factor is applied to each record to reflect the likelihood of principals or teachers being selected, to adjust for differing patterns of nonresponse, and to improve precision by making sample distributions conform to known population distributions. Data from a state or city with an overall response rate of greater than or equal to 70% and appropriate documentation were weighted, and data from surveys from a site not meeting these criteria were not weighted. Weighted data are representative of all public schools serving grades 6-12 in the jurisdiction; unweighted data are representative only of the participating schools. Because of a low response rate, data from principals' surveys conducted in one state and data from lead health education teachers' surveys conducted in two states are not included in this report. In addition, upon request of the state education agency, data from three states are not included in this analysis. Thus, this report presents information on 34 states with data from both principals' and lead health education teachers' surveys, 1 state with data from only the principals' survey, and 13 cities with data from both principals' and lead health education teachers' surveys (Table_1).

Across states, the sample size of the principals' surveys ranged from 49 to 852, and the response rates ranged from 51% to 96%; across cities, the sample size ranged from 24 to 232, and the response rates ranged from 74% to 100% (Table_1). Across states, the sample size of the lead health education teachers' surveys ranged from 47 to 709, and the response rates ranged from 52% to 95%; across cities, the sample size ranged from 24 to 224, and the response rates ranged from 72% to 100%.

SUDAAN * was used to compute point estimates (4). Medians are presented for all states (those with weighted data and those with unweighted data) and for all cities.

RESULTS

Health Education Courses

Required Health Education

Across states, 77.5%-100% (median: 95.4%) of schools required health education at least once for students in grades 6-12 (Table_2). Across cities, 86.0%-100% (median: 97.1%) of schools required health education at least once for students in grades 6-12. Among those schools that required health education, the percentage of schools that provided required health education in a separate health education course varied nearly twofold across states (range: 58.4%-100%; median: 87.6%) and fivefold across cities (range: 19.5%-100%; median: 75.8%).

Curricula, Guidelines, and Frameworks for Required Health Education Courses

The median percentage of schools with a required health education course that required teachers to use:

  • A state health education curriculum, guidelines, or framework was 71.8% (range: 36.1%-97.5%) across states and 87.8% (range: 71.0%-96.9%) across cities (Table_3).

  • A school district health education curriculum, guidelines, or framework was 80.5% (range: 42.4%-97.6%) across states and 97.7% (range: 75.1%-100%) across cities.

  • A school health education curriculum, guidelines, or framework was 73.7% (range: 47.2%-87.2%) across states and 66.1% (range: 21.4%-90.9%) across cities.

  • A commercially developed health education curriculum was 31.2% (range: 17.6%-42.9%) across states and 36.3% (range: 14.9%-76.2%) across cities.

    Schools could report use of more than one required curriculum for

school health education courses.

Content of Required Health Education Courses

In a required health education course, the median percentage of schools across states that tried to increase student knowledge of tobacco-use prevention was 97.3% (range: 92.5%-100%); AOD-use prevention, 99.2% (range: 96.3%-100%); dietary behaviors and nutrition, 94.3% (range: 89.3%-98.5%); physical activity and fitness, 94.5% (range: 87.5%-98.3%); pregnancy prevention, 84.9% (range: 47.4%-94.8%); HIV prevention, 97.2% (range: 75.8%-100%); other STD prevention, 93.8% (range: 65.2%-100%); violence prevention, 85.9% (range: 76.8%-95.5%); and suicide prevention, 72.5% (range: 54.6%-85.3%) (Table_4). The median percentage of schools across cities that tried to increase student knowledge of tobacco-use prevention was 95.3% (range: 89.3%-100%); AOD-use prevention, 100% (range: 96.6%-100%); dietary behaviors and nutrition, 97.4% (range: 86.0%-100%); physical activity and fitness, 96.4% (range: 86.0%-100%); pregnancy prevention, 92.5% (range: 74.4%-97.6%); HIV prevention, 100% (range: 89.8%-100%); other STD prevention, 98.9% (range: 85.2%-100%); violence prevention, 93.3% (range: 87.0%-100%); and suicide prevention, 75.6% (range: 39.7%-89.1%).

In a required health education course, the median percentage of schools across states that tried to improve students' communication skills was 90.2% (range: 84.2%-97.3%); decision-making skills, 96.5% (range: 91.1%-99.7%); goal-setting skills, 89.8% (range: 81.1%-97.3%); skills in resisting social pressures, 96.4% (range: 91.0%-100%); skills in nonviolent conflict resolution, 81.5% (range: 72.0%-92.5%); stress-management skills, 85.7% (range: 67.8%-94.9%); and skills in analysis of media messages, 74.9% (range: 57.9%-89.4%) (Table_5). The median percentage of schools across cities that tried to improve students' communication skills was 93.8% (range: 88.4%-100%); decision-making skills, 97.4% (range: 93.0%-100%); goal-setting skills, 94.4% (range: 79.1%-100%); skills in resisting social pressures, 96.4% (range: 90.8%-100%); skills in nonviolent conflict resolution, 90.0% (range: 83.4%-100%); stress-management skills, 80.1% (range: 53.5%-96.4%); and skills in analysis of media messages, 69.8% (range: 52.7%-87.6%).

Coordination of Health Education

Across states and cities, the school district administrator (state median: 20.3%; local median: 17.1%), the school administrator (state median: 30.3%; local median: 45.2%), or a health education teacher (state median: 33.0%; local median: 26.8%) was identified most often as being responsible for coordinating health education (Table_6). Across the states and cities, school nurses (state median: 1.3%; local median: 0.0%) and outside consultants (state median: 0.0%; local median: 0.0%) rarely coordinated health education. The median percentage of schools having no coordinator of health education was 10.4% across states and 6.4% across cities.

Professional Preparation of Lead Health Education Teachers

Across states, the median percentage of schools whose lead health education teacher had professional preparation in health and physical education was 41.0%; health education only, 4.5%; physical education only, 18.3%; science, home economics, family and consumer education, or elementary education, 19.6%; nursing or counseling, 4.1%; and another discipline, 4.6% (Table_7). Across cities, the median percentage of schools whose lead health education teacher had professional preparation in health and physical education was 25.8%; health education only, 5.6%; physical education only, 5.2%; science, home economics, family and consumer education, or elementary education, 36.4%; nursing or counseling, 3.5%; and another discipline, 3.5%.

In-Service Training on Health Education Topics

Across states, the median percentage of schools whose lead health education teacher had received greater than or equal to 4 hours of in-service training in the previous 2 years on tobacco-use prevention was 21.3% (range: 11.7%-57.6%); AOD-use prevention, 40.3% (range: 29.0%-64.3%); dietary behaviors and nutrition, 26.9% (range: 16.3%-50.1%); physical activity and fitness, 31.9% (range: 19.7%-46.6%); pregnancy prevention, 21.0% (range: 9.3%-36.9%); HIV prevention, 51.4% (range: 29.2%-76.1%); other STD prevention, 33.8% (range: 23.5%-56.4%); violence prevention, 41.8% (range: 29.2%-75.1%); and suicide prevention, 15.6% (range: 9.2%-29.9%) (Table_8). Across cities, the median percentage of schools whose lead health education teacher had received greater than or equal to 4 hours of in-service training in the previous 2 years on tobacco-use prevention was 40.8% (range: 3.3%-100%); AOD-use prevention was 58.5% (range: 29.7%-100%); dietary behaviors and nutrition, 33.6% (range: 11.6%-48.0%); physical activity and fitness, 35.8% (range: 11.6%-83.9%); pregnancy prevention, 43.3% (range: 21.3%-69.8%); HIV prevention, 76.1% (range: 48.4%-97.7%); other STD prevention, 60.6% (range: 38.8%-91.7%); violence prevention, 66.8% (range: 32.9%-93.0%); and suicide prevention, 26.2% (range: 10.5%-50.0%).

Across states, the median percentage of schools whose lead health education teacher wanted in-service training on tobacco-use prevention was 46.0% (range: 35.8%-59.6%); AOD-use prevention, 53.5% (range: 43.4%-68.7%); dietary behaviors and nutrition, 47.4% (range: 36.2%-58.3%); physical activity and fitness, 38.6% (range: 30.6%-54.7%); pregnancy prevention, 47.4% (range: 36.0%-62.8%); HIV prevention, 53.8% (range: 41.4%-74.6%); other STD prevention, 55.0% (range: 41.2%-67.5%); violence prevention, 62.4% (range: 51.4%-73.3%); and suicide prevention, 68.3% (range: 55.8%-78.5%) (Table_9). Across cities, the median percentage of schools whose lead health education teachers wanted in-service training on tobacco-use prevention was 47.1% (range: 36.3%-63.4%); AOD-use prevention, 62.1% (range: 48.9%-72.6%); dietary behaviors and nutrition, 54.9% (range: 23.3%-73.7%); physical activity and fitness, 45.8% (range: 26.6%-63.3%); pregnancy prevention, 46.8% (range: 30.4%-81.8%); HIV prevention, 56.1% (range: 28.0%-83.3%); other STD prevention, 52.7% (range: 39.8%-73.7%); violence prevention, 67.9% (range: 58.7%-81.9%); and suicide prevention, 70.9% (range: 53.5%-85.7%).

Parental and Community Involvement in School Health Education

School health advisory councils involve the community and parents in conducting needs assessment, developing plans and policies, and coordinating programs and resources. The median percentage of schools in states or cities with an advisory council to address school health policies and programs was less than 20% (data not shown). The percentage of schools ranged from 7.6% to 57.6% (median: 19.7%) across states and from 3.8% to 54.2% (median: 18.1%) across cities.

The median percentage of schools that reported parental feedback on health education was 59.1% across states and 54.2% across cities (Table_10). Among the schools that received feedback, the median percentage that received mainly positive feedback was 86.1% across states and 92.3% across cities. The median percentage of schools that received mainly negative feedback was 1.7% across states and 0.0% across cities, and the median percentage of schools that received equally positive and negative parental feedback was 12.2% across states and 7.5% across cities.

Parents were involved in required health education courses in several ways. A median of 50.4% of schools across states and 68.4% of schools across cities sent parents health-related educational materials; 43.8% of schools across states and 61.9% of schools across cities sent parents newsletters on health-related topics; 43.9% of schools across states and 65.5% of schools across cities invited parents to attend health education classes or health fairs; and 25.6% of schools across states and 39.1% of schools across cities offered health programs for parents (Table_11).

HIV Education

The median percentage of schools that required HIV education be taught as part of a mandatory health education course was 94.3% (range: 65.3%-100%) across states and 98.1% (range: 84.4%-100%) across cities (Table_12). Among those schools across states that required HIV education, the median percentage that taught how HIV infection is and is not transmitted was 99.4% (range: 96.4%-100%); reasons for choosing sexual abstinence, 97.0% (range: 90.9%-100%); condom efficiency, 75.5% (range: 43.8%-92.7%); and how to use condoms correctly, 48.3% (range: 7.9%-65.4%). Among those schools across cities that required HIV education, the median percentage that taught how HIV infection is and is not transmitted was 100% (range: 97.3%-100%); reasons for choosing sexual abstinence, 98.3% (range: 92.7%-100%); condom efficiency, 84.1% (range: 64.9%-100%); and how to use condoms correctly was 69.0% (range: 42.3%-100%).

Policies on HIV-Infected Students or School Staff

The median percentage of schools with a written policy from their school or school district regarding HIV-infected students or school staff was 69.5% (range: 45.7%-89.4%) across states and 82.5% (range: 67.6%-100%) across cities (Table_13). Across states, the median percentage of schools with a written policy that addressed maintenance of confidentiality was 94.9% (range: 84.8%-100%); protection of HIV-infected persons from discrimination, 90.4% (range: 83.5%-97.9%); worksite safety (e.g., use of universal precautions), 92.7% (range: 83.4%-98.6%); evaluation of the health status of HIV-infected students and school staff, 68.4% (range: 50.0%-79.3%); communication of the policy to students and parents, 75.7% (range: 56.3%-88.4%); and inappropriateness of routine testing for HIV infection, 36.4% (range: 22.8%-58.1%). Across cities, the median percentage of schools with a written policy that addressed maintenance of confidentiality was 100% (range: 93.0%-100%); protection of HIV-infected persons from discrimination, 97.6% (range: 88.7%-100%); worksite safety, 95.9% (range: 77.2%-100%); evaluation of the health status of HIV-infected students and school staff, 65.5% (range: 41.9%-97.6%); communication of the policy to students, school staff, and parents, 84.4% (range: 69.0%-100%); and inappropriateness of routine testing for HIV infection, 47.8% (range: 4.8%-73.3%).

DISCUSSION

School health education could be one of the most effective means to reduce and prevent some of the most serious health problems in the United States, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, motor-vehicle crashes, homicide, and suicide (3). The 1996 School Health Education Profiles data are generally similar to those from the 1994 School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) (5). For example, the Profiles data corroborate the SHPPS finding that many schools required health education (SHPPS: 97.2%; Profiles: greater than 77%). However, the median percentage of schools across states and cities that taught pregnancy prevention, violence prevention, or suicide prevention was higher in the Profiles than SHPPS. This difference could be a result of increases in the percentage of schools teaching these topics from 1994 to 1996 or a result of different survey methodologies (e.g., questionnaire wording, mode of data collection, or sample design). Limitations of the 1996 School Health Education Profiles are the exclusion of private and alternative schools and the self-reporting of data by principals and lead health education teachers.

The IOM recommends that U.S. schools require a one-semester health education course at the secondary school level taught by a qualified health education teacher (3). The Profiles data demonstrated that among schools that required health education, the median percentage that taught it as a separate course was high (state: 87.6%; local: 75.8%), but the variation was nearly twofold at the state level and fivefold at the local level. Some education agencies will need assistance in creating a separate health education course. Lead health education teachers were more likely to have had professional preparation in health and physical education (state median: 41.0%; local median: 25.8%) than in any other major. Many other lead health education teachers reported a nonhealth education major (state median: 4.1%-19.6%; local median: 3.5%-36.4%). The number of health education teachers who major in health education needs to be increased.

The elements of school health education identified by CDC and assessed by the Profiles include a) helping students develop skills to avoid risk behaviors; b) managing and coordinating the health education program by a trained professional; c) and involving parents, health professionals, and other community members (1). The median percentage of schools across states and cities that taught skills in communication, decision making, goal setting, resisting social pressures, nonviolent conflict resolution, stress management, or analysis of media messages was greater than 69%. The median percentage of schools that had a health education teacher coordinate the health education program was only 33% across states and 27% across cities. Parental and community involvement in school health education was low or moderate: the percentage of schools with a health advisory council ranged from 7.6% to 57.6% across states and from 3.8% to 54.2% across cities.

CDC has issued guidelines for school health programs to prevent tobacco use and addiction (6), promote lifelong healthy eating (7), promote lifelong physical activity (8), and prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (9). Each set of guidelines addresses the need for health education instruction for students and training for teachers. The School Health Education Profiles data demonstrated that greater than 86% of schools across participating states and cities provided health education to students on reducing tobacco use and improving dietary behaviors and physical activity and that greater than 76% provided health education to students on preventing HIV infection. The median percentage of teachers who received in-service training during the previous 2 years on tobacco-use prevention, dietary behaviors, and physical activity was only 21%-41% across states and cities; the median percentage of teachers who received in-service training on HIV prevention was 51% across states and 76% across cities. In addition, the median percentage of lead health education teachers who wanted in-service training on these topics was approximately 50%. More frequent in-service training with the most up-to-date information is needed to enable teachers to confidently and effectively present these topics to their students.

Many adolescents in the United States engage in behaviors that increase their risk for HIV infection (10). The School Health Education Profiles indicated that most schools in participating states and cities taught skills to reduce such risk behaviors, and the median percentage of schools across states and cities that required HIV education be taught as part of a mandatory health education course was greater than 94%. The National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE) encourages every state and school district to develop policies concerning HIV-infected students and school staff (11). The Profiles indicated that the median percentage of schools that had such a school or school district written policy was 70% across states and 83% across cities. Among those schools with a written policy, the median percentage that included topics recommended by NASBE (i.e., confidentiality; protecting HIV-infected persons from discrimination; worksite safety; and communicating the policy to students, school staff, and parents) was greater than 75%.

As the School Health Education Profiles data demonstrated, a large percentage of schools provide a required course in health education to help students develop the knowledge and skills they need to adopt healthy lifestyles. Although these Profiles do not provide an in-depth assessment of all elements of school health education, they enable states and cities to monitor essential aspects of health education and to determine areas needing greater emphasis. For example, in Delaware, Profiles data are being used for program planning and development and to encourage universities to provide appropriate preservice education. In Minnesota and West Virginia, Profiles data are being used to determine what topics are being taught in the classroom and to determine what topics to offer for staff development. In South Carolina, Profiles data are being used to help advocate for requiring a health education course in high schools. In Dallas, Profiles data are being used to determine how schools are coordinating components of the school health program and to ensure that knowledge and skills are being taught in health education.

  • SUrvey DAta ANalysis, a computer software for the statistical analysis of correlated data; for additional information, contact Research Triangle Institute, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (Telephone: 919-541-6000).

References

  1. National Commission on the Role of the School and the Community in Improving Adolescent Health. Code blue: uniting for healthier youth. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Boards of Education, 1990.

  2. Public Health Service. Healthy people 2000: midcourse review and 1995 revisions. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1995.

  3. Institute of Medicine. Schools and health: our nation's investment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

  4. Shah BV, Barnwell BG, Bieler GS. SUDAAN user's manual, release 7.5. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute, 1997.

  5. Collins JL, Small ML, Kann L, Pateman BC, Gold RS, Kolbe LJ. School health education. J School Health 1995;65:302-11.

  6. CDC. Guidelines for school health programs to prevent tobacco use and addiction. MMWR 1994;43(No. RR-2).

  7. CDC. Guidelines for school health programs to promote lifelong healthy eating. MMWR 1996; 45(No. RR-9).

  8. CDC. Guidelines for school and community programs to promote lifelong physical activity among young people. MMWR 1997;46(No. RR-6).

  9. CDC. Guidelines for effective school health education to prevent the spread of AIDS. MMWR 1988;37(No. S-2):1-14.

  10. Kann L, Warren CW, Harris WA, et al. Youth risk behavior surveillance -- United States, 1995. MMWR 1996;45(No. SS-4):1-84.

  11. National Association of State Boards of Education. Someone at school has AIDS: a complete guide to education policies concerning HIV infection. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Boards of Education, 1996.



Table_1
Note: To print large tables and graphs users may have to change their printer settings to landscape and use a small font size.

TABLE 1. Sample size and response rates, selected U.S. sites -- School Health
Education Profiles, principals' and teachers' surveys, 1996
===============================================================================

                         Principals' surveys     Teachers' surveys
                         -------------------     ------------------
                          Sample    Response     Sample    Response
Site                       size     rate (%)      size     rate (%)
-------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                   371           85       367           84
  Arkansas                  227           74       215           70
  California                852           77       NA *          NA
  Connecticut               242           89       232           86
  Delaware                   49           86        47           82
  Idaho                     147           79       133           71
  Iowa                      280           81       262           76
  Kentucky                  224           72       222           71
  Louisiana+                255           71        NA           NA
  Maine                     206           96       204           95
  Massachusetts             393           90       383           87
  Michigan                  322           86       307           82
  Minnesota                 213           79       228           84
  Missouri                  249           73       250           74
  Montana                   289           85       286           84
  Nebraska                  423           83       388           76
  New Hampshire             167           85       151           77
  New Mexico                191           77       177           71
  North Dakota              173           85       169           83
  Ohio                      400           87       371           80
  Rhode Island               69           75        66           72
  South Carolina            285           72        NA           NA
  South Dakota              214           74        NA           NA
  Tennessee                 312           83       310           83
  Utah                      232           88       215           82
  Washington                274           80       256           75
  West Virginia             197           93       196           92
  Wyoming                   138           85       122           75

Unweighted data
  Alaska                    174           66       154           59
  California                 NA           NA       709           64
  Colorado                  178           60       153           52
  Georgia                   238           60       238           60
  Indiana                   358           51        NA           NA
  Kansas                    333           67       270           54
  Louisiana +                NA           NA       230           64
  New Jersey                314           68       304           66
  Oregon                    291           60       254           53
  South Carolina             NA           NA       258           65
  South Dakota               NA           NA       200           69

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Chicago, IL               232           75       224           72
  Dallas, TX                 46           87        48           91
  Ft. Lauderdale, FL         55          100        55          100
  Houston. TX                53           74        59           82
  Jersey City, NJ            28           93        28           93
  Los Angeles, CA            90           75        90           75
  Miami, FL                  88           96        81           88
  Newark, NJ                 47           96        46           94
  New Orleans, LA            24          100        24          100
  Philadelphia, PA           33           79        31           74
  San Diego, CA              43          100        43          100
  San Francisco, CA          35           88        35           88
  Washington, DC             43           88        46           94
-------------------------------------------------------------------
* Not applicable.
+ Survey did not include schools from the Orleans Parish School Board.
===============================================================================

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Table_2
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TABLE 2. Percentage of schools that required health education in grades 6-12 and
among those schools, the percentage that taught a separate health education course,
selected U.S. sites -- School Health Education Profiles, principals' surveys, 1996
======================================================================================
                        Required health    Taught a separate health
Site                       education          education course *
-------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                    94.8                    78.1
  Arkansas                   98.8                    95.2
  California                 89.8                    71.0
  Connecticut                98.2                    85.7
  Delaware                  100.0                   100.0
  Idaho                      97.7                    98.5
  Iowa                       83.7                    88.6
  Kentucky                   87.0                    79.4
  Louisiana+                 94.0                    76.4
  Maine                      97.5                    87.6
  Massachusetts              96.6                    93.8
  Michigan                   86.8                    82.9
  Minnesota                  98.9                    95.5
  Missouri                   84.0                    88.6
  Montana                    97.0                    58.4
  Nebraska                   93.9                    75.0
  New Hampshire              93.8                    95.2
  New Mexico                 82.9                    68.2
  North Dakota               95.4                    91.8
  Ohio                       99.5                    98.1
  Rhode Island              100.0                    87.6
  South Carolina             93.0                    71.4
  South Dakota               77.5                    66.6
  Tennessee                  92.3                    72.9
  Utah                       97.7                    97.1
  Washington                 95.3                    84.6
  West Virginia              98.9                    94.8
  Wyoming                    90.6                    65.6

Unweighted data
  Alaska                     93.6                    96.1
  Colorado                   84.7                    86.9
  Georgia                    99.2                    86.8
  Indiana                    99.4                    96.3
  Kansas                     95.8                    67.8
  New Jersey                100.0                    90.9
  Oregon                    100.0                    88.4

State median                 95.4                    87.6

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Chicago, IL                93.4                    58.9
  Dallas, TX                 86.0                    70.2
  Ft. Lauderdale, FL        100.0                    83.0
  Houston, TX               100.0                    79.0
  Jersey City, NJ           100.0                    75.8
  Los Angeles, CA           100.0                   100.0
  Miami, FL                  91.9                    63.6
  Newark, NJ                 95.8                    84.8
  New Orleans, LA           100.0                    85.7
  Philadelphia, PA           97.0                   100.0
  San Diego, CA             100.0                    19.5
  San Francisco, CA          97.1                    60.4
  Washington, DC             94.8                    66.7

Local median                 97.1                    75.8
-------------------------------------------------------------------
* Among those schools that required health education.
+ Survey did not include schools from the Orleans Parish School Board.
======================================================================================

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Table_3
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TABLE 3. Percentage of schools that required teachers to use a specific curriculum,
guidelines, or framework in a required health education course, selected U.S. sites --
School Health Education Profiles, teachers' surveys, 1996
====================================================================================================
                                                   School district       School
                             State curriculum,       curriculum,       curriculum,
                                guidelines,         guidelines, or    guidelines, or   Commercial
Site                            or framework           framework         framework     curriculum
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                             95.8                50.6              57.0           25.0
  Arkansas                            84.2                57.6              60.0           25.5
  Connecticut                         76.6                82.2              80.0           37.8
  Delaware                            85.4                80.6              62.8           32.7
  Idaho                               68.4                78.8              61.3           30.5
  Iowa                                71.5                80.3              85.4           26.2
  Kentucky                            69.1                63.8              72.7           24.7
  Maine                               58.6                62.4              62.9           17.6
  Massachusetts                       60.9                69.2              77.5           32.3
  Michigan                            72.0                79.5              69.4           29.6
  Minnesota                           61.7                82.6              73.2           22.4
  Missouri                            68.1                85.8              84.9           26.2
  Montana                             54.5                68.6              78.4           30.5
  Nebraska                            36.1                56.3              76.9           22.9
  New Hampshire                       54.7                66.2              75.9           27.7
  New Mexico                          84.9                87.5              73.3           35.8
  North Dakota                        41.7                42.4              60.9           28.8
  Ohio                                76.0                95.7              81.9           25.1
  Rhode Island                        91.3                83.7              80.5           31.8
  Tennessee                           93.9                58.2              53.8           32.6
  Utah                                95.6                78.5              50.5           33.2
  Washington                          67.6                80.2              61.5           31.9
  West Virginia                       97.0                81.5              75.4           42.9
  Wyoming                             43.3                90.8              74.8           31.2

Unweighted data
  Alaska                              41.1                89.6              47.6           28.1
  California                          84.0                86.1              64.2           37.1
  Colorado                            41.0                86.1              75.2           35.8
  Georgia                             97.5                86.0              78.3           38.5
  Kansas                              61.3                86.2              76.6           31.1
  Louisiana*                          91.1                68.1              47.2           27.5
  New Jersey                          89.0                97.6              87.2           36.3
  Oregon                              90.8                92.0              74.0           35.4
  South Carolina                      80.3                87.9              62.4           34.0
  South Dakota                        49.3                68.1              75.2           42.8

State median                          71.8                80.5              73.7           31.2

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Chicago, IL                         87.8                75.1              77.6           43.1
  Dallas, TX                          84.6                92.6              66.1           36.3
  Ft. Lauderdale, FL                  85.5                98.1              66.0           28.3
  Houston, TX                         90.9               100.0              62.8           37.7
  Jersey City, NJ                     89.0               100.0              73.0           28.4
  Los Angeles, CA                     96.9                95.5              75.0           25.6
  Miami, FL                           95.0                98.4              62.7           33.2
  Newark, NJ                          89.1               100.0              76.0           40.0
  New Orleans, LA                     95.7                86.4              90.9           55.0
  Philadelphia, PA                    75.0               100.0              62.1           25.9
  San Diego, CA                       72.1                97.7              21.4           76.2
  San Francisco, CA                   78.1                86.7              42.3           14.9
  Washington, DC                      71.0                82.9              76.1           46.9

Local median                          87.8                97.7              66.1           36.3
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Survey did not include schools from the Orleans Parish School Board.
====================================================================================================

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Table_4
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TABLE 4. Percentage of schools that tried to increase student knowledge on specific topics in a required health education
course in any of grades 6-12, selected U.S. sites -- School Health Education Profiles, teachers' surveys, 1996
=============================================================================================================================================================
                                           Alcohol
                                          and other        Dietary          Physical
                           Tobacco-use     drug-use       behaviors       activity and   Pregnancy       HIV *      Other STD +    Violence       Suicide
Site                        prevention    prevention    and nutrition        fitness    prevention    prevention     prevention   prevention    prevention
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                       97.8          99.7            96.9             98.0         74.3          94.0           92.3         83.4          71.2
  Arkansas                      96.1          99.6            95.7             96.9         78.4          94.0           92.3         79.1          81.7
  Connecticut                   98.5          98.5            93.8             87.5         85.3          97.0           93.8         88.5          82.9
  Delaware                     100.0         100.0            93.8             96.4         93.0         100.0          100.0         95.5          84.6
  Idaho                         99.2          99.2            95.9             96.9         65.3          92.1           86.8         90.9          79.1
  Iowa                          97.3          99.5            96.6             94.0         85.6          98.1           94.5         84.2          73.8
  Kentucky                      93.5          98.0            90.4             94.1         78.5          89.1           83.8         83.6          64.0
  Maine                         97.9         100.0            95.9             94.4         87.1          97.8           94.2         81.3          65.4
  Massachusetts                 98.4          99.1            95.8             90.1         83.4          98.6           93.2         94.3          69.3
  Michigan                      95.9          99.3            93.9             92.6         76.3          96.2           91.7         81.5          57.4
  Minnesota                     99.6          99.4            98.5             95.9         94.8          99.0           97.7         90.1          83.8
  Missouri                      96.6          99.5            98.1             97.8         84.5          93.8           93.9         84.7          75.0
  Montana                       95.4          98.2            92.8             96.8         70.9          94.8           87.1         77.1          58.8
  Nebraska                      97.0          98.7            92.9             94.6         73.6          92.5           87.3         76.8          67.4
  New Hampshire                 97.7         100.0            97.0             91.6         84.1          98.4           95.7         89.9          74.2
  New Mexico                    92.5          97.6            91.9             91.1         88.9          99.0           96.3         83.4          66.7
  North Dakota                  98.8         100.0            93.9             93.5         71.2          93.4           90.4         79.6          79.7
  Ohio                          98.0          99.1            93.0             92.6         90.7          98.4           95.8         85.2          81.0
  Rhode Island                  95.2         100.0            95.7             92.6         89.8         100.0           93.0         95.0          81.3
  Tennessee                     97.9          98.9            97.7             98.3         85.1          98.4           94.4         80.1          64.0
  Utah                          97.1          98.5            97.5             95.1         75.2          95.1           92.7         87.2          85.3
  Washington                    92.6          98.8            92.2             92.5         88.4          98.0           95.1         84.6          68.9
  West Virginia                 98.4          99.5            93.8             97.5         88.2          98.6           96.7         86.1          82.0
  Wyoming                       93.7          99.2            98.3             97.5         74.9          94.8           91.6         86.4          54.6

Unweighted data
  Alaska                        94.1          96.3            90.2             89.6         79.1          90.4           85.9         85.9          69.4
  California                    98.1          98.4            92.5             90.2         86.9          97.2           93.7         86.5          63.4
  Colorado                      94.4          99.2            91.9             92.7         84.6          94.4           92.7         89.5          61.0
  Georgia                       97.5          98.7            97.5             93.7         88.1          96.6           95.3         89.5          82.2
  Kansas                        97.2          99.2            93.7             97.6         89.3          99.6           96.4         80.0          60.4
  Louisiana&                    95.8          97.7            89.3             96.3         47.4          75.8           65.2         85.8          66.2
  New Jersey                    99.3         100.0            94.5             96.9         90.5          99.7           98.0         94.2          80.8
  Oregon                        98.4          99.6            96.4             96.4         87.1          99.6           95.2         90.0          73.7
  South Carolina                93.6          96.8            94.0             94.0         89.8          97.2           96.3         82.7          57.8
  South Dakota                  95.7          98.6            97.1             97.1         82.6          99.3           93.5         90.6          76.1

State median                    97.3          99.2            94.3             94.5         84.9          97.2           93.8         85.9          72.5

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Chicago, IL                   89.3          97.7            93.9             98.4         74.4          89.8           85.2         92.0          39.7
  Dallas, TX                    95.2          97.4            92.6             95.2         76.7          89.9           89.4         92.6          61.3
  Ft. Lauderdale, FL            96.4         100.0            98.2             96.4         85.5          96.4           94.5         90.9          74.5
  Houston, TX                   93.1          96.6            94.9             94.7         86.6          96.6           96.4         98.3          75.6
  Jersey City, NJ               96.4         100.0            92.8             96.4         92.5         100.0          100.0        100.0          89.1
  Los Angeles, CA               95.3         100.0            99.0             91.5         96.1         100.0           98.9         87.0          75.6
  Miami, FL                     96.6          98.4            98.4             90.3         91.7          98.4           96.6         94.8          81.4
  Newark, NJ                    97.4         100.0            97.4             97.1         97.3         100.0          100.0        100.0          84.2
  New Orleans, LA               95.7         100.0            95.5            100.0         95.7         100.0          100.0        100.0          77.3
  Philadelphia, PA              93.3         100.0           100.0            100.0         96.7         100.0          100.0         93.3          60.7
  San Diego, CA                 95.2         100.0            86.0             86.0         95.3         100.0          100.0         93.0          61.9
  San Francisco, CA            100.0         100.0           100.0             96.9         89.9         100.0           96.8         93.3          83.1
  Washington, DC                92.7         100.0           100.0            100.0         97.6         100.0          100.0        100.0          69.8

Local median                    95.3         100.0            97.4             96.4         92.5         100.0           98.9         93.3          75.6
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Human immunodeficiency virus.
+ Sexually transmitted disease.
& Survey did not include schools from the Orleans Parish School Board.
=============================================================================================================================================================

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Table_5
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TABLE 5. Percentage of schools that tried to improve specific student skills in a required health education course in any
of grades 6-12, selected U.S. sites -- School Health Education Profiles, teachers' surveys, 1996
=============================================================================================================================
                                                                                       Nonviolent                  Analysis
                                           Decision     Goal           Resisting        conflict       Stress      of media
Site                       Communication    making    setting      social pressures    resolution    management    messages
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                        84.2         93.3      89.1                91.0          80.9          79.5         58.4
  Arkansas                       86.8         95.3      90.3                96.7          76.9          91.5         57.9
  Connecticut                    91.9         97.2      89.2                96.6          83.5          87.4         89.4
  Delaware                       97.3         98.2      93.0               100.0          83.4          89.4         78.2
  Idaho                          90.8         96.8      89.7                97.8          81.1          89.8         77.9
  Iowa                           86.4         97.2      89.7                96.5          78.1          89.7         74.5
  Kentucky                       86.3         92.2      88.8                91.7          78.7          81.8         71.0
  Maine                          91.3         94.8      88.6                92.3          72.0          85.5         83.3
  Massachusetts                  91.8         98.6      88.4                97.5          89.5          79.6         88.3
  Michigan                       90.5         94.3      90.3                97.1          81.3          86.3         80.3
  Minnesota                      90.8         98.8      90.4                97.7          82.6          88.5         74.7
  Missouri                       87.2         97.5      89.1                97.0          78.6          88.0         74.6
  Montana                        87.1         91.1      86.0                95.6          77.0          80.1         62.6
  Nebraska                       85.7         94.3      86.7                94.4          74.6          79.6         71.3
  New Hampshire                  91.8         97.0      86.9                94.3          82.8          82.9         83.7
  New Mexico                     87.6         93.4      89.9                95.7          77.7          78.0         70.6
  North Dakota                   90.2         98.8      92.1                94.4          77.4          89.2         67.8
  Ohio                           88.7         95.8      91.4                97.5          79.9          88.3         75.0
  Rhode Island                   93.3         96.7      81.1                96.7          90.2          82.5         80.1
  Tennessee                      91.3         96.6      88.7                94.9          81.9          83.5         62.6
  Utah                           92.7         95.6      94.2                96.6          82.6          94.7         76.6
  Washington                     90.6         93.0      85.4                94.6          80.0          83.6         79.4
  West Virginia                  94.9         97.3      97.3                95.8          88.0          91.6         77.5
  Wyoming                        85.1         95.2      90.1                93.6          80.6          78.1         75.5

Unweighted data
  Alaska                         90.2         93.3      85.8                94.0          82.8          81.3         73.9
  California                     87.6         94.3      86.4                93.7          81.7          67.8         78.5
  Colorado                       89.2         95.8      92.5                99.2          81.7          86.0         73.3
  Georgia                        91.1         97.5      94.9                96.2          84.8          94.9         80.9
  Kansas                         87.3         97.2      90.5                97.2          77.7          85.8         65.7
  Louisiana*                     87.7         92.4      88.3                95.8          85.3          81.0         67.0
  New Jersey                     95.2         99.7      95.9                99.3          92.5          88.0         86.0
  Oregon                         94.0         98.0      92.9                98.8          83.4          89.2         80.9
  South Carolina                 90.2         96.3      94.0                98.2          78.5          79.3         70.8
  South Dakota                   88.5         97.1      90.6                95.7          83.5          82.0         69.8

State median                     90.2         96.5      89.8                96.4          81.5          85.7         74.9

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Chicago, IL                    90.4         95.7      94.4                94.4          89.8          74.5         63.7
  Dallas, TX                     92.1         97.4      83.0                94.7          85.7          82.5         52.7
  Ft. Lauderdale, FL             94.5         98.2      98.2                96.4          92.7          96.4         83.6
  Houston, TX                    94.7        100.0     100.0                98.2         100.0          93.2         65.7
  Jersey City, NJ                96.4         96.4      96.4               100.0         100.0          85.8         85.8
  Los Angeles, CA                92.3         95.8      89.0                97.9          83.4          79.8         87.6
  Miami, FL                      95.2         96.7      91.7                95.2          88.3          80.1         83.0
  Newark, NJ                     95.2        100.0      97.4               100.0         100.0          78.3         64.0
  New Orleans, LA               100.0        100.0     100.0                91.3          95.7          86.4         59.1
  Philadelphia, PA               92.9        100.0      96.7               100.0          90.0          76.7         75.0
  San Diego, CA                  88.4         93.0      79.1                93.0          83.7          53.5         69.8
  San Francisco, CA              93.8         96.9      90.7               100.0          83.5          78.9         74.3
  Washington, DC                 90.1         97.5      92.6                90.8          92.7          85.4         63.0

Local median                     93.8         97.4      94.4                96.4          90.0          80.1         69.8
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Survey did not include schools from the Orleans Parish School Board.
=============================================================================================================================

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Table_6
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TABLE 6. Percentage of schools that had a specific person responsible for coordinating health education within the school,
selected U.S. sites -- School Health Education Profiles, principals' surveys, 1996 -- Continued
====================================================================================================================================
                               School district       School               Health      School       Outside         No
Site                            administrator*   administrator+    education teacher  nurse      consultant    coordinator
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data &
  Alabama                             16.9             34.6                 34.5       0.5           0.3          13.2
  Arkansas                            15.4             39.2                 32.3       3.0             0          10.2
  California                          22.2             36.4                 24.0       4.1           0.7          12.5
  Connecticut                         38.6             29.4                 26.0       0.4           0.9           4.7
  Delaware                            21.1             35.8                 40.6         0             0           2.5
  Idaho                               21.5             19.6                 51.4         0             0           7.4
  Iowa                                31.2             23.9                 32.2       2.7           0.5           9.5
  Kentucky                            10.9             35.2                 37.0       1.3             0          15.6
  Louisiana@                          20.3             34.1                 37.4         0             0           8.2
  Maine                               11.9             19.5                 52.6       2.5             0          13.5
  Massachusetts                       59.5             22.1                 13.7       0.5           0.3           3.9
  Michigan                            29.3             28.5                 29.0       1.9             0          11.3
  Minnesota                           17.3             27.5                 47.8         0             0           7.5
  Missouri                            20.0             30.3                 34.2       5.1             0          10.4
  Montana                             15.6             17.7                 54.2       1.1             0          11.3
  Nebraska                            14.9             33.8                 32.9       1.3             0          17.2
  New Hampshire                        7.6             30.7                 35.8      10.6             0          15.3
  New Mexico                          15.6             29.5                 29.2      11.2             0          14.7
  North Dakota                        14.2             28.1                 50.5         0             0           7.2
  Ohio                                29.2             29.7                 29.0       0.5           0.6          11.0
  Rhode Island                        29.4             44.8                 19.1       3.6             0           3.1
  South Carolina                      24.6             36.4                 29.2       1.3             0           8.6
  South Dakota                        18.2             25.2                 37.3       1.5             0          17.8
  Tennessee                           20.5             36.6                 27.9       1.1             0          13.8
  Utah                                17.3             33.0                 45.4         0             0           4.2
  Washington                          18.1             25.1                 36.2       4.9           0.6          15.1
  West Virginia                       16.0             30.6                 44.1       0.5             0           8.8
  Wyoming                             26.4             21.8                 30.5       5.3             0          16.0

Unweighted data &
  Alaska                              27.3             33.1                 23.4       1.9           0.6          13.6
  Colorado                            17.5             26.3                 42.3       0.7             0          13.1
  Georgia                             26.2             44.6                 22.7         0             0           6.4
  Indiana                             15.3             49.5                 27.9         0             0           7.2
  Kansas                              24.3             23.7                 33.0       4.0             0          15.0
  New Jersey                          32.0             41.8                 13.7       6.2             0           6.2
  Oregon                              20.3             30.2                 42.0         0             0           7.5

State median                          20.3             30.3                 33.0       1.3             0          10.4

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data &
  Chicago, IL                          2.0             45.2                 26.4       1.0           1.0          24.4
  Dallas, TX                          29.8             35.6                 26.8         0             0           7.8
  Ft. Lauderdale, FL                  20.0             49.1                 27.3         0             0           3.6
  Houston, TX                         10.9             54.2                 30.6       2.4             0           2.0
  Jersey City, NJ                     44.8             21.4                    0       7.5             0          26.3
  Los Angeles, CA                      5.8             63.3                 25.2         0             0           5.7
  Miami, FL                           17.1             56.6                 22.4         0             0           3.9
  Newark, NJ                          12.6             52.6                  2.6       2.5             0          29.7
  New Orleans, LA                     14.3             47.6                 38.1         0             0             0
  Philadelphia, PA                    20.0             33.3                 40.0         0             0           6.7
  San Diego, CA                       35.7             19.0                  4.8      23.8             0          16.7
  San Francisco, CA                   22.8             19.4                 51.4         0             0           6.4
  Washington, DC                      10.6             28.9                 54.7         0           2.9           2.9

Local median                          17.1             45.2                 26.8         0             0           6.4
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* District health education coordinator, district general curriculum coordinator, superintendent, or other district administrator.
+ Principal, department chair, or school curriculum coordinator.
& Percentages for each row might not add up to 100.0 because of rounding.
@ Survey did not include schools from the Orleans Parish School Board.
====================================================================================================================================

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Table_7
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TABLE 7. Percentage of lead health education teachers who had a specific type of professional preparation, selected U.S.
sites -- School Health Education Profiles, teachers' surveys, 1996
=======================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                Science, home
                                                                                              economics, family
                                                                                                and consumer
                                                                                                education, or
                                Health and           Health education    Physical education       elementary       Nursing
Site                        physical education             only                  only             education      or counseling  Other
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data*
  Alabama                             51.7                  1.1                  25.0                 15.7             0.6      5.8
  Arkansas                            59.4                  2.3                  30.7                  4.7             1.5      1.4
  Connecticut                         37.8                 18.2                  17.2                 19.4             6.5      1.0
  Delaware                            75.2                  4.7                  13.4                    0             4.7      2.0
  Idaho                               41.3                  2.1                  31.8                 16.2             1.8      6.9
  Iowa                                21.9                  2.5                  25.6                 43.7             2.9      3.3
  Kentucky                            48.8                  8.5                  12.0                 24.2             3.6      2.9
  Maine                               38.0                 13.2                  13.0                 25.2             9.6      1.0
  Massachusetts                       40.7                 24.2                  11.4                 14.6             4.3      4.8
  Michigan                            27.0                 10.4                  18.1                 35.6             2.1      6.8
  Minnesota                           74.9                  8.7                   8.7                  4.5             1.4      1.8
  Missouri                            39.7                  1.9                  31.1                 21.5             2.4      3.3
  Montana                             48.8                  0.8                  21.8                 13.2             5.7      9.7
  Nebraska                            27.7                  1.7                  25.1                 36.7             3.0      5.9
  New Hampshire                       19.0                  7.9                  21.1                 25.9            21.5      4.6
  New Mexico                          29.7                 10.0                  21.7                 14.6            17.8      6.2
  North Dakota                        29.5                  1.9                  18.4                 38.0             2.5      9.8
  Ohio                                64.8                  7.3                  10.7                 14.2             1.3      1.7
  Rhode Island                        49.3                 16.2                  19.3                  1.5            13.7        0
  Tennessee                           49.1                  2.4                   8.8                 29.1             5.6      5.1
  Utah                                36.4                 14.1                  21.6                 17.5             0.6      9.9
  Washington                          22.6                  5.5                  19.7                 34.4             9.1      8.6
  West Virginia                       75.7                  4.2                   9.3                  8.5               0      2.2
  Wyoming                             36.9                    0                  18.9                 29.1            11.3      3.9

Unweighted data*
  Alaska                              15.6                    0                   9.0                 45.9             5.7     23.8
  California                          17.1                  5.9                  15.5                 38.9            10.5     12.2
  Colorado                            26.1                  3.5                  27.0                 27.0             3.5     13.0
  Georgia                             59.9                  4.3                  12.1                 10.3             3.9      9.5
  Kansas                              42.7                  0.4                  29.5                 14.5             8.7      4.1
  Louisiana+                          77.5                  1.0                  13.4                  4.8             0.5      2.9
  New Jersey                          61.2                  9.1                   6.2                  8.3            13.0      2.2
  Oregon                              47.3                 15.1                  12.1                 19.7             1.3      4.6
  South Carolina                      40.7                  4.7                  22.9                 24.8             5.1      1.9
  South Dakota                        49.6                  1.6                   7.2                 24.8             5.6     11.2

State median                          41.0                  4.5                  18.3                 19.6             4.1      4.6

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data*
  Chicago, IL                         23.9                    0                  19.2                 38.2            14.2      4.4
  Dallas, TX                          21.9                 19.7                  12.2                 41.4             2.6      2.1
  Ft. Lauderdale, FL                  44.0                  6.0                  10.0                 32.0             6.0      2.0
  Houston, TX                         64.6                  5.6                  26.0                  1.9             1.9        0
  Jersey City, NJ                     25.8                    0                   3.9                 43.0            19.5      7.8
  Los Angeles, CA                     16.2                 24.2                  13.2                 39.4             3.5      3.5
  Miami, FL                           22.4                 17.0                   5.1                 36.4            10.4      8.6
  Newark, NJ                          43.2                  2.9                   2.9                 21.9            12.9     16.2
  New Orleans, LA                    100.0                    0                     0                    0               0        0
  Philadelphia, PA                    96.7                    0                   3.3                    0               0        0
  San Diego, CA                          0                 13.3                   3.3                 53.3            23.3      6.7
  San Francisco, CA                   20.9                  9.9                  11.0                 36.7               0     21.4
  Washington, DC                      87.0                    0                   5.2                  5.2               0      2.6

Local median                          25.8                  5.6                   5.2                 36.4             3.5      3.5
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Percentages for each row might not add up to 100.0 because of rounding.
+ Survey did not include schools from the Orleans Parish School Board.
=======================================================================================================================================

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Table_8
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TABLE 8. Percentage of lead health education teachers who had attended >=4 hours of in-service training in the previous
2 years on specific health education topics, selected U.S. sites -- School Health Education Profiles, teachers'
surveys, 1996
==========================================================================================================================================================
                                           Alcohol      Dietary
                                          and other    behaviors         Physical
                           Tobacco-use     drug-use       and          activity and    Pregnancy      HIV *       Other STD +    Violence       Suicide
Site                        prevention    prevention   nutrition          fitness     prevention    prevention     prevention   prevention    prevention
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                       21.3          34.3         22.1             35.1         14.0          36.4           26.6         31.7          15.2
  Arkansas                      16.9          37.8         22.3             37.7         14.9          51.0           34.0         32.6          22.8
  Connecticut                   20.2          48.2         29.2             31.8         29.1          57.5           38.4         60.3          22.6
  Delaware                      23.5          63.7         36.5             33.4         36.9          58.6           36.9         66.5          19.0
  Idaho                         41.0          64.3         39.3             46.6         18.1          51.5           37.9         52.3          28.8
  Iowa                          17.0          36.1         26.5             30.1         20.7          49.3           35.9         35.6          12.0
  Kentucky                      21.2          34.9         21.3             29.6         21.9          45.6           30.7         39.0          13.4
  Maine                         18.2          42.0         27.4             27.6         21.2          58.5           36.5         39.1          10.9
  Massachusetts                 57.6          56.2         45.9             37.9         35.7          60.6           43.5         75.1          23.5
  Michigan                      22.9          41.5         28.5             27.4         32.3          62.5           48.9         40.9           9.2
  Minnesota                     19.8          38.0         27.1             34.7         20.6          43.9           29.3         53.9          14.7
  Missouri                      22.3          41.4         22.1             29.2         10.0          33.7           24.1         35.7          11.2
  Montana                       23.6          37.0         27.3             44.7         11.1          52.2           30.3         31.8          17.3
  Nebraska                      20.8          36.8         28.6             30.1         12.2          35.0           27.6         29.2          13.0
  New Hampshire                 39.8          55.5         50.1             45.5         25.1          61.5           39.6         61.0          29.9
  New Mexico                    28.3          44.5         16.3             28.4         30.1          61.1           38.0         42.2          18.8
  North Dakota                  29.0          45.3         39.3             32.8         14.4          50.9           37.0         40.0          20.5
  Ohio                          17.0          37.6         20.3             27.9         17.5          41.7           26.4         36.2           9.9
  Rhode Island                  19.6          35.6         24.2             19.7         19.4          29.2           26.2         59.8          27.8
  Tennessee                     24.6          41.0         34.4             38.3         21.7          53.7           34.4         41.4          16.0
  Utah                          39.4          55.1         35.3             31.6         35.4          76.1           56.4         46.5          25.1
  Washington                    16.4          38.8         27.3             32.0         19.9          54.8           32.9         39.3          10.2
  West Virginia                 38.4          48.3         34.3             46.2         20.4          56.2           40.6         50.7          10.2
  Wyoming                       11.7          33.8         33.9             34.2         24.3          47.2           30.8         34.4          14.4

Unweighted data
  Alaska                        19.4          38.8         16.4             24.8         15.7          42.5           27.8         36.6          15.7
  California                    40.2          47.7         25.0             28.6         27.3          60.1           41.9         45.9          17.8
  Colorado                      21.0          31.1         26.7             30.8         24.2          33.9           23.5         49.6          10.1
  Georgia                       23.7          44.5         26.1             37.3         25.0          53.4           42.6         46.4          15.4
  Kansas                        20.0          32.0         23.0             36.3         15.8          36.7           26.7         35.3           9.3
  Louisiana&                    36.8          55.4         27.8             40.8         17.6          42.2           31.9         50.2          21.5
  New Jersey                    21.3          52.6         17.6             29.2         29.1          56.1           39.0         48.5          18.6
  Oregon                        15.9          39.3         19.6             23.1         23.9          47.8           30.4         43.4          14.3
  South Carolina                20.9          29.0         22.7             35.2         24.9          51.2           33.6         43.4           9.4
  South Dakota                  20.9          39.5         23.1             29.5          9.3          56.1           30.8         32.3          20.0

State median                    21.3          40.3         26.9             31.9         21.0          51.4           33.8         41.8          15.6

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Chicago, IL                   27.6          43.1         22.6             33.2         29.9          48.4           38.8         52.6          10.5
  Dallas, TX                    36.2          56.4         46.0             40.3         40.3          66.2           64.1         72.2          41.7
  Ft. Lauderdale, FL            44.4          67.3         45.5             34.5         45.5          80.0           69.1         49.1          23.6
  Houston, TX                   47.9          63.3         40.3             83.9         44.2          91.2           78.1         77.1          38.0
  Jersey City, NJ               37.3          70.2         40.5             36.7         29.5          77.7           52.0         66.8          48.3
  Los Angeles, CA               40.8          30.9         20.5             13.6         21.3          76.1           61.6         32.9          21.1
  Miami, FL                     21.2          29.7         28.2             22.9         35.6          67.0           47.3         49.3          18.2
  Newark, NJ                    51.4          58.5         25.7             35.8         50.3          68.2           60.4         74.5          42.6
  New Orleans, LA               45.8          75.0         45.8             66.7         54.2          95.8           91.7         83.3          50.0
  Philadelphia, PA               3.3          43.3         13.3             50.0         43.3          60.0           56.7         60.0          13.3
  San Diego, CA                100.0         100.0         11.6             11.6         69.8          97.7           81.4         93.0          46.5
  San Francisco, CA             33.6          38.1         33.6             30.9         23.1          49.3           45.7         43.6          26.2
  Washington, DC                46.5          60.2         48.0             56.4         51.1          87.5           60.6         72.8          22.5

Local median                    40.8          58.5         33.6             35.8         43.3          76.1           60.6         66.8          26.2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Human immunodeficiency virus.
+ Sexually transmitted disease.
& Survey did not include schools from the Orleans Parish School Board.
==========================================================================================================================================================

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Table_9
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TABLE 9. Percentage of lead health education teachers who wanted in-service training on specific health education topics,
selected U.S. sites -- School Health Education Profiles, teachers' surveys, 1996
==========================================================================================================================================================
                                           Alcohol       Dietary
                                          and other     behaviors         Physical
                           Tobacco-use     drug-use        and         activity and   Pregnancy        HIV *       Other STD +   Violence       Suicide
Site                        prevention    prevention    nutrition         fitness     prevention    prevention     prevention   prevention    prevention
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                       49.3          63.8         46.6             43.3         54.0          71.1           62.4         69.4          68.0
  Arkansas                      52.5          58.8         47.7             48.1         53.5          74.6           62.2         59.2          71.0
  Connecticut                   42.7          44.2         47.2             30.6         45.3          48.6           48.4         56.5          65.7
  Delaware                      35.8          51.3         51.9             45.1         50.1          62.9           49.9         68.9          69.7
  Idaho                         56.0          60.5         53.9             41.1         47.8          68.8           57.3         73.3          78.5
  Iowa                          41.8          44.0         39.5             36.9         41.1          49.6           44.5         55.6          63.8
  Kentucky                      48.9          58.0         42.6             44.7         52.9          60.9           54.7         64.0          72.5
  Maine                         51.2          52.4         37.3             31.6         45.8          45.0           47.5         62.5          74.2
  Massachusetts                 44.3          57.0         52.4             39.3         51.7          49.0           56.6         62.2          77.4
  Michigan                      42.9          51.6         45.7             37.3         37.7          41.4           41.2         54.6          61.4
  Minnesota                     44.5          53.1         42.0             38.1         46.6          50.2           55.8         51.4          64.1
  Missouri                      43.6          53.9         43.7             36.0         45.6          66.9           55.4         55.8          61.8
  Montana                       47.1          48.2         51.5             46.6         42.6          58.1           55.7         68.2          66.5
  Nebraska                      43.4          48.9         38.8             35.5         37.4          55.2           50.4         60.3          63.6
  New Hampshire                 48.6          46.6         49.2             42.7         39.5          48.3           58.3         65.2          73.3
  New Mexico                    50.3          68.7         46.1             38.1         53.3          58.0           60.1         68.2          72.7
  North Dakota                  43.9          50.0         43.5             39.2         36.0          52.3           53.6         59.2          64.7
  Ohio                          45.0          53.5         44.4             33.9         48.4          59.4           54.6         59.3          64.0
  Rhode Island                  44.6          43.4         44.0             37.7         51.3          49.7           55.8         58.9          55.8
  Tennessee                     53.8          56.3         48.1             49.0         51.6          63.7           58.4         69.6          71.5
  Utah                          45.0          45.8         49.6             38.5         49.8          51.3           46.7         72.0          70.6
  Washington                    52.5          59.3         49.0             34.8         41.7          44.5           49.1         69.5          66.6
  West Virginia                 59.6          59.3         55.5             54.7         62.8          66.6           67.5         63.1          75.2
  Wyoming                       44.7          51.8         50.3             38.6         40.0          44.7           53.1         59.9          62.0

Unweighted data
  Alaska                        43.8          49.2         36.2             38.8         39.7          51.5           44.6         66.2          63.8
  California                    45.3          54.5         48.2             37.3         47.0          51.4           55.2         65.8          65.5
  Colorado                      48.3          55.2         47.5             36.7         43.2          49.6           52.1         63.6          72.0
  Georgia                       46.6          53.4         43.1             34.6         50.9          57.6           55.9         61.4          62.2
  Kansas                        49.0          58.6         52.3             43.8         48.4          58.7           55.6         58.8          64.3
  Louisiana&                    51.2          57.3         58.3             52.8         42.9          66.2           57.4         60.0          69.9
  New Jersey                    49.5          58.3         47.5             35.3         48.3          57.9           52.8         68.2          74.7
  Oregon                        38.8          46.6         44.4             31.2         47.7          48.6           44.6         61.7          68.5
  South Carolina                43.1          55.9         55.1             48.3         44.1          58.0           54.1         61.8          70.7
  South Dakota                  48.8          50.0         46.2             43.5         52.7          52.3           55.4         66.7          73.1

State median                    46.0          53.5         47.4             38.6         47.4          53.8           55.0         62.4          68.3

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Chicago, IL                   40.3          56.0         54.9             45.8         43.3          56.1           52.2         64.0          69.9
  Dallas, TX                    53.2          64.9         53.2             51.6         50.6          45.8           46.3         59.6          59.0
  Ft. Lauderdale, FL            43.6          54.5         54.5             34.5         43.6          43.6           52.7         67.3          70.9
  Houston, TX                   56.4          62.1         55.5             54.2         59.4          63.8           62.0         60.2          85.0
  Jersey City, NJ               47.1          48.9         54.1             59.5         56.8          43.2           39.9         81.9          78.3
  Los Angeles, CA               36.3          56.9         51.1             26.6         41.3          35.9           45.4         67.9          59.9
  Miami, FL                     44.2          62.9         56.2             30.9         40.0          43.6           48.6         58.7          65.2
  Newark, NJ                    63.4          72.6         55.2             37.5         46.8          63.3           60.5         74.2          80.5
  New Orleans, LA               55.0          65.0         73.7             47.4         81.8          63.6           73.7         80.0          85.7
  Philadelphia, PA              55.2          60.0         46.7             63.3         73.3          83.3           66.7         80.0          83.3
  San Diego, CA                 55.8          69.8         23.3             30.2         46.5          58.1           57.1         81.4          53.5
  San Francisco, CA             44.0          65.4         67.4             44.3         30.4          28.0           39.8         67.9          67.4
  Washington, DC                46.7          52.6         56.4             52.5         60.8          61.3           62.6         68.7          81.3

Local median                    47.1          62.1         54.9             45.8         46.8          56.1           52.7         67.9          70.9
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Human immunodeficiency virus.
+ Sexually transmitted disease.
& Survey did not include schools from the Orleans Parish School Board.
==========================================================================================================================================================

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Table_10
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TABLE 10. Percentage of schools that received parental feedback on health education
and among those schools, the percentage that received each specific type of feedback,
selected U.S. sites -- School Health Education Profiles, principals' surveys, 1996
==============================================================================================================
                                                                Type of parental feedback received *
                                                    --------------------------------------------------------
                               Received parental                                            Equally positive
Site                                 feedback       Mainly positive    Mainly negative        and negative
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data +
  Alabama                               37.4               83.9               1.4                 14.8
  Arkansas                              46.6               84.4                 0                 15.6
  California                            56.9               90.3               1.9                  7.9
  Connecticut                           63.9               89.1               2.0                  8.9
  Delaware                              70.7               83.1                 0                 16.9
  Idaho                                 62.4               88.9               2.8                  8.3
  Iowa                                  54.0               85.3               3.9                 10.8
  Kentucky                              48.2               87.4               2.2                 10.4
  Louisiana&                            37.6               81.5               1.0                 17.5
  Maine                                 62.2               84.7               1.6                 13.7
  Massachusetts                         67.1               89.4               1.1                  9.4
  Michigan                              59.0               88.9               1.8                  9.2
  Minnesota                             64.0               88.0               3.0                  9.1
  Missouri                              49.5               90.3                 0                  9.7
  Montana                               53.6               82.1               1.9                 16.0
  Nebraska                              44.9               86.8               1.0                 12.2
  New Hampshire                         66.5               87.4               0.9                 11.7
  New Mexico                            64.5               78.7               3.0                 18.3
  North Dakota                          52.3               92.0                 0                  8.0
  Ohio                                  52.6               86.1               1.6                 12.2
  Rhode Island                          61.0               86.2               2.0                 11.7
  South Carolina                        48.1               85.2               1.8                 13.0
  South Dakota                          44.6               85.1               3.9                 11.1
  Tennessee                             60.9               80.7               1.7                 17.5
  Utah                                  64.3               96.0                 0                  4.0
  Washington                            61.0               80.5               1.9                 17.6
  West Virginia                         59.1               88.1               0.9                 11.0
  Wyoming                               59.7               80.9               1.2                 18.0

Unweighted data+
  Alaska                                54.0               78.4               1.1                 20.5
  Colorado                              65.1               84.2               3.2                 12.6
  Georgia                               59.3               87.1                 0                 12.9
  Indiana                               57.9               90.7               2.4                  6.8
  Kansas                                53.3               83.9               2.4                 13.7
  New Jersey                            62.5               88.7                 0                 11.3
  Oregon                                60.3               84.0               2.9                 13.1

State median                            59.1               86.1               1.7                 12.2

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data +
  Chicago, IL                           49.7               81.2               2.9                 15.9
  Dallas, TX                            35.3               92.3                 0                  7.7
  Ft. Lauderdale, FL                    56.4               93.5                 0                  6.5
  Houston, TX                           44.1               95.1                 0                  4.9
  Jersey City, NJ                       42.9               83.1                 0                 16.9
  Los Angeles, CA                       61.7               89.1               1.8                  9.1
  Miami, FL                             51.3               92.5                 0                  7.5
  Newark, NJ                            55.5               83.9                 0                 16.1
  New Orleans, LA                       54.2              100.0                 0                  0.0
  Philadelphia, PA                      35.5               81.8               9.1                  9.1
  San Diego, CA                         67.4               93.1                 0                  6.9
  San Francisco, CA                     68.8               90.9               4.6                  4.5
  Washington, DC                        54.8               95.9                 0                  4.1

Local median                            54.2               92.3                 0                  7.5
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Among those schools that received feedback.
+ Percentages for each row might not add up to 100.0 because of rounding.
& Survey did not include schools from the Orleans Parish School Board.
==============================================================================================================

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Table_11
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TABLE 11. Percentage of schools that involved parents in required health education
courses, selected U.S. sites -- School Health Education Profiles, teachers' surveys,
1996
==========================================================================================================
                              Sent parents       Sent parents      Invited parents to
                             health-related     newsletters on        attend health        Offered health
                               educational      health-related      education classes       programs for
Site                            materials            topics          or health fairs          parents
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                          40.7               33.2                  31.6               19.4
  Arkansas                         33.3               21.6                  25.9               17.1
  Connecticut                      48.5               45.5                  45.1               39.2
  Delaware                         53.4               41.4                  53.9               20.2
  Idaho                            44.2               37.1                  45.8               23.5
  Iowa                             45.2               48.8                  33.9               21.2
  Kentucky                         42.7               35.0                  39.7               25.0
  Maine                            51.5               42.5                  39.2               27.8
  Massachusetts                    57.9               58.4                  47.9               49.1
  Michigan                         49.3               50.3                  41.2               30.0
  Minnesota                        55.4               45.2                  40.6               27.8
  Missouri                         48.8               37.7                  33.4               26.2
  Montana                          38.2               40.0                  33.9               21.4
  Nebraska                         48.4               42.7                  36.8               21.3
  New Hampshire                    54.9               51.9                  44.7               36.1
  New Mexico                       55.3               50.4                  67.2               27.1
  North Dakota                     40.6               35.4                  33.1               28.3
  Ohio                             48.3               36.6                  42.6               20.9
  Rhode Island                     48.7               42.1                  48.1               33.8
  Tennessee                        54.9               43.6                  38.5               22.0
  Utah                             68.7               38.6                  43.0               27.6
  Washington                       55.4               44.6                  47.3               26.8
  West Virginia                    57.7               52.9                  50.3               28.0
  Wyoming                          52.9               44.0                  47.3               18.4

Unweighted data
  Alaska                           55.6               43.9                  55.6               25.0
  California                       58.7               51.5                  45.5               36.7
  Colorado                         48.8               53.7                  46.7               22.0
  Georgia                          62.0               51.7                  56.4               28.9
  Kansas                           48.6               42.1                  36.1               19.4
  Louisiana*                       43.8               36.7                  28.4               16.7
  New Jersey                       58.3               48.6                  52.1               38.9
  Oregon                           53.2               53.4                  46.2               22.9
  South Carolina                   56.9               52.2                  50.0               23.1
  South Dakota                     46.3               33.3                  40.3               27.5

State median                       50.4               43.8                  43.9               25.6

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Chicago, IL                      61.9               58.0                  44.0               39.1
  Dallas, TX                       63.9               54.9                  49.0               37.3
  Ft. Lauderdale, FL               58.2               57.4                  54.5               20.4
  Houston, TX                      68.4               61.8                  74.9               40.3
  Jersey City, NJ                  73.4               67.1                  52.2               38.9
  Los Angeles, CA                  80.2               58.1                  66.6               40.1
  Miami, FL                        72.4               64.0                  51.4               35.6
  Newark, NJ                       78.2               76.2                  79.3               65.1
  New Orleans, LA                  69.6               61.9                  69.6               34.8
  Philadelphia, PA                 67.9               69.0                  65.5               37.9
  San Diego, CA                    62.8               79.1                  53.5               55.8
  San Francisco, CA                82.8               82.8                  79.0               76.2
  Washington, DC                   68.4               48.6                  80.8               52.4

Local median                       68.4               61.9                  65.5               39.1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Survey did not include schools from the Orleans Parish School Board.
==========================================================================================================

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Table_12
Note: To print large tables and graphs users may have to change their printer settings to landscape and use a small font size.

TABLE 12. Percentage of schools that required human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) education be taught as part of a required
health education course and among those schools, the percentage of schools that taught specific topics, selected U.S. sites --
School Health Education Profiles, teachers' surveys, 1996
==================================================================================================================================
                                                                          HIV education topic taught*
                                             ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                               Taught          How HIV is and        Reasons for choosing                        Correct use of
Site                       HIV education     is not transmitted        sexual abstinence    Condom efficiency       condoms
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                        88.2                  98.9                    96.9                 61.7              33.4
  Arkansas                       81.4                 100.0                    95.1                 77.0              33.4
  Connecticut                    98.5                  98.5                    97.1                 78.4              58.4
  Delaware                       95.6                 100.0                   100.0                 84.6              65.4
  Idaho                          86.9                  98.8                    90.9                 63.4              24.6
  Iowa                           95.0                  99.4                    95.9                 83.7              54.7
  Kentucky                       80.3                  99.2                    95.4                 68.4              40.7
  Maine                          96.8                  99.4                    97.1                 84.5              62.3
  Massachusetts                  96.6                  99.4                    96.7                 75.7              53.4
  Michigan                       96.3                  98.4                    97.1                 78.1              47.3
  Minnesota                      99.0                  99.4                    99.1                 80.5              50.1
  Missouri                       88.8                 100.0                    96.2                 75.5              41.5
  Montana                        89.8                  98.6                    93.7                 68.8              39.7
  Nebraska                       83.7                  98.3                    94.4                 66.3              36.4
  New Hampshire                  92.7                 100.0                   100.0                 86.1              64.2
  New Mexico                     97.7                  99.1                    97.7                 75.4              45.2
  North Dakota                   87.2                 100.0                    97.9                 61.6              29.7
  Ohio                           94.8                  99.7                    97.0                 79.0              53.8
  Rhode Island                  100.0                 100.0                    96.4                 80.9              62.4
  Tennessee                      94.2                  99.6                    96.1                 66.3              37.6
  Utah                           92.9                  98.9                    96.6                 48.6               7.9
  Washington                     94.6                  99.7                    99.3                 92.7              56.8
  West Virginia                  96.0                  99.4                    96.9                 73.0              50.1
  Wyoming                        91.9                 100.0                    97.0                 66.6              34.8

Unweighted data
  Alaska                         89.0                  96.4                    93.6                 67.6              51.4
  California                     95.2                  98.9                    97.2                 83.7              61.6
  Colorado                       92.6                 100.0                    97.2                 76.2              51.4
  Georgia                        92.3                  98.6                    97.2                 69.3              39.5
  Kansas                         94.3                 100.0                    99.6                 72.2              44.6
  Louisiana+                     65.3                  96.9                    92.2                 43.8              22.0
  New Jersey                     99.7                  99.6                    97.9                 81.7              63.5
  Oregon                         98.8                  99.2                    97.1                 77.5              49.2
  South Carolina                 94.8                  99.0                    97.0                 74.4              53.3
  South Dakota                   94.0                 100.0                    97.6                 59.3              33.3

State median                     94.3                  99.4                    97.0                 75.5              48.3

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Chicago, IL                    84.4                  99.2                    92.7                 64.9              51.6
  Dallas, TX                     96.9                 100.0                    94.2                 70.8              42.3
  Ft. Lauderdale, FL             98.1                 100.0                    94.3                 71.7              60.4
  Houston, TX                    94.9                  98.3                    98.3                 84.2              62.1
  Jersey City, NJ               100.0                 100.0                   100.0                 76.6              64.8
  Los Angeles, CA               100.0                 100.0                    98.9                 84.1              72.5
  Miami, CA                     100.0                 100.0                    98.2                 96.4              78.2
  Newark, NJ                     90.2                  97.3                    97.3                 85.9              62.9
  New Orleans, LA               100.0                 100.0                   100.0                 90.9              91.3
  Philadelphia, PA              100.0                 100.0                   100.0                 72.4              69.0
  San Diego, CA                 100.0                 100.0                   100.0                100.0             100.0
  San Francisco, CA              89.8                 100.0                   100.0                 92.3              84.5
  Washington, DC                 95.0                 100.0                    97.2                 77.9              75.1

Local median                     98.1                 100.0                    98.3                 84.1              69.0
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Among those schools that taught HIV education.
+ Survey did not include schools from the Orleans Parish School Board.
==================================================================================================================================

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Table_13
Note: To print large tables and graphs users may have to change their printer settings to landscape and use a small font size.

TABLE 13. Percentage of schools with a written policy from their school or school district on human immunodeficiency virus
(HIV)-infected students or school staff and among those schools, topics addressed in the policy, selected U.S. sites -- School
Health Education Profiles, principals' surveys, 1996
==========================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                Topic addressed by the written policy*
                                             -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                                                     Communication of     Inappropriate-
                                                                                                                         policy to       ness of routine
                            Had a written                         Protection from   Worksite     Evaluation of       students, staff,    testing for HIV
Site                            policy       Confidentiality+     discrimination+    safety      health status+         and parents         infection
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                         70.3               95.5                93.0        93.5              68.4                 80.4               47.4
  Arkansas                        46.4               91.8                96.7        86.8              72.7                 72.3               37.1
  California                      62.1               94.9                90.4        94.9              62.2                 77.2               32.0
  Connecticut                     77.6               95.9                90.1        94.5              64.6                 72.4               29.6
  Delaware                        75.8               97.2                97.2        86.8              62.1                 59.6               27.6
  Idaho                           62.9               85.1                84.8        85.9              71.9                 56.3               22.8
  Iowa                            67.9               90.4                86.2        91.5              70.8                 77.5               36.0
  Kentucky                        45.7               93.0                83.8        91.4              63.1                 73.3               41.2
  Louisiana&                      49.3               92.6                89.5        84.0              55.4                 75.8               39.9
  Maine                           83.6               95.8                90.4        95.9              61.3                 68.3               23.9
  Massachusetts                   71.9               98.7                94.0        94.6              67.9                 81.5               38.8
  Michigan                        66.1               94.3                91.7        95.7              66.1                 75.6               36.5
  Minnesota                       66.3               98.0                93.9        95.0              71.7                 85.7               36.1
  Missouri                        77.9               95.4                91.4        92.3              79.1                 79.0               36.5
  Montana                         64.1               96.7                92.8        92.4              70.7                 79.6               35.3
  Nebraska                        69.5               92.4                89.8        92.7              72.6                 76.5               34.3
  New Hampshire                   88.2               95.1                93.5        89.3              71.1                 71.7               30.8
  New Mexico                      68.6               90.4                87.4        94.8              51.9                 73.0               36.4
  North Dakota                    63.3               93.9                89.0        87.6              61.3                 77.7               28.4
  Ohio                            71.2               95.1                89.1        93.9              79.3                 72.5               39.2
  Rhode Island                    86.6              100.0                95.6        95.7              79.0                 75.7               38.8
  South Carolina                  72.1               95.2                90.0        95.1              74.4                 69.6               55.0
  South Dakota                    61.4               84.8                83.6        83.4              65.4                 71.2               29.5
  Tennessee                       75.6               94.0                91.3        94.7              71.5                 78.8               58.1
  Utah                            75.2               97.2                97.9        96.0              71.4                 77.0               49.6
  Washington                      78.8               96.1                88.8        93.6              60.7                 77.7               42.2
  West Virginia                   60.1               95.7                94.1        95.0              75.2                 86.9               40.7
  Wyoming                         83.5               92.6                95.6        92.5              57.6                 58.1               25.7

Unweighted data
  Alaska                          58.2               94.7                92.0        92.2              50.0                 71.4               34.7
  Colorado                        79.7               92.4                83.5        90.3              67.3                 69.6               29.3
  Georgia                         71.8               92.0                90.1        90.7              69.6                 80.2               50.6
  Indiana                         68.0               94.8                89.8        98.6              61.4                 74.9               36.7
  Kansas                          53.7               92.0                84.8        91.4              72.1                 73.5               32.9
  New Jersey                      68.5               97.8                92.1        92.6              61.6                 76.0               37.5
  Oregon                          89.4               96.7                92.7        98.4              72.4                 88.4               33.2

State median                      69.5               94.9                90.4        92.7              68.4                 75.7               36.4

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Chicago, IL                     89.6               98.8                97.6        96.5              77.7                 84.4               62.4
  Dallas, TX                      67.6              100.0                92.2        77.2              62.0                 71.0               40.5
  Ft. Lauderdale, FL              83.0               93.0                95.3        90.7              41.9                 69.0               31.0
  Houston, TX                     71.8              100.0               100.0        97.0              77.6                 93.1               67.2
  Jersey City, NJ                 71.9              100.0                94.4        94.4              52.7                 83.3               33.0
  Los Angeles, LA                 96.1               98.7                98.6        97.3              89.2                 94.6               73.3
  Miami, FL                       90.9              100.0               100.0        98.4              65.5                 95.0               72.7
  Newark, NJ                      73.7               96.5                88.7        95.9              72.4                 85.0               47.8
  New Orleans, LA                 81.0              100.0               100.0        92.9              66.7                 93.3               64.3
  Philadelphia, PA                79.3              100.0                94.7        78.9              64.7                 78.9               44.4
  San Diego, CA                  100.0              100.0               100.0       100.0              97.6                100.0                4.8
  San Francisco, CA               82.8              100.0               100.0       100.0              55.6                 72.0               66.4
  Washington, DC                  82.5               96.7                92.7        92.7              53.0                 74.8               24.6

Local median                      82.5              100.0                97.6        95.9              65.5                 84.4               47.8
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Among those schools or school districts that had a written policy.
+ Of HIV-infected students and school staff.
& Survey did not include schools from the Orleans Parish School Baord.
==========================================================================================================================================================

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