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Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance -- United States, 1995


Laura Kann, Ph.D.(1) Charles W. Warren, Ph.D.(1) William A. Harris, M.M.(1) Janet L. Collins, Ph.D.(1) Barbara I. Williams, Ph.D.(2)

James G. Ross, M.S.(3) Lloyd J. Kolbe, Ph.D.(1) State and Local YRBSS Coordinators (Appendix)

(1) Division of Adolescent and School Health National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC

(2) Westat Incorporated, Rockville, MD (3) Macro International, Calverton, MD

Abstract

Problem/Condition: Priority health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and social problems among youth and adults often are established during youth, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated.

Reporting Period: February through May 1995. Description of the System: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors, unhealthy dietary behaviors, and physical inactivity. The YRBSS includes both a national school-based survey conducted by CDC and state and local school-based surveys conducted by state and local education agencies. This report summarizes results from the national survey, 35 state surveys, and 16 local surveys conducted among high school students from February through May 1995.

Results and Interpretation: In the United States, 72% of all deaths among school-age youth and young adults result from four causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 1995 YRBSS suggest that many high school students practice behaviors that may increase their likelihood of death from these four causes: 21.7% had rarely or never used a safety belt, 38.8% had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol during the 30 days preceding the survey, 20.0% had carried a weapon during the 30 days preceding the survey, 51.6% had drunk alcohol during the 30 days preceding the survey, 25.3% had used marijuana during the 30 days preceding the survey, and 8.7% had attempted suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey. Substantial morbidity and social problems among school-age youth and young adults also result from unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. YRBSS results indicate that in 1995, 53.1% of high school students had had sexual intercourse, 45.6% of sexually active students had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse, and 2.0% had ever injected an illegal drug. Among adults, 65% of all deaths result from three causes: heart disease, cancer, and stroke. Most of the risk behaviors associated with these causes of death are initiated during adolescence. In 1995, 34.8% of high school students had smoked cigarettes during the 30 days preceding the survey, 39.5% had eaten more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content during the day preceding the survey, and only 25.4% had attended physical education class daily.

Actions Taken: YRBSS data are being used nationwide by health and education officials to improve national, state, and local policies and programs designed to reduce risks associated with the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. YRBSS data also are being used to measure progress toward achieving 21 national health objectives and one of eight National Education Goals.

INTRODUCTION

In the United States, 72% of all deaths among youth and young adults 5-24 years of age result from only four causes: motor vehicle crashes (28% of all deaths in this age group), other unintentional injuries (11%), homicide (21%), and suicide (12%) (1). Substantial morbidity and social problems also result from the approximately 1 million pregnancies that occur each year among adolescents (2) and the more than 10 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that occur each year among persons 15-29 years of age (3). In the United States, 65% of all deaths and substantial morbidity among adults greater than or equal to 25 years of age result from three causes: heart disease (34% of all deaths in this age group), cancer (24%), and stroke (7%) (1). Therefore, six categories of behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and STDs (including human immunodeficiency virus {HIV} infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. These behaviors, which frequently are interrelated, often are established during youth and extend into adulthood.

To monitor the priority health-risk behaviors in each of these categories among youth and young adults, CDC developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) (4). The YRBSS includes national, state, * and local school-based surveys of high school students. National surveys were conducted in 1990, 1991, 1993, and 1995. ** Comparable state and local surveys were first conducted in 1990, when 24 states and eight large cities participated. In 1991, 29 states and 10 cities conducted surveys; in 1993, 43 states and 13 cities; and in 1995, 45 states and 16 cities. This report summarizes the results from the 1995 national school-based survey and from the 35 selected state and 16 local school-based surveys. Data from nine state surveys conducted during 1995 were not included in this report because of their low overall response rate. Data from one state survey were not included upon request of the state education agency. --------------- * U.S. territories are included as states.

** The school-based components of the YRBSS were implemented in 1990 and 1991 and then biennially during odd-numbered years thereafter.

METHODS

Sampling

The 1995 national school-based survey employed a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9-12. The first-stage sampling frame contained 1,955 primary sampling units (PSUs), consisting of large counties or groups of smaller, adjacent counties. From the 1,955 PSUs, 52 were selected from 16 strata formed on the basis of the degree of urbanization and the relative percentage of black * and Hispanic students in the PSU. The PSUs were selected with probability proportional to school enrollment size. At the second sampling stage, 157 schools were selected with probability proportional to school enrollment size. To enable separate analysis of black and Hispanic students, schools with substantial numbers of black and Hispanic students were sampled at higher rates than all other schools. The third stage of sampling consisted of randomly selecting one or two intact classes of a required subject (e.g., English or social studies) from grades 9-12 at each chosen school. All students in the selected classes were eligible to participate in the survey.

A weighting factor was applied to each student record to adjust for nonresponse and for the varying probabilities of selection, including those resulting from the oversampling of black and Hispanic students. Numbers of students in other racial/ethnic groups were too low for meaningful analysis in this report. The weights were scaled so that a) the weighted count of students was equal to the total sample size and b) the weighted proportions of students in each grade matched national population proportions. SUDAAN was used to compute 95% confidence intervals that were used to determine differences among subgroups at the p less than 0.05 level (5). The national data are representative of students in grades 9-12 in public and private schools in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

The 1995 state and local school-based surveys employed a two-stage cluster sample design to produce representative samples of students in grades 9-12 in their jurisdictions. In most states and cities, the first-stage sampling frame consisted of all public schools containing any of grades 9-12. Schools were selected with probability proportional to school enrollment size. At the second sampling stage, intact classes of a required subject or a required period (e.g., second period) were randomly selected. All students in the selected classes were eligible to participate in the survey. Some states and cities modified these procedures to meet their individual needs. For example, in some states and cities, either classes were selected as the first stage of sampling or all schools, rather than a sample of schools, were selected to participate.

The surveys from the 25 states and 12 cities, each with an overall response rate of at least 60% and appropriate documentation, were weighted (Table_1). Weighted data from most of these states and cities can be generalized to all public-school students in grades 9-12 in the jurisdiction. Surveys that did not have both an overall response rate of at least 60% and appropriate documentation were not weighted. The unweighted data from 10 state and four local surveys apply only to the students participating in the survey. Surveys from California, Colorado, Michigan, and New Jersey excluded students from Los Angeles, Denver, Detroit, and Newark, respectively.

For the national survey, 10,904 questionnaires were completed in 110 schools. The school response rate was 70%, and the student response rate was 86%, resulting in an overall response rate of 60% (Table_1). For the state and local surveys, sample sizes ranged from 309 to 5,987. School response rates ranged from 48% to 100%, student response rates ranged from 44% to 99%, and overall response rates ranged from 41% to 85%. In the national, state, and local surveys, students were evenly distributed across grades and between sexes (Table_1).

Incidence rates for two variables were calculated to provide data for monitoring relevant year 2000 national health objectives (6). For weapon-carrying, students who replied that they had carried a weapon 2-3 days during the 30 days preceding the survey were assigned a weapon-carrying frequency of 2.5; 4-5 days, 4.5; and greater than or equal to 6 days, 6.0. For physical fighting, students who reported having fought two or three times during the 12 months preceding the survey were assigned a fighting frequency of 2.5; four or five times, 4.5; six or seven times, 6.5; eight or nine times, 8.5; 10-11 times, 10.5; and greater than or equal to 12 times, 12.0. ---------------

  • In this report, black refers to black, non-Hispanic students.

Data Collection

Survey procedures were designed to protect the students' privacy by allowing for anonymous and voluntary participation. The self-administered questionnaire was administered in the classroom during a regular class period. Students recorded their responses directly on a booklet or answer sheet that could be scanned by a computer. The core questionnaire contained 84 multiple-choice questions. State and local education agencies added or deleted items to meet individual needs. Local parental consent procedures were followed before survey administration.

RESULTS

Behaviors that Contribute to Unintentional Injuries

Safety-Belt Use

Nationwide, 21.7% of students rarely or never used safety belts when riding in a car or truck driven by someone else (Table_2). Overall, male students (26.0%) were significantly more likely than female students (16.9%) to rarely or never use safety belts. White * male students (25.1%) were significantly more likely than white female students (15.2%) to rarely or never use safety belts, and male students in grades 10-12 (23.9%, 24.2%, and 29.0%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in the same grades (15.3%, 13.5%, and 18.8%, respectively) to rarely or never use safety belts. Overall, black students (31.5%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic students (20.5% and 18.4%, respectively) to rarely or never use safety belts. Black female students (25.7%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic female students (15.2% and 14.2%, respectively) to rarely or never use safety belts, and black male students (37.8%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic male students (22.6%) to rarely or never use safety belts. The prevalence rates across the state surveys varied sixfold from 5.9% to 37.2% (median: 23.5%) (Table_3). Across the local surveys, the prevalence rates varied nearly sixfold from 7.8% to 46.1% (median: 26.1%). ---------------

  • In this report, white refers to white, non-Hispanic students.

Motorcycle-Helmet Use

Nationwide, 25.1% of students had ridden a motorcycle during the 12 months preceding the survey. Of these students, 43.8% rarely or never wore a motorcycle helmet (Table_2). Prevalence rates of rarely or never using a motorcycle helmet varied among the state surveys nearly threefold from 26.5% to 73.1% (median: 44.2%) (Table_3). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 33.9% to 72.6% (median: 47.0%).

Bicycle-Helmet Use

Nationwide, 76.2% of students had ridden a bicycle during the 12 months preceding the survey. Of these students, 92.8% rarely or never wore a bicycle helmet (Table_2). Overall, black and Hispanic students (97.3% and 96.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (91.8%) to rarely or never wear a bicycle helmet. Hispanic female students (96.7%) were significantly more likely than white female students (91.3%) to rarely or never wear a bicycle helmet, and black male students (98.3%) were significantly more likely than white male students (92.1%) to rarely or never wear a bicycle helmet. The prevalence rates of rarely or never wearing a bicycle helmet ranged from 75.0% to 98.2% (median: 93.8%) across the state surveys and from 83.8% to 97.4% (median: 94.0%) across the local surveys (Table_3).

Riding with a Driver Who Had Been Drinking Alcohol

During the 30 days preceding the survey, more than one third (38.8%) of students nationwide had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol (Table_2). Black male students (41.6%) were significantly more likely than black female students (33.0%) to have ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol. Overall, Hispanic students (49.4%) were significantly more likely than black students (37.1%) to have ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol. Hispanic female students (49.7%) were significantly more likely than black female students (33.0%) to report this behavior. Riding with a drinking driver was significantly more likely among 12th-grade male students (44.8%) than among 10th-grade male students (35.1%). Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 21.4% to 49.5% (median: 36.8%) and across the local surveys from 20.6% to 46.3% (median: 32.7%) (Table_3).

Driving After Drinking Alcohol

During the 30 days preceding the survey, 15.4% of students nationwide had driven a vehicle after drinking alcohol (Table_2). Black male students (16.1%) were significantly more likely than black female students (5.3%) to drive after drinking alcohol. White and Hispanic female students (13.6% each) were significantly more likely than black female students (5.3%) to report this behavior. Female students in grade 12 (15.8%) were significantly more likely than 9th-grade female students (7.0%) to report this behavior. Male students in grade 12 (32.0%) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 9-11 (11.4%, 10.9%, and 18.9%, respectively) to drive after drinking alcohol. Prevalence rates across the state surveys varied nearly sixfold from 5.6% to 32.5% (median: 14.3%). Prevalence rates across the local surveys varied fourfold from 3.4% to 14.0% (median: 9.1%) (Table_3).

Behaviors that Contribute to Intentional Injuries

Carrying a Weapon

One fifth (20.0%) of students nationwide had carried a weapon (e.g., a gun, knife, or club) during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_4). Overall, male students (31.1%) were significantly more likely than female students (8.3%) to have carried a weapon. This significant difference was identified for all the racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic students (24.7%) were significantly more likely than white students (18.9%) to have carried a weapon. Weapon-carrying was significantly more likely among black and Hispanic female students (15.7% and 13.2%, respectively) than among white female students (5.5%). Male students in grade 9 (33.8%) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 12 (26.0%) to have carried a weapon. State prevalence rates ranged from 11.3% to 27.4% (median: 20.6%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 16.6% to 29.2% (median: 20.5%) (Table_5).

Nationwide, 7.6% of students had carried a gun during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_4). Overall, male students (12.3%) were significantly more likely than female students (2.5%) to have carried a gun. This significant difference was identified for all the racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, black and Hispanic students (10.6% and 10.5%, respectively) were significantly more likely to have carried a gun than white students (6.2%). Black male students (18.7%) were significantly more likely than white male students (10.2%) to have done so. State prevalence rates varied fourfold from 3.1% to 13.2% (median: 7.7%), and local prevalence rates varied threefold from 3.7% to 12.7% (median: 7.9%) (Table_5).

An estimated 81.3 separate incidents of weapon carrying occurred per 100 students during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_4). Overall, the weapon-carrying incidence rate for male students (128.1 per 100 students) was significantly higher than for female students (31.3 per 100 students). This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and all the grade subgroups. The weapon-carrying incidence rate for black female students (57.6 per 100 students) was significantly higher than for white female students (20.2 per 100 students). State rates ranged from 37.9 to 121.7 per 100 students (median: 84.8), and local rates ranged from 57.6 to 121.1 per 100 students (median: 79.7) (Table_5).

Engaging in a Physical Fight

Among students nationwide, 38.7% had been in a physical fight during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_6). Overall, male students (46.1%) were significantly more likely than female students (30.6%) to have been in a physical fight. This significant difference was identified for all the racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic students (47.9%) were significantly more likely than white students (36.0%) to have been in a physical fight. Both Hispanic male and female students (55.9% and 40.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white male and female students (44.0% and 26.8%, respectively) to report this behavior. Female students in grade 9 (37.4%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 11 and 12 (27.5% and 24.1%, respectively) to report this behavior, and female students in grade 10 (34.4%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (24.1%) to have done so. Male students in grade 9 (55.0%) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 12 (38.0%) to have been in a physical fight. Among the state surveys, the prevalence rates of physical fighting ranged from 28.4% to 40.8% (median: 34.9%). Among the local surveys, the prevalence rates of physical fighting ranged from 27.7% to 48.0% (median: 40.0%).

Nationwide, 4.2% of students had been treated by a doctor or nurse for injuries sustained in a physical fight during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_6). Overall, male students (5.7%) were significantly more likely than female students (2.5%) to report having been injured in a physical fight. This significant difference was identified for white students and students in grades 11 and 12. Overall, Hispanic students (6.4%) were significantly more likely than white students (3.4%) to have been injured in a physical fight. Among the state surveys, the prevalence rates of injurious physical fighting ranged from 2.5% to 6.0% (median: 4.0%) (Table_7). Among the local surveys, the prevalence rates of injurious physical fighting ranged from 3.5% to 8.4% (median: 5.5%).

Nationwide, an estimated 127.7 incidents of physical fighting occurred per 100 students during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_6). Overall, male students (161.1 per 100 students) were significantly more likely than female students (91.9 per 100 students) to have been involved in a physical fight. Incidence rates were significantly higher among black male students (180.5 per 100 students) than among black female students (83.3 per 100 students). Across the state surveys, the incidence rates ranged from 92.6 per 100 students to 137.6 per 100 students (median: 115.2) (Table_7). Across the local surveys, the incidence rates ranged from 73.4 per 100 students to 154.7 per 100 students (median: 125.2).

School-Related Violence

Nationwide, 4.5% of students had missed at least 1 day of school during the 30 days preceding the survey because they had felt unsafe at school or when traveling to or from school (Table_8). Overall, black and Hispanic students (7.7% and 8.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (2.8%) to have felt unsafe. Hispanic and black female students (8.3% and 8.2%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white female students (2.2%) to miss school because they had felt unsafe, and black male students (7.1%) were significantly more likely than white male students (3.4%) to miss school for this reason. A sixfold difference was observed in prevalence rates across the state surveys, which ranged from 2.6% to 15.6% (median: 4.8%) (Table_9). The prevalence rates across the local surveys ranged from 6.9% to 17.0% (median: 10.2%).

The prevalence of weapon-carrying on school property during the 30 days preceding the survey was 9.8% nationwide (Table_8). Overall, male students (14.3%) were significantly more likely than female students (4.9%) to have carried a weapon on school property. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and all the grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic students (14.1%) were significantly more likely than white students (9.0%) to have carried a weapon on school property. Hispanic and black female students (8.9% and 8.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white female students (3.1%) to have done so. State prevalence rates varied nearly threefold from 5.4% to 14.6% (median: 9.6%), and local prevalence rates varied threefold from 5.2% to 15.3% (median: 9.7%).

Nationwide, the prevalence of students who had been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property during the 12 months preceding the survey was 8.4% (Table_8). Overall, male students (10.9%) were significantly more likely than female students (5.8%) to have been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property. This significant difference was identified for white students and students in grades 9, 11, and 12. Overall, Hispanic students (12.4%) were significantly more likely than white students (7.0%) to have been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property. Hispanic and black male students (15.2% each) were significantly more likely than white male students (9.2%) to report such behavior. State prevalence rates varied threefold from 3.6% to 11.4% (median: 7.9%). Local prevalence rates ranged from 8.1% to 13.3% (median: 10.4%) (Table_9).

Nationwide, 15.5% of students had been in a physical fight on school property during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_8). Overall, male students (21.0%) were significantly more likely than female students (9.6%) to have been in a physical fight on school property. This significant difference was identified for all the racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, black and Hispanic students (20.3% and 21.1%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (12.9%) to have been in a physical fight on school property. Black male and female students (27.9% and 14.3%, respectively) and Hispanic male and female students (25.7% and 16.6%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white male and female students (18.4% and 6.5%, respectively) to report this behavior. Female students in grade 9 (12.1%) were significantly more likely to have been in a physical fight on school property than female students in grade 12 (5.6%). Male students in grade 9 (29.4%) were significantly more likely to have been in a physical fight on school property than male students in grades 10-12 (20.8%, 18.6%, and 15.5%, respectively). Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 11.6% to 23.2% (median: 15.0%). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 12.5% to 22.2% (median: 17.9%) (Table_9).

Nationwide, approximately one third of students (34.9%) had had property (e.g., a car, clothing, or books) stolen or deliberately damaged on school property during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_8). Overall, male students (41.4%) were significantly more likely than female students (28.0%) to have had property stolen or damaged on school property. This significant difference was identified for white students and all the grade subgroups. Female students in grades 10 and 11 (31.6% and 28.6%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (21.5%) to have experienced this. State prevalence rates ranged from 24.8% to 46.1% (median: 33.4%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 25.6% to 39.8% (median: 32.6%) (Table_9).

Suicide Ideation and Attempts

Nearly one fourth (24.1%) of students nationwide had seriously considered attempting suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_10). Overall, female students (30.4%) were significantly more likely than male students (18.3%) to have considered attempting suicide. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and all the grade subgroups. Overall, white students (24.9%) were significantly more likely than black students (20.0%) to have considered attempting suicide. Hispanic and white female students (34.1% and 31.6%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black female students (22.2%) to have considered attempting suicide. Female students in grades 9 and 10 (34.4% and 32.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (23.9%) to have done so. Prevalence rates ranged from 17.7% to 31.5% (median: 23.9%) across the state surveys and from 17.3% to 26.7% (median: 20.3%) across the local surveys (Table_11).

More serious suicide ideation was observed among the 17.7% of students nationwide who, during the 12 months preceding the survey, had made a specific plan to attempt suicide (Table_10). Overall, female students (21.3%) were significantly more likely than male students (14.4%) to have made a suicide plan. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and students in grades 9 and 10. White and Hispanic female students (21.9% and 25.5%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black female students (15.5%) to have done so. Female students in grades 9 and 10 (23.3% and 23.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (16.6%) to have made a suicide plan. Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 13.6% to 26.4% (median: 17.9%) (Table_11). Prevalence rates across the local surveys ranged from 13.5% to 21.1% (median: 15.2%).

Nationwide, 8.7% of students had actually attempted suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_10). Overall, female students (11.9%) were significantly more likely than male students (5.6%) to have attempted suicide. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and students in grades 9-11. Overall, Hispanic students (13.4%) were significantly more likely than white students (7.6%) to have attempted suicide. Suicide attempts were significantly more likely among Hispanic female students (21.0%) than among white female students (10.4%) and black female students (10.8%). Female students in grades 9 and 10 (14.9% and 15.1%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (6.6%) to have attempted suicide. The percentage of students attempting suicide varied nearly threefold from 7.5% to 20.5% (median: 9.3%) across the state surveys and varied nearly threefold from 5.8% to 15.8% (median: 10.3%) across the local surveys (Table_11).

Nationwide, during the 12 months preceding the survey, 2.8% of students reported having made a suicide attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse (Table_10). Female students in grade 9 (6.3%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (1.3%) to have made a suicide attempt that required subsequent medical attention. The prevalence of injurious suicide attempts varied fourfold from 1.6% to 7.3% (median: 2.9%) across the state surveys and varied fourfold from 1.1% to 5.0% (median: 3.5%) across the local surveys (Table_11).

Tobacco Use

Cigarette Use

Nationwide, 71.3% of students had ever tried cigarette smoking (Table_12). Overall, Hispanic students (76.3%) were significantly more likely than black students (66.0%) to have ever tried cigarette smoking. Hispanic female students (74.8%) were significantly more likely than black female students (62.8%) to have ever tried cigarette smoking. Female students in grades 11 and 12 (75.1% and 73.6%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 9 (60.4%) to have ever tried cigarette smoking, and male students in grade 11 (76.5%) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 9 (66.1%) to have done so. State prevalence rates ranged from 45.2% to 84.9% (median: 71.0%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 59.4% to 75.2% (median: 66.0%) (Table_13).

More than one third of students (34.8%) nationwide had smoked cigarettes on greater than or equal to 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current cigarette use) (Table_12). Black male students (27.8%) were significantly more likely than black female students (12.2%) to report current cigarette use. Overall, white and Hispanic students (38.3% and 34.0%, respectively) were significantly more likely to report current cigarette use than black students (19.2%). White and Hispanic male and female students were significantly more likely than black male and female students to do so. Male students in grade 12 (42.0%) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 9 (32.3%) to currently smoke cigarettes. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates varied nearly fivefold from 8.8% to 43.0% (median: 35.7%); across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 17.8% to 30.3% (median: 23.3%) (Table_13).

Nationwide, 16.1% of students had smoked cigarettes on greater than or equal to 20 of the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., frequent cigarette use) (Table_12). Black male students (8.5%) were significantly more likely than black female students (1.3%) to report frequent cigarette use. Overall, white students (19.5%) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic students (4.5% and 10.0%, respectively) to report frequent cigarette use. White female students (20.8%) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic female students (1.3% and 9.3%, respectively) to report frequent cigarette use, and Hispanic female students (9.3%) were significantly more likely than black female students (1.3%) to do so. White male students (18.4%) were significantly more likely than black male students (8.5%) to report frequent cigarette use. Female and male students in grades 11 and 12 were significantly more likely to report frequent cigarette use than female and male students in grade 9. State prevalence rates varied forty-onefold from 0.6% to 24.6% (median: 17.5%), and local prevalence rates varied threefold from 3.8% to 13.2% (median: 7.3%) (Table_13).

Smokeless-Tobacco Use

Nationwide, more than one in 10 students (11.4%) had used smokeless tobacco during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_12). Overall, male students (19.7%) were significantly more likely than female students (2.4%) to use smokeless tobacco. This significant difference was identified for white students and all the grade subgroups. Overall, white students (14.5%) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic students (2.2% and 4.4%, respectively) to use smokeless tobacco. White male students (25.1%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and black male students (5.8% and 3.5%, respectively) to do so. An eightfold variation in prevalence rates was observed across the state surveys, which ranged from 3.0% to 25.1% (median: 11.6%) (Table_13). Across the local surveys, a fivefold variation was observed, which ranged from 1.3% to 6.7% (median: 3.1%).

Access to Cigarettes

Among students reporting current cigarette use, nationwide 38.7% of those less than 18 years of age had purchased their cigarettes in a store or gas station during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_14). White students (41.3%) in this subgroup were significantly more likely than black students (27.2%) to have purchased cigarettes in a store or gas station. For both male and female students in this subgroup, the percentage of students who had purchased cigarettes in a store or gas station significantly increased as grade increased; by grade 11, approximately half of students purchased their cigarettes at a store. State prevalence rates varied nearly threefold from 17.5% to 51.0% (median: 36.2%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 29.7% to 63.4% (median: 36.3%) (Table_15).

Nationwide, among students reporting current cigarette use, more than three fourths (77.5%) of students less than 18 years of age who had purchased their cigarettes in a store were not asked to show proof of age (Table_14). State prevalence rates ranged from 55.3% to 82.9% (median: 73.4%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 59.8% to 92.6% (median: 75.7%) (Table_15).

Alcohol and Other Drug Use

Alcohol Use

Nationwide, 80.4% of students had had at least one drink of alcohol during their lifetime (Table_16). Overall, white and Hispanic students (81.7% and 82.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (73.7%) to have had at least one drink of alcohol during their lifetime. White female students (81.6%) were significantly more likely than black female students (71.7%) to have had at least one drink of alcohol. Female students in grades 10-12 were significantly more likely than female students in grade 9 to have had at least one drink of alcohol, and male students in grades 11 and 12 (84.0% and 86.0%, respectively) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 9 (74.2%) to have done so. The prevalence of lifetime alcohol use across the state surveys ranged from 43.6% to 84.0% (median: 78.2%) (Table_17). The prevalence across the local surveys ranged from 58.0% to 83.9% (median: 71.3%).

Nationwide, more than half (51.6%) of all students had had at least one drink of alcohol during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current alcohol use) (Table_16). Overall, white and Hispanic students (54.1% and 54.7%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (42.0%) to report current alcohol use. White and Hispanic female students (53.3% and 52.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black female students (38.5%) to report current alcohol use. Male students in grade 12 (59.5%) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 9 (46.9%) to do so. State prevalence rates varied nearly threefold from 22.4% to 60.7% (median: 50.5%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 26.4% to 57.0% (median: 41.0%) (Table_17).

Nationwide, 32.6% of students had had five or more drinks of alcohol on at least one occasion during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., episodic heavy drinking) (Table_16). Overall, male students (36.2%) were significantly more likely than female students (28.6%) to report episodic heavy drinking. This significant difference was identified for black students and students in grade 12. Overall, white and Hispanic students (35.6% and 37.7%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (18.8%) to report episodic heavy drinking. White and Hispanic male and female students were significantly more likely to report episodic heavy drinking than black male and female students. Male and female students in grades 11 and 12 were significantly more likely than male and female students in grade 9 to report this behavior, and male students in grade 12 (46.5%) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 10 and 11 (32.1% and 37.8%, respectively) to do so. Prevalence rates across the state surveys varied threefold from 12.6% to 43.1% (median: 30.3%) and across the local surveys from 12.6% to 35.5% (median: 18.4%) (Table_17).

Marijuana Use

Nationwide, 42.4% of students had used marijuana during their lifetime (Table_16). Male students in grade 9 (38.9%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 9 (27.9%) to have used marijuana during their lifetime. Black male students (54.2%) were significantly more likely than white male students (42.7%) to report having used marijuana in their lifetime. Lifetime use was significantly more likely among female students in grades 10, 11, and 12 (39.5%, 43.6%, and 43.8%, respectively) than among female students in grade 9 (27.9%). Lifetime marijuana use varied fourfold from 10.3% to 48.4% (median: 38.9%) across the state surveys and ranged from 27.7% to 61.8% (median: 37.6%) across the local surveys (Table_17).

Nationwide, 25.3% of students had used marijuana at least once during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current marijuana use) (Table_16). Overall, male students (28.4%) were significantly more likely than female students (22.0%) to currently use marijuana. Black male students (36.8%) were significantly more likely than black female students (22.1%) to report this behavior. Black male students (36.8%) also were significantly more likely than white male students (26.8%) to currently use marijuana. Current marijuana use varied sixfold from 5.3% to 31.9% (median: 22.9%) across the state surveys and ranged from 15.6% to 38.7% (median: 21.4%) across the local surveys (Table_17).

Cocaine Use

Nationwide, 7.0% of students had used some form of cocaine during their lifetime (Table_18). Overall, male students (8.8%) were significantly more likely than female students (5.0%) to have ever used cocaine. This significant difference was identified for white and black students. Overall, white and Hispanic students (6.5% and 16.0%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (2.0%) to report lifetime cocaine use, and Hispanic students (16.0%) were significantly more likely than white students (6.5%) to do the same. These significant differences by race/ethnicity were identified for both male and female students. A fourfold variation in lifetime and nearly eightfold variation in current cocaine use were observed across the state and local surveys (Table_19). Lifetime cocaine use varied nearly fourfold from 2.9% to 11.5% (median: 5.9%) across the state surveys and nearly threefold from 1.4% to 10.6% (median: 5.3%) across the local surveys.

Nationwide, 3.1% of students had used some form of cocaine at least once during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current cocaine use) (Table_18). Overall, male students (4.3%) were significantly more likely than female students (1.8%) to currently use cocaine. This significant difference was identified for white and black students and students in grade 12. Overall, Hispanic students (7.5%) were significantly more likely than white and black students (2.6% and 1.3%, respectively) to report current cocaine use. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Current cocaine use varied nearly fourfold from 1.4% to 4.9% (median: 3.0%) across the state surveys and varied fivefold from 0.9% to 4.6% (median: 2.1%) across the local surveys.

Nationwide, 4.5% of students had used crack or freebase forms of cocaine during their lifetime (Table_18). Black male students (3.2%) were significantly more likely than black female students (0.3%) to have ever used crack cocaine. Overall, white and Hispanic students (4.2% and 10.5%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (1.6%) to have ever used crack cocaine, and Hispanic students (10.5%) were significantly more likely than white students (4.2%) to have done so. Hispanic and white female students (11.6% and 2.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black female students (0.3%) to have ever used crack cocaine. Hispanic female students (11.6%) also were significantly more likely than white female students (2.9%) to have done so. Hispanic male students (9.4%) were significantly more likely than black male students (3.2%) to have used crack cocaine. A nearly fourfold variation in crack or freebase use was observed across the state surveys, which ranged from 1.8% to 6.9% (median: 4.0%); a greater than tenfold variation was observed across the local surveys, which ranged from 0.7% to 7.4% (median: 2.9%) (Table_19).

Steroid Use

Nationwide, 3.7% of students had used steroids without a physician's prescription during their lifetime (Table_20). Overall, male students (4.9%) were significantly more likely than female students (2.4%) to have used steroids. This significant difference was identified for white students and students in grade 12. Overall, white and Hispanic students (3.8% and 4.7%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (1.6%) to have used steroids. Hispanic female students (5.3%) were significantly more likely than black female students (0.9%) to report lifetime steroid use, and white male students (5.3%) were significantly more likely than black male students (2.4%) to do so. Female students in grades 9 and 10 (3.4% and 3.1%, respectively) were significantly more likely to have used steroids than female students in grade 12 (1.0%). Lifetime steroid use varied threefold from 2.0% to 6.5% (median: 3.7%) across the state surveys and varied threefold from 1.7% to 5.1% (median: 3.2%) across the local surveys (Table_21).

Injecting-Drug Use

Nationwide, 2.0% of students had injected illegal drugs during their lifetime * (Table_20). Overall, male students (3.0%) were significantly more likely than female students (1.0%) to report injecting-drug use. This significant difference was identified for white and black students and students in grades 11 and 12. State prevalence rates varied threefold from 1.2% to 3.7% (median: 2.2%), and local prevalence rates varied nearly ninefold from 0.4% to 3.5% (median: 1.7%) (Table_21). ---------------

  • Students were classified as injecting-drug users only if they a) reported injecting-drug use not prescribed by a physician and b) answered "one or more" to any of these questions: "During your life, how many times have you used any form of cocaine, including powder, crack, or freebase?"; "During your life, how many times have you used any other type of illegal drug, such as LSD, PCP, ecstacy, mushrooms, speed, ice, or heroin?"; or "During your life, how many times have you taken steroid pills or shots without a doctor's prescription?"

Other Illegal-Drug Use

Nationwide, 16.0% of students reported use of other illegal drugs during their lifetime (e.g., LSD, PCP, ecstasy, mushrooms, speed, ice, or heroin) (Table_20). Overall, white and Hispanic students (18.4% and 18.1%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (3.9%) to report use of other illegal drugs. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. State prevalence rates varied ninefold from 2.4% to 22.3% (median: 15.7%), and local prevalence rates varied ninefold from 2.3% to 20.1% (median: 7.9%) (Table_21).

Inhalant Use

Nationwide, one fifth (20.3%) of students reported they had ever sniffed glue, breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans, or inhaled any paint sprays to get high (Table_20). Overall, white and Hispanic students (22.7% and 22.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (9.5%) to report inhalant use. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Female students in grades 9 and 10 (25.0% and 21.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (12.6%) to report ever having used inhalants. State prevalence rates varied more than threefold from 7.9% to 28.3% (median: 19.8%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 7.7% to 19.7% (median: 13.1%) (Table_21).

Initiation of Risk Behaviors

Cigarette Smoking

Nationwide, one fourth (24.9%) of students had ever smoked a whole cigarette before 13 years of age (Table_22). Hispanic male students (33.0%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic female students (20.2%) to have smoked a whole cigarette before 13 years of age. Overall, white and Hispanic students (25.9% and 26.6%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (17.2%) to have smoked a whole cigarette before 13 years of age. White female students (23.6%) were significantly more likely than black female students (14.8%) to have smoked a whole cigarette before 13 years of age, and white and Hispanic male students (27.9% and 33.0%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black male students (20.1%) to have done so. State prevalence rates varied threefold from 10.6% to 33.2% (median: 26.0%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 15.7% to 26.1% (median: 19.3%) (Table_23).

Alcohol Use

Nationwide, nearly one third (32.4%) of students first drank alcohol (other than a few sips) before 13 years of age (Table_22). Overall, male students (38.6%) were significantly more likely than female students (25.5%) to have tried alcohol before 13 years of age. This significant difference was identified for all the racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic students (39.5%) were significantly more likely than white students (30.3%) to have tried alcohol before 13 years of age. Hispanic male students (46.7%) were significantly more likely than white male students (36.1%) to have initiated alcohol use before 13 years of age. Female and male students in grade 9 were significantly more likely to report alcohol use before 13 years of age than female and male students in grades 11 and 12. State prevalence rates varied nearly fourfold from 10.8% to 42.0% (median: 34.2%). Local prevalence rates ranged from 25.8% to 39.0% (median: 33.1%) (Table_23).

Marijuana Use

Nationwide, 7.6% of students had tried marijuana before 13 years of age (Table_22). Overall, male students (10.2%) were significantly more likely than female students (4.8%) to have tried marijuana before 13 years of age. This significant difference was identified for white and black students and students in grades 9 and 10. Overall, black and Hispanic students (11.1% and 12.6%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (5.6%) to have tried marijuana before 13 years of age. Hispanic male and female students (16.5% and 8.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white male and female students (7.8% and 3.2%, respectively) to have tried marijuana before 13 years of age, and black male students (16.5%) were significantly more likely than white male students (7.8%) to have done so. State prevalence rates varied more than threefold from 4.1% to 14.1% (median: 7.4%). Local prevalence rates varied threefold from 5.6% to 18.4% (median: 9.2%) (Table_23).

Cocaine Use

Nationwide, 1.2% of students had tried cocaine (including powder, crack, or freebase forms of cocaine) before 13 years of age (Table_22). Overall, male students (1.8%) were significantly more likely than female students (0.5%) to have tried cocaine before 13 years of age. This significant difference was identified for white and black students and students in grade 11. State prevalence rates varied more than elevenfold from 0.3% to 3.5% (median: 1.5%), and local prevalence rates varied fivefold from 0.5% to 2.6% (median: 1.3%) (Table_23).

Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drug Use on School Property

Nationwide, 16.0% of students had smoked cigarettes on school property during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_24). Black male students (11.6%) were significantly more likely than black female students (4.5%) to have smoked cigarettes on school property. Overall, white and Hispanic students (17.6% and 14.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (7.6%) to have smoked cigarettes on school property. White and Hispanic female students (17.7% and 13.6%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black female students (4.5%) to have engaged in this behavior, and white male students (17.5%) were significantly more likely than black male students (11.6%) to have done so. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates varied fourfold from 5.8% to 22.9% (median: 15.9%) (Table_25). Across the local surveys, the prevalence rates varied threefold from 6.4% to 18.8% (median: 10.3%).

Smokeless-tobacco use on school property during the 30 days preceding the survey was reported by 6.3% of students nationwide (Table_24). Overall, male students (11.2%) were significantly more likely than female students (0.9%) to have used smokeless tobacco on school property. This significant difference was identified for white and black students and all the grade subgroups. Overall, white students (8.0%) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic students (1.3% and 3.0%, respectively) to have used smokeless tobacco on school property. White male students (14.2%) were significantly more likely to have engaged in this behavior than black and Hispanic male students (2.7% and 3.9%, respectively). A thirteenfold variation was observed across the state surveys, which ranged from 1.4% to 18.3% (median: 6.9%) (Table_25). A sixfold variation was observed across the local surveys, which ranged from 0.5% to 3.3% (median: 1.6%).

Nationwide, 6.3% of students had had at least one drink of alcohol on school property during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_24). Male students in grade 12 (8.4%) were significantly more likely than female students in the same grade (4.0%) to have engaged in this behavior. Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 3.9% to 9.8% (median: 5.9%) and across the local surveys from 4.4% to 11.5% (median: 6.1%) (Table_25).

Nationwide, 8.8% of students had used marijuana on school property during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_24). Overall, male students (11.9%) were significantly more likely than female students (5.5%) to have used marijuana on school property. This significant difference was identified for white students and students in grades 10, 11, and 12. Overall, black and Hispanic students (12.3% and 12.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (7.0%) to have used marijuana on school property. Prevalence rates varied nearly fourfold from 3.0% to 11.3% (median: 6.7%) across the state surveys and ranged from 6.9% to 17.2% (median: 8.7%) across the local surveys (Table_25).

Nearly one third (32.1%) of students had been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_24). Overall, male students (38.8%) were significantly more likely than female students (24.8%) to have been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property. This significant difference was identified for white and black students and all the grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic students (40.7%) were significantly more likely than black students (28.5%) to have been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property. Hispanic female students (34.9%) were significantly more likely than white and black female students (23.5% and 22.5%, respectively) to have been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug. Prevalence rates across the state surveys varied nearly threefold from 16.3% to 46.4% (median: 29.6%) and ranged across the local surveys from 21.0% to 46.2% (median: 29.9%) (Table_25).

Sexual Behaviors that Contribute to Unintended Pregnancy and STDs, Including HIV Infection

Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, more than half (53.1%) of all high school students had had sexual intercourse during their lifetime (i.e., sexual experience) (Table_26). Black male students (81.0%) were significantly more likely than black female students (67.0%) to have had sexual intercourse. Overall, black students (73.4%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic students (48.9% and 57.6%, respectively) to have ever had sexual intercourse. Black female students (67.0%) were significantly more likely than white female students (49.0%) to have had sexual intercourse, and black male students (81.0%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic male students (48.9% and 62.0%, respectively) to have done so. Among female students, the prevalence rates increased significantly from grade 9 (32.1%) to grades 10, 11, and 12 (46.0%, 60.2%, and 66.0%, respectively); among male students, the prevalence rates increased significantly from grade 9 (40.6%) to grades 11 and 12 (57.1% and 67.1%, respectively). Prevalence rates ranged from 36.3% to 67.6% (median: 48.7%) across the state surveys and from 43.8% to 72.2% (median: 55.8%) across the local surveys (Table_27).

The percentage of students nationwide who had initiated sexual intercourse before 13 years of age was 9.0% (Table_26). Overall, male students (12.7%) were significantly more likely than female students (4.9%) to have initiated sexual intercourse before 13 years of age. This significant difference was identified for all the racial/ethnic subgroups and students in grades 10-12. Overall, black students (24.2%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic students (5.7% and 8.8%, respectively) to have initiated sexual intercourse before 13 years of age. Black female students (10.4%) were significantly more likely than white female students (3.6%) to have done so, and black male students (41.4%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic male students (7.6% and 12.9%, respectively) to have done so. Female students in grade 9 (7.7%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (3.2%) to have initiated sexual intercourse before 13 years of age. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates varied fivefold from 4.3% to 22.1% (median: 8.7%) (Table_27). Across the local surveys, the prevalence rates varied more than threefold from 6.4% to 22.9% (median: 16.3%).

The percentage of students nationwide who had had sexual intercourse during their lifetime with four or more sex partners was 17.8% (Table_26). Overall, male students (20.9%) were significantly more likely than female students (14.4%) to have had four or more sex partners during their lifetime. This significant difference was identified for black and Hispanic students and students in grades 9 and 10. Overall, black students (35.6%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic students (14.2% and 17.6%, respectively) to have had four or more sex partners. Black male and female students (52.2% and 21.7%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white male and female students (15.2% and 13.1%, respectively) and Hispanic male and female students (23.6% and 11.9%, respectively) to report this behavior. Hispanic male students (23.6%) also were significantly more likely than white male students (15.2%) to have had four or more sex partners. Among female students, those in grade 11 (17.2%) were significantly more likely than those in grade 9 (6.8%) to have had four or more sex partners, and those in grade 12 (20.8%) were significantly more likely than those in grades 9 and 10 (6.8% and 11.3%, respectively) to have done so. Among male students, those in grade 12 (25.2%) were significantly more likely than those in grade 9 (17.5%) to have had four or more sex partners. Prevalence rates across the state surveys varied more than threefold from 8.4% to 29.9% (median: 16.4%) (Table_27). Prevalence rates across the local surveys varied nearly fourfold from 10.6% to 39.3% (median: 21.7%).

More than one third (37.9%) of students nationwide had had sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey (i.e., current sexual activity) (Table_26). Female students in grade 11 (48.1%) were significantly more likely than male students in the same grade (36.8%) to have had current sexual activity. Overall, black students (54.2%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic students (34.8% and 39.3%, respectively) to have had current sexual activity. Black female students (50.6%) were significantly more likely than white female students (38.5%) to have done so, and black male students (58.3%) were significantly more likely than white or Hispanic male students (31.6% and 39.2%, respectively) to have done so. Among female students, current sexual activity was significantly more likely among those in grades 11 and 12 (48.1% and 51.9%, respectively) than among those in grades 9 and 10 (22.3% and 35.4%, respectively); current sexual activity was more likely among those in grade 10 (35.4%) than among those in grade 9 (22.3%). Among male students, current sexual activity was significantly more likely among those in grade 12 (47.9%) than among those in grades 9-11 (24.2%, 32.1%, and 36.8%, respectively); such activity was significantly more likely among those in grade 11 (36.8%) than among those in grade 9 (24.2%). Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 21.7% to 50.2% (median: 33.3%) (Table_27). Prevalence rates across the local surveys ranged from 23.1% to 53.6% (median: 39.1%).

Among students who had had sexual intercourse during their lifetime, more than one fourth nationwide (28.5%) had been abstinent during the 3 months preceding the survey. Overall, male students (34.0%) were significantly more likely than female students (22.5%) to have been abstinent. This significant difference was identified for white students and students in grades 10 and 11. Male students in grade 9 (40.2%) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 12 (28.3%) to have been abstinent. Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 25.4% to 40.7% (median: 28.8%) and across the local surveys from 25.7% to 36.9% (median: 29.6%) (Table_27).

Condom Use

Among currently sexually active students nationwide, 54.4% reported that either they or their partner had used a condom during last sexual intercourse (Table_28). Overall, male students (60.5%) were significantly more likely than female students (48.6%) to report that a condom was used. This significant difference was identified for Hispanic students and students in grades 10 and 12. Overall, black students (66.1%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic students (52.5% and 44.4%, respectively) to report that a condom was used. Black female students (60.5%) were significantly more likely than white (48.0%) and Hispanic (33.4%) female students to report that a condom was used during last sexual intercourse. Black male students (71.6%) were significantly more likely than white male students (57.5%) to report this behavior. Female students in grade 9 (58.5%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (43.1%) to report that a condom was used. Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 29.7% to 64.6% (median: 53.7%) and across the local surveys from 45.5% to 69.1% (median: 62.4%) (Table_29).

Birth Control Pill Use

Nationwide, among students who are currently sexually active, 17.4% reported that either they or their partner had been using birth control pills prior to last sexual intercourse (Table_28). White female students (25.4%) were significantly more likely than white male students (17.0%) to report that birth control pills were used. Overall, white students (21.4%) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic students (10.2% and 11.4%, respectively) to have used birth control pills. White female students (25.4%) were significantly more likely than black (12.2%) or Hispanic (9.4%) female students to report this behavior. White male students (17.0%) were significantly more likely than black male students (8.3%) to do so. Among female students, those in grade 12 (28.6%) were significantly more likely than those in grades 9-11 (12.6%, 15.7%, and 17.2%, respectively) to report use of birth control pills. Prevalence rates varied nearly thirteenfold from 2.9% to 36.9% (median: 17.2%) across the state surveys and nearly threefold from 5.6% to 15.8% (median: 9.7%) across the local surveys (Table_29).

Alcohol and Drug Use at Last Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, among students who are currently sexually active, one fourth (24.8%) reported that they had used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse (Table_28). Overall, male students (32.8%) were significantly more likely than female students (16.8%) to report this behavior. This significant difference was identified for white and black students and students in grades 9, 10, and 12. Prevalence rates varied nearly fivefold from 8.7% to 35.4% (median: 24.1%) across the state surveys and ranged from 12.2% to 27.5% (median: 20.1%) across the local surveys (Table_29).

Pregnancy

Nationwide, 6.9% of students reported that they had been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant. Overall, black and Hispanic students (14.8% and 12.5%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (4.0%) to have been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Male students in grade 12 (9.3%) also were significantly more likely than male students in grade 9 (3.6%) to have done so. Prevalence rates varied threefold from 3.6% to 11.5% (median: 6.1%) across the state surveys and varied threefold from 5.8% to 18.9% (median: 10.2%) across the local surveys (Table_29).

HIV Education

Nationwide, 86.3% of all students had been taught about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or HIV infection in school (Table_30). Prevalence rates ranged from 79.0% to 96.3% (median: 89.8%) across the state surveys and from 79.7% to 93.8% (median: 88.8%) across the local surveys (Table_31).

Nearly two thirds (63.2%) of students nationwide had talked about AIDS or HIV infection with a parent or other adult family member (Table_30). Overall, female students (69.9%) were significantly more likely than male students (57.1%) to report having done so. This significant difference was identified for all the racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, black students (73.4%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic students (62.1% and 61.5%, respectively) to have talked with an adult or other family member about AIDS or HIV infection. Black female students (77.4%) were significantly more likely than white female students (68.5%) to have talked with a parent or other adult family member about AIDS or HIV infection, and black male students (68.4%) were significantly more likely than white (56.4%) or Hispanic male (53.9%) students to have done so. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 51.8% to 78.3% (median: 64.1%) (Table_31). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 55.4% to 77.0% (median: 68.2%).

Dietary Behaviors

Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables

More than one fourth (27.7%) of students nationwide had eaten five or more servings of fruits and vegetables * during the day preceding the survey (Table_32). Overall, male students (32.6%) were significantly more likely than female students (22.7%) to report this behavior. This significant difference was identified for white students and students in grades 9 and 12. Female students in grade 10 (26.6%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (16.8%) to have done so. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates varied nearly threefold from 16.4% to 45.0% (median: 27.2%) (Table_33). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 19.7% to 31.0% (median: 27.1%). ---------------

  • Fruit, fruit juice, green salad, and cooked vegetables.

Consumption of Foods Typically High in Fat Content

Nationwide, 60.5% of students had eaten two or fewer servings of foods typically high in fat content ** during the day preceding the survey (Table_32). Overall, female students (71.6%) were significantly more likely than male students (50.3%) to have eaten two or fewer servings of such foods. This significant difference was identified across all the racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, white and Hispanic students (62.4% and 61.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (50.0%) to have eaten two or fewer servings of foods typically high in fat content. White and Hispanic female students (75.9% and 68.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely to have done so than black female students (56.3%), and Hispanic male students (54.7%) were significantly more likely than black male students (42.6%) to have done so. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 41.9% to 76.5% (median: 60.7%) (Table_33). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 50.7% to 73.3% (median: 61.1%). --------------- ** Hamburgers, hot dogs, or sausage; french fries or potato chips; and cookies, doughnuts, pie, or cake.

Perceived Overweight

More than one fourth (27.6%) of all students nationwide thought they were overweight (Table_32). Overall, female students (33.6%) were significantly more likely to identify themselves as being overweight than male students (22.1%). This significant difference was observed for all the racial/ethnic subgroups and students in grades 9, 11, and 12. Overall, white and Hispanic students (28.9% and 31.6%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (21.2%) to identify themselves as being overweight. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Female students in grades 9 and 12 (36.3% and 37.1%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 10 (29.1%) to identify themselves as being overweight. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 19.9% to 36.0% (median: 28.9%) (Table_33). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 21.3% to 29.8% (median: 25.1%).

Attempted Weight Loss

Nationwide, 41.4% of all students were attempting weight loss at the time of the survey (Table_34). Overall, female students (59.8%) were significantly more likely than male students (24.3%) to be attempting weight loss. This significant difference was identified for all the racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, white and Hispanic students (43.1% and 45.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (33.2%) to be attempting weight loss. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Prevalence rates ranged from 31.6% to 46.8% (median: 42.3%) across the state surveys and from 30.6% to 42.8% across the local surveys (median: 37.9%) (Table_35).

The percentage of students nationwide who had taken laxatives or vomited either to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days preceding the survey was 4.8% (Table_34). Overall, female students (7.6%) were significantly more likely than male students (2.2%) to have taken laxatives or vomited to lose weight. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and students in grades 9, 10, and 11. White and Hispanic female students (8.2% and 10.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black female students (4.1%) to have taken laxatives or vomited to lose weight, and black male students (4.3%) were significantly more likely than white male students (1.2%) to have done so. Female students in grades 9 and 10 (9.3% and 9.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely to have taken laxatives or vomited to lose weight than female students in grade 12 (3.9%). Prevalence rates ranged from 3.8% to 9.0% (median: 5.3%) across the state surveys and from 3.7% to 6.5% across the local surveys (median: 4.5%) (Table_35).

Nationwide, 5.2% of all students had taken diet pills either to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_34). Overall, female students (8.7%) were significantly more likely than male students (1.9%) to have taken diet pills to lose weight. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and all of the grade subgroups. Among female students, white students (10.2%) were significantly more likely than black students (4.0%) to have taken diet pills; among male students, black students (3.6%) were significantly more likely than white students (1.1%) to have done so. Prevalence rates ranged from 4.1% to 9.3% (median: 5.8%) across the state surveys and varied threefold from 2.3% to 7.5% across the local surveys (median: 4.8%) (Table_35).

Nearly one third (31.2%) of all students had dieted either to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_34). Overall, female students (47.8%) were significantly more likely than male students (16.0%) to have dieted to lose weight. This significant difference was identified for all the racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, white and Hispanic students (32.8% and 36.0%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (22.7%) to have dieted to lose weight. Among female students, white and Hispanic students (52.5% and 48.2%, respectively) were significantly more likely to have dieted than black students (31.8%); among male students, Hispanic students (23.4%) were significantly more likely than white or black students (15.6% and 11.7%, respectively) to have done so. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 24.2% to 35.2% (median: 30.3%) (Table_35). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 21.5% to 33.5% (median: 27.3%).

Approximately half (51.0%) of all students had exercised either to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_34). Overall, female students (63.8%) were significantly more likely than male students (39.3%) to have exercised to lose weight. This significant difference was identified for all the racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, white and Hispanic students (53.7% and 52.0%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (42.4%) to have exercised to lose weight. Among female students, white and Hispanic students (69.6% and 61.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely to have exercised than black students (49.1%). Female students in grade 9 (72.2%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 11 and 12 (59.1% and 59.8%, respectively) to have done so. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 37.9% to 56.7% (median: 52.7%) (Table_35). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 38.3% to 54.7% (median: 46.2%).

Physical Activity

Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity

Nearly two thirds (63.7%) of all students nationwide had participated in activities that made them sweat and breathe hard for at least 20 minutes on greater than or equal to 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey (i.e., vigorous physical activity) (Table_36). Overall, male students (74.4%) were significantly more likely than female students (52.1%) to report vigorous physical activity. This significant difference was identified for all the racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, white students (67.0%) were significantly more likely than black students (53.2%) to report having participated in vigorous physical activity. White female students (56.7%) were significantly more likely than black female students (41.3%) to report vigorous physical activity. Prevalence rates among female students in grades 9 and 10 (61.6% and 59.3%, respectively) were significantly higher than among female students in grades 11 and 12 (47.2% and 42.4%, respectively). Prevalence rates among male students in grades 9 and 10 (79.9% and 78.6%, respectively) were significantly higher than among male students in grade 12 (67.2%). Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 32.5% to 71.9% (median: 63.1%) (Table_37). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 44.9% to 63.2% (median: 51.6%).

More than one fifth (21.1%) of all students nationwide had walked or bicycled for at least 30 minutes on greater than or equal to 5 of the 7 days preceding the survey (i.e., moderate physical activity) (Table_36). Overall, black and Hispanic students (27.0% and 26.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely to report this behavior than white students (18.3%). Black and Hispanic female students (26.4% and 27.6%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white female students (16.8%) to report moderate physical activity. Prevalence rates among female students in grades 9 and 10 (27.0% and 22.9%, respectively) were significantly higher than among female students in grade 12 (13.7%). Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 15.0% to 30.3% (median: 21.4%) (Table_37). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 37.4% to 58.9% (median: 29.0%).

Stretching Exercises

Nationwide, 53.0% of all students had done stretching exercises (e.g., toe touching, knee bending, and leg stretching) on greater than or equal to 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey (Table_36). Hispanic male students (54.8%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic female students (43.5%) to report this behavior, and male students in grade 12 (50.7%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (38.9%) to do so. White female students (53.9%) were significantly more likely than black female students (41.5%) to report moderate physical activity. Among female students, the prevalence rate was significantly higher among students in grade 9 (62.1%) than among students in grades 11 and 12 (45.5% and 38.9%, respectively); the prevalence rate was significantly higher among students in grade 10 (57.8%) than among students in grade 12 (38.9%). Among male students, the prevalence rate was significantly higher among students in grade 9 (62.2%) than among students in grade 11 (50.9%). Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 24.2% to 58.7% (median: 49.7%) (Table_37). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 33.3% to 56.1% (median: 42.8%).

Strengthening Exercises

Half (50.3%) of students nationwide had done strengthening exercises (e.g., push-ups, sit-ups, and weight lifting) on greater than or equal to 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey (Table_36). Overall, male students (59.1%) were significantly more likely than female students (41.0%) to have done strengthening exercises. This significant difference was identified for all the racial/ethnic subgroups and students in grades 9, 11, and 12. Overall, white students (52.8%) were significantly more likely than black students (41.4%) to have done strengthening exercises. White female students (44.4%) were significantly more likely than black female students (31.3%) to report this behavior. Female students in grade 9 (49.6%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 11 and 12 (37.1% and 29.4%, respectively) to have done strengthening exercises, and female students in grade 10 (49.8%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (29.4%) to have done so. Male students in grade 9 (64.0%) were significantly more likely than those in grade 12 (53.7%) to have done strengthening exercises. Prevalence rates ranged from 25.8% to 57.4% (median: 46.4%) across the state surveys and from 32.1% to 51.6% (median: 42.3%) across the local surveys (Table_37).

Participation in Physical Education (PE) Class

Nationwide, 59.6% of students were enrolled in a PE class (Table_38). Among both male and female students, students in grade 9 were significantly more likely to be enrolled in a PE class than students in grades 11 and 12; students in grade 10 were significantly more likely to be enrolled than students in grade 12. The percentage of students enrolled in PE varied threefold from 26.6% to 93.4% (median: 48.2%) across the state surveys and ranged from 33.6% to 89.8% (median: 55.9%) across the local surveys (Table_39).

One fourth (25.4%) of students had attended PE class daily (Table_38). Among female students, those in grades 9 and 10 (39.7% and 33.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely than students in grades 11 and 12 (12.3% and 11.1%, respectively) to have attended PE class daily. Among male students, students in grade 9 (42.1%) were significantly more likely than students in grade 12 (14.8%) to have done so. The percentage of students who attended PE class daily varied sevenfold from 9.2 to 64.4% (median: 33.1%) across the state surveys and varied nearly ninefold from 9.0% to 78.2% (median: 33.9%) across the local surveys (Table_39).

Nationwide, 69.7% of students enrolled in PE class reported exercising greater than or equal to 20 minutes during an average PE class. Overall, male students enrolled in PE class (74.8%) were significantly more likely than female students enrolled in PE class (63.7%) to report exercising greater than or equal to 20 minutes during an average PE class. This significant difference was identified for black and Hispanic students and students in grade 11. Overall, white students enrolled in PE class (71.3%) were significantly more likely than black students enrolled in PE class (59.0%) to report exercising greater than or equal to 20 minutes during an average PE class. White female students (67.1%) were significantly more likely than black female students (46.6%) to have done so. The percentage of students enrolled in PE class who reported exercising greater than or equal to 20 minutes during an average PE class varied from 41.8% to 85.1% (median: 75.7%) across the state surveys and from 46.5% to 80.7% (median: 62.0%) across the local surveys (Table_39).

Participation on Sports Teams

Half (50.3%) of all students nationwide had played on a sports team run by their school during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_38). Overall, male students (57.8%) were significantly more likely than female students (42.4%) to have played on a sports team run by their school. This significant difference was identified for all the racial/ethnic subgroups and students in grades 9, 11, and 12. Overall, white students (53.9%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic students (37.8%) to have played on a sports team run by their school. White female students (47.1%) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic female students (34.9% and 27.3%, respectively) to have played on a sports team run by their school, and white male students (59.9%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic male students (48.6%) to have done so. Across the state surveys, the percentage of students who played on a sports team run by their school ranged from 25.3% to 59.2% (median: 47.5%) (Table_39). Across the local surveys, the percentage ranged from 29.0% to 47.4% (median: 36.4%).

Nationwide, 36.9% of all students had played on a sports team run by an organization other than their school during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_38). Overall, male students (46.4%) were significantly more likely than female students (26.8%) to have played on a sports team run by an organization other than their school. Among female students, white students (29.9%) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic students (21.1% and 21.2%, respectively) to have played on a sports team run by an organization other than their school, students in grade 9 (32.0%) were significantly more likely to have done so than students in grades 11 and 12 (23.8% and 19.8%, respectively), and students in grade 10 (32.4%) were significantly more likely than students in grade 12 (19.8%) to have done so. Among male students, those in grade 9 (52.8%) were significantly more likely to report this behavior than students in grades 11 and 12 (43.1% and 42.8%, respectively). The percentage of students who played on a sports team run by an organization other than their school ranged from 28.5% to 58.1% (median: 39.0%) across the state surveys and from 27.5% to 37.5% (median: 33.2%) across the local surveys (Table_39).

DISCUSSION

These results indicate that many high school students throughout the United States practice behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems. Some risk behaviors are more likely to be found among particular subgroups of students. For example, male students were more likely than female students to report rarely or never wearing safety belts, weapon carrying, physical fighting, smokeless-tobacco use, episodic heavy drinking, current marijuana use, lifetime and current cocaine use, injecting-drug use, four or more lifetime sex partners, and using alcohol and drugs at last sexual intercourse. In contrast, female students were more likely than male students to report suicide-related behaviors, perceiving themselves as overweight, and using each type of weight-loss method. White students were more likely than black or Hispanic students to report seriously considering attempting suicide, frequent cigarette use, and smokeless-tobacco use. Black students were more likely than white or Hispanic students to report rarely or never wearing safety belts, sexual experience, sexual activity, and having had four or more lifetime sex partners. Hispanic students were more likely than white or black students to report riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, carrying a weapon, physical fighting, attempting suicide, lifetime cigarette use, lifetime and current cocaine use, and lifetime crack use. Students in grades 9 and 10 were more likely than students in grades 11 and 12 to report carrying a weapon, physical fighting, attempting suicide, lifetime use of inhalants, and use of laxatives or vomiting to lose weight. In contrast, students in grades 11 and 12 were more likely than students in grades 9 and 10 to report driving after drinking alcohol; lifetime, current, and frequent cigarette use; lifetime and current alcohol use; episodic heavy drinking; lifetime and current marijuana use; sexual experience; sexual activity; four or more lifetime sex partners; and ever having been pregnant or getting someone pregnt. These subgroup findings can assist in identifying the need for education and services based on higher prevalences of risk behaviors. However, the underlying causes (e.g., education levels, economic factors, or cultural influences) for subgroup differences (7) could not be addressed in this analysis.

Considerable variation occurs from state to state and from city to city for some priority health-risk behaviors. For example, among the state surveys, a fivefold variation or greater was identified for not using safety belts, drinking and driving, not attending school because of concerns about safety, frequent cigarette use, smokeless-tobacco use (including smokeless-tobacco use on school property), marijuana use, use of other illegal drugs, and initiation of sexual activity and cocaine use before 13 years of age. Among the local surveys, a similar level of variation was found for not using safety belts, smokeless-tobacco use (including smokeless-tobacco use on school property), cocaine use (including cocaine use on school property and crack cocaine use), injecting-drug use, use of other illegal drugs, and initiation of cocaine use before 13 years of age. Though not addressed in this analysis, these state and local survey variations may be attributable to differences in state and local laws and policies, enforcement practices, access to illegal drugs, available intervention programs, and prevailing norms and adult practices. Further exploration of the variations may indicate important intervention needs.

The median prevalence rates for the state and local surveys were similar for all behaviors except for the following behaviors where the state median was higher: drinking and driving, current cigarette use, frequent cigarette use, smokeless-tobacco use, cigarette and smokeless-tobacco use on school property, episodic heavy drinking, use of other illegal drugs, and use of birth control pills. The median for the local surveys was higher for the following behaviors: being injured in a physical fight, feeling unsafe going to school, initiating sexual intercourse before 13 years of age, and ever having been pregnant.

YRBSS is the only school-based surveillance system to monitor priority health-risk behaviors among representative samples of students at the national, state, and local levels. Since the system was implemented in 1990, the number of participating states and cities has almost doubled -- from 34 to 61. Consequently, the system is an increasingly useful tool for monitoring 21 national health objectives (6) and National Education Goal 7, which focuses on safe, disciplined, and drug-free schools (8). At the state and local levels, the surveillance system continues to be used to improve health-related policies and programs for youth. For example, in Alabama, YRBS data were used to help establish a state-wide Task Force on Violence. In West Virginia, YRBS data were used to increase support for comprehensive school health programs. West Virginia schools are now required by law to develop a local School Improvement Council that must include business and community representatives. In Maine, YRBS data encouraged the adoption of skill-based health education curricula in grade 8. In Dallas, YRBS data were used to help establish six community health clinics. In Boston, YRBS data are being used to support a proposed state mandate requiring comprehensive school health education in grades kindergarten through 12. Continued support for the YRBSS will enhance its ability to provide useful data for state and local health and education officials to use in improving policies and programs for youth.

References

  1. National Center for Health Statistics. Advance report of final mortality statistics, 1993. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC 1996. (Monthly vital statistics report; vol. 44, no. 7, suppl.).

  2. National Center for Health Statistics. Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates: estimates for the United States, 1980-1992. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC 1995. (Monthly vital statistics report; vol. 43, no. 11, suppl.).

  3. CDC. Sexually transmitted disease surveillance, 1990. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1991.

  4. Kann L, Kolbe LJ, Collins JL, eds. Measuring the health behavior of adolescents: the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Public Health Rep 1993;108(suppl 1).

  5. Shah BV, Barnwell BG, Bieler GS. SUDAAN user's manual, release 6.40. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute, 1995.

  6. Public Health Service. Healthy people 2000: national health promotion and disease prevention objectives -- mid-course review and 1995 revisions. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1995.

  7. Lowry R, Kann L, Collins JL, Kolbe LJ. The effect of socioeconomic status on risk behaviors for chronic disease among U.S. adolescents. JAMA 1996;276(10):792-7.

  8. National Education Goals Panel. The national education goals report. Washington, DC: National Education Goals Panel, 1995.


Table_1
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TABLE 1. Size  response rates and demographic characteristics of samples -- United States and selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
=====================================================================================================================================================

                                   Response rate (%)           Sex (%)                Grade (%)                       Race/Ethnicity (%)
                   Sample     ---------------------------   -------------    ---------------------------     ------------------------------------
Site                size      School    Student   Overall   Female   Male     9th    10th   11th    12th     White *   Black *   Hispanic   Other
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NATIONAL SURVEY    10,904       70         86        60      47.9    52.1    22.9    25.2   25.4    26.4      67.2      14.2       10.7       7.9
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama             3,911       89         85        76      50.1    49.9    31.3    24.9   22.1    20.5      61.3      34.4        1.2       3.1
Alaska              1,634       82         78        64      47.6    52.4    29.8    25.8   23.0    21.0      68.3       5.2        3.3      23.2
Arkansas            2,267       82         92        75      49.1    50.9    28.6    26.8   23.1    21.3      66.9      27.4        1.6       4.1
Colorado +          2,246       70         85        60      48.6    51.4    29.1    26.2   23.4    21.0      70.6       4.9       14.7       9.8
Guam &                309       NA @       62        62      47.4    52.6    34.9    28.3   20.8    15.8       6.2       2.7        1.7      89.4
Hawaii              1,244      100         62        62      50.6    49.4    31.0    23.9   22.9    22.1      13.1       1.9        4.6      82.2
Illinois            3,102       91         77        70      50.2    49.8    29.0    26.5   23.2    21.3      62.3      19.5       10.9       7.3
Maine               1,388       68         98        67      48.7    51.3    27.6    26.1   24.0    22.3      93.7       0.6        0.9       4.8
Massachusetts       4,159       94         77        72      49.3    50.7    28.3    25.7   23.8    22.0      75.4       6.4        8.2      10.1
Mississippi         1,273       75         87        65      50.0    50.0    32.8    25.7   21.5    19.9      44.0      47.9        0.3       7.8
Missouri            4,900       79         80        63      49.1    50.9    29.2    26.2   23.1    21.2      87.4       6.1        1.8       4.6
Montana             2,535       70         89        62      48.6    51.4    27.9    25.6   23.6    22.6      87.5       0.8        1.7      10.0
Nevada              1,538       98         61        60      48.7    51.3    29.1    26.7   23.6    20.4      68.4       7.6       11.4      12.5
New Hampshire       2,092       76         86        65      49.6    50.4    28.9    25.7   23.7    21.6      93.2       0.8        1.4       4.7
New Jersey+         3,518       80         81        65      50.3    49.7    28.7    25.6   23.3    22.3      66.2      13.4        9.2      11.2
North Carolina      1,779       71         84        60      49.9    50.1    31.6    26.4   21.8    20.1      61.8      31.8        1.3       5.2
North Dakota        1,517       86         99        85      50.7    49.3    26.7    25.4   24.5    23.4      93.8       1.2        1.2       3.8
Puerto Rico&        3,103       96         78        75      52.0    48.0    28.1    27.8   23.7    20.2      11.4       5.2       70.9      12.5
South Carolina      5,527       74         85        63      48.9    51.1    33.4    25.7   21.4    19.3      52.8      42.1        1.2       3.8
South Dakota        1,192       78         83        65      49.4    50.6    28.8    26.3   23.1    21.7      88.1       0.9        1.2       9.8
Utah                3,291       80         84        67      49.5    50.5    26.0    25.9   22.8    23.3      87.4       1.0        3.6       8.1
Vermont             5,987       74         85        63      48.6    51.4    28.0    25.6   23.4    23.0       NA         NA         NA       NA
Virgin Islands&       687      100         76        76      55.6    44.4    32.3    26.6   20.7    20.2       1.2      82.0        8.1       8.6
West Virginia       2,079       98         80        78      48.7    51.3    27.8    25.3   23.9    22.9      92.5       3.4        0.7       3.3
Wyoming             1,687       86         85        73      49.0    51.0    27.4    26.9   23.6    22.0      83.9       0.6        6.6       9.0

Unweighted data
California+         1,672       71         60        43      55.5    44.5    27.0    26.5   23.9    22.5      42.9       8.4       26.0      22.8
Delaware            2,580       79         91        72      51.1    48.9    31.1    28.7   23.1    16.8      69.2      21.0        3.4       6.5
Georgia             1,512       60         82        49      54.7    45.3    27.4    22.2   26.5    22.8      36.6      58.4        0.8       4.2
Idaho               2,726       48         87        42      47.2    52.8    26.7    30.1   25.8    16.5      86.7       0.8        4.9       7.6
Marshall Islands&   1,117       80         56        45      55.0    45.0    33.1    27.7   21.0    17.7       2.1       9.4        5.9      82.6
Michigan+           1,351       58         83        48      47.4    52.6    35.6    21.4   25.5    17.4      90.0       2.5        2.5       5.1
Nebraska            2,043       63         78        49      47.1    52.9    24.3    29.8   24.4    21.4      91.6       1.9        2.5       4.1
Ohio                2,034       67         81        54      49.4    50.6    30.9    25.8   21.2    22.0      77.2      15.6        2.1       5.0
Rhode Island        1,215       60         68        41      52.2    47.8    36.3    25.8   18.2    19.3      74.7       7.4        7.1      11.0
Tennessee           3,197       56         83        46      52.8    47.2    28.9    23.6   23.3    24.0      70.6      24.5        1.1       3.8
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston              1,601       96         66        63      50.0    50.0    30.0    25.6   23.5    20.3      16.1      38.0       24.1      21.8
Chicago             1,697      100         70        70      51.8    48.2    33.3    29.3   21.3    15.9      11.7      42.4       34.0      11.8
Dallas              3,146       96         63        60      51.2    48.8    39.7    24.0   18.6    17.7      14.6      47.9       32.9       4.5
Denver              1,625      100         64        64      50.5    49.5    31.5    26.0   23.0    19.0      33.8      18.7       35.4      12.1
Ft. Lauderdale      1,656      100         82        82      51.1    48.9    35.0    27.8   21.1    16.1      41.2      33.5       17.2       8.0
Houston             1,477      100         78        78      51.1    48.9    39.2    23.8   18.5    18.4      11.5      37.4       45.7       5.4
Jersey City           714      100         74        74      51.6    48.4    37.7    25.2   18.2    18.6       6.4      45.8       30.5      17.3
Miami               1,746       83         82        68      49.1    50.9    29.7    26.1   22.8    20.0      12.1      29.3       52.0       6.6
New Orleans         1,744       96         62        60      52.6    47.4    35.4    24.0   20.2    18.2       3.8      88.1        1.5       6.6
Philadelphia        1,816      100         76        76      50.6    49.4    38.1    26.2   20.2    15.3      20.5      58.4        9.3      11.8
San Diego           1,997      100         75        75      52.8    47.2    29.3    27.0   24.6    19.0      31.3      15.8       24.4      28.4
Seattle             2,405      100         81        81      51.3    48.7    26.9    25.3   23.5    23.8      34.4      17.4        4.3      43.9

Unweighted data
Detroit             2,291       85         59        50      54.3    45.7    24.1    28.1   27.3    19.7       2.5      87.7        3.4       6.4
Dist. of Columbia   1,643       89         66        58      55.0    45.0    19.9    29.3   28.8    21.9       1.8      86.6        5.2       6.4
Los Angeles           867      100         44        44      52.8    47.2    23.1    25.0   27.6    24.2      12.0       5.0       70.2      12.9
San Francisco       1,236      100         47        47      49.9    50.1    27.1    26.7   26.7    19.4       8.3      13.6       14.9      63.2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Non-Hispanic.
+ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
& U.S. territories are included as states.
@ Not available.
=====================================================================================================================================================

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Table_2
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TABLE 2. Percentage of high school students who rarely or never used safety belts, * motorcycle helmets, + or bicycle helmets; &
percentage who rode with a driver who had been drinking alcohol; @ and percentage who drove after drinking alcohol, @ by
sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
=======================================================================================================================================================================================
                  Rarely or never used                Rarely or never used             Rarely or never used             Rode with a driver who              Drove after drinking
                      safety belts                     motorcycle helmets                 bicycle helmets              had been drinking alcohol                   alcohol
               ----------------------------      -----------------------------      ----------------------------      ----------------------------     -----------------------------
Category       Female       Male      Total      Female        Male      Total      Female       Male      Total      Female       Male      Total     Female       Male       Total
Race/Ethnicity
White **        15.2        25.1       20.5        42.4        41.4       41.8        91.3       92.1       91.8        37.3       37.9       37.7       13.6       19.4        16.8
             (+/-3.6) ++ (+/-5.3)   (+/-4.1)   (+/-23.1)   (+/-12.6)  (+/-16.1)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-2.1)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-5.8)   (+/-6.5)   (+/-5.4)   (+/-4.6)   (+/-4.9)    (+/-4.5)

Black **        25.7        37.8       31.5        32.3        54.6       47.3        96.3       98.3       97.3        33.0       41.6       37.1        5.3       16.1        10.5
             (+/-5.5)   (+/-7.8)    (+/-5.4)   (+/-17.2)   (+/-11.1)   (+/-9.0)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-0.7)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-4.0)   (+/-3.2)   (+/-1.6)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-2.1)

Hispanic        14.2        22.6       18.4        47.8        62.6       57.8        96.7       96.2       96.4        49.7       49.2       49.4       13.6       17.1        15.3
             (+/-5.4)    (+/-6.2)   (+/-4.9)   (+/-23.6)    (+/-8.7)  (+/-11.7)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-6.9)   (+/-8.9)   (+/-7.0)   (+/-4.4)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-3.4)
Grade
 9th            20.7        26.9       24.3        40.2        43.5       42.5        93.0       91.2       92.0        35.4       39.1       37.6        7.0       11.4         9.6
             (+/-5.1)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-3.6)   (+/-19.7)   (+/-13.9)  (+/-14.6)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.4)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-5.6)   (+/-5.9)   (+/-4.3)   (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-2.5)

10th            15.3        23.9       19.7        34.5        37.7       36.6        92.1       92.8       92.5        39.6       35.1       37.3        9.8       10.9        10.4
             (+/-3.2)    (+/-5.0)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-17.2)   (+/-11.0)  (+/-11.9)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-2.7)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-6.1)   (+/-5.3)   (+/-4.3)   (+/-5.0)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-3.1)

11th            13.5        24.2       19.1        38.7        45.5       43.0        91.6       94.8       93.4        36.0       38.7       37.4       13.2       18.9        16.1
             (+/-4.3)    (+/-5.9)   (+/-4.0)   (+/-19.9)    (+/-8.5)  (+/-10.5)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-4.6)   (+/-6.0)   (+/-4.5)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-5.5)    (+/-3.7)

12th            18.8        29.0       23.8        50.1        51.7       51.1        92.3       94.8       93.7        39.2       44.8       42.2       15.8       32.0        24.0
             (+/-4.2)    (+/-5.2)   (+/-4.0)   (+/-25.2)   (+/-12.6)  (+/-16.1)    (+/-4.2)   (+/-1.9)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-3.9)   (+/-3.5)   (+/-4.5)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.6)

Total           16.9        26.0       21.7        42.0        44.7       43.8        92.3       93.3       92.8        37.8       39.5       38.8       11.9       18.5        15.4
             (+/-3.3)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-3.2)   (+/-20.8)   (+/-10.1)  (+/-13.4)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-1.6)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-4.4)   (+/-3.9)   (+/-3.7)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-3.2)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * When riding in a car or truck driven by someone else.
 + Among students who rode motorcycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 & Among students who rode bicycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 @ One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** Non-Hispanic.
++ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
=======================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_3
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TABLE 3. Percentage of high school students who rarely or never used safety belts, * motorcycle helmets, + or bicycle helmets; & percentage who rode with a driver who had
been drinking alcohol; @ and percentage who drove after drinking alcohol, @ by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
==================================================================================================================================================================================
                        Rarely or never used          Rarely or never used           Rarely or never used             Rode with a driver who         Drove after drinking
                            safety belts              motorcycle   helmets              bicycle helmets             had been drinking alcohol              alcohol
                      --------------------------   ---------------------------     -------------------------      ----------------------------   ---------------------------
Site                  Female       Male    Total   Female       Male     Total     Female       Male   Total      Female       Male      Total   Female      Male      Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                 14.9       29.8     22.4     36.6       39.1      38.4       94.8       91.8    93.1        34.9       41.6       38.4     10.1      21.2       15.6
Alaska                  15.4       23.2     19.5     35.6       42.7      40.8       88.6       88.3    88.4        32.1       31.5       31.9      9.4      14.7       12.3
Arkansas                19.3       33.0     26.2     32.8       43.2      40.0       97.1       96.7    96.9        39.3       44.5       41.9     11.0      24.9       18.0
Colorado **             16.5       27.0     21.9     59.5       53.8      55.9       88.1       86.1    87.0        38.6       37.4       38.0     13.1      18.4       15.8
Guam ++                  8.9       10.7      9.8     NA &&        NA        NA       91.9       86.7    88.9        38.1       39.3       38.8      4.4      13.2        9.1
Hawaii                   7.7       10.8      9.3     67.7       68.2      67.8       96.6       96.8    96.7        38.7       36.7       37.6      8.8      14.6       11.7
Illinois                22.6       35.8     29.1     77.3       70.5      73.1       96.2       95.6    95.9        38.1       37.9       38.0      9.6      18.0       13.8
Maine                   16.6       25.8     21.3     36.2       43.1      40.3       85.5       83.3    84.4        33.0       35.5       34.2     12.4      15.4       13.9
Massachusetts           22.8       36.6     29.8     20.3       29.2      26.5       90.5       90.0    90.2        33.4       39.6       36.6     12.0      19.8       15.9
Mississippi             21.7       36.3     29.0     36.2       47.5      44.2       97.9       97.2    97.6        41.4       47.7       44.6     11.4      28.1       19.6
Missouri                22.4       39.3     31.0     35.9       47.3      43.6       96.8       95.2    96.0        43.3       47.0       45.2     15.8      27.0       21.4
Montana                 24.5       38.7     31.9     61.7       50.2      54.5       93.4       90.7    92.0        46.8       49.2       48.1     21.9      32.4       27.4
Nevada                  14.5       23.5     19.0     26.9       27.9      28.2       95.4       94.2    94.7        38.6       35.2       36.8     10.7      16.7       13.9
New Hampshire           17.5       29.8     23.8     18.7       33.7      27.4       84.5       82.7    83.6        27.9       35.1       31.5     11.5      18.3       14.9
New Jersey **           16.7       30.5     23.5     20.1       32.4      29.0       90.5       93.1    91.9        28.2       32.7       30.4      6.6      16.0       11.2
North Carolina           5.5       11.0      8.2     19.3       38.7      31.8       93.4       91.6    92.4        26.4       31.2       28.7      9.6      13.4       11.5
North Dakota              NA         NA       NA     65.0       49.7      56.1       98.9       97.7    98.2        48.5       48.8       48.7     28.9      36.5       32.5
Puerto Rico ++          17.2       19.7     18.5     60.9       52.1      55.5       96.9       96.0    96.3        34.7       46.1       40.1      2.6      14.0        8.1
South Carolina          16.6       33.1     25.0     52.7       64.1      59.9       97.2       95.8    96.4        36.7       42.0       39.5     11.2      23.1       17.3
South Dakota            23.8       50.3     37.2     54.9       55.6      55.3       96.8       93.8    95.4        48.1       50.9       49.5     26.7      33.2       30.0
Utah                    14.4       24.1     19.3     60.3       57.3      58.4       94.0       88.5    91.1        22.2       20.6       21.4      5.8       9.4        7.6
Vermont                  8.4       18.6     13.8       NA         NA        NA       74.5       75.6    75.0        33.4       39.5       36.6     10.4      19.4       15.0
Virgin Islands ++        7.6       10.8      9.3       NA         NA      48.8         NA         NA      NA        17.7       28.2       22.7      3.6       7.7        5.6
West Virginia           13.1       27.2     20.3     41.7       52.9      49.5       96.1       95.0    95.5        31.9       40.4       36.3     10.8      22.0       16.6
Wyoming                 24.0       42.6     33.4     44.9       43.8      44.2       95.2       92.5    93.8        40.6       44.0       42.3     18.0      26.7       22.4

Unweighted data
California **            4.8        7.4      5.9     24.4       39.7      33.8       87.2       87.8    87.4        31.3       34.5       32.8      7.7      14.8       10.9
Delaware                13.4       23.3     18.3     27.1       46.1      38.8       94.1       91.8    92.9        32.8       34.4       33.7     10.4      16.0       13.1
Georgia                 19.1       33.6     25.7     51.1       44.8      47.0       94.3       93.3    93.8        34.2       39.4       36.5      8.2      20.3       13.6
Idaho                   16.6       33.7     25.6     48.6       45.5      46.6       92.6       89.9    91.1        30.1       31.5       30.8     10.3      17.6       14.3
Marshall Islands ++       NA         NA       NA       NA         NA      57.4       89.2       79.0    83.4        33.8       43.8       38.4      3.1      11.1        6.6
Michigan**               8.6       22.2     15.8     24.0       28.8      27.4       95.4       94.4    94.9        38.8       39.6       39.2     16.7      22.8       19.9
Nebraska                22.6       42.3     33.1     34.5       59.1      51.7       97.6       96.4    97.0        48.6       49.1       48.8     21.6      32.4       27.2
Ohio                    19.6       30.2     25.0     48.3       52.7      51.0       96.3       95.0    95.5        34.0       35.4       34.8     10.3      18.7       14.6
Rhode Island            31.1       42.6     36.6     25.6       47.9      40.7       95.0       94.4    94.7        33.4       34.4       33.9      9.2      15.6       12.3
Tennessee               21.4       35.5     28.1     29.1       39.5      35.7       95.9       92.9    94.4        34.0       37.4       35.6      9.9      19.3       14.3
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                  39.7       43.0     41.3     49.5       46.5      47.0       92.0       91.6    91.7        27.1       31.5       29.3      4.7      10.5        7.8
Chicago                 40.1       42.4     41.2     79.7       67.3      72.6       94.7       92.5    93.6        32.9       37.8       35.2      4.5      10.3        7.3
Dallas                  10.0       16.3     13.1     52.3       58.4      56.9       97.7       97.3    97.4        43.2       49.5       46.3      8.1      19.8       13.8
Denver                  26.3       35.3     30.9     65.0       58.3      60.9       87.1       87.9    87.5        41.2       43.8       42.6     10.2      17.7       14.0
Ft. Lauderdale          15.1       22.8     18.9     39.8       48.6      45.0       96.7       96.8    96.8        30.2       29.5       29.9      7.8       9.8        8.8
Houston                 11.4       16.7     14.2     44.4       49.3      47.7       92.5       88.2    90.1        41.3       45.7       43.8      7.3      21.4       14.0
Jersey City             42.4       49.7     46.1       NA         NA        NA       95.0       96.2    95.7        29.0       34.4       31.5      4.0       7.4        5.7
Miami                   16.9       26.3     21.7     41.6       51.5      48.9       97.7       97.0    97.2        26.6       33.5       30.1      4.0      14.6        9.5
New Orleans             44.4       46.5     45.5     46.1       42.0      43.1       96.9       96.2    96.3        36.9       42.0       39.3      5.7      12.9        9.1
Philadelphia            42.5       46.1     44.5     44.2       53.3      50.1       94.2       92.9    93.5        27.2       32.1       29.6      2.9       8.5        5.7
San Diego                6.0        9.8      7.8     24.6       38.5      33.9       84.6       83.1    83.8        32.6       32.6       32.7      7.7      14.0       10.6
Seattle                  9.1       17.7     13.3       NA         NA        NA         NA         NA      NA          NA         NA         NA       NA        NA         NA

Unweighted data
Detroit                 28.3       39.9     33.6     33.3       37.4      36.2       97.7       96.0    96.9        38.7       43.1       40.7      6.3      15.1       10.3
Dist. of Columbia       26.9       34.8     30.5     39.6       45.6      43.8       94.5       94.1    94.3        29.6       36.2       32.7      5.5      11.5        8.2
Los Angeles              7.2       14.2     10.5       NA         NA      36.4       89.4       94.4    92.2        36.1       37.7       36.9      6.8      13.5       10.0
San Francisco            9.2        7.3      8.3       NA         NA        NA         NA         NA      NA        22.6       18.6       20.6      2.8       3.9        3.4
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * When riding in a car or truck driven by someone else.
 + Among  students who rode motorcycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 & Among students who rode bicycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 @ One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
++ U.S. territories are included as states.
&& Not available.
==================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_4
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TABLE 4.  Percentage  of high school students who carried a weapon * or a gun + and the 30-day incidence of weapon-carrying per 100
students, & by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
===================================================================================================================================
                                                                                           30-day incidence of weapon-carrying
                           Carried a weapon                   Carried a gun                         (per 100 students)
                 ---------------------------------     ----------------------------      ------------------------------------------
Category             Female       Male       Total     Female       Male      Total      Female           Male             Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White @                 5.5       30.6        18.9        1.6       10.2        6.2        20.2          128.8              78.0
                  (+/-1.8) **  (+/-2.7)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-0.8)   (+/-2.6)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-8.7)      (+/-37.1)         (+/-22.4)

Black @                15.7       29.6        21.8        4.1       18.7       10.6        57.6          119.4              85.0
                    (+/-4.3)   (+/-4.5)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-2.5)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-1.9)   (+/-21.0)      (+/-44.4)         (+/-26.9)

Hispanic               13.2       36.6        24.7        4.5       16.8       10.5        51.3          154.1             101.8
                    (+/-3.3)   (+/-5.7)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-3.4)   (+/-4.1)   (+/-2.6)   (+/-23.5)      (+/-55.4)         (+/-32.6)
Grade
 9th                    9.3       33.8        22.6        3.0       13.6        8.8        33.3          133.0              87.8
                    (+/-2.2)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-1.3)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-2.0)   (+/-18.9)      (+/-43.0)         (+/-28.3)

10th                    9.3       32.4        21.1        3.3       12.6        8.1        34.3          130.6              83.7
                    (+/-2.6)   (+/-4.1)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-2.3)   (+/-2.2)   (+/-1.5)   (+/-11.5)      (+/-44.2)         (+/-24.2)

11th                    7.7       32.1        20.3        1.4       12.1        6.9        29.7          135.1              84.1
                    (+/-1.7)   (+/-5.4)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-0.9)   (+/-4.0)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-9.6)      (+/-37.4)         (+/-21.4)

12th                    6.3       26.0        16.1        1.5       10.8        6.2        23.0          113.8              68.1
                    (+/-3.1)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.2)   (+/-3.4)   (+/-1.6)   (+/-11.8)      (+/-37.6)         (+/-20.4)

Total                   8.3       31.1        20.0        2.5       12.3        7.6        31.3          128.1              81.3
                    (+/-1.4)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-1.3)   (+/-1.0)   (+/-2.0)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-9.1)      (+/-31.0)         (+/-19.1)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Carried a weapon (e.g., a gun, knife, or club) on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Students who replied that they carried a weapon 0 or 1 days during the 30-day period were assigned a weapon-carrying frequency
   of 0 or 1, respectively; 2-3 days, 2.5; 4-5 days, 4.5; and >= 6 days, 6.0.
 @ Non-Hispanic.
** Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===================================================================================================================================

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Table_5
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TABLE 5. Percentage of high school students who carried a weapon * or a gun + and the 30-day incidence of weapon-carrying
per 100 students, & by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
===========================================================================================================================
                                                                            30-day incidence of weapon-carrying
                          Carried a weapon              Carried a gun                (per 100 students)
                       -----------------------     ---------------------   ---------------------------------------
Site                   Female    Male    Total     Female   Male   Total   Female           Male             Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                  10.3    44.1     27.0        2.5   18.2    10.4     41.8          203.7             121.7
Alaska                    9.9    35.7     23.5        3.3   14.3     9.1     34.2          150.6              95.6
Arkansas                  8.8    43.2     26.1        2.4   19.5    11.0     33.7          202.5             118.4
Colorado@                 8.9    32.2     20.7        1.9   10.7     6.4     30.9          139.7              86.2
Guam**                    4.9    28.4     17.1        2.9    8.8     6.0     13.2          110.5              63.5
Hawaii                    4.4    31.0     17.5        1.0   10.6     5.8     14.1          114.1              63.5
Illinois                  9.3    32.7     20.9        2.2   12.2     7.2     33.5          132.0              82.2
Maine                     6.6    32.0     19.5        1.6   11.7     6.7     28.0          140.2              84.7
Massachusetts             8.6    31.9     20.4        1.3    9.2     5.3     32.7          126.2              79.9
Mississippi               8.3    39.9     24.0        2.4   21.0    11.7     33.0          178.2             105.1
Missouri                  8.2    43.5     25.9        2.3   21.4    12.0     32.1          203.2             118.1
Montana                   6.7    37.8     22.6        1.8   16.5     9.4     25.0          169.0              98.5
Nevada                   10.7    33.6     22.3        3.2   13.0     8.2     36.8          140.1              89.5
New Hampshire             6.6    30.0     18.3        1.2    9.5     5.3     25.1          125.3              75.1
New Jersey@               7.1    29.4     18.1        1.2    9.4     5.2     28.6          108.2              67.9
North Carolina            8.7    36.4     22.4        2.4   13.4     7.9     34.2          158.4              95.7
North Dakota            NA ++      NA       NA         NA     NA      NA       NA             NA                NA
Puerto Rico**             6.7    26.6     16.1        2.2   13.6     7.7     22.9          102.0              60.7
South Carolina           11.6    43.0     27.4        2.5   20.8    11.9     44.2          194.2             119.9
South Dakota              5.1    40.8     22.7        1.9   23.2    12.5     20.1          184.7             101.0
Utah                      6.2    33.3     19.7        1.7   13.1     7.5     22.3          142.1              82.0
Vermont                   7.3    33.2     20.6         NA     NA      NA     26.0          140.7              84.8
Virgin Islands **         9.4    22.9     15.7        1.4    9.1     5.1     27.6           87.2              55.0
West Virginia             6.6    43.9     25.6        1.3   18.8    10.3     25.6          202.0             115.6
Wyoming                   9.2    41.6     25.6        2.8   18.4    10.8     35.1          194.9             116.2

Unweighted data
California @             10.0    29.3     18.5        1.5    8.5     4.7     36.8          115.2              71.3
Delaware                  8.2    31.1     19.3        2.1   11.6     6.7     33.3          132.1              81.5
Georgia                   9.4    33.8     20.3        1.8   17.5     8.8     33.9          144.8              83.4
Idaho                     9.1    41.5     26.1        3.0   22.2    13.2     32.5          189.2             114.7
Marshall Islands **       5.7    18.6     11.3        1.2    5.1     3.1     16.1           65.9              37.9
Michigan @                7.7    32.1     20.4        2.0   12.9     7.7     25.7          136.3              83.2
Nebraska                  5.1    33.4     19.8        1.6   16.1     9.2       NA          145.5              84.1
Ohio                      7.7    33.3     20.6        2.3   11.4     7.0     29.1          142.3              86.3
Rhode Island              7.2    30.6     18.2        1.0    8.9     4.7     24.3          109.8              64.8
Tennessee                10.2    40.9     24.5        2.5   16.0     8.8     38.0          194.6             110.9
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                   15.0    30.8     23.0        3.5   13.4     8.5     55.7          127.7              92.1
Chicago                  16.9    31.7     23.9        4.6   15.9    10.0     65.0          114.5              88.6
Dallas                   12.9    33.8     23.0        4.4   17.6    10.9     49.9          130.6              89.2
Denver                   10.0    30.6     20.3        2.5    8.9     5.8     32.9          117.4              75.2
Ft. Lauderdale            8.6    25.0     16.6        2.0   11.1     6.4     32.0          100.7              65.5
Houston                   9.7    32.4     20.5        2.9   19.0    10.7     30.2          133.9              79.7
Jersey City              19.3    31.2     25.1        2.4   11.5     6.8     80.6          131.0             105.3
Miami                     7.8    28.0     18.3        1.7   12.1     7.0     26.7          107.0              67.9
New Orleans              15.5    25.1     20.1        3.3   16.8     9.8     53.6           95.8              73.9
Philadelphia             17.8    32.3     24.8        2.7   15.0     8.7     66.4          126.3              95.2
San Diego                 8.1    30.2     18.5        1.8   11.7     6.5     24.5          109.5              64.3
Seattle                   7.5    26.7     16.7        1.1   10.9     5.8     27.1          107.2              65.7

Unweighted data
Detroit                  16.1    34.6     24.4        4.8   22.1    12.7     55.7          134.0              91.0
Dist. of Columbia        23.9    35.8     29.2        3.6   16.6     9.4     96.2          151.8             121.1
Los Angeles               6.8    30.2     17.7        2.4   12.7     7.2     19.1          101.6              57.6
San Francisco              NA      NA       NA        1.9    5.5     3.7       NA             NA                NA
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Carried a weapon (e.g., a gun, knife, or club) on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Students who replied that they had carried a weapon 0 to 1 days during the 30-day period were assigned a weapon-carrying
   frequency
   of 0 or 1, respectively; 2-3 days, 2.5; 4-5 days, 4.5; and >= 6 days, 6.0.
 @ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
++ Not available.
===========================================================================================================================

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Table_6
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TABLE 6. Percentage of high school students who were in a physical fight * or injured in a physical fight + and the 12-month
incidence of physical fighting per 100 students, & by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 1995
========================================================================================================================================
                                                                                              12-month incidence of physical fighting
                          In a physical fight             Injured in a physical fight                   (per 100 students)
                  --------------------------------       ------------------------------      -------------------------------------------
Category             Female       Male       Total       Female         Male      Total      Female           Male               Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White @                26.8       44.0        36.0          1.7          4.8        3.4        80.3          150.0               117.4
                  (+/-3.0) *   (+/-2.1)    (+/-2.1)     (+/-0.9)     (+/-1.6)   (+/-1.0)   (+/-30.5)      (+/-43.9)           (+/-35.8)

Black @                34.9       49.3        41.6          2.8          6.3        4.4        83.3          180.5               127.1
                    (+/-5.1)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-3.9)     (+/-1.4)     (+/-2.2)   (+/-1.4)   (+/-29.6)      (+/-63.7)           (+/-42.8)

Hispanic               40.4       55.9        47.9          5.1          7.7        6.4       139.7          202.1               170.0
                    (+/-7.0)   (+/-5.9)    (+/-5.3)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-2.0)   (+/-1.8)   (+/-52.8)      (+/-60.1)           (+/-48.8)
Grade
 9th                   37.4       55.0        47.3          3.4          5.9        4.7       119.1          193.6               160.5
                    (+/-2.8)   (+/-6.0)    (+/-4.4)     (+/-1.7)     (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.4)   (+/-45.6)      (+/-54.3)           (+/-44.6)

10th                   34.4       46.0        40.4          2.3          4.4        3.4       101.1          151.5               127.1
                    (+/-6.0)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-2.9)     (+/-1.3)     (+/-1.6)   (+/-0.8)   (+/-38.3)      (+/-40.7)           (+/-29.4)

11th                   27.5       45.6        36.9          2.5          5.9        4.3        78.5          161.3               121.2
                    (+/-6.0)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-2.9)     (+/-1.8)     (+/-1.6)   (+/-1.1)   (+/-33.0)      (+/-41.2)           (+/-26.7)

12th                   24.1       38.0        31.0          2.0          6.5        4.3        65.8          138.8               101.8
                    (+/-2.5)   (+/-6.5)    (+/-3.4)     (+/-0.8)     (+/-1.6)   (+/-0.7)   (+/-27.7)      (+/-62.8)           (+/-41.8)
Total                  30.6       46.1        38.7          2.5          5.7        4.2        91.9          161.1               127.7
                    (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-2.2)     (+/-0.9)     (+/-1.0)   (+/-0.6)   (+/-27.1)      (+/-38.3)           (+/-31.0)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * One or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 + Students who were injured seriously enough to be treated by a doctor or nurse.
 & Students who reported fighting 0 or 1 times during the 12-month period were assigned a fighting frequency of 0 or 1,
   respectively;
   2-3 times, 2.5; 4-5 times, 4.5; 6-7 times, 6.5; 8-9 times, 8.5; 10-11 times, 10.5; and >= 12 times, 12.0.
 @ Non-Hispanic.
** Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
========================================================================================================================================

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Table_7
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TABLE 7. Percentage of high school students who were in a physical fight * or injured in a physical fight + and the 12-month
incidence of physical fighting per 100 students&, by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
=================================================================================================================================
                                                                                      12-month incidence of physical fighting
                       In a physical fight            Injured in a physical fight                (per 100 students)
                     --------------------------       ---------------------------     -----------------------------------------
Site                 Female       Male    Total       Female         Male   Total     Female           Male               Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                23.4       43.0     33.1          2.6          5.1     3.9       67.5          143.9               105.2
Alaska                 25.5       45.0     35.8          2.6          6.6     4.7       67.4          149.1               110.6
Arkansas               26.7       48.6     37.8          2.6          5.5     4.1       75.5          167.7               122.3
Colorado @             25.6       42.4     34.3          2.0          6.2     4.1       77.6          139.5               109.1
Guam **                29.4       50.3     40.2          1.4          6.3     4.0       92.3          150.0               122.0
Hawaii                 27.0       40.1     33.4          1.9          6.0     4.0       83.9          143.2               112.8
Illinois               29.0       47.5     38.1          4.0          5.8     4.8       90.6          168.5               128.9
Maine                  25.5       40.3     33.0          1.6          3.4     2.5       64.9          121.5                93.6
Massachusetts          28.3       48.3     38.3          2.5          6.2     4.3       91.6          174.5               133.0
Mississippi            28.4       43.6     36.0          1.7          4.8     3.3       86.2          135.3               110.6
Missouri               27.4       45.7     36.6          2.5          6.3     4.5       88.2          175.7               132.5
Montana                25.8       42.8     34.5          2.1          5.6     3.9       78.4          131.6               106.1
Nevada                 30.3       51.1     40.8          2.4          4.0     3.2       95.9          178.9               137.6
New Hampshire          23.4       40.2     31.8          1.4          5.1     3.3       66.6          129.1                97.9
New Jersey @           25.9       46.5     36.0          3.1          6.8     4.9       77.3          162.0               118.9
North Carolina         21.8       35.2     28.4          2.0          3.2     2.6       68.4          117.3                92.6
North Dakota           21.8       37.9     29.8          1.9          4.5     3.3       77.9          141.9               110.1
Puerto Rico **         20.2       43.0     30.8          2.0          6.1     4.0       52.8          141.9                94.8
South Carolina         27.8       46.5     37.3          2.0          6.2     4.2       80.5          166.4               124.7
South Dakota           24.3       45.4     34.9          1.7          4.6     3.2       76.6          159.3               118.1
Utah                   24.7       41.3     33.1          2.0          3.7     2.9       83.3          145.5               115.2
Vermont                27.5       45.5     36.6          2.8          6.0     4.5       92.0          170.8               132.5
Virgin Islands **      31.7       48.0     39.1          3.7          8.5     6.0       88.7          184.7               132.0
West Virginia          22.4       46.2     34.7          1.6          5.3     3.6       63.8          157.7               112.6
Wyoming                27.1       43.9     35.6          3.4          6.2     4.8       76.2          157.3               117.5

Unweighted data
California @           26.0       43.3     33.6          1.7          5.7     3.5       71.5          150.6               106.3
Delaware               27.6       42.6     34.9          3.3          7.2     5.2       84.0          160.5               121.4
Georgia                26.7       40.2     32.8          1.8          5.0     3.3       62.3          134.8                95.0
Idaho                  25.6       46.5     36.6          2.6          5.4     4.1       81.2          166.4               126.8
Marshall Islands **    29.7       43.6     35.7        NA ++           NA      NA       88.9          179.1               127.3
Michigan @             23.4       41.4     32.8          0.6          6.0     3.4       69.3          159.1               116.0
Nebraska               21.8       43.8     33.3          1.1          5.2     3.3       69.5          156.8               115.2
Ohio                   28.7       44.9     37.0          1.9          6.2     4.1       83.2          164.8               125.0
Rhode Island           23.8       46.2     34.4          2.2          6.1     4.1       69.8          163.8               114.3
Tennessee              26.0       42.5     33.9          2.3          4.6     3.4       71.6          150.2               108.9
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                 30.7       49.3     40.0          3.5          7.9     5.7       92.4          177.9               135.3
Chicago                35.3       49.6     41.9          5.9         10.5     8.0      107.5          188.5               144.8
Dallas                 32.3       48.5     40.2          2.6          6.3     4.4       91.1          160.6               125.2
Denver                 31.8       44.7     38.2          2.8          4.8     3.9       92.9          152.3               124.1
Ft. Lauderdale         23.8       41.0     32.1          3.0          5.9     4.4       62.4          147.9               103.8
Houston                26.3       41.3     33.6          2.7          6.4     5.0       74.7          153.7               112.3
Jersey City            32.9       49.6     40.8          7.5          9.3     8.4       99.1          165.3               130.5
Miami                  26.2       42.7     34.6          2.3          5.8     4.2       74.5          149.6               113.0
New Orleans            39.1       52.5     45.5          5.0          8.4     6.7      106.9          186.5               145.6
Philadelphia           39.5       56.9     48.0          4.1          7.4     5.7      106.2          207.0               154.7
San Diego              26.0       44.3     34.6          3.3          5.3     4.2       71.7          166.7               116.5
Seattle                  NA         NA       NA          3.4          8.0     5.7         NA             NA                  NA

Unweighted data
Detroit                33.0       52.2     41.6          3.5          7.3     5.2      104.2          199.6               147.0
Dist. of Columbia      33.8       45.1     38.9          4.4          7.0     5.7       94.5          140.7               115.9
Los Angeles            32.7       49.0     40.3          3.7          7.9     5.7       96.8          164.6               128.3
San Francisco          21.5       34.1     27.7          3.1          3.9     3.5       50.9           96.4                73.4
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * One or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 + Students who were injured seriously enough to be treated by a doctor or nurse.
 & Students who reported fighting 0 or 1 times during the 12-month period were assigned a fighting frequency of 0 or 1,
   respectively;
   2-3 times, 2.5; 4-5 times, 4.5; 6-7 times, 6.5; 8-9 times, 8.5; 10-11 times, 10.5; and >= 12 times, 12.0.
 @ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
++ Not available.
=================================================================================================================================

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Table_8
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TABLE 8.  Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in violence or in behaviors resulting from violence on school property, by sex, race/ethnicity,
and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
======================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                      Threatened or injured                                                Property stolen or
                 Felt too unsafe to go to            Carried a weapon on              with a weapon on school         In a physical fight on              deliberately damaged on
                         school *                      school property * +                   property &                   school property &                  school property &
             ------------------------------   ------------------------------    --------------------------------   ------------------------------
Category      Female       Male       Total     Female       Male      Total      Female        Male       Total     Female       Male      Total      Female       Male       Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White @          2.2        3.4         2.8        3.1       14.1        9.0         4.5         9.2         7.0        6.5       18.4       12.9        26.6       42.2        34.9
           (+/-0.8) **  (+/-1.0)    (+/-0.7)   (+/-1.3)   (+/-2.2)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.6)    (+/-1.0)    (+/-1.0)   (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-2.2)

Black @          8.2        7.1         7.7        8.8       12.2       10.3         7.7        15.2        11.0       14.3       27.9       20.3        29.0       39.6        33.6
             (+/-2.5)   (+/-1.9)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-2.6)   (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-3.2)    (+/-4.5)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-3.1)   (+/-3.8)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-6.1)    (+/-4.0)

Hispanic         8.3        8.6         8.4        8.9       19.4       14.1         9.6        15.2        12.4       16.6       25.7       21.1        32.4       35.6        34.0
             (+/-2.9)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-3.5)   (+/-5.3)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-3.5)    (+/-4.2)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-4.7)   (+/-4.2)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-5.1)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-3.5)
Grade
 9th             5.1        5.9         5.6        5.6       14.9       10.7         6.8        11.9         9.6       12.1       29.4       21.6        30.2       46.3        39.0
             (+/-3.0)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-2.6)   (+/-2.4)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-2.4)    (+/-2.1)    (+/-1.9)   (+/-2.8)   (+/-5.2)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-5.5)   (+/-4.5)    (+/-4.1)

10th             5.5        4.6         5.0        5.7       14.8       10.4         7.0        12.0         9.6       11.9       20.8       16.5        31.6       40.5        36.2
             (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-2.0)   (+/-2.9)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.5)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-4.7)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-3.1)    (+/-4.6)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-3.3)

11th             4.1        4.2         4.1        4.5       15.4       10.2         4.6        10.6         7.7        8.4       18.6       13.6        28.6       41.4        35.2
             (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.4)    (+/-1.0)   (+/-1.4)   (+/-3.7)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.8)    (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.3)   (+/-2.5)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-2.4)

12th             2.8        3.9         3.3        3.1       12.0        7.6         4.5         9.0         6.7        5.6       15.5       10.6        21.5       37.5        29.4
             (+/-1.3)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-1.0)   (+/-1.9)   (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-2.0)    (+/-2.1)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-1.6)   (+/-2.8)   (+/-1.4)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-1.7)

Total            4.3        4.7         4.5        4.9       14.3        9.8         5.8        10.9         8.4        9.6       21.0       15.5        28.0       41.4        34.9
             (+/-1.2)   (+/-1.0)    (+/-0.8)   (+/-1.0)   (+/-1.5)   (+/-0.9)    (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.1)    (+/-1.0)   (+/-2.0)   (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-2.0)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + Such as a gun, knife, or club.
 & One or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 @ Non-Hispanic.
** Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
======================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_9
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TABLE 9. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in violence or in behaviors resulting from violence on school property, by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk
Behavior Surveys, 1995
=====================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                         Threatened or injured                                                Property stolen or
                    Felt too unsafe to go to         Carried a weapon on                with a weapon on school          In a physical fight                deliberately damaged on
                           school *                   school property *+                      property &                 on school property &                 school property &
                  ----------------------------    --------------------------       --------------------------------     -------------------------         --------------------------
Site              Female       Male      Total    Female       Male    Total       Female          Male       Total     Female       Male   Total         Female       Male    Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama              4.3        6.9        5.6       5.7       20.3     13.1          5.9          12.6         9.4        7.7       20.8    14.2           24.4       31.1     27.9
Alaska               3.8        3.3        3.6       4.8       18.8     12.3          6.5          11.8         9.4        7.5       25.0    16.6           33.0       38.3     35.8
Arkansas             6.3        4.6        5.4       3.5       18.4     11.0          6.7          10.6         8.7        9.2       24.6    17.0           30.9       37.4     34.2
Colorado @           3.9        4.2        4.0       5.0       17.7     11.5          6.2          12.8         9.6        9.2       21.7    15.6           30.9       41.5     36.3
Guam **             13.2        8.6       10.8       2.1       12.2      7.4          7.5           9.9         8.8       10.0       21.8    16.0           40.0       43.5     41.8
Hawaii               3.3        6.3        4.8       1.7       14.4      8.0          2.9           7.5         5.3        7.8       19.2    13.4           25.5       34.3     30.0
Illinois             5.3        6.4        5.8       4.1       13.8      8.9          6.2          11.0         8.6        9.0       23.4    16.1           28.7       35.3     32.0
Maine                3.4        3.2        3.3       4.2       15.4      9.9          4.8           8.3         6.6        9.0       19.3    14.2           25.9       35.1     30.6
Massachusetts        5.1        6.0        5.6       4.5       13.8      9.2          5.2          10.2         7.8        8.0       21.8    15.0           25.7       32.7     29.3
Mississippi          5.3        5.3        5.3       3.3       13.1      8.2          6.9           8.7         7.8       10.5       20.8    15.6           32.3       36.4     34.4
Missouri             3.5        4.7        4.1       3.9       22.3     13.3          5.4          11.4         8.4        7.6       22.9    15.4           29.7       36.5     33.1
Montana              2.2        3.2        2.8       3.8       20.5     12.4          4.4           8.1         6.3        8.0       20.5    14.4           32.0       36.3     34.2
Nevada               5.8        6.0        5.8       5.7       15.7     10.8          8.7          10.4         9.5       11.8       26.3    19.1           28.7       35.0     31.9
New Hampshire        2.3        3.1        2.7       3.7       15.0      9.4          4.4           7.5         6.0        8.1       19.7    13.9           29.3       34.4     31.9
New Jersey @         4.4        5.7        5.0       4.9       14.2      9.5          5.0          13.2         9.1        8.1       23.8    15.8           30.5       40.6     35.4
North                5.0        4.5        4.7       4.4       14.4      9.4          5.8          10.1         8.0        8.1       16.0    12.0           31.2       39.2     35.2
Carolina
North Dakota       NA ++         NA         NA       2.4       16.8      9.7          4.2           7.5         6.0        5.0       18.3    11.6           30.8       36.6     33.8
Puerto Rico **      13.5       17.7       15.6       2.2       11.8      6.8          1.2           6.0         3.6        7.7       23.1    15.0           21.6       28.2     24.8
South                5.2        7.3        6.4       5.1       18.5     11.9          7.0          14.0        10.7        9.1       20.5    14.9           28.0       35.4     31.8
Carolina
South Dakota         2.0        3.5        2.8       2.7       19.4     11.1          3.0           8.1         5.5        6.0       21.4    13.7           27.5       40.1     33.9
Utah                 4.9        3.7        4.3       3.8       18.1     11.0          4.8           9.3         7.1        6.5       18.9    12.8           31.3       36.3     33.9
Vermont              4.2        4.5        4.4       4.3       18.5     11.6          3.9           9.4         6.8        9.4       25.2    17.5           31.7       40.2     36.1
Virgin               9.9       14.1       12.0       6.3       12.1      9.0          7.3          15.9        11.4       16.9       30.6    23.2           27.1       32.4     29.7
Islands **
West Virginia        4.4        4.6        4.6       3.5       20.5     12.2          4.5          10.0         7.4        8.1       19.0    13.7           25.7       34.1     30.0
Wyoming              4.1        2.8        3.4       5.3       22.5     14.1          4.7           9.8         7.3       10.6       22.7    16.8           30.7       36.2     33.5

Unweighted
data
California @         8.2        5.4        6.9       5.5       12.9      8.7          6.2          12.1         8.8        9.7       23.1    15.6           33.5       39.3     36.1
Delaware             4.3        5.7        5.0       4.1       15.4      9.6          5.0          10.8         7.8       10.6       18.4    14.4           24.5       35.0     29.6
Georgia              5.2        4.5        4.9       4.0       12.4      7.8          6.5          11.1         8.6       11.4       16.9    13.8           30.6       35.3     32.8
Idaho                4.4        4.3        4.3       5.6       22.5     14.6          6.4          11.7         9.3        9.5       26.5    18.5           35.7       40.4     38.2
Marshall              NA         NA         NA       1.2       10.4      5.4           NA            NA          NA       11.1       16.3    13.5           42.6       50.3     46.1
Islands **
Michigan @           3.1        6.1        4.7       3.0       14.8      9.1          4.5          12.6         8.7        7.4       24.1    16.1           27.3       39.0     33.4
Nebraska             1.9        3.3        2.6       2.4       13.8      8.4          2.9           8.9         6.1        4.8       18.0    11.7           31.0       40.2     35.8
Ohio                 5.9        3.9        5.0       3.9       14.5      9.3          5.7           9.2         7.5        8.2       19.5    14.0           24.5       38.1     31.5
Rhode Island         3.6        5.4        4.5       2.7       12.0      7.1          5.4          10.4         7.7        7.0       24.3    15.2           21.9       30.2     25.8
Tennessee            6.2        5.8        6.0       5.0       20.9     12.4          5.4          11.6         8.3        8.4       19.0    13.4           31.0       36.3     33.4
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston               9.1       11.6       10.5       8.2       15.7     12.2          8.4          12.8        10.7        9.5       19.9    14.9           22.7       28.3     25.6
Chicago             15.0       19.2       17.0       9.1       12.9     10.9          9.2          17.6        13.3       13.1       26.0    19.1           31.0       35.1     33.0
Dallas               8.6        9.0        8.8       5.6       12.5      9.0          8.0          14.1        11.0       11.7       26.8    19.0           33.8       42.0     37.7
Denver               7.3        7.8        7.7       5.4       14.9     10.2          8.1          14.6        11.5       11.1       20.4    15.8           27.9       36.3     32.2
Ft.                  7.2        8.3        7.9       4.4        9.5      6.9          6.1          11.6         8.8        8.8       20.5    14.5           36.2       36.6     36.5
Lauderdale
Houston             10.7       14.5       12.7       4.4       14.2      9.3          5.1          14.5        10.2       10.7       20.4    15.6           32.9       36.9     35.3
Jersey City         12.3       13.4       12.8      12.5       18.1     15.3          9.2          15.4        12.2       13.1       23.1    17.8           26.5       35.6     30.8
Miami                7.2       10.0        8.6       3.6       11.4      7.6          5.3          13.3         9.4        9.4       20.6    15.1           37.2       41.4     39.2
New Orleans          9.9        9.8        9.8       7.5        7.7      7.7         10.1          11.2        10.6       17.1       27.8    22.2           28.1       29.5     28.6
Philadelphia         8.4       12.1       10.2       9.4       12.8     11.0          7.2          13.5        10.3       14.9       28.2    21.4           23.5       32.8     28.1
San Diego            5.6        8.3        6.9       4.1       12.2      7.9          5.5          13.9         9.5        8.1       20.1    13.7           36.1       44.0     39.8
Seattle              6.2        8.0        7.1       4.0       15.7      9.7          7.6          16.8        12.2       13.3       24.7    18.9           28.8       41.0     34.8

Unweighted
data
Detroit             14.0       14.9       14.4       7.3       13.4     10.0          8.1          16.5        11.9       13.7       25.3    19.0           35.3       39.8     37.4
Dist. of            11.2       11.8       11.6      14.6       15.3     15.0          6.9          13.9        10.1       12.9       24.3    18.0           24.1       31.0     27.2
Columbia
Los Angeles         11.4       11.0       11.3       2.2        8.7      5.2          7.2          13.5        10.2       12.8       25.1    18.5           27.4       33.0     30.1
San Francisco         NA         NA         NA        NA         NA       NA          5.2          11.0         8.1        9.3       15.7    12.5           30.7       28.4     29.5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + Such as a gun, knife, or club.
 & One or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 @ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
++ Not available.
======================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_10
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TABLE 10. Percentage of high school students who reported having thought seriously about attempting suicide and who reported suicidal behavior, by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
=============================================================================================================================================================
                       Thought seriously about                                                                                 Suicide attempt required
                         attempting suicide *               Made a suicide plan *             Attempted suicide *+                medical attention *
                   --------------------------------    ------------------------------    ------------------------------    ------------------------------
Category             Female        Male      Total      Female       Male      Total      Female       Male      Total      Female        Male      Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White &                31.6        19.1       24.9        21.9       14.6       18.0        10.4        5.2        7.6         2.9         2.1        2.4
                  (+/-2.1) @    (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-2.0)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-0.9)

Black&                 22.2        16.7       20.0        15.5       12.7       14.2        10.8        7.0        9.5         3.6         2.8        3.2
                    (+/-2.9)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.2)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-1.8)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-2.0)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-1.2)

Hispanic               34.1        15.7       25.0        25.5       13.3       19.5        21.0        5.8       13.4         6.6         2.9        4.8
                    (+/-6.2)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-4.1)    (+/-4.9)   (+/-4.5)   (+/-4.1)    (+/-5.6)   (+/-1.7)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-3.2)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-2.3)
Grade
 9th                   34.4        18.2       25.7        23.3       13.3       17.8        14.9        6.8       10.6         6.3         2.3        4.1
                    (+/-3.8)    (+/-4.4)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-4.3)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-3.1)   (+/-3.1)   (+/-1.9)    (+/-2.6)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-1.4)

10th                   32.8        16.7       24.5        23.8       15.5       19.5        15.1        5.4       10.1         3.8         2.4        3.1
                    (+/-4.3)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.2)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-1.4)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-2.5)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-1.5)

11th                   31.1        21.7       26.3        21.8       14.8       18.2        11.4        5.8        8.5         2.9         2.0        2.5
                    (+/-4.5)    (+/-4.8)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-2.2)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.4)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-1.0)

12th                   23.9        16.3       20.0        16.6       13.6       15.1         6.6        4.7        5.6         1.3         2.2        1.7
                    (+/-3.0)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-2.9)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.1)   (+/-1.9)    (+/-0.7)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-0.8)

Total                  30.4        18.3       24.1        21.3       14.4       17.7        11.9        5.6        8.7         3.4         2.2        2.8
                    (+/-2.1)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.1)   (+/-0.9)    (+/-1.2)    (+/-0.7)   (+/-0.6)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* During the 12 months preceding the survey.
+ One or more times.
& Non-Hispanic.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
=============================================================================================================================================================

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Table_11
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TABLE 11. Percentage of high school students who reported having thought seriously about attempting suicide and who reported suicidal behavior,
by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
====================================================================================================================================================
                         Thought seriously about                                                                       Suicide attempt required
                            attempting suicide *         Made a suicide plan *         Attempted suicide *+              medical attention *
                        --------------------------    -------------------------      ------------------------     ----------------------------------
Site                    Female        Male   Total    Female      Male    Total      Female      Male   Total     Female          Male      Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                   25.2        16.0    20.8      19.3      13.7     16.6        10.0       6.0     8.1        2.6           2.9        2.8
Alaska                    32.3        16.2    23.9      24.9      13.1     18.7        13.8       5.3     9.4        4.4           1.3        2.9
Arkansas                  30.4        17.8    24.0      23.1      12.8     17.8        13.0       4.6     8.8        3.9           1.5        2.7
Colorado &                29.9        14.8    22.2      21.0      12.9     16.9        11.0       5.4     8.2        3.4           1.9        2.6
Guam @                    37.1        26.4    31.5      31.4      21.8     26.4        26.6      14.7    20.5        8.4           3.7        6.0
Hawaii                    32.0        18.8    25.5      24.2      16.3     20.3        16.3       8.8    12.7        4.9           3.0        4.0
Illinois                  29.4        18.3    23.9      20.9      13.7     17.4        12.6       6.4     9.5        3.6           2.0        2.8
Maine                     30.4        20.0    25.1      21.2      15.8     18.5         9.8       6.1     8.0        3.2           2.2        2.7
Massachusetts             31.9        19.8    25.8      23.1      14.6     18.8        13.3       7.6    10.4        4.0           3.2        3.6
Mississippi               30.3        18.1    24.2      22.1      10.2     16.1        13.5       4.2     8.9        2.9           1.7        2.3
Missouri                  29.4        19.7    24.5      22.4      16.8     19.6        10.9       7.0     9.0        3.5           3.0        3.3
Montana                   26.5        17.5    21.8      22.4      16.2     19.2        10.7       6.3     8.5        3.7           1.9        2.8
Nevada                    30.7        15.6    22.9      21.9      11.8     16.7        13.6       5.2     9.3        4.8           1.1        2.9
New Hampshire             31.0        21.1    26.0      25.0      15.4     20.1        11.4       5.8     8.6        3.1           2.4        2.8
New Jersey &              25.2        18.5    21.8      18.0      14.6     16.3        11.1       7.3     9.2        3.9           3.3        3.6
North Carolina            24.2        15.3    19.8      17.4      11.6     14.5        11.6       5.3     8.5        4.1           2.8        3.5
North Dakota              30.3        20.3    25.4      23.1      16.5     19.9         9.0       5.5     7.5        3.4           1.6        2.6
Puerto Rico @             21.3        13.5    17.7      16.2      10.8     13.6        14.2       9.2    11.9        2.6           2.0        2.4
South Carolina            27.6        20.4    24.0      20.7      15.9     18.3        10.2       9.4     9.9        3.5           4.4        4.0
South Dakota              30.7        20.7    25.7      21.4      18.4     19.9        11.1       8.2     9.6        2.1           3.1        2.6
Utah                      29.4        16.7    23.0      22.1      13.7     17.9        11.8       5.1     8.5        3.9           2.1        3.1
Vermont                   33.4        23.0    28.2      25.6      18.5     22.0        12.3       8.2    10.3        3.9           3.8        4.0
Virgin Islands @          22.9        18.6    21.0      15.9      13.9     15.1        10.6       6.4     8.7        1.3           1.9        1.6
West Virginia             30.4        20.9    25.6      22.6      18.3     20.5        12.2       7.6     9.9        3.2           3.4        3.4
Wyoming                   30.0        17.5    23.6      21.6      13.4     17.4        10.7       6.0     8.3        3.0           2.1        2.6

Unweighted data
California &              32.0        14.8    24.3      24.8      12.4     19.3        13.6       4.0     9.3        3.8           2.0        3.0
Delaware                  28.7        16.6    22.9      19.7      12.6     16.3        12.5       6.6     9.7        3.4           3.2        3.3
Georgia                   23.2        16.2    20.0      18.2      11.0     14.9        10.2       5.1     7.9        3.0           2.0        2.6
Idaho                     30.7        18.2    24.3      22.7      13.9     18.2        14.8       7.0    10.9        4.9           3.1        4.0
Marshall Islands @        22.2        24.4    23.4      23.5      26.8     25.0        13.3      21.2    16.7        6.6           8.2        7.3
Michigan &                26.4        16.9    21.5      18.1      14.7     16.4        10.1       6.7     8.3        3.0           3.1        3.1
Nebraska                  29.0        16.1    22.2      20.0      12.1     15.8        11.0       5.5     8.1        2.9           2.1        2.5
Ohio                      29.2        19.7    24.4      21.5      14.2     17.9        12.9       6.0     9.6        3.9           1.7        3.0
Rhode Island              31.7        20.2    26.3      22.2      15.4     19.1        14.4       7.2    11.1        2.8           2.8        2.8
Tennessee                 25.7        19.9    22.9      19.3      15.2     17.3        13.2       7.5    10.5        4.0           3.2        3.6
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                    26.4        16.1    21.2      19.4      12.9     16.2        16.0       9.4    12.9        3.9           5.2        4.6
Chicago                   23.7        12.3    18.2      19.6       9.7     14.8        15.1      11.0    13.2        4.8           5.2        5.0
Dallas                    25.5        13.3    19.6      18.7      10.1     14.5        12.7       4.8     8.9        4.4           1.7        3.1
Denver                    26.3        11.1    18.9      19.1      10.5     15.0        12.1       5.1     8.9        4.6           1.3        3.2
Ft. Lauderdale            27.3        14.6    21.1      20.7      13.2     17.1        11.4       5.7     8.6        3.9           1.9        2.9
Houston                   26.2        16.5    21.9      17.8      12.5     15.7        12.4      10.0    11.8        4.5           4.0        4.8
Jersey City               25.6        14.8    20.3      22.5      12.6     17.7        13.4       7.5    10.6        2.9           2.3        2.6
Miami                     25.5        16.5    20.8      17.5      12.1     14.9        11.9       7.2     9.7        2.1           2.9        2.5
New Orleans               21.4        12.8    17.3      16.0      11.0     13.6        13.7       8.1    11.2        5.3           3.2        4.4
Philadelphia              27.9        14.8    21.4      21.3       9.0     15.3        14.9       8.2    11.7        3.7           3.8        3.8
San Diego                 32.1        20.7    26.7      24.5      16.4     20.7        13.7       6.1    10.0        3.9           1.6        2.8
Seattle                   21.3        15.8    18.6      17.8      16.0     16.9        11.3       7.6     9.6        4.1           3.5        3.8

Unweighted data
Detroit                   25.2        14.3    20.2      18.8      10.5     15.0        13.3       7.4    10.8        3.8           3.7        3.8
Dist. of Columbia         24.3        12.1    18.7      17.8       8.5     13.5        12.2       5.3     9.1        3.9           1.7        2.9
Los Angeles               35.8        16.2    26.5      27.5      14.0     21.1        21.1      10.0    15.8        5.9           3.6        4.8
San Francisco             22.4        13.5    17.9      18.2       9.8     14.0         8.9       2.6     5.8        1.5           0.7        1.1
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* During the 12 months preceding the survey.
+ One or more times.
& Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
@ U.S. territories are included as states.
====================================================================================================================================================

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Table_12
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TABLE 12. Percentage of high school students who used tobacco, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
===============================================================================================================================================================
                         Lifetime cigarette use *           Current cigarette use +           Frequent cigarette use &           Smokeless-tobacco use @
                      ------------------------------     -----------------------------     -----------------------------      -----------------------------
Category              Female        Male       Total     Female        Male      Total     Female        Male      Total      Female        Male      Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White **                71.1        71.1        71.1       39.8        37.0       38.3       20.8        18.4       19.5         2.5        25.1       14.5
                  (+/-3.2) ++    (+/-2.4)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-2.6)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-1.1)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-1.7)

Black **                62.8        70.6        66.0       12.2        27.8       19.2        1.3         8.5        4.5         1.1         3.5        2.2
                     (+/-6.2)    (+/-4.8)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-5.6)   (+/-3.0)   (+/-0.7)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.2)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.0)

Hispanic                74.8        77.8        76.3       32.9        34.9       34.0        9.3        10.7       10.0         3.1         5.8        4.4
                     (+/-5.1)    (+/-7.2)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-5.8)    (+/-8.2)   (+/-5.2)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-4.2)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-3.3)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-1.8)
Grade
 9th                    60.4        66.1        63.4       29.9        32.3       31.2        9.9         9.4        9.6         3.4        17.7       11.2
                     (+/-6.3)    (+/-5.5)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.7)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.0)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-1.7)

10th                    70.4        71.8        71.1       35.1        31.1       33.1       13.2        13.5       13.3         1.4        17.4        9.6
                     (+/-4.8)    (+/-3.4)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-6.3)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-3.8)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-1.3)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-2.2)

11th                    75.1        76.5        75.8       36.4        35.5       35.8       18.8        19.6       19.2         2.8        22.7       13.0
                     (+/-4.5)    (+/-3.4)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-4.9)    (+/-5.9)   (+/-3.6)   (+/-4.9)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-3.1)    (+/-1.9)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-2.7)

12th                    73.6        73.9        73.8       34.4        42.0       38.2       19.7        22.0       20.9         1.6        20.9       11.2
                     (+/-3.5)    (+/-2.8)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-4.1)    (+/-5.2)   (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-5.6)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-1.0)    (+/-5.3)   (+/-2.8)

Total                   70.4        72.1        71.3       34.3        35.4       34.8       15.9        16.3       16.1         2.4        19.7       11.4
                     (+/-2.9)    (+/-2.1)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-3.1)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.2)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-1.3)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-1.7)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever tried cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs.
 + Smoked cigarettes on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Smoked cigarettes on >= 20 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Used chewing tobacco or snuff on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
** Non-Hispanic.
++ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===============================================================================================================================================================

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Table_13
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TABLE 13. Percentage of high school students who used tobacco, by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
=================================================================================================================================================
                          Lifetime cigarette use *       Current cigarette use +       Frequent cigarette use &          Smokeless-tobacco use @
                        ---------------------------    --------------------------     ---------------------------       -------------------------
Site                    Female        Male    Total    Female        Male   Total     Female        Male    Total       Female      Male   Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                   68.1        78.4     73.2      26.1        35.9    31.0       10.4        17.1     13.7          2.0      21.5    11.8
Alaska                    72.8        71.4     72.1      36.5        36.4    36.5       20.5        21.4     21.0          6.7      23.5    15.6
Arkansas                  72.3        76.5     74.4      34.2        40.1    37.2       16.9        19.6     18.3          1.7      23.4    12.7
Colorado **               70.8        71.9     71.3      34.0        33.4    33.7       15.6        16.6     16.1          4.2      25.3    15.0
Guam ++                   81.8        87.7     84.9      43.3        39.0    41.1       16.7        18.2     17.5          6.5       8.8     7.7
Hawaii                    69.1        68.6     68.8      33.0        31.7    32.4       17.3        16.6     16.9          1.3       7.6     4.5
Illinois                  70.4        70.5     70.4      35.6        35.8    35.7       15.6        18.8     17.2          1.1      14.3     7.6
Maine                    NA &&          NA       NA      38.7        37.0    37.8       20.6        20.3     20.4          2.1      15.7     9.0
Massachusetts             69.7        73.3     71.5      36.2        35.2    35.7       18.5        17.9     18.2          1.5      15.1     8.4
Mississippi               69.5        79.2     74.4      30.4        39.6    35.0       12.7        15.2     13.9          2.8      17.5    10.1
Missouri                  74.6        75.4     75.0      39.4        40.2    39.8       20.5        21.3     20.9          2.8      28.7    16.0
Montana                   68.4        77.0     72.8      33.8        35.7    34.8       17.0        16.6     16.8          8.8      36.1    22.8
Nevada                    73.2        72.7     72.8      35.8        30.2    32.9       16.3        15.4     15.8          4.1      18.3    11.4
New Hampshire             68.4        69.0     68.7      39.9        32.0    36.0       20.5        18.2     19.3          3.0      17.6    10.4
New Jersey **             69.9        70.7     70.3      34.9        37.2    36.1       17.0        19.6     18.3          2.5      15.9     9.2
North Carolina              NA          NA       NA      30.2        32.5    31.3       14.2        16.7     15.5          1.9      16.6     9.2
North Dakota                NA          NA       NA      40.5        38.4    39.6       18.8        20.5     19.8           NA        NA      NA
Puerto Rico ++            52.0        59.6     55.7      15.0        23.1    18.9        1.7         8.2      4.7          1.2       5.1     3.0
South Carolina            74.2        78.9     76.6      28.8        36.3    32.6       14.0        16.8     15.4          2.5      21.1    12.0
South Dakota              65.0        76.5     70.8      37.0        38.9    38.0       17.3        17.7     17.5         10.8      34.8    22.9
Utah                      43.7        51.7     47.8      16.9        17.2    17.0        8.0         8.1      8.1          2.3      11.5     6.9
Vermont                   68.5        73.7     71.2      37.3        38.1    37.7       18.1        21.0     19.5          4.1      18.6    11.6
Virgin Islands ++         40.6        50.4     45.2       6.7        11.0     8.8        0.2         1.0      0.6           NA        NA      NA
West Virginia             74.9        77.8     76.4      42.5        43.4    43.0       23.7        25.5     24.6          2.2      34.5    18.7
Wyoming                   69.3        76.5     73.0      39.8        39.2    39.5       19.6        19.2     19.4          9.9      39.7    25.1

Unweighted data
California **             62.6        65.3     63.8      21.7        23.0    22.2        6.5         8.0      7.1          1.7       7.3     4.2
Delaware                  69.0        70.3     69.6      33.2        35.8    34.5       16.4        19.2     17.8          1.7      14.0     7.6
Georgia                   64.5        74.9     69.2      21.7        36.7    28.4        6.3        14.1      9.8          1.3      11.4     5.9
Idaho                     50.6        63.1     57.3      24.5        29.2    27.1       12.1        14.4     13.4          3.9      21.7    13.3
Marshall Islands ++       73.4        85.9     79.7      16.3        34.2    23.8        3.4        14.6      8.1         11.9      34.9    21.9
Michigan **               66.6        67.1     66.9      41.2        36.7    38.8       22.1        19.9     21.0          2.2      21.1    12.1
Nebraska                  67.2        73.2     70.4      35.2        39.3    37.5       15.5        17.5     16.5          2.6      31.3    17.8
Ohio                      68.2        72.5     70.5      37.3        39.6    38.5       17.7        20.2     19.0          3.2      25.7    14.6
Rhode Island              69.7        70.3     70.0      39.9        33.9    37.1       17.6        18.0     17.9          2.2       9.0     5.4
Tennessee                 75.0        74.8     74.9      34.3        36.4    35.3       16.6        18.9     17.7          2.0      28.2    14.4
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                    64.6        66.0     65.3      20.5        19.6    20.2        8.9         9.1      9.2          1.9       4.6     3.2
Chicago                   66.0        64.5     65.3      22.4        23.8    23.1        6.5         7.0      6.8          1.1       6.0     3.4
Dallas                    63.3        74.6     68.8      19.0        28.4    23.6        4.5         7.6      6.1          0.6       5.0     2.8
Denver                    76.8        73.4     75.2      31.7        28.5    30.3       13.9        12.1     13.2          1.2       8.4     5.0
Ft. Lauderdale            60.8        59.7     60.3      23.8        22.2    23.0        8.9         8.3      8.6          1.8       7.3     4.5
Houston                   60.1        74.0     66.9      19.8        33.9    26.9        5.9        11.0      8.4          1.3       8.4     4.8
Jersey City               68.8        63.9     66.4      24.8        23.7    24.3        7.7        12.4      9.8          0.8       3.4     2.0
Miami                     55.2        63.5     59.4      15.8        23.7    19.7        4.5         9.2      6.9          0.9       5.0     3.0
New Orleans               64.4        64.6     64.4      15.2        22.5    18.7        1.1         6.7      3.8          0.7       3.2     1.9
Philadelphia              70.2        67.4     68.9      26.1        26.5    26.4       11.1        14.4     12.8          0.2       3.8     2.0
San Diego                 67.1        71.7     69.3      23.6        24.1    23.8        6.9         8.6      7.7          1.2       5.5     3.2
Seattle                   61.4        67.7     64.4      27.3        29.4    28.2       10.6        15.4     12.8          2.1      11.5     6.7

Unweighted data
Detroit                   65.1        66.5     65.7      13.7        22.7    17.8        3.0         7.9      5.1          0.4       2.5     1.3
Dist. of Columbia         66.8        67.8     67.2      20.1        24.4    22.0        3.4         6.5      4.8          0.7       2.3     1.4
Los Angeles               68.8        74.2     71.4      24.3        29.0    26.6        5.4         8.1      6.8          1.5       5.2     3.3
San Francisco             57.1        63.9     60.5      18.9        20.3    19.6        5.3         8.4      6.8          1.5       2.0     1.7
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever tried cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs.
 + Smoked cigarettes on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Smoked cigarettes on >= 20 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Used chewing tobacco or snuff on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
** Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
++ U.S. territories are included as states.
&& Not available.
==================================================================================================================================================

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Table_14
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TABLE 14. Percentage of high school students <18 years of age who were current cigarette smokers * and
reported having purchased cigarettes + without being asked to show proof of age, & by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
=========================================================================================================
                            Purchased cigarettes at a             Were not asked to show proof of age
                              store or gas station                    when purchasing cigarettes
                      -----------------------------------        ----------------------------------------
Category                  Female         Male      Total           Female         Male          Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White @                     38.4         44.2       41.3             80.4         73.6           76.5
                      (+/-7.1) **     (+/-6.3)   (+/-5.7)         (+/-7.2)     (+/-4.6)       (+/-5.1)

Black @                     27.5         27.2       27.2             89.3         83.8           86.0
                         (+/-9.0)    (+/-11.3)   (+/-7.6)         (+/-8.1)     (+/-9.4)       (+/-6.6)

Hispanic                    27.6         37.7       32.6             79.5         79.9           79.7
                         (+/-7.3)     (+/-9.5)   (+/-6.3)        (+/-13.4)     (+/-9.7)       (+/-8.1)
Grade
 9th                        15.8         26.8       22.2             86.7         81.4           83.2
                         (+/-6.8)     (+/-8.3)   (+/-5.1)         (+/-8.8)    (+/-10.4)       (+/-7.3)

10th                        31.7         37.7       34.6             74.1         76.3           75.3
                         (+/-7.3)     (+/-7.2)   (+/-6.3)         (+/-5.9)     (+/-8.5)       (+/-5.5)

11th                        47.3         54.3       50.8             82.2         71.0           76.1
                         (+/-9.5)     (+/-7.1)   (+/-6.5)         (+/-8.9)     (+/-7.2)       (+/-3.4)

12th                        52.9         47.8       50.4             85.6         70.4           77.9
                         (+/-7.3)    (+/-13.8)   (+/-7.0)        (+/-13.7)     (+/-9.9)       (+/-9.7)

Total                       36.5         40.8       38.7             81.0         74.7           77.5
                         (+/-5.3)     (+/-5.5)   (+/-4.6)         (+/-5.5)     (+/-4.1)       (+/-4.0)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Smoked cigarettes on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + Purchased cigarettes at a store or gas station during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Among those who purchased cigarettes in a store or gas station during the 30 days
   preceding the survey.
 @ Non-Hispanic.
** Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
=========================================================================================================

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Table_15
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TABLE 15. Percentage of high school students <18 years of age who were current cigarette smokers * and
reported having purchased cigarettes + without being asked to show proof of age, & by sex -- selected U.S.
sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
===============================================================================================================
                        Purchased cigarettes at a store or gas           Were not asked to show proof of age
                                      station                                 when purchasing cigarettes
                        ---------------------------------------          --------------------------------------
Site                    Female              Male          Total           Female         Male          Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS
Weighted data
Alabama                   25.8              39.0           33.3             81.5         68.6           73.2
Alaska                    12.1              25.9           19.3             72.8         68.2           70.2
Arkansas                  32.3              47.3           40.3             79.8         78.1           78.8
Colorado @                26.3              32.6           29.5             77.7         70.2           73.6
Guam **                  NA ++                NA           37.0               NA           NA             NA
Hawaii                    33.3              35.2           34.2               NA           NA           74.0
Illinois                  37.3              43.3           40.3             73.0         66.8           69.8
Maine                     24.2              34.6           29.1               NA           NA           75.5
Massachusetts             41.5              44.5           42.9             55.9         54.8           55.3
Mississippi               39.6              43.7           42.0             85.2         81.2           82.9
Missouri                  35.8              42.5           39.1             79.3         68.3           73.1
Montana                   23.6              33.6           28.6             69.9         63.8           66.2
Nevada                    28.6              27.0           27.8             70.0         69.9           69.5
New Hampshire             44.9              54.1           48.8             82.7         72.5           77.9
New Jersey @              45.8              46.0           45.9             69.0         68.4           68.7
North Carolina            38.7              44.0           41.5             84.9         75.8           79.7
North Dakota              25.8              34.0           29.4             72.0         55.7           63.7
Puerto Rico **            18.1              36.6           28.6             92.7         76.7           82.6
South Carolina              NA                NA             NA               NA           NA             NA
South Dakota              31.3              37.2           34.3               NA           NA           82.6
Utah                      14.3              20.2           17.5             68.3         67.1           67.2
Vermont                   21.1              27.4           24.3             72.1         64.0           67.6
Virgin Islands **           NA                NA             NA               NA           NA             NA
West Virginia             33.8              48.5           41.2             78.9         71.4           74.5
Wyoming                   33.7              38.7           36.2             71.4         65.1           68.1
Unweighted data
California@               30.0              35.1           32.1             75.7         73.3           74.5
Delaware                  42.9              50.0           46.4             77.8         68.4           72.6
Georgia                   27.0              38.6           33.2             77.6         61.8           68.3
Idaho                     18.1              29.8           24.7             76.5         71.1           72.9
Marshall Islands **       37.8              47.6           42.7               NA           NA           82.9
Michigan @                49.4              52.6           51.0             82.3         69.4           75.3
Nebraska                  24.5              33.5           29.3             84.9         69.6           75.7
Ohio                      42.4              47.8           45.3             79.3         70.9           74.7
Rhode Island              33.8              42.0           37.1             73.0         69.4           71.4
Tennessee                 32.6              40.8           36.6             81.8         69.0           75.0
LOCAL SURVEYS
Weighted data
Boston                    42.7              44.1           43.9             72.7         64.1           67.9
Chicago                   32.3              44.5           38.3             82.1         69.1           75.2
Dallas                    24.0              34.4           29.9             82.5         80.2           80.8
Denver                    34.5              35.5           35.0             69.1         65.0           67.5
Ft. Lauderdale            31.7              38.0           34.8             64.8         55.4           59.8
Houston                   34.8              35.3           35.4             75.3         68.5           70.6
Jersey City                 NA                NA           61.1               NA           NA           91.8
Miami                     23.5              32.8           29.7             70.4         78.2           75.0
New Orleans               33.5              45.4           39.8             90.9         83.5           87.0
Philadelphia              61.5              65.1           63.4             84.6         81.8           83.1
San Diego                 26.8              34.7           30.5             68.4         66.6           67.3
Seattle                   32.5              34.8           33.6             74.7         64.6           69.1
Unweighted data
Detroit                   38.1              51.0           45.4             93.9         91.8           92.6
Dist. of Columbia         32.6              46.9           39.5             93.4         88.6           91.0
Los Angeles               29.0              38.5           33.8               NA           NA           79.1
San Francisco             42.7              31.9           37.2               NA           NA           76.3
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Smoked cigarettes on >=1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + Purchased cigarettes at a store or gas station during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Among those who purchased cigarettes in a store or gas station during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
++ Not available.
===============================================================================================================

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Table_16
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TABLE 16. Percentage of high school students who drank alcohol or used marijuana, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
=====================================================================================================================================================================================
                  Lifetime alcohol use *            Current alcohol use +           Episodic heavy drinking &          Lifetime marijuana use @           Current marijuana use **
               ----------------------------    ------------------------------    -------------------------------   -------------------------------    -------------------------------
Category       Female       Male      Total     Female       Male       Total     Female       Male       Total     Female        Male      Total      Female       Male       Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White ++         81.6       81.8       81.7       53.3       54.8        54.1       32.2       38.6        35.6       38.1        42.7       40.5        22.1       26.8        24.6
           (+/- 2.7) &&  (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.3)   (+/-4.4)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-5.0)   (+/-4.7)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.9)


Black ++         71.7       76.0       73.7       38.5       45.8        42.0       13.0       24.9        18.8       42.0        54.2       47.2        22.1       36.8        28.6
             (+/-5.1)   (+/-5.7)   (+/-4.1)   (+/-4.6)   (+/-6.9)    (+/-4.4)   (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-8.1)    (+/-4.2)   (+/-5.9)    (+/-5.8)   (+/-5.5)    (+/-5.1)

Hispanic         80.9       85.1       82.9       52.3       57.2        54.7       36.1       39.4        37.7       45.4        53.2       49.2        23.5       32.2        27.8
              (+/-4.1)   (+/-4.3)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-5.0)   (+/-8.0)    (+/-5.0)   (+/-6.1)   (+/-8.6)    (+/-5.8)  (+/-10.1)    (+/-8.7)   (+/-7.8)    (+/-5.2)   (+/-8.8)    (+/-5.7)
Grade
 9th             70.2       74.2       72.4       43.7       46.9        45.6       20.2       27.6        24.5       27.9        38.9       33.8        17.3       23.9        20.9
              (+/-3.6)   (+/-3.7)   (+/-2.5)   (+/-5.7)   (+/-4.7)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-4.9)    (+/-5.9)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-5.4)    (+/-3.6)

10th             78.2       79.6       78.9       48.6       50.4        49.5       28.3       32.1        30.3       39.5        43.2       41.4        22.6       28.2        25.5
              (+/-4.4)   (+/-5.8)   (+/-4.2)   (+/-5.3)   (+/-6.0)    (+/-4.7)   (+/-5.5)   (+/-4.4)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-5.6)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-4.7)    (+/-3.7)

11th             82.4       84.0       83.2       51.8       55.5        53.7       31.8       37.8        34.9       43.6        48.0       45.8        25.1       30.1        27.6
              (+/-3.3)   (+/-3.1)   (+/-1.9)   (+/-5.0)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-5.4)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-6.1)    (+/-5.2)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-4.9)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-2.6)

12th             85.0       86.0       85.5       53.6       59.5        56.5       31.6       46.5        39.0       43.8        50.4       47.0        21.6       30.8        26.2
              (+/-3.5)   (+/-4.2)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-5.0)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-4.6)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-6.7)    (+/-6.6)   (+/-6.2)    (+/-4.7)   (+/-6.0)    (+/-4.6)

Total            79.5       81.1       80.4       49.9       53.2        51.6       28.6       36.2        32.6       39.4        45.2       42.4        22.0       28.4        25.3
              (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.0)   (+/-1.9)   (+/-3.5)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-3.8)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-2.0)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever had at least one drink of alcohol.
 + Drank alcohol on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Drank five or more drinks of alcohol on at least one occasion on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Ever used marijuana.
** Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
++ Non-Hispanic.
&& Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
=====================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_17
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TABLE 17. Percentage of high school students who drank alcohol or used marijuana, by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
=============================================================================================================================================================================
                        Lifetime alcohol use *       Current alcohol use +        Episodic heavy drinking &       Lifetime marijuana use @       Current marijuana use **
                       ------------------------    -------------------------     ---------------------------     --------------------------    ------------------------------
Site                   Female      Male   Total    Female      Male    Total     Female    Male        Total     Female        Male   Total    Female        Male     Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                  73.3      75.9    74.6      40.6      47.2     43.9       19.9    30.1         25.0       24.5        36.7    30.5      11.9        22.5      17.1
Alaska                   80.7      79.6    80.1      44.6      50.1     47.5       27.2    35.0         31.3       48.0        48.7    48.4      24.9        32.1      28.7
Arkansas                 77.4      81.1    79.3      46.2      56.6     51.5       26.1    38.2         32.2       33.6        43.8    38.8      19.0        26.6      22.8
Colorado ++              83.7      82.4    83.1      52.6      52.9     52.8       31.7    38.3         35.1       43.6        51.7    47.8      25.4        31.6      28.6
Guam&&                   68.1      65.0    66.5      30.5      37.6     34.1       12.7    16.6         14.7       37.0        42.3    39.8      18.6        19.9      19.3
Hawaii                   77.0      74.6    75.8      39.4      42.5     40.9       20.2    27.9         24.0       40.0        44.9    42.4      20.3        27.5      23.8
Illinois                 79.4      76.9    78.2      46.8      48.3     47.5       26.8    32.5         29.7       36.2        44.4    40.2      21.2        28.4      24.8
Maine                    83.9      83.2    83.5      51.6      53.1     52.3       28.8    33.1         30.9       NA @@         NA      NA      26.6        30.2      28.4
Massachusetts            77.6      80.9    79.2      50.4      56.0     53.2       28.0    38.7         33.4       41.7        54.0    47.9      26.4        37.3      31.9
Mississippi              75.4      79.5    77.5      41.0      56.1     48.5       19.8    40.3         29.9       25.1        38.6    31.8      10.9        21.9      16.4
Missouri                 82.9      82.5    82.7      53.9      57.4     55.7       36.1    43.7         39.9       34.1        38.3    36.3      20.2        23.3      21.8
Montana                  83.1      84.8    84.0      54.9      61.2     58.2       38.5    47.5         43.1       30.7        39.1    35.0      18.1        22.0      20.1
Nevada                   82.3      83.9    82.9      52.0      50.1     50.9       31.0    35.4         33.1       45.0        50.3    47.7      24.6        27.7      26.2
New Hampshire            78.5      77.1    77.8      51.1      55.1     53.1       28.1    37.6         32.9       41.1        45.3    43.2      27.1        28.1      27.7
New Jersey ++            78.6      80.3    79.5      48.6      53.6     51.1       25.3    36.1         30.6       34.2        43.9    39.0      20.5        28.0      24.3
North Carolina           69.2      68.6    68.9      38.4      40.9     39.7       18.3    26.6         22.5       30.5        42.0    36.2      17.2        26.3      21.7
North Dakota               NA        NA      NA      59.0      62.4     60.7         NA      NA           NA         NA          NA      NA      12.3        17.5      14.9
Puerto Rico&&            62.8      73.0    67.6      36.9      46.1     41.1       14.7    25.8         19.9        9.6        21.8    15.4       4.3        10.5       7.2
South Carolina           75.9      79.4    77.7      41.9      51.0     46.4       20.8    33.7         27.3       28.9        43.1    36.1      14.1        27.1      20.8
South Dakota             78.6      81.3    79.9      51.8      56.1     54.0       35.5    43.3         39.5       24.3        24.3    24.3      12.8        12.0      12.4
Utah                     42.4      44.8    43.6      21.9      22.8     22.4       14.4    16.1         15.2       20.3        22.3    21.3      11.6        12.7      12.2
Vermont                    NA        NA      NA      49.9      56.0     53.0       27.2    37.1         32.3         NA          NA      NA      24.9        32.4      28.7
Virgin Islands&&           NA        NA      NA        NA        NA       NA        9.5    15.8         12.6       19.0        36.5    27.0        NA          NA        NA
West Virginia            77.7      84.3    81.1      45.6      57.3     51.6       31.3    46.0         38.8       37.1        47.5    42.5      22.0        29.4      25.9
Wyoming                  78.2      83.7    81.1      47.5      56.4     52.1       34.5    42.9         38.8       34.7        41.5    38.1      18.9        24.8      21.9

Unweighted data
California ++            73.0      73.1    73.0      44.8      43.8     44.4       25.5    29.5         27.3       41.0        45.8    43.1      21.2        29.2      24.8
Delaware                 77.4      77.6    77.5      45.1      49.9     47.4       24.1    31.1         27.5       36.2        45.8    40.9      20.6        29.1      24.7
Georgia                  77.9      79.2    78.5      41.8      50.4     45.5       17.1    29.4         22.6       28.1        45.6    35.9      15.1        31.8      22.5
Idaho                    57.2      66.1    61.9      34.3      40.9     37.9       22.5    29.0         26.0       26.0        32.5    29.4      14.5        20.1      17.5
Marshall                 31.9      65.1    45.6      22.1      43.1     30.5       13.0    29.0         20.0        4.9        17.5    10.3       2.9         8.5       5.3
Islands&&
Michigan ++              75.9      78.6    77.3      51.7      57.2     54.5       32.6    40.8         36.9       38.7        43.3    41.1      23.8        30.2      27.1
Nebraska                 78.6      82.0    80.4      52.4      58.1     55.3       36.8    44.6         40.8       20.8        26.8    24.0       9.6        15.6      12.8
Ohio                     79.4      79.5    79.5      47.7      55.0     51.4       26.6    37.2         32.1       36.3        42.4    39.5      19.8        26.8      23.5
Rhode Island             78.9      77.4    78.2      47.6      53.0     50.1       22.7    32.3         27.3       37.8        48.6    43.0      23.8        33.4      28.3
Tennessee                75.5      77.4    76.4      43.1      48.0     45.4       22.5    32.1         27.1       36.1        45.1    40.4      19.4        26.9      22.9
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                   66.1      70.1    68.0      35.5      42.5     39.0       14.4    22.4         18.4       33.0        41.5    37.2      18.5        26.2      22.4
Chicago                  69.2      63.8    66.7      36.5      38.3     37.4       15.6    20.1         17.8       30.1        37.8    33.7      15.3        23.0      18.9
Dallas                   80.3      81.8    81.1      46.6      50.2     48.4       19.0    29.1         23.9       33.4        48.9    40.9      16.7        27.0      21.7
Denver                   84.8      83.0    83.9      58.3      55.7     57.0       34.1    36.8         35.5       61.6        62.0    61.8      35.8        41.5      38.7
Ft. Lauderdale           71.5      70.9    71.3      40.1      40.0     40.1       16.3    18.6         17.4       30.8        37.6    34.2      15.5        22.8      19.1
Houston                  70.3      75.5    72.7      43.2      45.5     44.4       18.4    27.4         23.0       28.6        45.4    37.0      15.4        25.5      20.7
Jersey City              71.9      70.5    71.2      43.1      38.9     41.0       18.7    18.1         18.4       28.4        34.4    31.3      16.5        20.5      18.4
Miami                    67.7      73.8    70.8      36.4      45.4     41.0       11.1    22.4         16.9       21.0        34.1    27.7      11.4        19.8      15.6
New Orleans              75.2      72.5    73.8      45.5      45.8     45.6       14.9    20.2         17.3       27.8        47.6    37.1      13.9        29.2      21.1
Philadelphia             68.5      69.0    68.8      34.4      39.0     36.7       14.8    20.2         17.5       39.5        51.5    45.2      20.3        30.8      25.4
San Diego                73.0      75.3    74.0      43.4      45.1     44.1       21.3    27.0         23.9       41.6        48.2    44.7      24.2        29.3      26.5
Seattle                    NA        NA      NA      38.7      42.7     40.6       17.7    24.2         20.7       43.0        49.5    46.0      27.2        31.9      29.4

Unweighted data
Detroit                  77.0      75.1    76.1      40.9      42.9     41.8       14.5    21.7         17.7       42.9        53.8    47.8      21.4        35.3      27.7
Dist. of Columbia        69.9      68.1    69.0      36.8      34.8     35.9       12.0    13.3         12.6       39.1        47.6    42.8      21.1        29.8      25.0
Los Angeles              72.7      77.0    74.7      46.2      46.9     46.5       21.0    28.6         24.6       31.9        45.0    38.0      15.7        26.1      20.5
San Francisco            57.8      58.1    58.0      26.6      26.1     26.4         NA      NA           NA       28.8        32.5    30.7      16.6        19.2      17.9
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever had at least one drink of alcohol.
 + Drank alcohol on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Drank five or more drinks of alcohol on at least one occasion on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Ever used marijuana.
** Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
++ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
&& U.S. territories are included as states.
@@ Not available.
=============================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_18
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TABLE 18. Percentage of high school students who used cocaine, crack, or freebase, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade
-- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
=====================================================================================================================
                                                                                            Lifetime crack or
                        Lifetime cocaine use *            Current cocaine use +               freebase use &
                 ----------------------------------   ------------------------------   ------------------------------
Category             Female       Male       Total     Female       Male      Total     Female       Male      Total
Race/Ethnicity
White@               4.6 **        8.2         6.5        1.4        3.7        2.6        2.9        5.4        4.2
                (+/-1.3) **    (+/-1.9)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-0.9)   (+/-1.0)   (+/-0.8)   (+/-1.3)   (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.2)

Black@                  0.5        3.9         2.0        0.2        2.7        1.3        0.3        3.2        1.6
                    (+/-0.4)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-0.8)   (+/-0.2)   (+/-1.4)   (+/-0.7)   (+/-0.2)   (+/-1.5)   (+/-0.7)

Hispanic               15.0       17.0        16.0        5.8        9.3        7.5       11.6        9.4       10.5
                    (+/-7.3)   (+/-5.5)    (+/-5.9)   (+/-4.1)   (+/-5.0)   (+/-3.8)   (+/-6.6)   (+/-3.9)   (+/-4.6)
Grade
 9th                    3.9        7.2         5.7        1.2        4.8        3.1        3.1        6.1        4.7
                    (+/-2.1)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-0.9)   (+/-2.8)   (+/-1.7)   (+/-2.0)   (+/-2.8)   (+/-1.8)

10th                    6.4        8.5         7.5        2.9        2.2        2.5        4.3        5.4        4.9
                    (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-2.1)   (+/-1.1)   (+/-1.1)   (+/-2.5)   (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.6)

11th                    4.8        9.4         7.2        1.8        5.3        3.6        2.8        5.8        4.4
                    (+/-2.1)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-1.2)   (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.6)   (+/-1.3)

12th                    4.9       10.0         7.4        1.3        4.9        3.1        3.4        5.1        4.2
                    (+/-2.8)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.1)   (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.2)   (+/-2.2)   (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.4)

Total                   5.0        8.8         7.0        1.8        4.3        3.1        3.4        5.6        4.5
                    (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-0.8)   (+/-1.0)   (+/-0.8)   (+/-1.3)   (+/-1.0)   (+/-1.0)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever tried any form of cocaine (e.g., powder, crack, and freebase).
 + Used cocaine one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Ever used crack or freebase.
 @ Non-Hispanic.
** Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
======================================================================================================================

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Table_19
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TABLE 19. Percentage of high school students who used cocaine, crack, or freebase, by sex --selected U.S. sites,
Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
======================================================================================================================
                          Lifetime cocaine use *       Current cocaine use +       Lifetime crack or freebase use &
                        -------------------------    ------------------------     ----------------------------------
Site                    Female      Male    Total    Female      Male   Total     Female        Male           Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                    2.9       6.5      4.8       1.4       3.5     2.6        1.7         4.2             3.0
Alaska                     6.4       9.7      8.2       1.5       3.6     2.6        3.7         5.3             4.6
Arkansas                   5.7       7.4      6.6       2.6       4.3     3.4        3.8         4.6             4.2
Colorado @                 6.0      11.2      8.6       2.9       4.9     4.0        3.5         6.6             5.1
Guam **                    5.8       3.2      4.5       2.8       1.9     2.4        2.9         2.5             2.7
Hawaii                     8.1       7.7      7.9       2.4       3.6     3.0        6.2         5.5             5.8
Illinois                   5.6       7.9      6.7       2.2       3.4     2.8        3.6         4.4             4.0
Maine                    NA ++        NA       NA        NA        NA      NA        4.8         6.2             5.5
Massachusetts              5.5       9.6      7.5       2.0       4.6     3.3        2.8         5.6             4.2
Mississippi                2.3       3.6      2.9       0.5       2.3     1.4        1.5         2.2             1.8
Missouri                   6.0       8.8      7.4       2.7       5.6     4.2        3.4         6.5             5.0
Montana                    5.7       6.3      6.1       2.3       3.3     2.8        3.7         4.3             4.0
Nevada                    12.8      10.3     11.5       5.0       4.7     4.9        7.7         6.3             6.9
New Hampshire              3.7       7.3      5.5       1.6       2.1     1.9        2.1         4.6             3.3
New Jersey @               6.0       7.9      6.9       2.3       4.7     3.5        3.3         5.1             4.2
North Carolina             3.9       5.5      4.7       2.3       2.2     2.2        2.6         3.7             3.1
North Dakota               3.4       6.7      5.2        NA        NA      NA         NA          NA              NA
Puerto Rico **             1.9       6.4      4.0       0.8       4.0     2.4        0.9         3.4             2.1
South Carolina             3.5       6.7      5.2       1.7       4.0     3.0        2.5         4.7             3.7
South Dakota               2.7       4.9      3.8       0.5       3.3     1.9        1.8         3.4             2.6
Utah                       5.2       5.7      5.5       2.9       3.3     3.1        3.9         3.5             3.8
Vermont                    5.4       8.9      7.2       2.5       4.8     3.7        3.5         6.5             5.1
Virgin Islands **           NA        NA       NA        NA        NA      NA         NA          NA              NA
West Virginia              5.9      11.4      8.8       2.2       5.7     4.0        3.9         8.3             6.2
Wyoming                    8.4      10.4      9.5       3.0       6.3     4.7        5.3         7.2             6.3

Unweighted data
California @               9.5      10.4      9.9       3.3       4.3     3.7        5.6         6.3             5.9
Delaware                   3.8       7.3      5.6       2.5       4.7     3.6        2.0         5.1             3.5
Georgia                    1.7       5.1      3.2       0.6       2.8     1.6        1.1         3.0             1.9
Idaho                      6.3       7.3      6.9       3.8       4.4     4.2        5.0         5.7             5.4
Marshall Islands **        2.1       7.6      4.8       1.7       4.6     3.1        1.4         5.0             3.1
Michigan @                 4.7       9.3      7.1       2.2       6.2     4.3        2.5         5.6             4.1
Nebraska                   4.0       4.7      4.4       2.1       2.6     2.4        2.6         3.4             3.0
Ohio                       3.7       5.9      5.0       1.3       3.5     2.5        2.4         3.6             3.2
Rhode Island               3.8       7.6      5.6       1.1       4.7     2.8        2.2         5.2             3.7
Tennessee                  4.5       7.4      5.9       1.9       3.8     2.8        3.2         5.5             4.3
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                     1.4       3.9      2.6       0.8       3.5     2.1        0.8         3.2             1.9
Chicago                    3.6       8.2      5.8       1.9       5.0     3.4        1.8         4.3             3.0
Dallas                     5.3       9.4      7.3       1.9       4.1     3.0        2.7         5.6             4.1
Denver                     6.2       7.9      7.2       1.3       2.4     2.1        2.3         3.6             3.2
Ft. Lauderdale             3.8       4.5      4.1       1.6       2.3     1.9        1.4         2.8             2.1
Houston                    4.5      10.8      7.6       1.7       5.7     3.6        1.9         5.9             4.0
Jersey City                2.4       4.4      3.3       0.9       2.2     1.6        1.6         3.0             2.3
Miami                      3.6       7.0      5.3       1.2       3.6     2.4        1.3         4.3             2.9
New Orleans                0.8       5.4      3.0       0.3       4.1     2.1        0.3         2.0             1.1
Philadelphia               2.1       4.8      3.4       0.9       2.1     1.5        1.0         1.6             1.3
San Diego                  9.4      10.3      9.8       4.4       4.4     4.4        5.3         5.9             5.7
Seattle                     NA        NA       NA        NA        NA      NA         NA          NA              NA

Unweighted data
Detroit                    1.0       2.4      1.7       0.3       2.0     1.1        0.6         2.2             1.3
Dist. of Columbia          1.0       1.7      1.4       0.4       1.2     0.9        0.4         1.1             0.7
Los Angeles                8.1      13.4     10.6       2.4       7.1     4.6        6.2         8.9             7.4
San Francisco              5.6       6.3      6.0       2.1       2.7     2.4        3.5         4.5             4.0
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever tried any form of cocaine (e.g., powder, crack, and freebase).
 + Used cocaine one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Ever used crack or freebase.
 @ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
++ Not available.
======================================================================================================================

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Table_20
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TABLE  20.  Percentage of high school students who used illegal steroids,* injected illegal drugs,+ used other illegal  drugs,&  and
sniffed or inhaled intoxicating substances,@ by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
==============================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                                                          Sniffed or inhaled intoxicating
                 Lifetime illegal steroid use         Lifetime injected illegal-drug use         Lifetime use of other illegal drugs                substances
               --------------------------------     --------------------------------------       ------------------------------------   ------------------------------------
Category       Female        Male         Total     Female               Male       Total         Female        Male           Total     Female         Male          Total
Race/Ethni
city
White **          2.2         5.3           3.8        1.1                2.8         2.0           17.0        19.6            18.4       20.1         25.0           22.7
              (+/-0.8) ++ (+/-0.9)      (+/-0.6)   (+/-0.7)           (+/-0.9)    (+/-0.6)       (+/-3.8)    (+/-2.6)        (+/-2.6)   (+/-3.7)     (+/-2.5)       (+/-2.8)


Black **          0.9         2.4           1.6        0.3                2.1         1.1            2.3         5.9             3.9        9.4          8.9            9.5
              (+/-0.5)    (+/-1.5)      (+/-0.8)   (+/-0.4)           (+/-1.3)    (+/-0.7)       (+/-1.8)    (+/-3.7)        (+/-1.6)   (+/-2.6)     (+/-2.0)       (+/-1.8)

Hispanic          5.3         4.1           4.7        0.9                3.5         2.2           17.2        19.0            18.1       22.4         23.1           22.8
              (+/-2.6)    (+/-1.0)      (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.3)           (+/-1.4)    (+/-1.0)       (+/-5.7)    (+/-3.7)        (+/-3.8)   (+/-6.9)     (+/-6.1)       (+/-5.0)
Grade
 9th              3.4         4.7           4.1        1.6                3.8         2.8           10.3        14.3            12.5       25.0         23.9           24.6
              (+/-1.5)    (+/-1.7)      (+/-1.3)   (+/-1.2)           (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.1)       (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.4)        (+/-2.6)   (+/-4.1)     (+/-4.7)       (+/-3.7)

10th              3.1         4.2           3.6        1.7                2.7         2.2           15.8        17.5            16.7       21.3         23.4           22.4
              (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.5)      (+/-1.1)   (+/-1.3)           (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.3)       (+/-4.5)    (+/-3.4)        (+/-3.4)   (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.4)       (+/-1.9)

11th              2.2         5.5           3.9        0.5                2.8         1.7           15.3        18.7            17.0       16.1         22.0           19.2
              (+/-1.2)    (+/-2.4)      (+/-1.4)   (+/-0.4)           (+/-1.0)    (+/-0.5)       (+/-4.2)    (+/-4.3)        (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.8)     (+/-3.9)       (+/-2.9)

12th              1.0         4.8           2.9        0.4                2.8         1.6           13.7        20.1            17.0       12.6         19.2           15.9
              (+/-0.7)    (+/-1.2)      (+/-0.7)   (+/-0.4)           (+/-1.6)    (+/-0.9)       (+/-3.9)    (+/-3.6)        (+/-2.5)   (+/-4.1)     (+/-3.7)       (+/-2.6)

Total             2.4         4.9           3.7        1.0                3.0         2.0           14.1        17.8            16.0       18.4         22.1           20.3
              (+/-0.6)    (+/-0.8)      (+/-0.6)   (+/-0.5)           (+/-0.6)    (+/-0.4)       (+/-2.7)    (+/-1.8)        (+/-1.8)   (+/-2.5)     (+/-2.3)       (+/-2.1)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  Ever used illegal steroids.
+  Ever injected illegal drugs. Respondents were classified as injecting-drug users only if they a) reported injecting-drug use not prescribed by a physician and b) answered
   "one or more" to any of these questions: "During your life, how many times have you used any form of cocaine including powder, crack, or freebase?"; "During your life how
   many times have you used any other type of illegal drug, such as LSD, PCP, ecstacy, mushrooms, speed, ice, or heroin?"; or "During your life, how many times have you taken
   steroid pills or shots without a doctor's prescription?"
&  Ever used any other type of illegal drug, such as LSD, PCP, ecstacy, mushrooms, speed, ice, or heroin.
@  Ever sniffed glue or breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans or inhaled any paint sprays to get high.
** Non-Hispanic.
++ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
==============================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_21
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TABLE 21. Percentage of high school students who used illegal steroids, * injected illegal drugs, + used other illegal drugs, & and sniffed or
inhaled intoxicating substances, @ by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
====================================================================================================================================================
                          Lifetime illegal steroid          Lifetime injected          Lifetime use of other                Sniffed or inhaled
                                      use                   illegal-drug use               illegal drugs                  intoxicating substances
                         --------------------------      ------------------------     ------------------------         ----------------------------
Site                     Female      Male     Total      Female       Male  Total     Female     Male    Total         Female        Male     Total

STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                     3.0       7.9       5.6         1.2        4.1   2.8        8.8     12.3     10.6           14.7        18.5      16.7
Alaska                      3.3       4.4       3.9         1.5        2.3   2.0       15.8     21.5     18.8           20.9        23.4      22.2
Arkansas                    3.1       6.5       4.9         1.9        2.5   2.2       12.8     16.7     14.8           20.0        22.7      21.4
Colorado **                 2.0       4.9       3.5         1.2        2.9   2.1       20.1     24.6     22.3           18.6        23.1      20.9
Guam ++                     2.7       1.9       2.3         1.9        0.7   1.3       11.3     14.4     12.9           13.1        16.9      15.1
Hawaii                      2.2       2.8       2.6         1.4        2.1   1.7       12.8     16.4     14.7           16.0        14.2      15.2
Illinois                    1.2       4.3       2.8         0.8        3.0   1.9       12.8     19.1     15.9           18.4        22.2      20.3
Maine                       2.4       5.3       3.9         0.6        2.4   1.5       21.2     20.3     20.7           17.0        22.3      19.8
Massachusetts               2.7       5.9       4.4         1.0        4.5   2.8       13.2     21.0     17.1           16.8        21.6      19.2
Mississippi                 1.9       2.5       2.2         0.8        2.0   1.4        6.7      8.8      7.7           17.5        19.5      18.4
Missouri                    2.8       6.5       4.7         1.4        4.2   2.9       15.6     18.4     17.0           18.6        21.4      20.0
Montana                     1.9       5.4       3.7         1.6        3.4   2.5       14.7     16.5     15.6           18.9        22.9      20.9
Nevada                      2.7       4.2       3.5         2.2        3.6   2.9       21.0     19.4     20.4           27.7        25.2      26.4
New Hampshire               2.5       4.2       3.4         0.7        2.5   1.6       19.2     22.4     20.8           23.5        28.2      25.9
New Jersey **               1.4       5.5       3.5         0.8        3.9   2.3       11.3     16.3     13.8           16.9        22.4      19.6
North Carolina              1.2       2.8       2.0         1.5        1.9   1.7       16.4     15.7     16.1           18.9        20.0      19.4
North Dakota                2.3       6.7       4.7         1.2        6.3   3.7       11.1     11.4     11.3           NA&&          NA        NA
Puerto Rico ++              1.4       5.0       3.2         1.2        3.0   2.1        0.9      3.8      2.4            6.5         9.3       7.9
South Carolina              2.9       7.1       5.2         1.2        3.6   2.5         NA       NA       NA           17.6        20.2      19.0
South Dakota                1.4       5.7       3.6         1.2        3.4   2.4       12.5     11.0     11.7           20.3        21.6      21.0
Utah                        2.2       3.6       3.0         1.4        2.4   1.9       11.3     12.0     11.7           17.6        18.9      18.3
Vermont                     3.9       7.8       5.9         2.4        4.7   3.7       16.2     21.0     18.7           24.6        29.1      26.9
Virgin Islands ++           3.3       4.2       3.9          NA         NA    NA        2.2      4.1      3.1             NA          NA        NA
West Virginia               3.9       8.8       6.5         2.0        4.8   3.5       19.5     24.0     21.9           24.2        32.1      28.3
Wyoming                     3.3       6.0       4.7         1.7        3.8   2.8       17.6     21.2     19.4           26.1        29.8      28.0

Unweighted data
California **               2.6       3.2       2.9         1.1        1.7   1.4       15.9     18.4     17.0           20.9        16.3      18.9
Delaware                    2.5       6.1       4.3         1.2        3.8   2.5       12.6     19.2     15.9           17.1        21.3      19.1
Georgia                     1.5       4.3       2.7         0.4        2.2   1.2        6.1     10.3      8.0           15.0        18.9      16.8
Idaho                       2.9       5.6       4.4         1.5        4.0   3.0       14.1     17.4     16.0           23.6        25.9      25.0
Marshall Islands ++          NA        NA        NA          NA         NA    NA        5.6     11.8      8.5            6.9        16.4      11.3
Michigan **                 2.2       8.9       5.7         1.7        4.8   3.3       16.7     19.5     18.1           20.6        28.1      24.5
Nebraska                    0.6       4.9       2.9         0.9        2.8   1.9        8.9     11.9     10.4           14.4        18.6      16.6
Ohio                        2.3       4.8       3.7         0.9        2.8   1.9       11.6     15.3     13.5           17.7        25.1      21.5
Rhode Island                1.9       5.0       3.4         0.5        3.3   1.8       12.3     19.8     15.8           16.8        21.5      19.0
Tennessee                   2.5       7.0       4.6         1.1        3.3   2.2       10.9     16.5     13.5           19.9        26.1      22.8
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                      3.0       6.2       4.7         1.7        3.0   2.4        4.7      7.8      6.2            9.2         9.5       9.4
Chicago                     2.3       5.9       4.0         1.2        6.1   3.5        5.0     10.9      7.9           14.3        14.6      14.5
Dallas                      2.8       4.8       3.8         0.9        2.6   1.7        6.6      9.9      8.2           18.9        18.6      18.7
Denver                      1.1       1.9       1.7         0.4        1.1   1.0       20.0     19.9     20.1           14.3        13.8      14.2
Ft. Lauderdale              1.2       4.7       2.9         0.5        3.4   1.9        8.6     10.4      9.5           13.6        12.5      13.1
Houston                     3.4       6.5       5.1         1.7        4.4   3.2        7.0     16.0     11.5           13.7        18.5      16.2
Jersey City                 0.6       5.3       2.8         0.2        2.2   1.2        2.9      6.8      4.8           10.1        11.1      10.5
Miami                       1.4       5.6       3.6         0.5        3.4   2.0        7.7     12.4     10.2           11.7        14.2      13.1
New Orleans                 1.6       4.5       3.1         0.7        3.2   1.9        2.1      5.8      3.9           13.0        12.4      12.7
Philadelphia                2.0       4.4       3.2         0.6        1.7   1.1        5.4      7.3      6.4           10.7         9.3      10.2
San Diego                   2.4       4.4       3.3         1.3        2.8   2.0       13.2     19.1     16.0           17.3        17.3      17.3
Seattle                      NA        NA        NA          NA         NA    NA         NA       NA       NA             NA          NA        NA

Unweighted data
Detroit                     1.1       3.3       2.1         0.6        1.7   1.1        1.3      3.4      2.3            9.7         8.0       8.9
Dist. of Columbia           1.3       2.9       2.1         0.1        0.8   0.4        3.1      4.7      3.9           11.5         9.9      10.9
Los Angeles                 3.1       3.9       3.5         1.1        1.2   1.2       12.7     16.9     14.7           16.9        22.8      19.7
San Francisco               2.3       2.6       2.5         1.1        1.8   1.6        7.1      8.1      7.7            7.9         7.6       7.7
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever used illegal steroids.
 + Ever injected illegal drugs. Respondents were classified as injecting-drug users only if they a) reported injecting-drug use not
   prescribed by a physician and b) answered "one or more" to any of these questions: "During your life, how many times have you
   used any form of cocaine including powder, crack, or freebase?"; "During your life, how many times have you used any other type
   of illegal drug, such as LSD, PCP, ecstacy, mushrooms, speed, ice, or heroin?"; or "During your life, how many times have you
   taken steroid pills or shots without a doctor's prescription?"
 & Ever used any other type of illegal drug, such as LSD, PCP, ecstacy, mushrooms, speed, ice, or heroin.
 @ Ever sniffed glue or breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans or inhaled any paint sprays to get high.
** Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
++ U.S. territories are included as states.
&& Not available.
====================================================================================================================================================

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Table_22
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TABLE 22. Percentage of high school students who reported initiating drug-related behaviors before age 13, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States,
Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
================================================================================================================================================================
                     Smoked a whole cigarette              Drank alcohol before             Tried marijuana before            Tried cocaine before
                           before age 13                          age 13 *                          age 13                           age 13 +
                 ---------------------------------    ------------------------------   -------------------------------   -------------------------------
Category            Female       Male       Total     Female        Male      Total     Female        Male      Total     Female       Male       Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White&                23.6       27.9        25.9       23.8        36.1       30.3        3.2         7.8        5.6        0.4        1.4         0.9
                 (+/-4.1) @   (+/-3.6)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-2.6)   (+/-1.4)    (+/-2.1)   (+/-1.5)   (+/-0.3)   (+/-0.5)    (+/-0.2)

Black&                14.8       20.1        17.2       29.8        42.8       35.9        6.7        16.5       11.1        0.3        2.4         1.3
                   (+/-4.1)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-6.7)    (+/-6.2)   (+/-5.4)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.0)   (+/-0.3)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-0.8)

Hispanic              20.2       33.0        26.6       32.4        46.7       39.5        8.8        16.5       12.6        1.3        2.0         1.7
                   (+/-5.8)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-6.2)    (+/-5.4)   (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-6.1)   (+/-3.9)   (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.1)
Grade
 9th                  24.9       30.7        28.1       33.7        46.7       41.0        5.9        12.0        9.2        0.6        1.8         1.3
                   (+/-5.8)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-7.6)    (+/-5.0)   (+/-4.0)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-2.9)   (+/-0.8)   (+/-1.0)    (+/-0.6)

10th                  22.4       28.6        25.6       26.8        41.0       34.1        5.9        12.1        9.1        0.7        1.8         1.3
                   (+/-6.1)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-5.6)    (+/-5.7)   (+/-3.5)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-1.7)   (+/-0.6)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-0.7)

11th                  21.0       28.6        25.0       23.1        35.7       29.6        4.7         8.6        6.7        0.3        2.4         1.4
                   (+/-5.2)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-3.1)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-4.2)   (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-1.9)   (+/-1.4)   (+/-0.3)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-0.8)

12th                  19.3       23.6        21.5       19.6        31.9       25.8        2.8         8.0        5.4        0.5        1.3         0.9
                   (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-4.1)    (+/-5.7)   (+/-3.6)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-2.4)   (+/-0.6)   (+/-0.7)    (+/-0.5)

Total                 21.8       27.8        24.9       25.5        38.6       32.4        4.8        10.2        7.6        0.5        1.8         1.2
                   (+/-3.4)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-3.1)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.2)   (+/-0.4)   (+/-0.6)    (+/-0.4)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Other than a few sips.
+ Including powder, crack, or freebase forms of cocaine.
& Non-Hispanic.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_23
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TABLE 23. Percentage of high school students who reported initiating drug-related behaviors before age 13, by sex
-- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
=======================================================================================================================
                    Smoked a whole cigarette  Drank alcohol before    Tried marijuana before   Tried cocaine before
                         before age 13                age 13 *                age 13                  age 13 +
                    ------------------------  ---------------------   ----------------------   ------------------------
Site                 Female    Male   Total   Female   Male   Total    Female   Male   Total   Female   Male    Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                20.1    35.6    27.8     26.6   42.5    34.6       3.5   11.1     7.4      0.2    2.2      1.4
Alaska                 28.1    33.0    30.7     34.1   39.1    36.7      10.3   13.2    11.8      1.3    1.5      1.4
Arkansas               24.9    33.0    29.0     28.2   47.0    37.8       4.6   10.1     7.4      0.8    1.9      1.4
Colorado &             24.0    29.5    26.8     30.4   45.0    37.8       7.6   14.2    11.0      0.8    1.8      1.3
Guam @                 28.2    34.5    31.5     19.8   26.3    23.2       7.0   15.4    11.4      2.1    0.7      1.4
Hawaii                 30.2    26.1    28.2     28.7   39.4    33.9      11.7   16.4    14.1      1.4    2.2      1.9
Illinois               19.4    31.2    25.3     29.0   41.4    35.2       4.2   10.3     7.2      0.4    1.7      1.0
Maine                  NA **     NA      NA       NA     NA      NA        NA     NA      NA      0.7    2.2      1.5
Massachusetts          21.3    26.6    23.9     25.7   36.3    31.1       5.5   12.8     9.2      0.7    2.4      1.5
Mississippi            19.2    34.3    26.9     22.2   40.0    31.2       2.2    7.3     4.8      0.2    0.5      0.3
Missouri               26.7    37.5    32.2     32.7   46.8    39.9       5.5   10.7     8.2      1.0    2.6      1.8
Montana                20.6    31.1    26.0     31.1   47.0    39.3       5.2    8.5     6.9      1.2    2.0      1.6
Nevada                 26.1    31.1    28.7     37.1   45.5    41.4       7.8   13.0    10.5      2.0    3.1      2.5
New Hampshire          20.8    26.4    23.7     23.8   30.0    26.9       4.4    8.0     6.2      0.1    1.0      0.5
New Jersey &           18.1    23.0    20.5     22.1   37.4    29.7       2.9    7.9     5.4      0.6    2.1      1.4
North Carolina         21.0    29.8    25.4     21.6   30.2    25.9       2.9    9.3     6.1      0.7    1.7      1.2
North Dakota             NA      NA      NA     24.6   40.4    32.3       2.8    7.4     5.3      1.4    3.5      2.5
Puerto Rico @           8.2    17.2    12.5     22.1   37.2    29.3       2.0    6.5     4.2      0.6    3.0      1.8
South Carolina         24.5    33.0    28.9     30.8   46.9    39.1       4.8   12.1     8.6      1.0    3.5      2.3
South Dakota           18.3    30.9    24.7     26.7   44.4    35.7       2.4    6.2     4.3      0.8    2.8      1.8
Utah                   16.0    19.2    17.7     18.0   23.5    20.8       4.1    5.6     4.9      0.9    1.5      1.2
Vermont                24.7    31.0    28.0     31.0   43.1    37.2       7.0   13.0    10.0      1.4    4.0      2.8
Virgin Islands @       14.2    16.2    15.2     35.2   46.1    40.4       8.2   18.7    13.1      3.2    3.3      3.3
West Virginia          28.3    37.7    33.2     26.4   47.5    37.3       5.2   15.0    10.3      0.9    2.3      1.7
Wyoming                26.6    35.0    30.9     32.7   50.9    42.0       4.5   11.9     8.3      1.3    2.8      2.0

Unweighted data
California &           17.5    21.5    19.3     29.9   36.9    33.0       7.7   13.9    10.4      2.0    1.4      1.7
Delaware               24.4    27.9    26.0     31.2   39.3    35.1       5.1    9.6     7.3      0.6    2.7      1.6
Georgia                16.9    24.0    20.1     29.9   44.3    36.5       3.2    9.9     6.2      0.4    1.5      0.9
Idaho                  19.9    29.0    24.8     26.0   37.9    32.4       4.2    9.1     6.8      1.1    2.3      1.7
Marshall Islands @      7.8    13.9    10.6      6.3   17.0    10.8       2.3    6.8     4.5      2.1    4.8      3.5
Michigan &             23.7    28.1    25.9     28.0   40.5    34.6       5.5   11.0     8.4      0.6    3.4      2.1
Nebraska               19.3    29.8    24.8     25.3   40.8    33.4       1.9    6.2     4.1      0.5    1.3      0.9
Ohio                   19.6    29.4    24.6     24.8   36.8    31.0       5.0    9.8     7.6      0.3    1.5      1.0
Rhode Island           26.8    28.7    27.6     28.1   38.4    32.9       4.1    9.9     6.9      0.5    2.6      1.5
Tennessee              24.2    33.2    28.4     25.9   38.8    32.0       5.1   12.0     8.3      1.0    1.8      1.4
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                 17.8    18.1    18.1     26.3   40.6    33.2       5.8   13.3     9.6      1.4    2.4      1.9
Chicago                17.7    26.1    21.7     29.9   35.3    32.5       6.3   13.6     9.8      0.9    4.4      2.6
Dallas                 14.6    25.3    19.9     31.2   41.9    36.3       4.3   13.4     8.7      0.9    2.8      1.8
Denver                 25.9    26.2    26.1     34.1   43.9    39.0      14.1   22.7    18.4      0.3    0.7      0.7
Ft. Lauderdale         18.0    20.6    19.2     29.4   35.1    32.2       4.0    9.8     6.8      0.4    1.7      1.0
Houston                14.2    25.5    19.5     26.2   44.8    34.8       4.3   15.4     9.7      0.6    3.7      2.2
Jersey City            15.9    18.2    17.0     27.9   34.8    31.0       3.6    8.3     5.8      0.9    2.0      1.5
Miami                  12.7    20.1    16.4     29.4   41.9    35.8       2.2    8.9     5.6      0.3    2.3      1.3
New Orleans            17.0    18.9    17.9     34.4   44.2    38.9       4.2   12.3     8.0      0.5    1.8      1.1
Philadelphia           21.4    20.7    21.2     27.6   34.5    30.9       6.7   12.7     9.7      0.3    0.6      0.5
San Diego              18.5    26.8    22.5     28.7   41.1    34.5       8.1   15.3    11.5      1.2    2.6      1.9
Seattle                16.5    22.7    19.4     26.1   35.8    30.8       7.3   13.1    10.1       NA     NA       NA

Unweighted data
Detroit                16.7    18.7    17.6     29.6   44.0    36.1       7.3   16.7    11.6      0.3    1.5      0.9
Dist. of Columbia      14.2    17.6    15.9     23.7   37.6    29.9       3.0    9.7     6.0       NA    1.7      0.7
Los Angeles            18.2    29.1    23.3     25.8   41.2    33.0       4.8   13.4     8.8      0.4    2.2      1.3
San Francisco          13.6    17.8    15.7     24.1   27.5    25.8       5.4    8.5     6.9      0.5    2.4      1.4
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Other than a few sips.
 + Including powder, crack, or freebase forms of cocaine.
 & Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
 @ U.S. territories are included as states.
** Not available.
=======================================================================================================================

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Table_24
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TABLE 24. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in drug-related behaviors on school property, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
======================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                      Smoke less-tobacco                                                                                Offered, sold, or given
                    Cigarette use on                         use                          Alcohol use on                   Marijuana use on               an illegal drug on
                     school property *                on school property +               school property &                  school property @              school property **
             --------------------------------   -------------------------------   ------------------------------    --------------------------------  --------------------------------
Category       Female       Male       Total     Female       Male       Total     Female       Male      Total      Female        Male      Total     Female       Male       Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White ++         17.7       17.5        17.6        0.8       14.2         8.0        4.6        6.5        5.6         4.0         9.7        7.0       23.5       38.8        31.7
           (+/- 3.3) &&  (+/-3.2)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-0.6)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-1.9)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-1.2)   (+/-4.4)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-4.4)


Black ++          4.5       11.6         7.6        0.2        2.7         1.3        5.2        9.6        7.6         8.1        17.6       12.3       22.5       35.3        28.5
              (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-2.2)   (+/-0.2)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-0.7)   (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.2)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-4.3)    (+/-6.4)   (+/-3.7)   (+/-4.5)   (+/-7.2)    (+/-3.9)

Hispanic         13.6       16.2        14.9        2.2        3.9         3.0        9.4       10.0        9.7         8.3        17.6       12.9       34.9       46.7        40.7
              (+/-3.9)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-3.1)   (+/-1.9)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-4.6)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-3.3)    (+/-7.1)   (+/-4.3)   (+/-6.9)   (+/-5.3)    (+/-4.8)
Grade
 9th             12.4       15.3        13.9        1.1        8.8         5.3        6.5        7.9        7.5         5.8        11.2        8.7       24.9       35.8        31.1
              (+/-3.5)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-1.3)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-3.2)   (+/-2.5)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-2.4)    (+/-4.4)   (+/-2.7)   (+/-5.0)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-3.3)

10th             15.5       15.3        15.4        1.0       11.2         6.2        5.6        6.3        6.0         6.6        12.9        9.8       26.4       43.0        35.0
              (+/-4.0)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-1.0)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.1)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-2.1)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-1.7)   (+/-2.8)   (+/-5.6)    (+/-3.0)

11th             17.0       16.4        16.7        0.3       13.7         7.2        5.2        6.1        5.7         4.9        12.0        8.6       25.3       39.8        32.8
              (+/-5.1)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-0.4)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-1.3)   (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.9)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-1.4)    (+/-2.1)   (+/-1.2)   (+/-4.2)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-3.7)

12th             14.9       20.0        17.5        0.6       11.2         5.9        4.0        8.4        6.2         4.7        11.2        8.0       22.0       36.2        29.1
              (+/-3.6)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-0.9)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.6)   (+/-2.1)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-2.6)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-2.3)   (+/-5.4)   (+/-6.0)    (+/-5.2)

Total            15.1       16.8        16.0        0.9       11.2         6.3        5.3        7.2        6.3         5.5        11.9        8.8       24.8       38.8        32.1
              (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-2.1)   (+/-0.7)   (+/-1.9)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.0)   (+/-0.9)    (+/-1.4)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.1)   (+/-2.8)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-3.0)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + Used chewing tobacco or snuff during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Drank alcohol on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** During the 12 months preceding the survey.
++ Non-Hispanic.
&& Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
======================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_25
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TABLE 25. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in drug-related behaviors on school property, by sex
-- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
======================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                                                                         Offered, sold, or given
                             Cigarette use on             Smokeless-tobacco            Alcohol use on school              Marijuana use on                 an illegal drug on
                             school property *           on school property +                property &                   school property @                school property **
                       --------------------------   -----------------------------   ----------------------------      --------------------------      --------------------------------
Site                    Female       Male   Total   Female     Male        Total    Female         Male    Total      Female       Male   Total       Female        Male      Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                    6.7       13.7    10.2      0.6     12.6          6.7       3.4          8.1      5.8         1.9        6.7     4.3         21.8        33.7       27.8
Alaska                    17.5       19.9    18.8      3.1     15.2          9.5       4.7          6.7      5.9         6.5       11.5     9.2         27.9        39.6       34.1
Arkansas                  11.2       16.6    13.9      1.0     14.0          7.6       4.6          6.8      5.7         3.0        7.8     5.4         19.9        33.1       26.7
Colorado ++               17.6       18.8    18.2      1.8     17.3          9.7       6.2          9.0      7.6         8.2       13.0    10.6         29.6        37.9       33.8
Guam &&                   17.8       15.9    16.8      2.2      5.0          3.7       4.8          4.3      4.5         3.5        9.6     6.7         38.3        53.8       46.4
Hawaii                    19.3       17.4    18.3      0.8      4.7          2.8       6.5          4.8      5.7         8.8       13.9    11.3         27.9        44.5       36.0
Illinois                  14.3       17.4    15.8      0.4      7.6          4.0       2.6          5.9      4.2         5.8       10.2     8.0         25.2        37.7       31.4
Maine                     19.4       19.0    19.2      0.4      7.9          4.2       3.6          6.2      4.9         6.3       10.2     8.3         31.6        40.3       36.0
Massachusetts             19.0       18.7    18.9      0.5      8.7          4.6       4.1          9.1      6.6         7.3       15.0    11.2         31.6        45.4       38.5
Mississippi                7.7       11.2     9.4      1.6      9.1          5.3       4.2          7.2      5.7         1.7        4.4     3.0         14.0        26.6       20.2
Missouri                  13.9       18.1    16.0      0.8     17.9          9.5       4.3         10.0      7.2         4.2        8.3     6.3         21.3        30.6       26.1
Montana                   13.9       16.7    15.4      3.8     26.2         15.2       7.6         12.0      9.8         4.7        8.0     6.3         24.6        34.4       29.6
Nevada                    17.3       17.5    17.3      2.1     12.1          7.2       5.7          7.4      6.5         6.6       12.0     9.4         32.9        35.9       34.5
New Hampshire             17.6       17.7    17.6      0.9      8.6          4.7       2.8          5.9      4.4         5.7        9.1     7.4         27.1        36.8       32.0
New Jersey ++             18.2       21.9    20.0      0.9      9.3          5.0       4.0          6.9      5.5         4.3        9.8     7.0         22.6        36.8       29.6
North Carolina            12.0       16.6    14.3      1.2      9.3          5.3       3.7          6.4      5.0         3.4        8.9     6.1         24.2        35.5       29.8
North Dakota              13.2       16.2    14.8      1.8     14.6          8.3       6.5         10.6      8.6         3.9        6.9     5.5         24.3        31.1       27.6
Puerto Rico &&             3.5        8.3     5.8      0.4      2.5          1.4       2.4          6.1      4.1         1.6        5.1     3.3         15.1        27.8       21.1
South Carolina            12.3       17.2    14.8      1.1     13.0          7.2       4.7         10.0      7.4         2.6        9.5     6.2         NA@@          NA         NA
South Dakota              14.8       17.7    16.2      4.2     22.6         13.5       5.8         11.2      8.5         3.1        6.5     4.8         24.1        33.7       28.9
Utah                       8.4        8.6     8.5      1.1      7.7          4.4       3.6          5.5      4.5         4.3        6.5     5.5         21.9        30.2       26.1
Vermont                   18.1       20.5    19.3      2.0     10.5          6.4       4.9          9.3      7.2         6.8       12.6     9.7         29.5        40.6       35.2
Virgin Islands &&           NA         NA      NA       NA       NA           NA        NA           NA       NA          NA         NA      NA         12.1        27.9       19.7
West Virginia             21.6       22.0    21.8      1.2     22.6         12.2       4.7         10.0      7.4         6.0       12.4     9.3         26.4        38.5       32.6
Wyoming                   16.5       17.8    17.2      5.8     30.3         18.3       5.1          9.4      7.3         3.9        9.4     6.7         19.6        28.7       24.3

Unweighted data
California ++              7.7        9.2     8.3      0.8      4.6          2.5       7.6          5.8      6.8         6.8       11.4     8.8         35.4        47.1       40.5
Delaware                  16.0       19.1    17.6      0.5      9.1          4.7       5.3          9.1      7.1         5.5       12.1     8.7         24.3        39.1       31.5
Georgia                    5.4       13.3     8.9      0.4      6.7          3.2       3.9          9.2      6.3         2.2       10.8     6.0         18.4        34.4       25.7
Idaho                     10.9       13.9    12.5      1.9     15.0          8.8       5.4          9.4      7.6         4.2        8.2     6.3         21.0        27.7       24.7
Marshall                   4.7       14.2     8.8      5.7     23.8         13.6        NA           NA       NA         1.5        6.0     3.4         27.3        34.3       30.5
Islands &&
Michigan ++               16.8       16.8    16.8      0.9     13.0          7.2       5.5          9.2      7.4         6.0       12.3     9.3         24.1        34.5       29.6
Nebraska                  10.7       13.7    12.2      0.4     17.2          9.3       2.9          4.8      3.9         1.9        4.5     3.2         13.6        18.7       16.3
Ohio                      13.9       16.6    15.4      1.0     14.0          7.6       3.4          5.6      4.6         4.1        9.5     6.9         21.5        32.7       27.2
Rhode Island              23.3       22.4    22.9      0.9      4.7          2.7       3.5          8.5      5.9         7.0       14.9    10.7         26.5        40.7       33.2
Tennessee                 10.4       17.1    13.5      0.8     18.4          9.1       4.1          6.7      5.3         4.7        9.1     6.8         22.3        37.1       29.2
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                    11.3       11.8    11.8      0.8      2.5          1.6       5.4          7.7      6.7         6.2       12.3     9.4         26.5        37.3       31.8
Chicago                   10.7       10.4    10.5      0.5      4.5          2.4       3.0          6.1      4.5         4.8       11.5     8.0         21.5        35.2       28.1
Dallas                     6.1       13.6     9.8      0.4      2.9          1.6       6.7         10.6      8.6         4.9       11.8     8.2         25.3        41.0       32.9
Denver                    17.9       17.4    17.8      0.4      3.6          2.2      12.1         10.6     11.5        15.5       18.6    17.2         36.0        49.8       42.9
Ft. Lauderdale            10.2        9.7     9.9      0.7      4.2          2.5       3.2          5.6      4.4         4.9        9.1     6.9         24.2        35.4       29.7
Houston                    4.7       12.5     8.6      0.7      6.1          3.3       4.7          7.9      6.1         3.1       12.1     7.5         23.2        37.0       29.8
Jersey City               11.7       16.2    13.9      0.8      1.7          1.2       5.8          7.1      6.5         5.0        9.0     7.0         15.9        26.5       21.0
Miami                      7.5       11.5     9.5      0.7      2.5          1.7       2.0          9.0      5.6         3.8       10.3     7.1         24.7        35.1       30.1
New Orleans                3.5        9.7     6.4      0.2      1.6          0.9       3.9          5.6      4.7         5.1       13.4     9.1         17.3        27.1       21.9
Philadelphia              15.5       16.8    16.2      0.1      2.0          1.0       2.9          6.4      4.6         6.5       15.4    10.8         16.3        29.0       22.4
San Diego                 10.1       10.1    10.1      0.5      2.9          1.6       9.0         10.5      9.7         8.5       15.7    11.8         40.2        53.2       46.2
Seattle                   16.9       21.1    18.8       NA       NA           NA        NA           NA       NA          NA         NA      NA         32.8        44.9       38.5

Unweighted data
Detroit                    4.7       13.5     8.7      0.3      1.6          0.9       7.3         11.8      9.3         7.8       20.2    13.4         21.6        33.5       26.9
Dist. of Columbia          7.4       11.7     9.3      0.3      1.4          0.8       7.1          7.2      7.1         6.8       14.4    10.1         17.1        27.1       21.6
Los Angeles                9.7       13.1    11.3      0.9      3.2          2.0       3.8          6.5      5.0         5.1       12.9     8.7         29.2        41.2       34.9
San Francisco             11.5       10.2    10.9      0.2      0.8          0.5       5.4          6.0      5.7         6.6        9.2     7.9         32.8        40.7       36.7
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + Used chewing tobacco or snuff during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Drank alcohol on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** During the 12 months preceding the survey.
++ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
&& U.S. territories are included as states.
@@ Not available.
======================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_26
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TABLE 26. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in sexual behaviors, by race/ethnicity, sex, and grade
-- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
=====================================================================================================================================================================================
                     Ever had sexual              First sexual intercourse              Four or more sex
                       intercourse                      before age 13                partners during lifetime        Currently sexually active *         Currently abstinent +
             -------------------------------   -------------------------------   -------------------------------   -------------------------------    -------------------------------
Category       Female       Male      Total     Female       Male       Total     Female        Male      Total     Female        Male      Total      Female       Male       Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White &          49.0       48.9       48.9        3.6        7.6         5.7       13.1        15.2       14.2       38.5        31.6       34.8        21.5       35.1        28.8
            (+/-5.5) @   (+/-5.5)   (+/-5.0)   (+/-1.0)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.3)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-2.1)

Black &          67.0       81.0       73.4       10.4       41.4        24.2       21.7        52.2       35.6       50.6        58.3       54.2        24.6       28.0        26.0
              (+/-6.2)   (+/-5.5)   (+/-4.9)   (+/-3.5)   (+/-6.1)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-4.5)    (+/-7.1)   (+/-4.5)   (+/-5.2)    (+/-6.0)   (+/-4.7)    (+/-6.6)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-4.7)

Hispanic         53.3       62.0       57.6        5.0       12.9         8.8       11.9        23.6       17.6       39.4        39.2       39.3        26.2       36.4        31.5
              (+/-8.6)   (+/-8.3)   (+/-7.9)   (+/-2.8)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-5.7)   (+/-3.8)   (+/-8.5)    (+/-7.7)   (+/-6.9)    (+/-8.2)   (+/-8.4)    (+/-4.2)
Grade
 9th             32.1       40.6       36.9        7.7       14.2        11.2        6.8        17.5       12.9       22.3        24.2       23.6        30.3       40.2        35.9
              (+/-6.3)   (+/-7.1)   (+/-6.1)   (+/-2.8)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-4.6)   (+/-3.0)   (+/-4.7)    (+/-5.2)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-6.9)   (+/-5.6)    (+/-4.1)

10th             46.0       50.0       48.0        5.6       15.2        10.5       11.3        19.8       15.6       35.4        32.1       33.7        22.9       35.6        29.7
              (+/-5.6)   (+/-6.5)   (+/-5.1)   (+/-1.5)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-2.1)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-1.9)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-5.6)   (+/-5.7)    (+/-4.0)

11th             60.2       57.1       58.6        3.6       10.8         7.3       17.2        20.8       19.0       48.1        36.8       42.4        20.0       35.3        27.6
              (+/-5.9)   (+/-5.4)   (+/-4.8)   (+/-1.4)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-6.7)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-4.4)    (+/-5.2)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-3.2)

12th             66.0       67.1       66.4        3.2       10.7         6.9       20.8        25.2       22.9       51.9        47.9       49.7        21.4       28.3        25.0
              (+/-5.4)   (+/-4.3)   (+/-4.1)   (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-5.7)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-5.3)    (+/-5.3)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-4.7)   (+/-5.6)    (+/-2.5)

Total            52.1       54.0       53.1        4.9       12.7         9.0       14.4        20.9       17.8       40.4        35.5       37.9        22.5       34.0        28.5
              (+/-5.0)   (+/-4.6)   (+/-4.5)   (+/-1.0)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-1.5)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-2.5)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.5)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey.
+ Among those who have ever had sexual intercourse, no sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey.
& Non-Hispanic.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
=====================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_27
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TABLE 27. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in sexual behaviors, by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
=================================================================================================================================================================================
                         Ever had sexual         First sexual intercourse             Four or more sex
                           intercourse                 before age 13               partners during lifetime        Currently sexually active *         Currently abstinent +
                    -------------------------   -----------------------------     --------------------------      -----------------------------      ----------------------------
Category             Female    Male     Total   Female     Male         Total     Female     Male      Total      Female        Male      Total      Female        Male   Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                 NA &     NA        NA       NA       NA            NA         NA       NA         NA          NA          NA         NA          NA          NA      NA
Alaska                 46.4    47.8      47.2      5.4     11.2           8.4       16.3     17.6       17.1        30.7        30.1       30.5        33.4        37.0    35.3
Arkansas               59.6    63.4      61.5      6.9     20.4          13.7       20.5     31.1       25.8        45.7        44.2       44.9        23.2        30.2    26.9
Colorado @             43.6    49.4      46.6      3.8     12.1           8.0       13.4     18.5       16.0        30.8        31.3       31.0        29.2        36.6    33.2
Guam **                48.2    44.6      46.3      5.9     11.4           8.7        8.9     14.8       11.9        33.2        21.9       27.4          NA          NA    40.4
Hawaii                 45.2    42.5      43.8      5.6      8.6           7.1       10.4     11.7       11.0        32.8        24.8       28.9        27.4        41.5    34.1
Illinois               46.0    51.0      48.4      5.2     13.7           9.4       11.4     21.4       16.3        33.5        34.6       34.0        27.2        32.0    29.7
Maine                  51.0    47.1      49.0      3.8      4.9           4.3       13.9     11.7       12.8        38.4        31.7       35.0        25.0        32.5    28.7
Massachusetts          42.8    50.3      46.5      3.8     11.8           7.8       11.1     18.4       14.8        32.7        33.4       33.1        23.3        33.7    28.9
Mississippi            64.3    70.8      67.6      8.6     27.9          18.2       22.4     37.8       29.9        48.3        52.4       50.2        24.9        25.8    25.6
Missouri               51.6    55.7      53.7      4.3     13.6           8.9       16.1     22.2       19.2        39.9        38.5       39.1        22.7        30.9    27.1
Montana                44.7    49.1      47.0      3.3      9.3           6.3       14.1     16.7       15.4        33.6        30.7       32.2        24.8        37.7    31.5
Nevada                 53.3    59.4      56.4      3.7     15.7           9.7       18.1     27.5       23.0        40.6        40.0       40.2        23.8        32.8    28.8
New Hampshire          47.1    45.7      46.4      4.4      6.4           5.4       12.8     13.8       13.3        37.2        30.4       33.8        21.1        33.4    27.2
New Jersey @           44.5    54.1      49.2      3.5     12.7           8.1       10.8     22.1       16.4        31.2        35.9       33.5        30.0        33.5    31.9
North Carolina         57.6    57.2      57.3      6.3     18.9          12.5       19.8     27.9       23.8        43.7        38.3       41.0        23.9        32.8    28.2
North Dakota             NA      NA        NA      2.6      9.5           5.9       10.9     13.7       12.3        31.8        25.8       29.0        22.1        32.2    26.7
Puerto Rico **         24.6    50.5      36.3      2.1     17.2           9.1        1.8     16.3        8.4        17.6        26.4       21.7        28.9        47.8    40.7
South Carolina         62.1    70.4      66.2      9.5     28.7          19.0       19.8     35.7       27.6        45.0        47.3       46.2        27.7        32.9    30.4
South Dakota           39.8    41.5      40.6      3.5      7.4           5.5       13.3     13.0       13.1        29.7        27.8       28.8        25.4        32.8    29.2
Utah                     NA      NA        NA       NA       NA            NA         NA       NA         NA          NA          NA         NA          NA          NA      NA
Vermont                41.7    46.7      44.2      5.9     12.1           9.0         NA       NA         NA          NA          NA         NA          NA          NA      NA
Virgin Islands **      35.4    66.1      49.1      6.3     42.2          22.1        7.7     33.1       18.9        23.7        37.0       29.6        31.6        43.6    38.7
West Virginia          58.5    63.1      60.9      5.0     16.5          11.0       14.9     23.9       19.6        47.1        43.5       45.3        19.1        31.0    25.4
Wyoming                45.2    52.6      48.9      5.6     12.2           8.9       13.7     19.1       16.4        31.1        33.0       32.0        31.1        37.5    34.6

Unweighted data
California @           43.4    46.0      44.6      4.2      8.7           6.2       10.1     15.2       12.4        30.9        30.7       30.8        26.9        30.4    28.6
Delaware               58.2    58.0      58.1      7.2     17.2          12.0       21.2     25.0       23.0        44.0        41.1       42.6        24.3        28.7    26.4
Georgia                63.0    71.5      66.8      9.1     27.3          17.3       19.2     41.6       29.3        46.7        52.7       49.4        25.7        26.0    25.8
Idaho                  32.9    41.8      37.7      4.3     10.3           7.6        8.2     13.4       11.0        24.0        24.6       24.4        27.3        41.1    35.2
Marshall Islands **    39.5    68.4      51.4      2.3     17.5           8.7       10.6     36.3       21.2        27.7        51.2       37.4        29.9        25.7    27.9
Michigan @             38.4    43.1      40.9      2.9     10.1           6.6       10.6     14.4       12.6        28.5        29.6       29.2        25.7        30.5    28.3
Nebraska               43.5    49.8      46.8      3.5      7.7           5.7       10.9     15.5       13.3        33.3        32.2       32.7        23.2        35.1    29.9
Ohio                   48.8    51.4      50.1      5.4     13.6           9.6       15.1     19.2       17.1        37.5        34.3       36.0        23.0        33.1    28.2
Rhode Island           43.8    51.0      47.1      3.5     12.5           7.8        9.1     18.8       13.6        31.5        32.4       31.9        28.0        36.2    32.1
Tennessee              57.1    64.2      60.5      7.6     19.6          13.2       19.6     28.6       23.8        42.4        44.4       43.4        25.8        30.7    28.2
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                 48.0    68.3      57.9      6.5     28.4          17.1       14.1     36.2       24.7        35.7        46.2       41.0        25.9        31.7    28.8
Chicago                46.6    67.1      55.8      6.9     27.7          16.2        9.3     34.4       20.5        34.0        45.5       39.2        27.4        31.6    29.7
Dallas                 56.9    73.2      64.8      7.0     29.9          18.0       18.9     38.6       28.4        40.2        51.0       45.5        28.9        30.2    29.5
Denver                 51.8    57.7      54.8      5.6     17.1          11.4       15.6     25.8       20.8        38.6        39.0       39.0        25.4        32.2    28.8
Ft. Lauderdale         45.5    60.1      52.5      4.9     22.9          13.5        9.1     26.2       17.2        33.5        36.6       35.0        26.3        38.7    33.1
Houston                46.7    65.0      55.4      5.9     29.3          16.7       12.2     34.6       22.5        31.2        43.5       37.1        33.8        32.8    32.9
Jersey City            48.6    70.4      58.8      4.7     29.8          16.3       11.5     38.9       24.2        36.0        50.5       42.6        26.2        28.1    27.4
Miami                  33.7    61.0      47.5      3.1     23.4          13.4        7.2     27.9       17.7        24.4        37.2       30.9        27.2        38.9    34.6
New Orleans            52.4    77.6      63.9      5.2     41.2          21.7       13.9     49.9       30.2        39.6        56.4       47.2        24.0        27.2    25.8
Philadelphia           60.4    75.1      67.6      7.5     34.7          20.6       17.4     45.9       31.0        44.2        54.9       49.3        26.7        26.7    26.9
San Diego              39.5    50.5      44.6      5.0     15.1           9.8       11.4     18.6       14.8        29.6        31.8       30.6        25.0        37.2    31.5
Seattle                42.0    46.0      43.8      4.7     15.2           9.6       11.5     19.1       15.0        30.8        28.7       29.8        26.3        37.8    32.0

Unweighted data
Detroit                64.9    80.9      72.0      8.4     40.9          22.9       21.3     52.5       35.1        47.8        59.2       52.8        26.4        26.6    26.5
Dist. of Columbia      66.1    80.1      72.2     10.1     38.3          22.4       28.3     53.3       39.3        51.0        57.0       53.6        22.4        29.1    25.7
Los Angeles            39.0    52.6      45.2      3.6     12.2           7.5        6.9     20.5       13.1        26.3        31.3       28.6        32.6        40.7    36.9
San Francisco            NA      NA        NA      3.3      9.6           6.4        8.4     13.0       10.6        26.4        19.6       23.1        19.8        45.3    32.8
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey.
 + Among those who have ever had sexual intercourse, no sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey.
 & Not available.
 @ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
=================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_28
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TABLE 28. Percentage of high school students who reported using a condom during, *+ using birth control pills before, * + using alcohol or drugs at last sexual
intercourse, + and ever being pregnant or getting someone pregnant, by race/ethnicity, sex, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
=======================================================================================================================================================================
                        Condom use during last                Birth control pill use before           Alcohol or drug use at               Been pregnant or got
                          sexual intercourse                      last sexual intercourse             last sexual intercourse                someone pregnant
                 -----------------------------------        ----------------------------------   ----------------------------------   ---------------------------------
Category            Female         Male       Total          Female        Male         Total     Female        Male         Total     Female       Male       Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White &               48.0         57.5        52.5            25.4        17.0          21.4       18.0        35.7          26.6        4.4        3.6         4.0
                 (+/-5.4) @     (+/-6.7)    (+/-4.0)        (+/-4.1)    (+/-4.2)      (+/-3.2)   (+/-4.1)    (+/-5.8)      (+/-3.1)   (+/-1.0)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-0.7)

Black&                60.5         71.6        66.1            12.2         8.3          10.2       11.1        26.5          19.2       16.1       13.5        14.8
                   (+/-5.2)     (+/-6.1)    (+/-4.8)        (+/-4.1)    (+/-2.5)      (+/-2.1)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-5.9)      (+/-4.8)   (+/-4.2)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-2.7)

Hispanic              33.4         56.1        44.4             9.4        13.5          11.4       22.3        27.5          24.9       12.8       12.1        12.5
                  (+/-10.8)    (+/-10.3)   (+/-10.2)        (+/-1.9)    (+/-5.0)      (+/-2.7)   (+/-7.1)    (+/-9.3)      (+/-5.0)   (+/-9.6)   (+/-5.5)    (+/-7.1)
Grade
 9th                  58.5         65.5        62.9            12.6         9.7          10.9       16.9        38.3          29.7        5.2        3.6         4.3
                   (+/-8.2)     (+/-8.6)    (+/-5.6)        (+/-4.7)    (+/-3.3)      (+/-2.9)   (+/-5.8)    (+/-8.5)      (+/-6.3)   (+/-4.1)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-2.2)

10th                  51.5         68.2        59.7            15.7         8.5          12.2       18.4        39.3          28.6        6.2        5.3         5.7
                   (+/-6.1)     (+/-6.5)    (+/-4.8)        (+/-5.0)    (+/-5.1)      (+/-3.4)   (+/-6.2)   (+/-11.8)      (+/-6.0)   (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-1.4)

11th                  49.0         56.6        52.3            17.2        13.3          15.4       20.7        28.4          24.3       10.4        5.3         7.8
                   (+/-8.1)     (+/-7.8)    (+/-5.8)        (+/-5.4)    (+/-4.8)      (+/-4.1)   (+/-6.4)    (+/-4.8)      (+/-3.2)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.8)

12th                  43.1         56.5        49.5            28.6        21.0          25.0       12.1        29.0          20.3        9.9        9.3         9.6
                   (+/-5.7)     (+/-6.3)    (+/-4.4)        (+/-3.5)    (+/-8.1)      (+/-3.5)   (+/-6.4)    (+/-6.2)      (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.1)   (+/-1.4)    (+/-1.6)

Total                 48.6         60.5        54.4            20.4        14.3          17.4       16.8        32.8          24.8        8.0        5.9         6.9
                   (+/-4.8)     (+/-4.3)    (+/-3.4)        (+/-2.9)    (+/-3.3)      (+/-2.2)   (+/-3.1)    (+/-4.3)      (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.0)   (+/-1.0)    (+/-1.2)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* During/before last sexual intercourse, among currently sexually active students.
+ Among currently sexually active students.
& Non-Hispanic.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
=======================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_29
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TABLE 29. Percentage of high school students who reported using a condom during, *+ using birth control pills before, *+ using alcohol or drugs at last sexual
intercourse, + and ever being pregnant or getting someone pregnant, by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
=================================================================================================================================================================
                         Condom use during last              Birth control pill use before          Alcohol or drug use at            Been pregnant or got
                          sexual intercourse                    last sexual intercourse            last sexual intercourse              someone pregnant
                      ----------------------------          --------------------------------    ------------------------------     ------------------------------
Site                  Female         Male    Total          Female        Male         Total    Female      Male         Total     Female       Male    Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                  NA &          NA       NA              NA          NA            NA        NA        NA            NA         NA         NA       NA
Alaska                  47.8         59.3     53.7            18.7        11.0          14.7      21.6      31.5          26.8        6.1        4.2      5.1
Arkansas                51.1         64.1     57.5            19.7        14.6          17.1      14.3      28.1          21.1        9.4        4.8      7.1
Colorado @              45.3         60.1     52.9            23.6        13.0          18.2      17.4      36.7          27.3        7.8        4.8      6.2
Guam **                   NA           NA       NA              NA          NA            NA        NA        NA            NA       10.8        2.5      6.5
Hawaii                  34.7         49.6     40.9            18.3        16.0          17.4      17.3      27.1          21.4        9.8        5.4      7.6
Illinois                52.3         68.1     60.1            16.4        14.9          15.6      14.2      33.1          23.6        6.4        4.2      5.3
Maine                   37.8         58.0     46.9            44.5        27.7          36.9      20.1      28.8          24.1        5.6        3.0      4.3
Massachusetts           52.0         59.9     55.9              NA          NA            NA      23.4      38.0          30.7        6.0        5.4      5.7
Mississippi             51.0         62.7     57.0            23.6        10.6          17.1       9.6      24.6          17.3       12.8       10.3     11.5
Missouri                43.8         60.7     52.1            25.9        15.6          20.9      22.9      35.5          29.1        7.5        5.0      6.2
Montana                 48.8         59.1     53.9            24.0        14.8          19.5      25.8      34.9          30.2        4.8        5.3      5.1
Nevada                  45.9         62.9     54.3            18.6        14.8          16.6      18.2      27.5          22.9       10.2        6.2      8.2
New Hampshire           45.6         58.8     51.5            35.6        22.3          29.6      20.5      25.2          22.6        5.9        3.6      4.7
New Jersey @            55.7         69.2     62.8            15.4         8.5          11.9      19.5      39.0          29.9        6.9        6.2      6.5
North Carolina          44.8         65.4     54.2            21.9        10.9          16.9      16.1      20.6          18.2        8.2        5.9      7.0
North Dakota            45.4         52.7     48.5            27.5        19.6          24.1      22.9      43.6          31.9         NA         NA       NA
Puerto Rico **          26.3         49.8     39.1             5.4         6.5           6.0       4.7      13.7           9.8        3.5        4.1      3.8
South Carolina          50.9         63.7     57.3            18.7        11.1          14.9      15.3      27.6          21.6        9.7        7.6      8.6
South Dakota            41.6         52.6     46.9            21.3        13.1          17.4      24.8      37.7          31.1        4.4        2.8      3.6
Utah                      NA           NA       NA              NA          NA            NA        NA        NA            NA         NA         NA       NA
Vermont                   NA           NA       NA              NA          NA            NA        NA        NA            NA        5.3        4.0      4.7
Virgin Islands **       52.3         62.8     57.7             4.0         1.8           2.9       2.6      13.0           8.7        5.8        4.9      5.5
West Virginia           45.9         57.1     51.3            24.0        14.9          19.6      17.3      33.9          25.6        6.9        5.7      6.3
Wyoming                 48.3         58.6     53.7            27.8        17.1          22.2      22.5      37.2          30.1        6.0        5.3      5.7

Unweighted data
California @            44.6         66.2     54.4            13.4        13.8          13.5      21.8      27.5          24.3        6.7        4.9      5.9
Delaware                45.6         60.6     52.4            22.0        13.3          18.0      14.8      28.6          21.2       12.3        6.9      9.7
Georgia                 57.1         72.7     64.6            16.7        11.2          14.1      12.0      26.3          18.8       13.4        8.8     11.4
Idaho                   41.9         54.8     48.4            20.3        15.9          18.0      22.4      36.5          29.9        4.1        4.3      4.2
Marshall Islands **     19.1         38.1     29.7             1.1         8.5           5.2      17.8      31.3          25.2        2.4        9.0      5.1
Michigan @              51.7         61.1     56.7            25.1        14.2          19.7      27.9      42.4          35.4        4.7        4.5      4.6
Nebraska                52.7         64.7     58.9            21.3        16.0          18.6      22.2      27.5          25.0        4.8        3.9      4.3
Ohio                    52.9         63.3     57.6            21.1        15.5          18.4      17.5      28.5          23.1        7.4        5.5      6.4
Rhode Island            50.3         55.5     52.9            18.5        12.8          15.7      15.7      31.7          23.3        7.6        5.6      6.6
Tennessee               46.3         61.3     53.5            18.7         9.6          14.3      16.0      26.4          21.0       10.8        7.2      9.1
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                  59.4         74.3     67.4              NA          NA            NA      17.0      27.1          22.7       11.1        9.6     10.5
Chicago                 59.1         78.7     69.1            10.4         5.4           7.8      10.8      18.8          14.9       10.2        8.1      9.2
Dallas                  51.7         64.1     58.3            13.7        10.2          11.8      12.7      26.9          20.3       12.0        9.2     10.8
Denver                  54.3         71.1     62.4            14.9         9.0          11.9      16.5      36.8          26.9       13.3        7.3     10.4
Ft. Lauderdale          59.9         70.7     65.2            10.5         5.5           8.1      10.4      23.8          17.1        6.8        6.6      6.7
Houston                 44.1         65.7     55.3            14.6         6.3          10.0      12.9      29.2          21.5        8.8       10.3      9.9
Jersey City             53.6         73.3     64.4             8.4         3.3           5.6      17.3      18.7          18.1       14.1       10.1     12.1
Miami                   54.1         69.6     63.2             8.5         5.3           6.7      13.8      23.4          20.1        6.9        8.8      7.8
New Orleans             54.2         69.6     62.4            11.5         9.1          10.2       7.8      15.9          12.2       13.7       12.2     12.9
Philadelphia            51.7         72.3     62.5            11.5         8.2           9.7       8.5      21.0          15.1       17.0       10.7     14.0
San Diego               43.2         53.2     48.2            17.2        11.4          14.4      20.9      34.6          27.5        8.1        6.1      7.1
Seattle                 49.8         57.1     53.0            18.9        12.0          15.8      20.2      30.7          24.8        8.2        6.4      7.3

Unweighted data
Detroit                 56.6         79.9     68.0            12.2         6.3           9.3      12.7      27.8          20.1       16.3       13.2     14.9
Dist. of Columbia       57.4         76.5     66.3            10.3         3.8           7.2      12.2      19.9          15.8       22.2       15.0     18.9
Los Angeles             35.0         55.9     45.5             8.6        11.0           9.8      16.1      35.5          25.9        8.6        6.2      7.4
San Francisco           56.1         70.9     62.2             8.9         7.9           8.5      15.8      20.2          17.6        6.7        5.0      5.8
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * During/before last sexual intercourse, among currently sexually active students.
 + Among currently sexually active students.
 & Not available.
 @ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
=================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_30
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TABLE 30. Percentage of high school students who reported being taught about human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in school and percentage
who reported talking about HIV/AIDS with parents or other adult family members, by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
===================================================================================================
                       Taught about HIV/AIDS                 Talked about HIV/AIDS infection with
                        infection in school                 parents or other adult family members
                  ---------------------------------        ---------------------------------------
Category            Female        Male       Total          Female          Male            Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White *               87.7        86.8        87.2            68.5          56.4             62.1
                 (+/-7.2) +    (+/-9.3)    (+/-8.3)        (+/-3.5)      (+/-3.2)         (+/-2.9)

Black *               83.9        83.6        83.9            77.4          68.4             73.4
                   (+/-5.8)    (+/-2.9)    (+/-4.0)        (+/-3.1)      (+/-4.6)         (+/-2.9)

Hispanic              86.0        82.4        84.2            68.9          53.9             61.5
                   (+/-4.3)    (+/-4.4)    (+/-3.0)        (+/-6.2)      (+/-5.1)         (+/-4.0)
Grade
 9th                  85.1        86.5        86.0            67.0          52.1             58.9
                   (+/-5.3)    (+/-7.5)    (+/-6.1)        (+/-2.9)      (+/-4.3)         (+/-3.1)

10th                  88.9        86.7        87.8            70.9          59.5             65.0
                   (+/-5.9)    (+/-4.7)    (+/-5.1)        (+/-3.2)      (+/-3.7)         (+/-2.7)

11th                  86.5        83.2        84.8            72.1          58.7             65.2
                  (+/-10.7)   (+/-15.3)   (+/-13.0)        (+/-3.5)      (+/-3.9)         (+/-3.0)

12th                  87.3        86.3        86.8            69.5          58.1             63.7
                   (+/-3.6)    (+/-3.2)    (+/-3.1)        (+/-5.1)      (+/-5.5)         (+/-4.6)

Total                 86.9        85.7        86.3            69.9          57.1             63.2
                   (+/-5.1)    (+/-6.8)    (+/-5.9)        (+/-2.3)      (+/-2.5)         (+/-2.2)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Non-Hispanic.
+ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===================================================================================================

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Table_31
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TABLE 31. Percentage of high school students who reported being taught about human immunodeficiency virus
(HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in school and percentage who reported talking about HIV/AIDS with
parents or other adult family members, by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
=================================================================================================================
                                                                          Talked about HIV/AIDS infection with
                         Taught about HIV/AIDS infection in school        parents or other adult family members
                         -----------------------------------------        ---------------------------------------
Site                      Female                 Male       Total         Female          Male            Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS
Weighted data
Alabama                     84.3                 82.0        83.0           69.8          59.7             64.7
Alaska                      92.7                 91.5        92.1           71.6          57.2             64.0
Arkansas                    87.5                 86.2        86.8           72.1          63.0             67.5
Colorado *                  90.5                 88.7        89.5           70.2          62.6             66.3
Guam +                      90.2                 89.2        89.7           62.8          57.7             60.1
Hawaii                      92.6                 90.7        91.6           61.0          47.0             54.2
Illinois                    92.1                 91.4        91.7           69.7          61.3             65.5
Maine                       93.5                 91.6        92.5           72.1          61.5             66.7
Massachusetts               90.7                 91.7        91.2           62.6          54.3             58.4
Mississippi                 82.2                 84.3        83.3           71.5          62.0             66.8
Missouri                    88.0                 84.4        86.1           71.3          57.3             64.1
Montana                     92.0                 90.1        91.1           67.4          57.4             62.3
Nevada                      87.5                 86.0        86.8           71.2          63.6             67.5
New Hampshire               92.0                 92.6        92.3           72.6          62.2             67.4
New Jersey *                95.3                 93.5        94.4           69.7          61.0             65.4
North Carolina               NA &                  NA          NA           72.9          61.2             67.0
North Dakota                88.7                 86.5        87.5           59.7          48.0             54.0
Puerto Rico +               92.6                 88.1        90.5           80.6          75.8             78.3
South Carolina              89.3                 86.1        87.6           67.2          55.2             61.0
South Dakota                96.4                 93.6        95.0           67.2          53.9             60.5
Utah                        85.0                 86.1        85.6           63.0          57.0             60.0
Vermont                     91.0                 89.0        89.9           66.1          56.7             61.3
Virgin Islands +            86.8                 86.0        86.4           63.4          50.6             57.3
West Virginia               91.3                 91.8        91.5           72.7          61.1             66.7
Wyoming                     89.5                 88.2        88.9           73.1          61.2             67.0
Unweighted data
California *                89.9                 91.4        90.6           70.0          64.3             67.5
Delaware                    94.7                 93.3        94.0           71.0          59.7             65.5
Georgia                     90.9                 90.6        90.8           80.4          66.8             74.2
Idaho                       85.7                 84.4        84.9           64.6          55.8             59.9
Marshall Islands +          83.1                 74.4        79.0           60.0          41.4             51.8
Michigan *                  88.4                 85.6        87.0           67.1          56.5             61.6
Nebraska                    80.6                 79.9        80.3           61.9          51.1             56.1
Ohio                        86.9                 87.7        87.2           69.1          54.0             61.4
Rhode Island                97.5                 95.0        96.3           69.8          55.7             63.1
Tennessee                   91.0                 88.7        89.8           72.8          63.1             68.3
LOCAL SURVEYS
Weighted data
Boston                      85.4                 87.2        86.2           62.8          54.3             58.8
Chicago                     86.0                 77.5        82.0           67.2          56.5             62.1
Dallas                      89.7                 87.7        88.7           70.9          63.4             67.3
Denver                      92.6                 90.3        91.2           74.3          64.1             69.0
Ft. Lauderdale              90.1                 88.7        89.4           76.8          68.1             72.5
Houston                     81.2                 78.2        79.7           72.8          61.7             67.4
Jersey City                 93.1                 87.7        90.4           73.7          65.8             69.8
Miami                       92.4                 90.4        91.4           76.0          69.3             72.5
New Orleans                 91.7                 86.0        88.8           75.9          62.6             69.5
Philadelphia                92.3                 84.7        88.5           73.7          60.2             67.2
San Diego                   93.7                 93.9        93.8           69.9          62.5             66.5
Seattle                       NA                   NA          NA             NA            NA               NA
Unweighted data
Detroit                     81.3                 80.4        80.9           77.3          70.8             74.4
Dist. of Columbia           91.7                 89.5        90.6           80.4          72.8             77.0
Los Angeles                 80.5                 83.1        81.8           61.1          49.1             55.4
San Francisco                 NA                   NA          NA             NA            NA               NA
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
+ U.S. territories are included as states.
& Not available.
=================================================================================================================

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Table_32
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TABLE 32. Percentage of high school students who ate five or more servings of fruits and vegetables, * + percentage who
ate no more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content, * & and percentage who thought they were overweight,
by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
============================================================================================================================
                                                              Ate no more than two
                                                               servings of foods
                        Ate five or more servings             typically high in fat                Thought they were
                         of fruits and vegetables                    content                           overweight
                 -----------------------------------     ------------------------------     --------------------------------
Category             Female       Male        Total       Female       Male      Total       Female       Male      Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White @                21.9       32.6         27.6         75.9       50.5       62.4         35.5       23.1       28.9
                 (+/-4.0) **   (+/-3.4)     (+/-3.6)     (+/-3.1)   (+/-3.8)   (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.3)   (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.7)

Black@                 22.1       28.0         24.7         56.3       42.6       50.0         27.6       13.7       21.2
                    (+/-3.9)   (+/-2.8)     (+/-2.6)     (+/-3.8)   (+/-4.6)   (+/-3.2)     (+/-4.3)   (+/-3.2)   (+/-3.4)

Hispanic               22.3       29.5         25.8         68.8       54.7       61.9         37.8       25.1       31.6
                    (+/-4.3)   (+/-5.1)     (+/-3.9)     (+/-4.8)   (+/-6.1)   (+/-3.9)     (+/-4.9)   (+/-4.1)   (+/-4.0)
Grade
 9th                   23.3       36.4         30.3         72.6       48.8       59.3         36.3       19.7       27.1
                    (+/-3.0)   (+/-3.5)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-5.0)   (+/-5.4)   (+/-4.1)     (+/-4.2)   (+/-2.5)   (+/-2.4)

10th                   26.6       33.0         29.9         69.6       52.8       61.0         29.1       25.9       27.4
                    (+/-3.9)   (+/-3.5)     (+/-3.2)     (+/-4.5)   (+/-4.4)   (+/-3.5)     (+/-2.5)   (+/-4.2)   (+/-2.4)

11th                   24.1       32.5         28.3         68.7       49.2       58.7         32.3       22.0       26.9
                    (+/-5.3)   (+/-4.5)     (+/-4.6)     (+/-4.5)   (+/-5.5)   (+/-4.4)     (+/-3.3)   (+/-3.7)   (+/-2.5)

12th                   16.8       28.7         22.8         75.8       50.5       63.1         37.1       20.7       28.9
                    (+/-4.0)   (+/-3.2)     (+/-3.2)     (+/-3.1)   (+/-5.3)   (+/-2.4)     (+/-3.9)   (+/-2.2)   (+/-2.7)

Total                  22.7       32.6         27.7         71.6       50.3       60.5         33.6       22.1       27.6
                    (+/-2.7)   (+/-2.5)     (+/-2.4)     (+/-2.3)   (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.0)     (+/-2.0)   (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.5)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Students who replied they had eaten a particular type of food zero, one, or two times were
   assigned a frequency of 0, 1.0, or 2.0, respectively; students who replied they had eaten a
   particular food three or more times were assigned a frequency of 3.0. The number of
   servings of fruits and vegetables ranged from zero through 12. The number of servings of
   foods typically high in fat content ranged from zero through nine.
 + Had eaten >= 5 servings of fruit, fruit juice, green salad, and cooked vegetables on the day
   preceding the survey.
 & Had eaten <=2 servings of hamburgers, hot dogs, sausage, french fries, potato chips, cookies,
   doughnuts, pie, or cake on the day preceding the survey.
 @ Non-Hispanic.
** Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
============================================================================================================================

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Table_33
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TABLE 33. Percentage of high school students who ate five or more servings of fruits and vegetables, * + percentage who ate
no more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content, * & and percentage who thought they were overweight, by
sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
===========================================================================================================================
                                                               Ate no more than two
                        Ate five or more servings of        servings of foods typically          Thought they were
                            fruits and vegetables                high in fat content                 overweight
                       -------------------------------     -----------------------------    -------------------------------
Site                   Female      Male          Total     Female       Male       Total    Female         Male   Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS
Weighted data
Alabama                  18.5      22.7           20.6       61.7       49.2        55.5      30.8         22.2    26.5
Alaska                   30.4      36.6           33.7       79.5       57.9        68.1      38.3         19.9    28.7
Arkansas                 12.8      19.8           16.4       65.2       44.0        54.4      33.3         21.6    27.4
Colorado @               26.4      32.1           29.3       72.4       51.8        61.8      33.9         18.5    26.1
Guam **                  40.8      40.8           40.8       66.4       60.7        63.4      29.3         22.9    25.9
Hawaii                   29.9      42.0           35.9       70.2       57.9        64.2      39.4         22.5    31.1
Illinois                 24.1      31.9           27.9       65.6       47.5        56.7      35.6         19.7    27.7
Maine                    31.2      37.4           34.5       75.7       57.3        66.3      39.6         22.9    31.1
Massachusetts            NA ++       NA             NA       73.5       55.5        64.4      35.2         21.4    28.2
Mississippi              13.0      21.5           17.3       61.7       46.6        54.2      35.9         22.1    29.0
Missouri                 19.2      25.8           22.6       63.5       38.8        51.1      38.4         23.2    30.7
Montana                  22.1      30.1           26.2       70.1       49.6        59.7      37.4         21.4    29.2
Nevada                   21.4      25.8           23.7       73.0       52.7        62.6      34.3         19.3    26.5
New Hampshire            34.2      40.8           37.5       78.7       57.7        68.1      38.1         24.1    31.0
New Jersey @             29.9      32.0           31.0       76.0       52.8        64.6      35.3         22.8    29.0
North Carolina             NA        NA             NA       48.3       35.4        41.9      34.4         21.7    28.1
North Dakota               NA        NA             NA         NA         NA          NA      42.3         26.3    34.6
Puerto Rico **           16.1      28.1           21.9       73.3       67.6        70.6      23.3         17.0    20.3
South Carolina           16.7      22.7           19.8       61.4       43.4        52.2      30.1         18.3    24.1
South Dakota             20.2      27.4           23.9       69.2       44.7        56.8      46.3         26.0    36.0
Utah                     22.2      31.7           26.9       71.0       50.9        60.9      33.5         17.6    25.5
Vermont                  33.7      38.0           35.9       76.0       55.6        65.6      38.8         24.5    31.4
Virgin Islands **        20.2      28.2           23.9       79.1       73.8        76.5      22.5         16.5    19.9
West Virginia            19.1      26.3           22.8       65.3       45.1        54.9      40.4         25.6    32.8
Wyoming                  23.4      31.1           27.4       67.6       48.7        57.9      35.2         18.9    26.9
Unweighted data
California @             27.3      33.7           30.3       73.8       62.9        68.8      36.6         21.0    29.8
Delaware                 29.6      31.5           30.5       66.2       48.9        57.8      35.6         22.7    29.3
Georgia                  24.2      31.6           27.5       64.1       49.3        57.3      31.4         17.2    25.0
Idaho                    22.8      30.8           27.1       71.6       53.8        62.2      33.9         18.4    25.7
Marshall Islands **      46.2      43.8           45.0       51.4       55.3        53.2      29.8         27.9    28.9
Michigan @               25.2      34.0           29.7       71.8       49.8        60.4      36.2         22.4    28.9
Nebraska                 22.1      31.0           26.7       68.9       47.4        57.6      39.5         22.8    30.6
Ohio                     22.2      31.3           26.8       72.2       51.4        61.7      35.9         21.2    28.5
Rhode Island             26.8      30.1           28.4       72.5       53.9        63.6      36.2         22.8    29.8
Tennessee                18.5      24.4           21.3       62.5       43.6        53.7      35.0         22.6    29.2
LOCAL SURVEYS
Weighted data
Boston                     NA        NA             NA       69.7       54.3        62.5      29.0         17.7    23.5
Chicago                  24.8      32.4           28.4       56.8       47.8        52.6      28.8         19.6    24.4
Dallas                   18.5      26.3           22.3       60.9       50.8        56.0      34.5         18.8    26.8
Denver                   23.5      30.9           27.1       69.2       53.1        61.1      34.9         17.8    26.4
Ft. Lauderdale           28.7      31.3           29.9       73.3       60.5        67.1      27.9         22.0    25.1
Houston                  21.8      32.4           27.1       68.8       55.3        61.9      28.6         18.2    23.9
Jersey City              20.2      24.4           22.4       64.0       47.8        56.2      27.7         16.4    22.2
Miami                    24.7      29.6           27.3       71.4       54.5        62.7      30.9         20.7    25.7
New Orleans              17.2      22.4           19.7       57.1       43.5        50.7      26.5         15.4    21.3
Philadelphia             21.2      29.8           25.4       66.8       49.3        58.0      30.9         13.6    22.3
San Diego                25.7      32.4           28.9       68.8       54.2        62.0      36.8         22.1    29.8
Seattle                    NA        NA             NA         NA         NA          NA        NA           NA      NA
Unweighted data
Detroit                  20.3      27.9           23.8       58.3       42.0        51.0      33.0         16.0    25.4
Dist. of Columbia        26.7      32.0           29.1       67.3       52.9        60.8      27.5         16.7    22.8
Los Angeles              23.5      28.9           26.1       75.7       67.5        71.9      31.9         21.6    27.0
San Francisco            30.3      31.8           31.0       77.6       68.9        73.3      39.7         18.3    29.0
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Students who replied they had eaten a particular type of food zero, one, or two times were
   assigned a frequency of 0, 1.0, or 2.0, respectively; students who replied they had eaten a
   particular food three or more times were assigned a frequency of 3.0. The number of
   servings of fruits and vegetables ranged from zero through 12. The number of servings of
   food typically high in fat content ranged from zero through nine.
 + Had eaten >= 5 servings of fruit, fruit juice, green salad, and cooked vegetables on the day
   preceding the survey.
 & Had eaten <=2 servings of hamburgers, hot dogs, sausage, french fries, potato chips, cookies,
   doughnuts, pie, or cake on the day preceding the survey.
 @ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
++ Not available
===========================================================================================================================

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Table_34
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TABLE 34. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in behaviors associated with weight control, * by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk
Behavior Survey, 1995
========================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                 Took laxatives or vomited            Took diet pills to lose
                    Were attempting              to lose weight or control              weight or to control           Dieted to lose weight or          Exercised to lose weight or
                      weight loss                         weight gain                        weight gain                to control weight gain             to control weight gain
           --------------------------------    -------------------------------    ------------------------------    -------------------------------    ------------------------------
Category      Female       Male      Total      Female       Male       Total      Female       Male      Total      Female       Male       Total      Female       Male       Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White +         64.9       24.1       43.1         8.2        1.2         4.5        10.2        1.1        5.3        52.5       15.6        32.8        69.6       39.9        53.7
           (+/-2.5) &   (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-0.7)    (+/-1.1)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-0.6)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-1.5)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-1.9)

Black +         44.5       18.9       33.2         4.1        4.3         4.2         4.0        3.6        3.8        31.8       11.7        22.7        49.1       34.6        42.4
             (+/-5.3)   (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-1.2)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-3.4)    (+/-4.8)   (+/-5.4)    (+/-3.6)

Hispanic        58.3       32.1       45.4        10.9        4.1         7.6         8.6        2.8        5.7        48.2       23.4        36.0        61.3       42.5        52.0
             (+/-5.3)   (+/-4.4)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-2.4)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-1.8)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-5.0)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-3.1)    (+/-5.9)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-4.4)
Grade
 9th            63.8       25.2       42.6         9.3        1.5         5.0         9.2        1.9        5.2        52.7       16.6        32.7        72.2       42.8        55.9
             (+/-5.3)   (+/-2.6)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-0.9)    (+/-1.4)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-0.9)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-5.0)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.7)    (+/-4.6)   (+/-4.5)    (+/-3.3)

10th            58.3       23.8       40.5         9.4        2.2         5.7         7.2        1.8        4.4        49.0       15.0        31.5        65.6       39.6        52.2
             (+/-4.9)   (+/-3.8)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.4)    (+/-0.9)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-1.2)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-2.7)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-2.2)

11th            58.1       25.3       41.2         7.6        3.0         5.2        12.0        2.1        6.9        44.8       17.0        30.4        59.1       37.7        48.0
             (+/-5.1)   (+/-2.7)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-1.4)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-0.9)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-2.5)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.4)

12th            60.3       23.1       41.6         3.9        2.2         3.1         6.8        1.7        4.2        45.8       15.4        30.6        59.8       37.6        48.8
             (+/-3.8)   (+/-3.1)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-1.1)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-1.2)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-4.2)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.5)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-2.0)

Total           59.8       24.3       41.4         7.6        2.2         4.8         8.7        1.9        5.2        47.8       16.0        31.2        63.8       39.3        51.0
             (+/-2.5)   (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-0.5)    (+/-0.8)    (+/-1.9)   (+/-0.5)   (+/-0.9)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.4)    (+/-1.3)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-1.3)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* During the 30 days preceding the survey.
+ Non-Hispanic.
& Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
========================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_35
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TABLE 35. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in behaviors associated with weight control, * by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
=======================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                     Took laxatives or vomited          Took diet pills to lose
                     Were attempting weight          to lose weight or control           weight or to control         Dieted to lose weight or to         Exercised to lose weight
                              loss                           weight gain                      weight gain                 control weight gain             or to control weight gain
                  ----------------------------     -------------------------------      ------------------------      -----------------------------      ---------------------------
Site              Female         Male    Total     Female        Male        Total      Female    Male     Total      Female          Male    Total      Female      Male      Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama             52.5         25.3     39.0        8.6         5.5          7.2        10.5     6.0       8.4        44.5          17.2     31.1        57.4      33.9       45.8
Alaska              59.5         23.7     40.7        7.6         2.3          4.9         6.9     1.5       4.1        41.6          14.5     27.4        68.5      44.5       55.9
Arkansas            55.4         23.3     39.1        7.6         1.6          4.6        11.5     2.0       6.7        43.9          11.6     27.5        61.9      35.4       48.5
Colorado +          59.3         19.1     38.8        7.4         2.4          4.9         9.4     1.7       5.5        42.7          14.4     28.3        66.7      35.2       50.6
Guam &              52.2         35.1     43.2       11.8         6.5          9.0         9.7     5.3       7.4        43.2          26.7     34.6        63.4      49.3       56.0
Hawaii              60.3         25.7     43.2        7.3         3.1          5.2         8.8     2.2       5.6        43.7          18.7     31.4        65.2      42.3       53.9
Illinois            57.7         24.0     40.9        7.7         2.8          5.3         7.4     2.5       5.0        46.1          13.8     30.1        62.1      38.9       50.6
Maine               62.7         23.2     42.5        7.4         3.0          5.1         7.7     3.1       5.4        48.8          13.5     30.8        70.1      35.8       52.7
Massachusetts       62.0         23.0     42.4        9.2         3.7          6.4         8.4     3.9       6.1        48.4          14.5     31.6        67.3      35.4       51.3
Mississippi         52.5         22.8     37.7        6.2         1.4          3.8         6.7     2.3       4.5        39.7          12.9     26.3        53.0      32.8       43.0
Missouri            62.2         23.7     42.6        8.7         2.7          5.7        11.4     2.9       7.1        48.8          13.4     30.9        65.8      36.1       50.7
Montana             62.5         21.6     41.5        8.5         2.8          5.6         8.1     3.3       5.6        45.0          14.8     29.5        70.9      37.0       53.5
Nevada              59.3         19.3     38.7        7.9         2.6          5.2         8.7     2.2       5.3        44.6          14.3     29.1        65.1      38.7       51.5
New Hampshire       66.4         23.1     44.6        8.0         1.1          4.5         8.8     0.5       4.6        48.8          13.9     31.3        72.5      39.0       55.7
New Jersey +        61.7         24.2     43.1        6.9         2.3          4.6         7.9     1.7       4.8        52.5          16.3     34.5        70.6      39.2       55.1
North Carolina      55.0         23.7     39.4        6.7         2.7          4.7         8.8     3.1       6.0        45.3          13.8     29.5        60.0      33.1       46.6
North Dakota        67.7         23.7     46.2        9.8         3.8          6.9        10.4     3.8       7.3        49.5          14.5     32.4        75.0      36.4       56.1
Puerto Rico &       37.6         25.2     31.6        3.6         6.1          4.8         8.6     8.1       8.4        36.9          23.1     30.3        44.0      42.0       43.0
South Carolina      51.6         21.2     36.1        8.3         6.4          7.4        10.2     6.3       8.3        41.2          14.4     27.6        55.7      35.8       45.6
South Dakota        69.0         23.5     45.9        8.3         3.7          6.0         9.8     2.8       6.3        54.1          16.8     35.2        73.3      38.1       55.5
Utah                60.4         18.4     39.2        7.6         2.9          5.2         9.7     3.1       6.4        45.6          13.7     29.5        72.7      36.9       54.7
Vermont             60.5         24.7     42.3        8.8         4.2          6.5         8.3     3.7       6.0        44.9          14.6     29.6        66.3      36.5       51.2
Virgin Islands &    36.9         25.5     31.8        4.3         5.1          4.9         2.7     5.3       4.1        28.9          18.5     24.2        38.9      36.5       37.9
West Virginia       62.9         24.7     43.3       10.3         2.0          6.1        15.6     3.3       9.3        54.7          16.6     35.1        67.5      38.0       52.3
Wyoming             60.1         21.1     40.3        9.1         3.0          6.0         7.7     2.2       4.9        45.2          15.6     30.2        71.6      40.3       55.7

Unweighted data
California +        59.5         24.5     43.9        7.7         1.5          4.9         9.3     1.6       5.9        46.5          15.6     32.8        66.5      41.0       55.2
Delaware            56.7         23.4     40.5        6.6         3.2          5.0         6.3     2.1       4.3        42.0          12.3     27.6        62.6      38.5       50.9
Georgia             54.9         18.8     38.6        6.1         3.6          4.9         6.9     2.4       4.9        42.8          12.4     29.1        58.0      34.9       47.6
Idaho               60.4         21.6     39.9        9.0         2.5          5.7         9.1     2.3       5.6        45.6          16.5     30.3        72.4      38.1       54.4
Marshall            51.4         41.2     46.8        NA @         NA           NA          NA      NA        NA          NA            NA       NA        53.8      52.9       53.5
Islands &
Michigan +          63.5         23.8     42.7        9.4         4.0          6.6         9.4     3.7       6.5        49.8          16.2     32.3        71.4      43.3       56.7
Nebraska            66.1         21.3     42.5        9.8         1.8          5.6         9.3     1.7       5.3        49.7          12.5     30.2        72.4      37.9       54.2
Ohio                63.6         22.8     43.0        9.3         2.1          5.7        10.5     2.7       6.6        52.4          15.5     33.7        69.9      39.7       54.7
Rhode Island        63.3         25.4     45.2        7.8         2.4          5.2         8.4     1.9       5.3        48.8          14.2     32.4        70.6      39.9       56.0
Tennessee           59.7         24.0     42.9        8.2         2.6          5.6        10.9     2.6       7.0        45.8          14.1     30.9        61.7      37.7       50.4
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston              48.6         21.7     35.7        7.6         5.3          6.5         8.5     6.3       7.5        34.6          15.9     25.8        47.6      37.5       42.9
Chicago             46.2         28.7     37.9        6.1         6.7          6.4         4.5     6.3       5.3        34.9          19.9     27.7        47.9      44.3       46.2
Dallas              55.3         25.0     40.5        5.4         3.0          4.2         6.1     1.4       3.8        39.3          16.0     27.9        57.4      43.6       50.8
Denver              56.5         19.0     37.8        6.4         2.2          4.5         6.3     1.2       3.8        37.6          11.1     24.5        64.2      37.5       51.1
Ft. Lauderdale      53.8         25.0     39.8        5.2         3.4          4.4         7.1     2.3       4.8        43.6          15.9     30.1        61.4      41.5       51.7
Houston             46.8         26.0     37.0        6.1         5.3          6.0         6.1     5.1       5.8        36.1          19.5     28.1        55.5      41.6       49.0
Jersey City         46.1         24.0     35.4        7.0         3.6          5.3         4.7     2.9       3.8        37.2          16.7     27.3        49.7      33.2       41.7
Miami               53.9         26.3     39.8        5.9         2.9          4.4         7.2     2.4       4.8        46.2          21.4     33.5        59.7      41.5       50.6
New Orleans         41.5         18.4     30.6        5.9         3.4          4.7         5.5     4.1       4.8        32.4          13.2     23.3        45.0      31.1       38.3
Philadelphia        50.5         17.0     33.9        5.0         3.7          4.3         5.4     3.3       4.4        38.3          13.6     26.0        55.6      35.0       45.4
San Diego           53.1         22.2     38.6        6.2         2.7          4.6         9.8     3.7       7.0        40.6          13.6     27.8        58.1      36.9       48.2
Seattle             54.2         22.9     39.1         NA          NA           NA          NA      NA        NA          NA            NA       NA          NA        NA         NA

Unweighted data
Detroit             48.0         18.9     34.9        3.9         3.6          3.8         4.3     2.5       3.6        35.6          12.2     25.1        54.5      35.4       46.0
Dist. of            43.8         21.7     34.0        3.9         3.6          3.8         3.0     1.1       2.3        30.8           9.9     21.5        47.6      36.6       42.8
Columbia
Los Angeles         56.7         27.3     42.8        9.2         2.5          6.0         5.9     2.9       4.5        46.4          16.7     32.4        62.6      45.7       54.7
San Francisco       55.1         21.7     38.5        5.3         2.0          3.7         6.2     3.4       4.9        38.4          13.0     25.9        55.4      35.9       45.7
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* During the 30 days preceding the survey.
+ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
& U.S. territories are included as states.
@ Not available.
=======================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_36
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TABLE 36. Percentage of high school students who participated in vigorous physical activity, * moderate physical activity, + stretching exercises, & and strengthening
exercises, @ by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
===============================================================================================================================================================================
                        Participated in vigorous               Participated in moderate             Participated in stretching               Participated in strengthening
                            physical activity                     physical activity                          exercises                                   exercises
                    ---------------------------------       ------------------------------       ---------------------------------       --------------------------------------
Category               Female       Male       Total         Female       Male      Total         Female        Male        Total         Female        Male            Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White **                 56.7       76.0        67.0           16.8       19.7       18.3           53.9        56.1         55.1           44.4        60.3             52.8
                   (+/-6.7) ++   (+/-3.0)    (+/-4.4)       (+/-2.9)   (+/-4.1)   (+/-3.3)       (+/-5.7)    (+/-4.0)     (+/-4.2)       (+/-8.0)    (+/-3.9)         (+/-5.6)

Black **                 41.3       68.1        53.2           26.4       27.2       27.0           41.5        50.5         45.4           31.3        54.2             41.4
                      (+/-5.8)   (+/-5.3)    (+/-3.6)       (+/-5.6)   (+/-4.0)   (+/-3.9)       (+/-4.8)    (+/-5.5)     (+/-3.6)       (+/-4.6)    (+/-4.4)         (+/-3.6)

Hispanic                 45.2       69.7        57.3           27.6       26.0       26.8           43.5        54.8         49.1           37.4        57.8             47.4
                      (+/-5.4)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-3.6)       (+/-3.9)   (+/-6.1)   (+/-4.2)       (+/-5.9)    (+/-4.7)     (+/-4.1)       (+/-7.8)    (+/-6.0)         (+/-5.6)
Grade
 9th                     61.6       79.9        71.5           27.0       24.8       26.0           62.1        62.2         62.1           49.6        64.0             57.4
                      (+/-6.5)   (+/-5.2)    (+/-5.1)       (+/-2.7)   (+/-4.7)   (+/-2.4)       (+/-5.9)    (+/-5.7)     (+/-5.3)       (+/-7.1)    (+/-6.2)         (+/-6.1)

10th                     59.3       78.6        69.3           22.9       23.7       23.3           57.8        58.7         58.3           49.8        62.3             56.2
                      (+/-5.6)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-4.0)       (+/-3.3)   (+/-4.8)   (+/-3.0)       (+/-6.6)    (+/-5.0)     (+/-5.4)       (+/-8.6)    (+/-5.8)         (+/-6.6)

11th                     47.2       72.3        60.3           19.6       21.0       20.3           45.5        50.9         48.3           37.1        56.8             47.3
                      (+/-6.2)   (+/-5.2)    (+/-5.4)       (+/-4.5)   (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.6)       (+/-4.7)    (+/-5.2)     (+/-4.4)       (+/-4.1)    (+/-3.2)         (+/-2.9)

12th                     42.4       67.2        54.9           13.7       17.2       15.4           38.9        50.7         44.9           29.4        53.7             41.5
                      (+/-5.1)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-2.9)       (+/-3.8)   (+/-3.3)   (+/-3.3)       (+/-4.7)    (+/-6.1)     (+/-4.4)       (+/-5.5)    (+/-3.3)         (+/-3.7)

Total                    52.1       74.4        63.7           20.5       21.6       21.1           50.4        55.5         53.0           41.0        59.1             50.3
                      (+/-4.7)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-3.3)       (+/-2.7)   (+/-3.2)   (+/-2.4)       (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.2)     (+/-3.2)       (+/-5.0)    (+/-3.0)         (+/-3.7)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Activities that caused sweating and hard breathing for at least 20 minutes on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 + Walked or bicycled for at least 30 minutes on >= 5 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 & Such as toe touching, knee bending, or leg stretching on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 @ Such as push-ups, sit-ups, or weight lifting on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
** Non-Hispanic.
++ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===============================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_37
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TABLE 37. Percentage of high school students who participated in vigorous physical activity, * moderate physical activity, +
stretching exercises, & and strengthening exercises, @ by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
==============================================================================================================================
                         Participated in vigorous  Participated in moderate    Participated in          Participated in
                             physical activity        physical activity      stretching exercises    strengthening exercises
                         ------------------------  ------------------------  ---------------------   ----------------------
Site                       Female   Male    Total   Female   Male   Total    Female   Male   Total   Female   Male    Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                      43.7   62.9     53.1     16.0   14.1    15.1      44.9   46.6    45.7     34.0   48.1     40.9
Alaska                       65.6   77.9     71.9     23.5   26.4    25.1      57.7   53.4    55.4     48.5   61.6     55.3
Arkansas                     45.0   71.9     58.6     19.9   17.7    18.8      40.3   46.2    43.3     33.5   50.8     42.3
Colorado **                  54.8   74.7     65.1     23.7   24.3    24.1      55.4   59.5    57.6     47.3   62.7     55.2
Guam ++                      58.8   64.8     62.0     32.6   28.2    30.3      45.5   53.5    49.7     40.5   51.3     46.2
Hawaii                       48.7   73.9     61.2     23.4   26.8    25.1      44.8   55.0    49.8     34.9   58.1     46.4
Illinois                     55.1   77.8     66.4     26.0   26.0    26.0      54.5   61.2    57.9     44.2   63.0     53.6
Maine                        55.8   69.9     63.1     17.9   20.0    19.1      50.1   47.3    48.8     40.7   48.0     44.5
Massachusetts                54.4   71.0     62.7     23.2   24.0    23.6      NA&&     NA      NA     39.9   53.6     46.8
Mississippi                  35.1   68.4     51.9     18.4   18.0    18.3      26.8   43.3    35.3     21.3   51.3     36.3
Missouri                     52.4   72.6     62.7     19.0   20.1    19.5      52.9   53.0    53.0     42.7   56.7     49.9
Montana                      57.9   69.4     63.8     14.5   15.3    15.0      53.3   51.3    52.3     51.0   60.9     56.1
Nevada                       62.7   77.0     70.0     24.6   26.5    25.8      54.9   54.9    54.7     47.3   66.3     57.0
New Hampshire                58.5   73.5     66.1     21.7   22.8    22.4      52.7   47.6    50.2     44.8   52.4     48.7
New Jersey **                62.1   77.6     69.7     26.2   24.6    25.4      58.9   52.9    56.0     47.3   56.4     51.8
North Carolina               49.4   73.2     61.3       NA     NA      NA        NA     NA      NA     35.2   54.9     45.1
North Dakota                 54.3   65.3     59.7     16.6   15.2    15.9      50.1   45.5    47.9     41.5   46.6     44.0
Puerto Rico ++               35.1   60.8     47.4     24.5   26.4    25.4      31.8   43.2    37.3     19.4   39.7     29.1
South Carolina               41.9   61.8     52.0     15.9   17.3    16.6      38.9   44.4    41.7     31.3   51.7     41.7
South Dakota                 54.3   65.5     59.9     15.8   15.6    15.7      47.1   42.6    44.8     40.9   51.8     46.4
Utah                         59.3   76.4     67.9     18.3   19.9    19.2      54.2   51.9    53.1     44.4   58.3     51.4
Vermont                      59.1   68.6     63.9     21.7   22.1    21.9      53.2   44.2    48.6     42.1   49.5     45.9
Virgin Islands ++             38.1   51.4     44.4       NA     NA      NA      29.0   27.2    28.1     19.2   33.9     25.8
West Virginia                49.9   75.6     63.1     22.9   22.6    22.7      40.4   43.2    41.8     34.3   51.0     42.9
Wyoming                      61.2   74.7     68.1     18.0   18.9    18.4      56.9   57.8    57.3     49.0   60.6     55.0

Unweighted data
California **                58.2   76.6     66.4     23.8   26.7    25.2      55.9   57.7    56.8     42.5   61.0     50.8
Delaware                     52.1   74.7     63.0     20.2   22.3    21.2      43.6   46.1    44.8     37.0   53.3     44.9
Georgia                      47.4   69.2     57.3     23.0   20.5    22.0      44.3   46.5    45.4     35.6   51.9     42.9
Idaho                        59.2   72.9     66.4     19.7   22.9    21.4      57.9   54.3    56.0     48.5   60.5     54.8
Marshall Islands ++          26.5   40.4     32.5     14.2   21.0    17.3      20.1   28.6    24.2     24.3   32.8     28.4
Michigan **                  62.1   75.0     68.8     18.0   20.3    19.2      53.8   54.3    54.1     43.2   56.9     50.4
Nebraska                     56.6   72.8     65.1     16.6   18.9    17.8      58.6   59.1    58.7     49.4   64.8     57.4
Ohio                         54.3   74.3     64.4     21.1   23.9    22.5      51.9   53.3    52.5     42.7   56.0     49.3
Rhode Island                 57.1   72.6     64.4     28.0   26.7    27.3      43.7   41.9    42.8     38.8   51.8     44.9
Tennessee                    45.5   68.5     56.3     20.4   20.2    20.4      38.1   46.4    42.0     32.1   50.1     40.5
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                       34.0   57.9     45.5     31.1   27.4    29.4        NA     NA      NA     23.1   43.6     32.9
Chicago                      41.8   58.7     49.8     30.9   25.5    28.4      40.1   44.8    42.3     35.1   50.3     42.3
Dallas                       41.3   67.3     54.0     27.5   28.9    28.2      37.4   50.0    43.5     30.2   55.2     42.3
Denver                       52.2   71.7     61.9     23.0   24.1    23.5      49.8   53.4    51.4     44.3   59.2     51.6
Ft. Lauderdale               47.7   70.1     58.7     20.6   24.6    22.5      41.5   47.2    44.3     35.8   58.7     47.0
Houston                      43.2   63.0     53.1     25.3   25.4    25.4      41.9   43.7    42.7     38.7   50.8     44.5
Jersey City                  35.7   61.7     48.1     43.5   40.6    42.0      39.1   41.3    40.1     31.0   48.2     39.2
Miami                        43.6   66.8     55.3     24.7   27.0    25.7      39.6   46.6    42.9     33.1   53.6     43.3
New Orleans                  31.8   60.0     44.9     31.8   30.4    31.0      29.7   37.6    33.3     20.4   45.6     32.1
Philadelphia                 39.6   64.1     51.6     37.4   32.6    35.0      35.4   44.8    40.2     29.7   51.6     40.5
San Diego                    55.6   71.6     63.2     29.5   28.3    29.0      54.3   57.8    56.1     40.6   59.1     49.5
Seattle                        NA     NA       NA       NA     NA      NA        NA     NA      NA       NA     NA       NA

Unweighted data
Detroit                      37.3   59.7     47.3     33.6   30.7    32.3      39.3   42.7    40.8     34.1   55.8     43.9
Dist. of Columbia            35.7   60.7     47.0     39.6   31.4    36.0      36.0   43.5    39.4     28.5   52.1     39.1
Los Angeles                  44.7   58.9     51.4     32.7   31.7    32.2      43.4   44.3    43.9     37.0   54.5     45.3
San Francisco                40.6   64.9     52.6     28.6   27.2    27.9      44.7   51.9    48.2     31.6   49.7     40.6
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Activities that caused sweating and hard breathing for at least 20 minutes on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 + Walked or bicycled for at least 30 minutes on >= 5 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 & Such as toe touching, knee bending, or leg stretching on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 @ Such as push-ups, sit-ups, or weight lifting on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
** Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
++ U.S. territories are included as states.
&& Not available.
==============================================================================================================================

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Table_38
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TABLE 38. Percentage of high school students who were enrolled in a physical education (PE) class, attended PE class daily, spent at least 20 minutes exercising in an average PE class, *
played on sports teams run by the school, + and played on sports teams unaffiliated with the school, + by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995
===========================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                      Exercised >= 20 minutes
                                                                                                 in                    Played on sports teams run             Played on sports teams
                   Enrolled in PE class            Attended PE class daily              an average PE class                  by the school                 unaffiliated with the school
             -------------------------------  --------------------------------    -------------------------------   --------------------------------     ----------------------------------
Category      Female        Male      Total     Female        Male      Total      Female       Male       Total     Female       Male       Total        Female        Male      Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
White &         61.7        64.2       62.9       19.9        23.3       21.7        67.1       74.8        71.3       47.1       59.9        53.9          29.9        47.2       39.1
           (+/-15.3) @  (+/-11.6)  (+/-13.2)  (+/-11.9)   (+/-12.0)  (+/-11.8)    (+/-6.6)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-4.1)   (+/-5.1)    (+/-4.3)      (+/-3.0)    (+/-4.2)   (+/-3.4)


Black &         44.4        56.8       50.2       30.1        37.7       33.8        46.6       71.8        59.0       34.9       57.9        45.0          21.1        46.8       32.4
             (+/-7.1)    (+/-6.1)   (+/-5.1)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-5.3)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-7.3)   (+/-5.9)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-6.8)   (+/-5.3)    (+/-5.1)      (+/-4.6)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-3.5)

Hispanic        44.6        57.6       51.0       30.1        36.2       33.1        59.0       76.0        68.5       27.3       48.6        37.8          21.2        43.2       32.0
            (+/-13.4)    (+/-9.0)  (+/-10.2)  (+/-11.4)    (+/-7.4)   (+/-8.6)    (+/-6.6)   (+/-9.0)    (+/-5.7)   (+/-5.4)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-4.2)      (+/-4.7)    (+/-5.2)   (+/-3.5)
Grade
 9th            80.8        80.5       80.7       39.7        42.1       41.2        65.6       76.5        71.4       43.7       61.7        53.4          32.0        52.8       43.3
             (+/-7.0)    (+/-5.4)   (+/-5.6)  (+/-18.3)   (+/-18.7)  (+/-18.5)    (+/-8.4)   (+/-4.4)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-4.5)   (+/-7.7)    (+/-5.8)      (+/-3.8)    (+/-5.9)   (+/-4.8)

10th            71.4        72.6       72.0       33.8        34.8       34.4        63.9       73.1        68.7       47.9       55.6        51.9          32.4        46.9       39.9
            (+/-12.1)   (+/-10.3)  (+/-10.7)  (+/-16.4)   (+/-16.0)  (+/-16.1)    (+/-5.0)   (+/-5.2)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-5.1)   (+/-5.5)    (+/-4.0)      (+/-5.6)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-4.0)

11th            41.2        51.5       46.5       12.3        17.4       15.0        57.2       75.8        67.8       39.4       56.0        47.9          23.8        43.1       33.8
            (+/-18.4)   (+/-18.6)  (+/-18.0)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-8.2)   (+/-5.8)    (+/-8.8)   (+/-5.5)    (+/-6.8)   (+/-7.3)   (+/-6.4)    (+/-6.6)      (+/-3.9)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-2.2)

12th            39.1        45.4       42.2       11.1        14.8       12.9        66.0       73.7        70.2       38.8       58.3        48.4          19.8        42.8       31.3
            (+/-18.1)   (+/-16.5)  (+/-17.0)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-5.6)   (+/-4.7)    (+/-6.3)   (+/-5.6)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-6.3)   (+/-6.3)    (+/-5.3)      (+/-4.6)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-2.4)

Total           56.8        62.2       59.6       23.5        27.0       25.4        63.7       74.8        69.7       42.4       57.8        50.3          26.8        46.4       36.9
            (+/-12.8)    (+/-9.7)  (+/-11.0)   (+/-9.0)   (+/-10.2)   (+/-9.5)    (+/-4.4)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-3.8)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-3.7)      (+/-2.6)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.5)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Among students enrolled in PE class.
+ During the 12 months preceding the survey.
& Non-Hispanic.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===========================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_39
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TABLE 39. Percentage of high school students who were enrolled in physical education (PE) class, attended a PE class daily, spent at least 20 minutes exercising in an average PE class, *
played on sports teams run by the school, + and played on sports teams unaffiliated with the school, + by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1995
==========================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                        Exercised >=20
                                                                                           minutes                       Played on sports teams               Played on sports teams
                       Enrolled in PE class       Attended PE class daily           in an average PE class                  run by the school              unaffiliated with the school
                      ----------------------     --------------------------    ---------------------------------       ---------------------------         -----------------------------
Site                  Female    Male   Total     Female        Male   Total    Female        Male          Total       Female     Male       Total         Female       Male       Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                 39.1    57.5    48.2       33.4        48.0    40.6      61.6        73.3           68.3         30.7     47.2        38.8           24.6       41.2        32.8
Alaska                  46.5    55.4    51.1       22.9        29.5    26.4      78.4        87.2           83.3         48.3     54.0        51.2           36.4       45.1        41.0
Arkansas                26.6    38.1    32.4       23.9        32.8    28.4      72.8        81.4           77.8         32.6     47.9        40.3           26.6       46.6        36.8
Colorado &              32.0    50.0    41.2       23.5        38.8    31.3      76.5        82.8           80.4         46.3     53.4        49.9           32.8       44.9        39.0
Guam @                  59.6    57.3    58.4       53.9        45.0    49.3      NA**          NA           67.2         28.8     31.3        30.1           21.5       44.3        33.5
Hawaii                  37.7    45.5    41.6       14.3        20.7    17.5      72.2        79.7           76.3         33.5     48.5        40.8           31.9       48.2        39.9
Illinois                79.0    80.1    79.6       63.7        65.2    64.4      65.2        73.8           69.5         44.3     56.6        50.5           29.1       47.7        38.4
Maine                   48.3    55.9    52.2       10.1        10.4    10.3      78.6        76.4           77.4         51.0     57.9        54.6           29.8       46.7        38.5
Massachusetts           81.3    78.9    80.1       11.9        14.7    13.4        NA          NA             NA           NA       NA          NA             NA         NA          NA
Mississippi             15.1    38.1    26.6       11.0        29.0    20.0      56.6        78.2           72.1         26.3     54.4        40.4           26.4       48.0        37.2
Missouri                38.4    54.7    46.7       28.6        38.9    33.9      72.8        79.2           76.5         40.3     50.5        45.5           29.8       47.7        39.0
Montana                 51.8    54.3    53.1       33.3        35.2    34.3      78.1        79.0           78.6         49.9     59.0        54.5           34.4       50.7        42.6
Nevada                  55.1    65.2    60.3       44.3        50.4    47.4      73.1        83.5           78.6         41.1     50.3        45.8           29.6       46.5        38.3
New Hampshire           44.8    44.4    44.7       31.1        31.0    31.1      77.9        80.3           79.1         47.8     53.3        50.6           32.7       47.8        40.2
New Jersey &            89.5    87.9    88.7       61.0        64.8    62.9      60.2        70.2           65.2         54.0     58.0        56.0           28.5       46.8        37.7
North Carolina          35.7    49.9    42.8       27.9        39.4    33.7      75.9        84.4           80.8         32.9     48.2        40.4           24.1       45.7        34.9
North Dakota            49.1    56.5    52.6       31.6        30.7    31.1      70.8        77.1           74.0         53.1     58.9        56.0           34.3       49.2        41.6
Puerto Rico @           28.4    36.9    32.4       21.8        22.9    22.3      37.3        45.5           41.8         17.8     38.9        27.9           22.3       52.8        36.8
South Carolina          34.5    51.0    43.0       14.8        20.0    17.5      63.3        69.5           67.1         30.5     48.0        39.5           25.3       47.3        36.4
South Dakota            25.9    29.0    27.5       18.1        18.4    18.3      73.2        74.2           73.8         52.3     59.0        55.7           34.8       52.3        43.6
Utah                    46.5    57.3    51.9       30.2        36.0    33.1      78.7        86.9           83.3         32.8     46.6        39.7           46.4       61.4        54.0
Vermont                 53.7    56.1    55.0       24.9        25.9    25.4      74.8        78.3           76.6         54.9     59.5        57.2           32.3       45.0        38.8
Virgin Islands @        60.3    65.0    62.5       50.3        48.2    49.3      68.3        66.0           67.1         20.2     31.4        25.3           18.6       39.9        28.5
West Virginia           30.9    44.8    38.0       26.3        38.4    32.5      65.6        80.2           74.4         32.1     46.6        39.5           29.0       49.4        39.5
Wyoming                 51.8    63.7    58.0       30.6        41.9    36.4      81.0        85.5           83.6         46.8     58.4        52.7           35.1       47.3        41.4

Unweighted data
California &            53.4    60.0    56.4       41.6        48.2    44.6      72.4        80.5           76.2         38.2     51.0        44.0           30.0       41.1        35.1
Delaware                41.2    49.7    45.4       34.1        39.3    36.6      70.7        76.3           73.7         42.6     57.7        49.9           29.2       52.4        40.5
Georgia                 33.7    49.3    40.8       29.2        42.3    35.2      56.9        72.8           65.7         34.8     48.2        40.9           26.7       44.9        34.8
Idaho                   39.8    45.0    42.5       34.1        37.6    35.9      82.5        87.2           85.1         44.6     53.5        49.3           43.1       51.1        47.3
Marshall Islands @      48.1    60.4    53.4       10.1        13.5    11.5      48.3        49.5           49.0         54.0     61.6        57.4           53.5       63.4        58.1
Michigan &              33.5    50.4    42.3       31.8        44.7    38.5      74.3        81.5           78.8         53.1     60.7        57.1           37.4       56.1        47.2
Nebraska                41.8    54.4    48.4       30.9        38.3    34.8      69.9        79.0           75.3         51.3     66.4        59.2           38.4       50.1        44.5
Ohio                    42.4    44.5    43.5       33.4        34.2    33.7      70.6        76.0           73.4         43.6     59.0        51.4           33.1       49.7        41.4
Rhode Island            94.6    92.1    93.4        9.6         8.7     9.2      71.7        81.3           76.2         35.4     49.7        42.1           32.0       51.3        41.1
Tennessee               36.2    40.4    38.2       22.6        27.4    24.8      63.3        72.3           67.6         29.3     46.3        37.3           27.1       46.2        36.1
LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                  68.6    70.9    69.6        7.9        10.1     9.0        NA          NA             NA           NA       NA          NA             NA         NA          NA
Chicago                 91.4    88.1    89.8       80.7        75.3    78.2      55.2        62.8           58.7         32.6     47.5        39.6           26.3       49.7        37.4
Dallas                  34.1    45.8    39.8       20.7        28.6    24.6      56.2        72.9           65.6         27.7     49.9        38.5           24.0       43.8        33.6
Denver                  40.6    53.8    47.3       26.0        36.7    31.3      60.8        82.6           73.0         44.5     50.3        47.4           30.4       44.7        37.5
Ft. Lauderdale          34.4    55.8    44.8       18.6        30.8    24.6      58.1        77.6           70.0         27.9     44.4        36.0           22.2       42.4        32.1
Houston                 66.1    63.6    65.0       46.2        31.3    39.1      50.2        67.3           58.6         29.7     44.3        36.7           24.7       44.6        34.6
Jersey City             80.8    79.2    79.9       58.6        59.9    59.2      46.4        51.0           48.6         34.2     50.7        42.1           22.4       44.0        32.8
Miami                   27.7    39.6    33.6       21.0        26.4    23.7      57.6        67.5           63.4         25.4     36.0        30.9           19.9       40.4        30.3
New Orleans             62.3    68.6    65.3       49.6        50.8    50.1      37.8        55.1           46.5         29.9     45.9        37.3           23.2       42.2        32.0
Philadelphia            55.5    56.2    55.9       31.4        36.3    33.9      51.2        63.5           57.2         26.6     39.8        32.9           21.6       50.4        35.7
San Diego               61.6    69.6    65.5       40.0        47.0    43.4      76.5        85.0           80.7         34.4     44.8        39.4           27.0       42.9        34.5
Seattle                   NA      NA      NA         NA          NA      NA        NA          NA             NA           NA       NA          NA             NA         NA          NA

Unweighted data
Detroit                 25.3    44.3    33.8       20.9        34.6    27.0      47.7        67.3           59.1         27.9     39.8        33.2           20.9       49.3        33.7
Dist. of Columbia       40.7    48.3    44.3       20.7        22.3    21.5      57.5        64.2           60.5         25.6     47.6        35.6           16.1       45.1        29.2
Los Angeles             58.4    61.8    60.0       52.2        53.4    52.8      64.5        77.1           70.5         28.7     42.0        35.0           20.6       43.4        31.4
San Francisco           49.5    55.9    52.6       42.6        48.2    45.4      64.2        78.5           71.7         24.0     34.0        29.0           18.7       36.3        27.5
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Among students enrolled in PE class.
 + During the 12 months preceding the survey.
 & Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
 @ U.S. territories are included as states.
** Not available.
==========================================================================================================================================================================================

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