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Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance -- United States, 1993

Laura Kann, Ph.D.1 Charles W. Warren, Ph.D.(1) William A. Harris, M.M.(1) Janet L. Collins, Ph.D.(1) Kathy A. Douglas, Ph.D.(1) Mary Elizabeth Collins, H.S.D.(1)

Barbara I. Williams, Ph.D.(2)

James G. Ross, M.S.(3) Lloyd J. Kolbe, Ph.D.(1) State and Local YRBSS Coordinators (Appendix)

(1) Division of Adolescent and School Health National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention

and Health Promotion, CDC

(2) Westat Incorporated (3) Macro International


Abstract

Problem/Condition: Priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and social problems among youth and adults often are established during youth, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated.

Reporting Period: February through May 1993.

Description of System: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health risk behaviors among youth and young adults: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries, tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors, dietary behaviors, and physical activity. The YRBSS includes a national, school-based survey conducted by CDC and state and local school-based surveys conducted by state and local education agencies. This report summarizes results from the national survey, 24 state surveys, and nine local surveys conducted among high school students during February through May 1993.

Results and Interpretation: In the United States, 72% of all deaths among school-age youth and young adults are from four causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 1993 YRBSS suggest that many high school students practice behaviors that may increase their likelihood of death from these four causes: 19.1% rarely or never used a safety belt, 35.3% had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol during the 30 days preceding the survey, 22.1% had carried a weapon during the 30 days preceding the survey, 80.9% ever drank alcohol, 32.8% ever used marijuana, and 8.6% had attempted suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey. Substantial morbidity and social problems among adolescents also result from unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. YRBSS results indicate that in 1993, 53.0% of high school students had had sexual intercourse, 52.8% of sexually active students had used a condom during last sexual intercourse, and 1.4% ever injected an illegal drug. Among adults, 67% of all deaths are from three causes: heart disease, cancer, and stroke. In 1993, many high school students practiced behaviors that may increase the risk for these health problems: 30.5% of high school students had smoked cigarettes during the 30 days preceding the survey, only 15.4% had eaten five or more servings of fruits and vegetables during the day preceding the survey, and only 34.3% had attended physical education class daily.

Actions Taken: YRBSS data are being used nationwide by health and education officials to improve school health policies and programs designed to reduce risks associated with the leading causes of mortality and morbidity. At the national level, YRBSS data are being used to measure progress toward achieving 26 national health objectives and one of eight National Education Goals.

INTRODUCTION

In the United States, 72% of all deaths among school-age youth and young adults 5-24 years of age are from only four causes: motor vehicle crashes (30% of all deaths in this age group), other unintentional injuries (12%), homicide (19%), and suicide (11%) (1). Substantial morbidity and social problems also result from the approximately 1 million pregnancies that occur among adolescents (2) and the more than 10 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) that occur each year among young persons 15-29 years of age (3). In the United States, 67% of all deaths and substantial morbidity among adults greater than or equal to 25 years of age are from only three causes: heart disease (35% of all deaths in this age group), cancer (25%), and stroke (7%) (1). Therefore, six categories of behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality that affect the nation: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and STD (including human immunodeficiency virus {HIV} infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. These behaviors, which frequently are interrelated, often are established during youth and extend into adulthood.

To monitor the priority health risk behaviors in each of these categories among youth and young adults, CDC developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) (4). The YRBSS includes national, state, * and local school-based surveys of high school students. National surveys were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1993. ** Comparable state and local surveys were first conducted in 1990, during which time 24 states and eight large cities participated. In 1991, 29 states and 10 cities conducted surveys, as did 43 states and 13 cities in 1993. This report summarizes the results from the 1993 national school-based survey and from selected state and local school- based surveys.

METHODS

Sampling

The 1993 national school-based survey employed a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9-12. The first-stage sampling frame contained 1,928 primary sampling units (PSUs), consisting of large counties or groups of smaller, adjacent counties. From the 1,928 PSUs, 50 were selected from 16 strata formed on the basis of the degree of urbanization and the relative percentage of black *** and Hispanic students in the PSU. The PSUs were selected with probability proportional to school enrollment size. At the second sampling stage, 199 schools were selected with probability proportional to school enrollment size. To enable separate analysis of black and Hispanic students, schools with substantial numbers of black and Hispanic students were sampled at relatively higher rates than were all other schools. The third stage of sampling consisted of randomly selecting one or two intact classes of a required subject (e.g., English or social studies) from grades 9-12 at each chosen school. All students in the selected classes were eligible to participate in the study.

A weighting factor was applied to each student record to adjust for nonresponse and for the oversampling of black and Hispanic students. Numbers of students in other racial/ethnic groups were too small for meaningful analysis. The weights were scaled so that the weighted count of students was equal to the total sample size and so that the weighted proportions of students in each grade matched national population proportions. SUDAAN was used to compute 95% confidence intervals (5). The national data are representative of students in grades 9-12 in public and private schools in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

The 1993 state and local school-based surveys employed a two-stage cluster sample design to produce representative samples of students in grades 9-12 in their jurisdiction. In most states and cities, the first-stage sampling frame consisted of all public schools containing any of grades 9-12. Schools were selected with probability proportional to school enrollment size. At the second sampling stage, intact classes of a required subject or a required period (e.g., second period) were randomly selected. All students in the selected classes were eligible to participate in the study. Some states and cities modified these procedures to meet their individual needs. For example, in some states and cities classes were selected as the first stage of sampling, or all schools, rather than a sample of schools, were selected to participate.

The data sets from the 24 state and nine local surveys with an overall response rate of at least 60% and appropriate documentation were weighted (Table_1). Weighted data from most of these states and cities can be generalized to all public school students in grades 9-12 in the jurisdiction. The unweighted data from eight state and four local surveys apply only to the students participating in the survey. Surveys from Louisiana and New York excluded students from New Orleans and New York City, respectively.

For the national survey, the school response rate was 78%, and the student response rate was 90%, for an overall response rate of 70% (Table_1). A total of 16,296 questionnaires were completed in 155 schools. For the state and local surveys, school response rates ranged from 48% to 100%, student response rates ranged from 47% to 91%, and overall response rates ranged from 41% to 86%. Sample sizes ranged from 507 to 4,522. In the national, state, and local surveys, students were evenly distributed across grades and between sexes (Table_1).

Incidence rates for two variables were calculated to provide data for monitoring relevant year 2000 national health objectives. For weapon- carrying, students who replied that they carried a weapon 2 or 3 days were assigned a weapon-carrying frequency of 2.5; 4 or 5 days, 4.5; and greater than or equal to 6 days, 6.0. For physical fighting, students who reported fighting two or three times were assigned a fighting frequency of 2.5; four or five times, 4.5; six or seven times, 6.5; eight or nine times, 8.5; 10 or 11 times, 10.5; and greater than or equal to 12 times, 12.0.

Data Collection

Survey procedures were designed to protect the students' privacy by allowing for anonymous participation. The self-administered questionnaire was administered in the classroom during a regular class period. Students recorded their responses directly on a computer-scannable booklet or answer sheet. The core questionnaire contained 84 multiple-choice questions. State and local education agencies added or deleted items to meet individual needs. Local parental consent procedures were followed before survey administration.

RESULTS

Behaviors that Contribute to Unintentional Injuries

Safety-Belt Use

Nationwide, 19.1% of students rarely or never used safety belts when riding in a car or truck driven by someone else (Table_2). White **** male students (22.6%) were significantly more likely than white female students (11.5%) to rarely or never use safety belts, and 11th- and 12th- grade male students (25.1% and 24.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than 11th- and 12th-grade female students (12.9% and 13.5%, respec- tively) to rarely or never do so. Black students (30.3%) were significantly more likely than white or Hispanic students (17.3% and 19.5%, respectively) to report this behavior. The prevalence rate of rarely or never using safety belts among the state surveys varied nearly eightfold from 6.3% to 48.3% (median: 26.9%) (Table_3). Among the local surveys, the prevalence rate varied nearly sevenfold from 8.4% to 57.0% (median: 33.4%).

Motorcycle-Helmet Use

Nationwide, 26.7% of students had ridden a motorcycle during the 12 months preceding the survey. Of these students, 40.0% rarely or never wore a motorcycle helmet (Table_2). Male and female Hispanic students (58.3% and 62.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than male and female white students (37.4% and 36.3%, respectively) to rarely or never wear a motorcycle helmet. The prevalence rate of rarely or never wearing a motorcycle helmet ranged from 16.0% to 70.0% (median: 42.1%) among the state surveys and from 30.4% to 68.9% (median: 42.2%) among the local surveys (Table_3).

Bicycle-Helmet Use

Nationwide, 75.3% of students had ridden a bicycle during the 12 months preceding the survey. Of these students, 92.8% rarely or never wore a bicycle helmet (Table_2). Black male students (97.6%) were significantly more likely than white male students (90.8%) to rarely or never wear a bicycle helmet. The prevalence rate of rarely or never wearing a bicycle helmet ranged from 82.0% to 98.0% (median: 95.7%) among the state surveys and from 71.2% to 98.4% (median: 95.5%) among the local surveys (Table_3).

Riding with a Driver Who Had Been Drinking Alcohol

During the 30 days preceding the survey, approximately one third (35.3%) of students nationwide had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol (Table_2). Hispanic male students (45.1%) were significantly more likely than white male students (34.7%) to report this behavior. Riding with a drinking driver was significantly more likely among 12th-grade male students (42.5%) than among 9th- and 10th-grade male students (30.0% and 33.0%, respectively). State survey prevalence rates ranged from 22.6% to 51.9% (median: 36.4%), and local survey prevalence rates ranged from 23.9% to 45.7% (median: 32.0%) (Table_3).

Behaviors that Contribute to Intentional Injuries

Carrying a Weapon

Nearly one fourth (22.1%) of students nationwide had carried a weapon (e.g., a gun, knife, or club) during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_4). An estimated 92.0 weapon-carrying incidents occurred monthly per 100 students. Across all racial/ ethnic and grade subgroups, male students were significantly more likely than female students to have carried a weapon. Weapon-carrying was significantly more likely among black female students (18.9%) than among white and Hispanic female students (6.9% and 11.5%, respectively). Prevalence rates ranged from 16.2% to 33.0% (median: 24.4%) among the state surveys and from 19.1% to 35.3% (median: 23.7%) among the local surveys (Table_5).

Nationwide, 7.9% of students had carried a gun during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_4). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups, male students were significantly more likely than female students to have carried a gun. Black male and black female students (20.9% and 3.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely to have done so than were white male and white female students (12.0% and 1.2%, respectively). State prevalence rates ranged threefold from 5.8% to 17.4% (median: 10.2%), and local prevalence rates ranged more than twofold from 6.6% to 14.0% (median: 10.0%) (Table_5).

Engaging in a Physical Fight

Among students nationwide, 41.8% had been in a physical fight during the 12 months preceding the survey, and 4.0% had been treated by a doctor or nurse for injuries sustained in a physical fight during the same time period (Table_6). An estimated 136.8 physical fighting incidents occurred per 100 students per year. Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups, male students were significantly more likely than female students to have been in a physical fight. Participation in a physical fight was significantly more likely to have occurred among black female students (41.8%) than among white female students (29.5%) and among 9th-grade students (50.4%) than among 10th- (42.2%), 11th- (40.5%), and 12th- (34.8%) grade students. Black male students (8.5%) were significantly more likely than black female students (4.3%) and white male students (4.2%) to have been injured in a physical fight. Among the state surveys, the prevalence rate of physical fighting ranged from 29.8% to 60.8% (median: 40.0%), and the prevalence rate of injurious physical fighting ranged from 2.4% to 12.2% (median: 4.4%) (Table_7). Among the local surveys, the prevalence rate of physical fighting ranged from 35.2% to 51.4% (median: 42.9%), and the prevalence rate of injurious physical fighting ranged from 4.5% to 9.3% (median: 6.3%).

School-Related Violence

Nationwide, 4.4% of students had missed at least 1 day of school during the 30 days preceding the survey because they felt unsafe at school or felt unsafe traveling to or from school (Table_8). Both Hispanic and black male and female students were significantly more likely than white male and female students to miss school because they felt unsafe, and 9th-grade female students (6.4%) were significantly more likely than 12th-grade female students (2.7%) to miss school for this reason. Ninefold differences were observed in the prevalence rates from the state surveys, which ranged from 2.5% to 23.1% (median: 5.4%) (Table_9). Nearly threefold differences were observed in the prevalence rates from the local surveys, which ranged from 6.8% to 17.5% (median: 10.5%).

The prevalence of weapon-carrying on school property during the 30 days preceding the survey was 11.8% nationwide (Table_8). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups, male students were significantly more likely than female students to have carried a weapon on school property. Black female students (11.9%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic female (6.6%) or white female (3.4%) students to have done so. Prevalence rates among the state surveys ranged from 7.9% to 19.3% (median: 12.3%) (Table_9). Prevalence rates among the local surveys ranged from 8.3% to 22.5% (median: 11.7%).

Nationwide, the prevalence of students who were threatened or injured with a weapon on school property during the 12 months preceding the survey was 7.3% (Table_8). White male students (8.1%) and black female students (9.8%) were significantly more likely than white female students (4.4%) to have been threatened or injured with a weapon. Male students in grades 10-12 (9.1%, 9.5%, and 7.6%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in the same grades (5.4%, 4.8%, and 3.3%, respectively) to have experienced this. Prevalence rates among the state surveys ranged from 5.8% to 15.2% (median: 8.3%) (Table_9). Prevalence rates among the local surveys ranged from 8.9% to 16.3% (median: 10.8%).

Nationwide, 16.2% of students had been in a physical fight on school property during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_8). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups, male students were significantly more likely than female students to have been in a physical fight on school property. Black male and female students (28.6% and 15.5%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white male and female students (22.5% and 6.8%, respectively) to have experienced this. Male and female students in grade 9 (33.2% and 12.7%, respectively) were significantly more likely to have been in a physical fight on school property than those in grades 11 (20.0% and 7.0%, respectively) and 12 (16.5% and 6.1%, respectively). Among the state surveys, the prevalence rate ranged from 12.5% to 39.1% (median: 16.1%) (Table_9). Among the local surveys, the prevalence rate ranged from 13.3% to 22.5% (median: 17.7%).

Nationwide, approximately one third of students (32.7%) had property (e.g., a car, clothing, or books) stolen or deliberately damaged on school property during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_8). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups (except Hispanic students), male students were significantly more likely than female students to have had property stolen or damaged. Male and female 9th-grade students (41.3% and 33.0%, respectively) were significantly more likely than male and female 12th-grade students (33.2% and 24.2%, respectively) to have experienced this. Prevalence rates ranged from 20.8% to 59.3% (median: 33.0%) among the state surveys and from 23.0% to 38.7% (median: 32.5%) among the local surveys (Table_9).

Suicide Ideation and Attempts

Nearly one fourth (24.1%) of students nationwide had seriously considered attempting suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_10). Across all racial/ethnic subgroups, female students were significantly more likely than male students to have considered attempting suicide. Hispanic female students (34.1%) were significantly more likely than black and white female students (24.5% and 29.7%, respectively) to have considered this. Prevalence rates ranged from 13.8% to 29.3% (median: 25.1%) across the state surveys and from 18.9% to 25.7% (median: 22.7%) across the local surveys (Table_11).

More serious suicide ideation was observed among the 19.0% of students nationwide who had made a specific plan to attempt suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_10). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups (except black students and 11th-grade students), female students were significantly more likely than male students to have made such a plan. Hispanic female students (26.6%) were significantly more likely than black female students (19.5%) to have made a plan to attempt suicide. Prevalence rates among the state surveys ranged from 11.8% to 29.1% (median: 20.3%). Prevalence rates among the local surveys ranged from 15.0% to 22.2% (median: 17.1%).

Nationwide, 8.6% of students had actually attempted suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey, and 2.7% reported an attempt that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or overdose that had to be treated by a doctor or nurse (Table_10). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups, female students were significantly more likely than male students to have attempted suicide. Suicide attempts were significantly more likely among Hispanic male students (7.4%) than among white male students (4.4%) and among Hispanic female students (19.7%) than among white and black female students (11.3% and 11.2%, respectively). The percentage of students attempting suicide ranged from 7.8% to 26.3% (median: 10.2%) across the state surveys and from 9.6% to 13.5% (median: 10.8%) across the local surveys (Table_11). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups (except black students and students in grades 9 and 12), female students were significantly more likely than male students to have made a suicide attempt that required subsequent medical attention (Table_10). The prevalence of injurious suicide attempts ranged from 1.9% to 9.4% (median: 3.1%) across the state surveys and from 2.3% to 4.7% (median: 3.6%) across the local surveys (Table_11).

Tobacco Use

Cigarette Use

Nationwide, 69.5% of students had ever tried cigarette smoking (Table_12). Students in grades 11 and 12 (73.3% and 73.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than students in grades 9 and 10 (62.8% and 66.9%, respectively) to have done so. Prevalence rates among the state surveys ranged from 46.4% to 76.8% (median: 69.4%); among the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 59.3% to 69.7% (median: 64.7%) (Table_13).

Nearly one third of students (30.5%) nationwide had smoked cigarettes on greater than or equal to 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current cigarette use) (Table_12). White and Hispanic male and female students were significantly more likely than black male and female students to report current cigarette use. Prevalence rates among the state surveys ranged from 17.4% to 38.9% (median: 30.9%); among the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 12.9% to 25.9% (median: 20.1%) (Table_13).

Nationwide, 13.8% of students had smoked cigarettes on greater than or equal to 20 of the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., frequent cigarette use) (Table_12). White students (16.1%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and black students (7.7% and 4.6%, respectively) to report frequent cigarette use. Students in grades 11 and 12 (15.3% and 17.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely than students in grade 9 (8.8%) to do so. Prevalence rates among the state surveys ranged from 8.2% to 19.9% (median: 14.1%); among the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 3.0% to 10.5% (median: 6.1%) (Table_13).

Nearly one fourth (24.7%) of high school students had ever smoked at least one cigarette every day for 30 days (i.e., regular cigarette use) (Table_12). White students (28.4%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and black students (18.6% and 9.2%, respectively) to report regular cigarette use, and Hispanic students were significantly more likely than black students to report regular cigarette use. Students in grades 11 and 12 (27.2% and 28.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than students in grade 9 (20.9%) to have done so. A tenfold variation was observed in prevalence rates across state surveys, which ranged from 3.1% to 32.4% (median: 24.7%). Prevalence rates among the local surveys ranged from 7.2% to 18.8% (median: 15.1%) (Table_13).

Smokeless Tobacco Use

Nationwide, more than one in 10 students (11.5%) had used smokeless tobacco during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_12). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups, male students were significantly more likely than female students to use smokeless tobacco. White male students (26.0%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic or black male students (8.0% and 4.7%, respectively) to do so. A twelvefold variation in prevalence rates was observed across the state surveys, which ranged from 1.8% to 24.0% (median: 11.9%) (Table_13). A fourfold variation was observed across the local surveys, which ranged from 1.5% to 8.4% (median: 2.8%).

Alcohol and Other Drug Use

Alcohol Use

Nationwide, 80.9% of students had had at least one drink of alcohol during their lifetime (Table_14). Students in grades 11 and 12 (84.9% and 87.6%, respectively) were significantly more likely than students in grades 9 and 10 (72.9% and 76.8%, respectively) to have had at least one drink of alcohol. The prevalence of alcohol use across the state surveys ranged from 45.7% to 86.1% (median: 77.6%) (Table_15). The range across the local surveys was 60.5% to 79.0% (median: 73.4%).

Nationwide, nearly half of all students (48.0%) had had at least one drink of alcohol during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current alcohol use) (Table_14). This behavior was significantly more likely among black male students (48.2%) than among black female students (37.1%) and among male students in grade 12 (60.5%) than among female students in grade 12 (52.0%). White female students (48.6%) were significantly more likely than black female students (37.1%) to report current alcohol use, as were male students in grades 11 and 12 (53.6% and 60.5%, respectively) compared with male students in grade 9 (40.2%). Female students in grade 12 (52.0%) were significantly more likely to engage in this behavior than female students in grade 9 (40.5%). Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 26.0% to 61.2% (median: 47.3%), and across the local surveys, from 32.9% to 46.4% (median: 41.4%).

Nationwide, 30.0% of students had had five or more drinks of alcohol on at least one occasion during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., episodic heavy drinking) (Table_14). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups (except 9th- and 10th-grade students), male students were significantly more likely than female students to report episodic heavy drinking. This behavior was significantly more common among white and Hispanic male (35.6% and 39.4%, respectively) and female (29.3% and 27.6%, respectively) students than among black male (25.1%) and female (13.3%) students; this behavior also was more common among male students in grades 11 and 12 (37.1% and 45.0%, respec- tively) than among those in grades 9 and 10 (24.0% and 27.2%, respectively). Female students in grade 12 (33.0%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 9-11 (19.7%, 25.3%, and 25.1%, respectively) to report episodic heavy drinking. A more than fourfold variation was observed in prevalence rates across the state surveys, which ranged from 9.3% to 44.3% (median: 28.8%) (Table_15). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 14.1% to 24.7% (median: 19.4%).

Marijuana Use

Nearly one third (32.8%) of students nationwide had used marijuana during their lifetime, and 17.7% had used marijuana at least once during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current marijuana use) (Table_14). Black male students were significantly more likely than black female students to report lifetime (41.1% and 26.3%, respectively) and current marijuana use (24.3% and 13.0%, respectively). Hispanic male students (41.5%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic female students (29.5%) to report lifetime marijuana use. Lifetime and current use was significantly more likely among male and female students in grade 12 than among male and female students in grade 9. Male students in grade 9 were significantly more likely than female students in the same grade to report lifetime (28.8% and 19.7%, respectively) and current (16.3% and 9.7%, respectively) marijuana use. Male students in grade 12 (45.5%) were significantly more likely than female students in the same grade (35.8%) to report lifetime marijuana use. Lifetime marijuana use ranged from 16.3% to 40.0% (median: 27.9%) across the state surveys and from 23.8% to 40.5% (median: 29.5%) across the local surveys (Table_15). Current marijuana use ranged from 7.4% to 22.0% (median: 14.1%) across the state surveys and from 11.8% to 22.7% (median: 17.8%) across the local surveys.

Cocaine Use

Nationwide, 4.9% of students had used cocaine during their lifetime, and 1.9% had used cocaine at least once during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current cocaine use) (Table_16). Hispanic male and female students were significantly more likely than white and black male and female students to report lifetime and current cocaine use. White male and female students (5.3% and 3.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black male and female students (1.9% and 1.2%, respectively) to report lifetime cocaine use. A fourfold variation in lifetime and current cocaine use was observed across the state and local surveys (Table_17). Lifetime cocaine use ranged from 2.0% to 9.7% (median: 5.1%) among the state surveys and from 1.4% to 8.8% (median: 3.8%) among the local surveys. Current cocaine use ranged from 0.7% to 4.4% (median: 2.2%) among the state surveys and from 0.4% to 4.3% (median: 1.9%) among the local surveys.

Nationwide, 2.6% of students had used crack or freebase forms of cocaine during their lifetime (Table_16). Hispanic male (7.1%) and female (5.5%) students were significantly more likely than white and black male (2.6% and 1.6%, respectively) and female (2.0% and 0.6%, respectively) students to have used these drugs. A fivefold variation in crack or freebase use was observed across the state surveys, which ranged from 1.1% to 5.6% (median: 3.4%); a sevenfold variation was observed across the local surveys, which ranged from 0.7% to 5.0% (median: 2.0%) (Table_17).

Steroid Use

Nationwide, 2.2% of students had used steroids without a doctor's prescription during their lifetime (Table_16). White and black male students and male students in grades 11 and 12 were significantly more likely than female students in the same subgroups to have used steroids. Lifetime steroid use ranged from 1.8% to 5.4% (median: 3.5%) across the state surveys and from 1.6% to 3.8% (median: 2.8%) across the local surveys (Table_17).

Injected-Drug Use (IDU)

Nationwide, 1.4% of students had injected illegal drugs during their lifetime ***** (Table_16). White male students (1.8%) and male students in grade 12 (1.9%) were significantly more likely than white female students (0.7%) and female students in grade 12 (0.4%) to have reported IDU. Prevalence rates for IDU ranged from 1.0% to 3.8% (median: 2.2%) across the state surveys and from 0.5% to 2.6% (median: 1.5%) across the local surveys (Table_17).

Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drug Use on School Property

Nationwide, 13.2% of students had smoked cigarettes on school property during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_18). White and Hispanic students (14.6% and 11.1%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (5.9%) to have done so. Across the state surveys, 8.2%-19.9% (median: 13.5%) of students had smoked cigarettes on school property (Table_19). Across the local surveys, the prevalence rates ranged from 4.0% to 17.0% (median: 9.7%).

Smokeless tobacco use on school property during the 30 days preceding the survey was reported by 6.8% of students nationwide (Table_18). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups, male students were significantly more likely than female students to have used smokeless tobacco on school property. White male students (16.0%) were significantly more likely to have engaged in this behavior than black and Hispanic male students (2.8% and 4.4%, respectively). A fourfold variation was observed across the state surveys, which ranged from 3.8% to 16.2% (median: 7.4%) (Table_19). A threefold variation was observed across the local surveys, which ranged from 0.7% to 2.6% (median: 1.1%).

Nationwide, 5.2% of students had had at least one drink of alcohol on school property during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_18). Male students in grade 12 (7.5%) were significantly more likely than female students in the same grade (3.5%) to have engaged in this behavior. Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 4.1% to 12.3% (median: 6.2%) and across the local surveys from 4.1% to 12.2% (median: 6.2%) (Table_19).

Nationwide, 5.6% of students had used marijuana on school property during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_18). Across all racial/ethnic subgroups, male students were significantly more likely than female students to have engaged in this behavior. Prevalence rates ranged from 1.8% to 8.1% (median: 4.5%) across the state surveys and from 4.6% to 9.3% (median: 5.8%) across the local surveys (Table_19).

Nearly one fourth (24.0%) of students had been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_18). Among white and Hispanic students, male students were significantly more likely than female students to have been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug. Hispanic male and female students were significantly more likely than white and black male and female students to have experienced this. Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 11.0% to 31.4% (median: 22.0%) and across the local surveys from 12.8% to 36.7% (median: 21.3%) (Table_19).

Sexual Behaviors that Contribute to Unintended Pregnancy and STD

Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, more than half (53.0%) of all students had had sexual intercourse during their lifetime (Table_20). Black, Hispanic, and 9th- grade male students were significantly more likely than female students in the same subgroups to have done so. Black male and female students (89.2% and 70.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white male and female students (49.3% and 47.4%, respectively) and Hispanic male and female (63.5% and 48.3%) students to have had sexual intercourse, and Hispanic male students (63.5%) were significantly more likely than white male students (49.3%) to have done so. Among female students, the prevalence rates increased significantly from grades 9-12; among male students the prevalence rates increased significantly from grades 10-12. Prevalence rates ranged from 43.0% to 69.0% (median: 54.5%) across the state surveys and from 39.6% to 79.2% (median: 60.6%) across the local surveys (Table_21).

The percentage of students nationwide who had had sexual intercourse during their lifetime with four or more sex partners was 18.8% (Table_20). Black and Hispanic male students and 9th- and 10th-grade male students were significantly more likely to have had four or more sex partners than were female students in the same subgroups. This behavior was signifi- cantly more likely among black male and female students (58.8% and 27.2%, respectively) than among Hispanic male and female students (26.3% and 11.0%, respectively) and white male and female students (15.2% and 13.3%). This behavior also was significantly more likely among male and female students in grades 11 (23.1% and 16.3%, respectively) and 12 (30.7% and 23.2%, respec- tively) than among male and female students in grades 9 (15.4% and 6.2%, respectively) and 10 (18.9% and 12.8%, respectively). Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 11.4% to 30.1% (median: 19.3%) and across the local surveys from 14.8% to 45.3% (median: 25.9%) (Table_21).

More than one third (37.6%) of students nationwide had had sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey (i.e., current sexual activity) (Table_20). Black male students (65.1%) were significantly more likely than black female students (53.2%) to be currently sexually active. This behavior was significantly more likely among black male and female students (65.1% and 53.2%, respectively) than among white male and female students (32.9% and 35.2%, respectively) and Hispanic male and female students (40.7% and 37.9%, respectively); current sexual activity also was significantly more likely among male and female students in grade 12 than among male and female students in grades 9-11. Prevalence rates among the state surveys ranged from 28.5% to 50.6% (median: 38.4%) (Table_21). Prevalence rates among the local surveys ranged from 28.5% to 61.2% (median: 42.0%).

Condom Use

Among currently sexually active students nationwide, 52.8% reported that they or their partner had used a condom during last sexual intercourse (Table_20). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups (except 9th- grade students), male students were significantly more likely than female students to have reported that a condom was used. White and black female students (46.1% and 47.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely than Hispanic female students (36.9%) to have reported condom use. This behavior was reported significantly more often by female students in grade 9 (59.2%) than by female students in grade 12 (41.2%) and by male students in grade 11 (64.8%) than by male students in grade 12 (51.5%). Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 27.6% to 59.6% (median: 52.0%) and across the local surveys from 47.4% to 65.0% (median: 59.8%) (Table_21).

Birth Control Pill Use

Among sexually active students nationwide, 18.4% reported that they or their partner had used birth control pills during last sexual intercourse (Table_20). Black female students (20.6%) were significantly more likely than black male students (10.5%) to have reported use of birth control pills. This behavior was significantly more likely to have been reported by white female students (24.0%) than by Hispanic female students (15.3%) and by male and female students in grade 12 than by male students in grades 9-11 and female students in grades 9-10. A sixfold variation in prevalence rates was observed across the state surveys, which ranged from 4.8% to 31.3% (median: 17.9%) (Table_21). More than a twofold variation was observed across the local surveys, which ranged from 7.8% to 18.8% (median: 11.5%).

Dietary Behaviors

Perceived Overweight

One third (34.3%) of all students nationwide thought they were overweight (Table_22). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups, female students were significantly more likely than male students to identify themselves as being overweight. White and Hispanic female students (47.5% and 45.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black female students (32.2%) to consider themselves overweight. Hispanic male students (32.0%) were significantly more likely than white and black male students (23.9% and 20.8%, respectively) to identify themselves as being overweight. Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 21.7% to 40.8% (median: 33.4%) and across the local surveys from 22.0% to 32.5% (median: 28.1%) (Table_23).

Attempted Weight Loss

Nationwide, 40.3% of students were attempting weight loss (Table_22). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups, female students were signifi- cantly more likely than male students to have been attempting to lose weight. Attempted weight loss was significantly more likely among white and Hispanic female students (61.3% and 61.4%, respectively) than among black female students (44.0%). Hispanic male students (32.8%) were significantly more likely than white and black male students (22.3% and 19.9%, respectively) to have been trying to lose weight. Prevalence rates ranged from 28.7% to 47.3% (median: 41.5%) across the state surveys and from 28.5% to 40.5% (median: 36.4%) across the local surveys (Table_23).

Fruits and Vegetables

Nationwide, 15.4% of students had eaten five or more servings of fruits and vegetables ****** during the day preceding the survey (Table_22). White male and 9th-grade male students (18.4% and 20.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely to have eaten five or more servings than were white female and 9th-grade female students (13.5% and 15.5%, respectively), and white male and female students (18.4% and 13.5%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black male and female students (11.0% and 7.2%, respectively) to have done so. Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 7.6% to 21.4% (median: 14.6%) and across the local surveys from 10.0% to 21.2% (median: 12.5%) (Table_23).

Foods Typically High in Fat Content

Two thirds (66.2%) of students nationwide had eaten two or fewer servings of foods typically high in fat content ******* during the day preceding the survey (Table_22). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups, female students were significantly more likely than male students to have eaten two or fewer servings of such foods. White and Hispanic female students (77.1% and 79.0%, respectively) were significantly more likely to have done so than were black female students (63.2%), and Hispanic male students (66.2%) were significantly more likely than white and black male students (56.4% and 54.5%, respectively) to have done so. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 58.4% to 89.9% (median: 63.2%), and across the local surveys, the prevalence rates ranged from 56.9% to 77.0% (median: 69.5%) (Table_23).

Physical Activity

Vigorous Physical Activity

Nearly two thirds (65.8%) of students nationwide had participated in activities that made them sweat and breathe hard for at least 20 minutes on greater than or equal to 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey (i.e., vigorous physical activity) (Table_24). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups, male students were significantly more likely than female students to report vigorous physical activity. Vigorous physical activity was significantly more likely among white female students (58.8%) than among black or Hispanic female students (48.8% and 50.0%, respectively), and significantly more likely among male and female students in grade 9 (81.2% and 67.5%, respectively) than among those in grades 11 (71.4% and 52.7%, respectively) and 12 (69.8% and 45.4%, respectively). Prevalence rates of vigorous physical activity ranged from 51.7% to 73.3% (median: 64.4%) across the state surveys and from 44.8% to 68.6% (median: 57.0%) across the local surveys (Table_25).

Stretching Exercises

Nationwide, 54.5% of students had done stretching exercises (e.g., toe touching, knee bending, and leg stretching) on greater than or equal to 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey (Table_24). White female students (55.6%) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic female students (43.2% and 46.8%, respectively) to have done stretching exercises. Male and female students in grade 9 (62.9% and 65.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than those in grades 11 (53.3% and 48.4%, respectively) and 12 (52.6% and 41.1%, respectively) to have done so. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 23.7% to 48.8% (median: 39.7%); across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 24.8% to 51.6% (median: 33.8%) (Table_25).

Strengthening Exercises

Approximately half (51.9%) of students nationwide had done strengthening exercises (e.g., push-ups, sit-ups, and weight lifting) on greater than or equal to 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey (Table_24). Across all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups, male students were significantly more likely than female students to have done strengthening exercises. This activity was significantly more frequent among white female students (44.0%) than among black female students (33.3%) and among male and female students in grade 9 (69.1% and 52.2%, respectively) than among those in grades 11 (58.5% and 37.5%, respectively) and 12 (54.7% and 34.3%, respectively). Prevalence rates ranged from 21.8% to 43.6% (median: 35.7%) across the state surveys and from 25.0% to 38.4% (median: 31.2%) across the local surveys (Table_25).

Participation in Physical Education (PE) Class

Nationwide, about half (52.1%) of students were enrolled in a PE class (Table_24). Black male students (62.8%) were significantly more likely than black female students (48.7%) to have been enrolled in a PE class. Enrollment in a PE class was significantly more likely among male and female students in grade 9 than among those in grades 10-12. The percentage of students enrolled in PE ranged from 21.6% to 94.9% (median: 52.4%) across the state surveys and from 37.4% to 92.6% (median: 58.5%) across the local surveys (Table_25).

Approximately one third (34.3%) of students nationwide had attended PE daily (Table_24). Black male students (48.6%) were significantly more likely than white male students (34.8%) to have attended PE daily, and male and female students in grades 9 (52.7% and 52.7%, respectively) and 10 (43.6% and 35.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than those in grades 11 (26.7% and 20.9%, respectively) and 12 (28.4% and 17.1%, respectively) to have attended PE daily. Wide variation was observed across the state surveys, where prevalence rates ranged from 9.5% to 69.4% (median: 35.7%), and across the local surveys, where prevalence rates ranged from 9.8% to 80.5% (median: 39.8%) (Table_25).

DISCUSSION

These results indicate that many high school students throughout the United States practice behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems. Considerable variation occurs from state to state and from city to city for some priority health risk behaviors. For example, among the state surveys, a fivefold variation or greater was identified for not using safety belts, not attending school because of concerns about safety, injurious physical fighting, injurious suicide attempts, regular cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, current cocaine use, birth control pill use, and not attending PE class daily. Among the local surveys, a similar level of variation was found for safety belt use, lifetime cocaine use, current cocaine use, lifetime crack use, and daily attendance in a PE class. This variation may be attributable to differences in state and local laws and policies, enforcement practices, access to illegal drugs, available intervention programs, and prevailing norms and practices. For example, among the states, the percentage of students who attended PE class daily ranged from 9.5% in New York to 69.4% in Illinois, where high school students are required by state mandate to attend a PE class daily; among the cities, such attendance ranged from 9.8% in Boston to 80.5% in Chicago.

The median prevalence rates for the state surveys and for the local surveys were similar for all categories of behavior except for tobacco use. Whereas the median prevalence rates for having ever tried cigarette smoking were similar for both types of surveys (69.4% vs. 64.7%, respectively), the median prevalence rates for all other tobacco-related behaviors (i.e., current, frequent, and regular cigarette use and smokeless tobacco use) were significantly higher in the state surveys than in the local surveys. These findings suggest that although high school students throughout the nation try cigarette smoking at similar rates, those living in larger cities are apparently less likely to continue use than are their peers who live in smaller cities and towns.

These data, which include the differences between subgroups, are consistent with results from other national school-based surveys (6-8). In general, male students were most likely to report injury-related behaviors, smokeless tobacco use, and various types of drug use (e.g., binge drinking, marijuana use, steroid use, and IDU) and female students were most likely to report suicide-related behaviors and weight loss attempts. White students were most likely to report tobacco use and some types of physical activity (vigorous physical activity and strengthening exercises); black students were most likely to report weapon-carrying, physical fighting, and sexual behaviors; and Hispanic students were most likely to report current alcohol use, binge drinking, and cocaine and crack use. Weapon-carrying, physical fighting, condom use, and participation in physical activities occurred most frequently among students in grades 9-10, whereas cigarette smoking, alcohol and marijuana use, and sexual behaviors (except condom use) occurred most frequently among students in grades 11-12. These sex, grade, and race/ethnicity findings can assist in identifying groups with higher prevalences of risk behaviors. However, the underlying causes (e.g., education levels, economic factors, or cultural influences) for within- subgroup differences could not be addressed in this analysis.

The YRBSS is the first school-based surveillance system to monitor priority health risk behaviors among representative samples of students at the national, state, and local levels. Since the system was implemented in 1990, the number of participating states and cities has increased by 44%. YRBSS data increasingly are being used by health and education officials to improve school health policies and programs. For example, in Massachusetts, YRBSS data were used to support the passage of a new excise tax on tobacco products. The increased revenue is being provided to local schools to support health education programs. In San Diego, YRBSS data are being used to develop a countywide strategic plan for child and adolescent health care. Once the plan is implemented, YRBSS data will be used to help monitor program impact. In South Dakota, YRBSS updates are provided annually to the state legislature to help establish priorities for relevant legislation. In New Mexico, YRBSS results have been distributed to every school district in the state to help districts develop or select programs to best meet student needs. At the national level, YRBSS data are being used to measure progress toward achieving 26 national health objectives (9). YRBSS data also are being used to measure one of the eight National Education Goals, which states, "By the year 2000, every school in the U.S. will be free of drugs, violence, and the unauthorized presence of firearms and alcohol and will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning," (10).

New components are being added to the YRBSS to help monitor both youth who do not attend school and youth who attend college. In 1992, a national household-based survey of persons 12-21 years of age was conducted as part of CDC's National Health Interview Survey (11,12). Because youth who were not attending school were oversampled, the health risk behaviors practiced by this group nationwide could be systematically examined for the first time. A national survey of undergraduate college students is being conducted during Spring 1995. These new components of the YRBSS will provide the additional data needed for prevention programs to address these other groups of adolescents and young adults.

References

  1. National Center for Health Statistics. Advance report of final mortality statistics, 1991. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC, 1993. (Monthly vital statistics report; vol. 42, no. 2, suppl.)

  2. Hofferth SL. Teenage pregnancy and its resolution. In: Hoffereth SL, Hayes CD, eds. Risking the future: adolescent sexuality, pregnancy, and childbearing. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1987:174-206.

  3. CDC. Division of STD/HIV Prevention annual report, 1990. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1991.

  4. Kann L, Kolbe LJ, Collins JL, eds. Measuring the health behavior of adolescents: the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System and recent reports on high-risk adolescents. Public Health Rep 1993;108(suppl 1):1-67.

  5. Shah BV, Barnwell BG, Hunt PN, LaVange LM. SUDAAN users manual, release 5.50. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Research Triangle Institute, 1991.

  6. Johnston LD, O'Malley PM, Bachman JG. National survey results on drug use from Monitoring the Future Study, 1975-1992. Vol. 1. Secondary School Students. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1993; DHHS publication no. (NIH)93-3597.

  7. American School Health Association, Association for the Advancement of Health Education, Society for Public Health Education, Inc. The National Adolescent Student Health Survey: a report on the health of America's youth. Oakland, California: Third Party Publishing Co., 1989: 1-178.

  8. Kann L, Warren W, Collins JL, Ross J, Collins B, Kolbe LJ. Results from the national school-based 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey and progress toward achieving related health objectives for the nation. Public Health Rep 1993;108(suppl 1):47-55.

  9. Public Health Service. Healthy people 2000: national health promotion and disease prevention objectives -- full report, with commentary. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1991; DHHS publication no. (PHS)91-50212.

  10. National Education Goals Panel. The national education goals report. Washington, DC: National Education Goals Panel, 1993.

  11. CDC. Health risk behaviors among adolescents who do and do not attend school -- United States, 1992. MMWR 1994;43:129-32.

  12. CDC. Health risk behaviors among persons aged 12-21 years -- United States, 1992. MMWR 1994;43:231-5.

* U.S. territories are included as states. 

** The school-based components of the YRBSS were implemented in 1990 and 1991 and then biennially during odd-numbered years thereafter. 

*** In this report, black refers to black, non-Hispanic students. 

**** In this report, white refers to white, non-Hispanic students. 

***** Students were classified as injecting-drug users only if they a) reported injecting-drug use not prescribed by a physician and b) answered "one or more" to any of these questions: "During your life, how many times have you used any form of cocaine including powder, crack, or freebase?"; "During your life, how many times have you used any other type of illegal drug such as LSD, PCP, ecstacy, mushrooms, speed, ice, heroin, or pills without a doctor's prescription?"; or "During your life, how many times have you taken steroid pills or shots without a doctor's prescription?" 

****** Fruit, fruit juice, green salad, and cooked vegetables. 

******* Hamburgers, hot dogs, or sausage; french fries or potato chips; and cookies, doughnuts, pie, or cake.

APPENDIX

State and Local Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System Coordinators

Table_A


Table_1
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TABLE 1. Size, response rates, and demographic characteristics of samples -- United States and selected U. S. sites, Youth
Risk Behavior Surveys, 1993
=====================================================================================================================================================
                                    Response rate (%)             Sex (%)                Grade (%)                      Race/ Ethnicity (%)
                     Sample     --------------------------     -------------     -------------------------     ------------------------------------
Site                  size      School   Student   Overall     Female   Male      9th   10th   11th   12th     White *   Black *   Hispanic   Other
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NATIONAL
  SURVEY             16,296       78        90       70         48.2    51.8     24.1   23.4   25.4   26.9      71.0      13.9        8.6      6.5

STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama               4,463       98        87       85         49.8    50.2     30.7   25.5   22.3   21.0      62.7      33.3        1.1      2.8
American Samoa +      1,065      100        81       81         45.4    54.6     27.0   26.3   24.8   21.9       2.6       1.9        0.8     94.7
Georgia               1,621       78        82       64         50.5    49.5     32.2   25.7   21.6   20.1      57.4      37.4        1.8      3.4
Hawaii                1,577      100        63       63         47.9    52.1     29.0   25.7   24.8   20.4      15.7       2.4        4.2     77.8
Idaho                 4,032       72        86       62         52.2    47.8     27.5   26.3   24.0   21.9      88.8       1.2        4.3      5.7
Illinois              4,087       NA &      NA       73         49.8    50.2     25.3   27.7   24.5   22.4      65.9      18.4        9.4      6.3
Louisiana  @          1,414      100        86       86         50.9    49.1     31.7   26.5   22.2   19.5      50.8      45.7        0.8      2.8
Massachusetts         3,321       88        80       70         49.0    51.0     27.4   25.8   23.8   22.8      78.0       6.7        6.0      9.4
Mississippi           1,449       94        88       83         50.2    49.8     31.2   26.3   22.2   20.3      49.9      47.2        0.5      2.4
Montana               2,523       70        86       60         47.8    52.2     27.5   25.9   23.9   22.5      89.1       0.8        1.8      8.3
Nebraska              3,178       75        88       66         48.9    51.1     27.1   25.6   23.5   23.7      91.6       1.2        3.4      3.9
Nevada                2,030       85        76       65         49.1    50.9     27.9   27.2   24.5   20.4      66.7       7.4       13.5     12.5
New Hampshire         2,691       83        85       71         49.3    50.7     28.0   25.8   23.7   22.5      93.9       0.7        1.3      4.1
New York  @           4,093       70        86       60         49.3    50.7     27.3   25.7   23.7   23.2      79.2       7.7        5.5      7.5
North Carolina        2,760       83        82       68         50.4    49.6     30.0   26.8   22.3   20.8      64.3      29.5        1.2      4.8
Ohio                  2,461       90        82       74         48.9    51.1     28.8   25.1   23.6   22.4      76.3      16.8        2.7      4.2
South Carolina        4,800       77        87       67         49.1    50.9     32.2   26.3   21.2   20.0      58.5      40.0        0.3      1.2
South Dakota          1,348       72        91       66         49.2    50.8     27.3   26.0   24.3   22.4      93.9       1.4        0.6      4.2
Tennessee             3,323       73        88       64         48.9    51.1     25.6   28.5   24.3   21.6      85.9      11.3        0.6      2.2
Utah                  4,522       94        82       77         49.1    50.9     25.7   26.9   25.1   22.1      86.8       1.5        4.2      7.6
Vermont               6,695       72        86       62         48.5    51.5     27.1   25.8   23.9   23.3       NA        NA         NA       NA
Virgin Islands +        911      100        78       78         51.7    48.3     33.8   25.5   20.7   19.9       1.0      86.0        7.3      5.7
West Virginia         2,820      100        84       84         49.4    50.6     27.9   25.5   23.5   22.9      92.4       3.7        0.7      3.2
Wisconsin             3,320       69        87       60         48.7    51.3     27.1   24.9   24.6   23.2      86.7       5.2        2.8      5.3

Unweighted data
Arkansas              3,463       48        85       41         49.2    50.8     18.0   19.9   15.4   18.6      73.2      22.7        1.1      3.1
Delaware              2,873       79        91       72         50.3    49.7     28.2   29.0   28.8   13.8      67.6      23.4        3.0      6.0
Kentucky              1,122       56        87       49         52.2    47.8     17.9   25.4   25.7   31.0      91.8       6.0        0.5      1.6
Maine                 2,422       65        90       58         51.5    48.5     28.3   25.5   22.9   23.0      92.4       1.4        1.1      5.2
New Jersey            2,165       53        84       45         52.1    47.9     28.4   19.4   20.4   30.7      54.2      19.5       15.1     11.2
New Mexico            1,714       63        73       46         48.7    51.3     33.7   22.7   26.8   16.4      34.1       2.4       56.1      7.4
Oregon                2,620       51        82       42         50.5    49.5     28.8   29.7   19.0   22.2      82.8       3.3        3.7     10.2
Wyoming               3,245       67        78       52         47.8    52.2     29.2   27.8   21.9   20.3      84.6       1.6        6.8      7.1

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                1,421       94        70       66         49.9    50.1     29.1   26.5   24.2   19.6      20.5      39.2       21.5     18.9
Chicago               1,822       97        70       68         50.8    49.2     18.4   33.6   26.5   21.2      12.2      47.6       31.6      8.6
Dallas                3,291      100        81       81         51.9    48.1     29.0   43.3   17.4   10.1      13.8      45.3       35.3      5.7
Dist. of Columbia     1,827      100        82       82         54.3    45.7      7.9   37.6   29.7   24.3       1.9      86.2        5.0      6.9
Fort Lauderdale       1,648      100        81       81         49.6    50.4     32.3   27.4   22.4   17.6      52.6      26.6       13.2      7.5
Jersey City             507      100        85       85         50.5    49.5     39.4   24.0   18.7   17.9       7.1      47.8       28.3     16.8
Miami                 1,606      100        80       80         49.1    50.9     26.7   26.7   23.1   23.1      11.1      35.0       47.2      6.7
San Diego             1,788      100        73       73         49.8    50.2     25.6   26.7   25.6   20.4      34.7      14.5       25.0     25.9
Seattle               2,525      100        79       79         49.4    50.6     27.8   25.6   23.5   22.7      35.9      17.6        3.8     42.6

Unweighted data
New Orleans             974      100        47       47         58.5    41.5     23.2   23.9   28.3   24.4       6.9      83.5        2.4      7.3
New York City         1,220       80        72       58         52.6    47.4     26.2   31.8   22.8   19.1      17.2      37.2       27.2     18.4
Philadelphia          1,513      100        67       67         51.6    48.4     33.4   16.2   21.6   28.6      21.6      58.2        9.5     10.6
San Francisco         2,753      100        57       57         52.2    47.8     31.6   31.1   21.5   15.3      13.5      15.0       17.6     53.9
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Non-Hispanic.
+ U. S. territories are included as states.
& Not available.
@ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
=====================================================================================================================================================

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Table_2
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TABLE 2. Percentage of high school students who rarely or never used safety belts, * motorcycle helmets, + or bicycle
helmets, & and who rode with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, @ by sex, race/ ethnicity, and grade -- United States,  @
Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993
==========================================================================================================================================================================================
                                     Rarely or never                         Rarely or never                          Rarely or never                       Rode with a driver who
                                    used safety belts                    used motorcycle helmets                    used bicycle helmets                   had been drinking alcohol
                            ----------------------------------       -----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------
Category                     Female        Male        Total          Female         Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/ Ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic          11.5         22.6         17.3            36.3         37.4         37.2           93.1         90.8         91.9           33.5         34.7         34.1
                            (+/-2.3) **  (+/-4.0)     (+/-3.1)       (+/- 9.6)     (+/-5.3)     (+/-5.9)       (+/-3.1)     (+/-3.4)     (+/-3.1)       (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.6)     (+/-3.5)
  Black, non-Hispanic          26.2         34.5         30.3            52.3         46.9         48.4           96.4         97.6         97.1           37.3         41.3         39.3
                            (+/-4.2)     (+/-6.4)     (+/-4.5)       (+/-13.8)     (+/-9.9)     (+/-7.7)       (+/-2.2)     (+/-1.1)     (+/-1.1)       (+/-3.9)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.7)
  Hispanic                     17.2         21.9         19.5            62.3         58.3         59.8           94.2         94.9         94.6           39.7         45.1         42.3
                            (+/-3.1)     (+/-5.0)     (+/-3.7)       (+/-13.0)     (+/-9.5)     (+/-8.5)       (+/-1.5)     (+/-2.0)     (+/-1.3)       (+/-4.5)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.7)

Grade
   9th                         16.0         24.3         20.3            38.4         41.9         41.2           91.5         92.6         92.1           33.1         30.0         31.5
                            (+/-5.4)     (+/-4.1)     (+/-3.9)       (+/- 8.9)     (+/-6.0)     (+/-5.8)       (+/-3.8)     (+/-3.3)     (+/-3.4)       (+/-5.3)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-3.4)
  10th                         14.6         20.6         17.7            40.1         37.0         38.4           94.9         91.4         93.0           35.9         33.0         34.3
                            (+/-2.8)     (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.0)       (+/-12.5)     (+/-4.1)     (+/-6.1)       (+/-3.1)     (+/-3.4)     (+/-2.5)       (+/-5.1)     (+/-3.8)     (+/-3.6)
  11th                         12.9         25.1         19.2            37.3         40.8         39.5           94.1         93.4         93.7           32.8         38.8         35.8
                            (+/-3.0)     (+/-4.5)     (+/-3.4)       (+/-10.1)     (+/-8.5)     (+/-7.1)       (+/-2.6)     (+/-2.9)     (+/-2.6)       (+/-3.6)     (+/-4.7)     (+/-3.7)
  12th                         13.5         24.9         19.3            39.8         41.2         40.5           94.2         91.5        92. 8           36.1         42.5         39.3
                            (+/-2.4)     (+/-4.2)     (+/-2.8)       (+/- 9.1)     (+/-9.3)     (+/-8.4)       (+/-2.4)     (+/-3.4)     (+/-2.6)       (+/-4.8)     (+/-5.4)     (+/-4.4)

Total                          14.3         23.8         19.1            39.0         40.4         40.0           93.6         92.2        92. 8           34.5         36.3         35.3
                            (+/-2.4)     (+/-3.4)     (+/-2.7)       (+/- 8.4)     (+/-4.7)     (+/-5.4)       (+/-2.4)     (+/-2.7)     (+/-2.4)       (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-2.6)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * When riding in a car or truck driven by someone else.
 + Among students who rode motorcycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 & Among students who rode bicycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 @ One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** Ninety- five percent confidence interval.
==========================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_3
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TABLE 3. Percentage of high school students who rarely or never used safety belts, * motorcycle helmets, + or bicycle
helmets, & and who rode with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, @ by sex -- selected sites, United States, Youth  @
Risk Behavior Surveys, 1993
==============================================================================================================================
                         Rarely or never           Rarely or never           Rarely or never      Rode with a driver who had
                        used safety belts      used motorcycle helmets    used bicycle helmets      been drinking alcohol
                      ---------------------    -----------------------    ---------------------   --------------------------
Site                  Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                12.9    25.8    19.4      33.9    28.6    30.2      96.6    94.0    94.9      37.9    41.2    39.7
American Samoa **      18.3    20.8    19.7      37.5    56.0    50.2      81.8    82.4    82.0      41.1    55.2    48.8
Georgia                20.7    30.9    25.7      40.9    36.5    37.9      96.7    97.3    97.0      34.3    37.1    35.6
Hawaii                  4.4     8.0     6.3      68.1    64.6    65.8      96.8    96.7    96.8      35.9    36.6    36.3
Idaho                  17.1    34.8    25.6      49.0    45.8    47.1      94.5    92.2    93.4      34.3    34.5    34.5
Illinois               23.2    34.5    28.9      75.2    66.6    70.0      98.4    97.3    97.7      38.4    38.6    38.5
Louisiana ++           32.1    43.5    37.7      40.3    56.1    51.6      98.5    96.7    97.5      46.8    52.0    49.3
Massachusetts          35.1    46.7    41.0      18.3    25.0    22.8      95.1    93.4    94.1      31.6    33.3    32.5
Mississippi            25.9    39.3    32.5      45.4    60.3    56.0      98.5    97.7    98.0      39.1    46.4    42.6
Montana                22.9    36.6    30.0      59.0    46.3    51.0      95.1    93.9    94.5      47.2    44.6    45.9
Nebraska               19.3    36.7    28.2      34.8    51.2    46.1      97.9    95.2    96.6      43.3    43.5    43.4
Nevada                 16.0    27.2    21.7      34.5    33.0    33.5      96.7    94.8    95.6      34.5    35.8    35.2
New Hampshire          21.6    33.4    27.6      27.3    27.1    27.1      90.4    91.2    90.9      29.4    32.2    30.8
New York ++            14.9    23.2    19.1      19.7    25.8    24.0      96.0    93.7    94.8      33.8    33.1    33.5
North Carolina         10.0    20.4    15.2      28.2    45.1    39.4      96.2    95.3    95.6      31.2    35.4    33.3
Ohio                   21.7    34.1    28.1      43.9    43.9    44.0      97.7    96.7    97.2      36.8    36.7    36.8
South Carolina         16.7    32.5    24.7      53.6    60.8    57.9      98.4    97.6    97.9      35.0    40.7    38.0
South Dakota           36.7    59.3    48.3      61.7    55.8    58.4      99.1    96.6    97.9      51.4    51.6    51.5
Tennessee              23.5    38.1    31.0      35.9    34.4    34.8      98.5    97.2    97.7      35.6    36.0    35.9
Utah                   17.4    25.2    21.4      60.9    51.7    55.2      95.6    89.8    92.5      24.7    23.6    24.2
Vermont                12.2    25.4    19.0      12.2    17.7    16.0      85.9    82.0    83.9      NA &&    NA      NA
Virgin Islands **       5.0     9.7     7.2      39.0    35.3    36.2       NA      NA      NA       19.5    26.1    22.6
West Virginia          26.6    41.4    34.1      42.6    50.5    47.8      98.6    96.4    97.4      36.1    41.3    38.7
Wisconsin              21.3    36.6    29.1      40.1    45.0    43.2      96.7    94.8    95.7      39.0    38.5    38.7

Unweighted data
Arkansas               21.1    35.0    28.2      38.8    40.7    40.3      97.4    97.2    97.3      40.1    41.9    41.1
Delaware               12.6    23.0    17.9      33.9    40.7    38.2      95.9    94.6    95.2      32.1    36.3    34.2
Kentucky               28.4    38.6    33.2      48.6    51.6    50.4      97.5    96.9    97.2      32.9    40.0    36.4
Maine                  18.8    34.1    26.2      35.7    41.4    39.3      96.3    93.2    94.7      28.8    33.4    31.1
New Jersey             24.8    33.0    28.7      24.8    38.0    33.7      96.4    96.6    96.5      26.2    30.3    28.2
New Mexico             16.5    27.1    21.9      70.0    64.3    66.3      98.5    95.7    97.0      53.5    50.5    51.9
Oregon                  3.9    11.7     7.8      29.0    38.8    35.5      90.9    88.1    89.4      30.1    32.8    31.4
Wyoming                21.4    37.0    29.6      45.2    38.9    41.0      95.6    93.4    94.4      43.8    40.7    42.2

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Seattle                 8.7    14.1    11.5      35.4    46.1    42.2      66.8    74.4    71.2       NA      NA      NA
Boston                 52.9    61.1    57.0      50.9    48.4    49.0      93.0    91.9    92.3      28.0    34.2    31.1
Chicago                35.9    41.7    38.7      75.8    63.9    68.9      95.8    93.7    94.7      33.8    37.9    35.7
Dallas                  9.6    14.2    11.9      48.5    55.6    53.4      96.4    97.1    96.8      43.0    48.9    45.7
Dist. of Columbia      28.0    39.8    33.4      32.2    46.9    42.9      94.5    92.6    93.5      31.3    34.6    32.9
Fort Lauderdale        13.2    20.5    16.9      27.6    31.7    30.4      99.0    98.0    98.4      29.9    32.0    31.0
Jersey City            41.8    46.5    44.1      60.0    23.5    34.6      97.2    94.1    95.5      26.1    34.3    30.4
Miami                  23.4    30.5    27.0      37.8    43.5    41.6      97.2    97.4    97.2      29.1    30.9    30.1
San Diego               6.8     9.9     8.4      30.0    40.5    36.9      93.2    92.7    92.9      32.6    34.1    33.3

Unweighted data
New Orleans            50.5    50.7    50.6      34.0    32.5    33.1      98.6    97.5    98.1      38.6    36.6    37.8
New York City          38.4    47.0    42.5      40.7    47.4    44.3      96.6    97.5    97.1      20.6    27.7    23.9
Philadelphia           46.0    51.9    48.8      43.8    46.9    46.0      97.1    94.9    95.9      31.7    34.5    33.0
San Francisco          11.8    14.5    13.2      37.4    41.3    39.7      90.9    88.8    89.7      27.4    25.1    26.3
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * When riding in a car or truck driven by someone else.
 + Among students who rode motorcycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 & Among students who rode bicycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 @ One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
++ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
&& Not available.
==============================================================================================================================

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Table_4
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TABLE 4. Percentage of high school students who carried a weapon * or carried a gun + and the 30-day incidence of
weapon-carrying per 100 students, & by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993
===================================================================================================================================================
                                     Carried a weapon                          Carried a gun                  30-Day incidence of weapon-carrying
                            ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       -----------------------------------
Category                     Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/ Ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic           6.9         33.4         20.6            1.2         12.0          6.8            25.6        143.0         86.4
                            (+/-1.8) @   (+/-3.8)     (+/-2.8)       (+/-0.5)     (+/-2.6)     (+/-1.4)       (+/- 6.9)    (+/-26.5)    (+/-15.3)
  Black, non-Hispanic          18.9         38.2         28.5            3.8         20.9         12.3            80.9        152.7        116.6
                            (+/-3.7)     (+/-5.2)     (+/-2.4)       (+/-1.2)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-1.5)       (+/-24.0)    (+/-34.5)    (+/-24.0)
  Hispanic                     11.5         37.3         24.4            3.1         17.0         10.1            40.0        152.5         96.3
                            (+/-1.9)     (+/-4.9)     (+/-2.6)       (+/-1.3)     (+/-4.0)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-14.3)    (+/-44.9)    (+/-28.0)

Grade
   9th                         11.1         39.0         25.5            2.2         15.6          9.1            41.8        161.7        103.4
                            (+/-2.7)     (+/-3.7)     (+/-2.8)       (+/-1.0)     (+/-3.2)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-13.4)    (+/-21.5)    (+/-13.9)
  10th                          9.8         32.5         21.4            2.2         14.6          8.6            34.1        135.9         86.4
                            (+/-2.0)     (+/-3.7)     (+/-2.2)       (+/-0.9)     (+/-2.4)     (+/-1.4)       (+/- 9.4)    (+/-27.0)    (+/-16.0)
  11th                          9.1         33.0         21.5            1.3         13.0          7.4            35.8        139.9         90.0
                            (+/-1.8)     (+/-5.4)     (+/-3.2)       (+/-0.6)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-1.7)       (+/- 8.9)    (+/-28.3)    (+/-15.4)
  12th                          6.9         32.6         19.9            1.3         11.8          6.6            29.9        143.0         86.7
                            (+/-1.7)     (+/-4.2)     (+/-2.9)       (+/-0.7)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-1.7)       (+/- 8.0)    (+/-30.2)    (+/-16.2)

Total                           9.2         34.3         22.1            1.8         13.7          7.9            35.9        144.8         92.0
                            (+/-1.7)     (+/-3.3)     (+/-2.3)       (+/-0.4)     (+/-2.2)     (+/-1.3)       (+/- 7.4)    (+/-22.0)    (+/-13.0)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Such as a gun, knife, or club on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
+ On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
& Students who replied that they carried a weapon 2 or 3 days were assigned a weapon-carrying frequency of 2.5; 4 or 5 days, 4.5; and
  >= 6 days, 6.0.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===================================================================================================================================================

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Table_5
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TABLE 5. Percentage of high school students who carried a weapon * or carried a gun + and the 30-day incidence of
weapon-carrying per 100 students, & by sex -- selected sites, United States, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1993
=====================================================================================================================================
                        Carried a weapon            Carried a gun      30-Day incidence of weapon-carrying
                      ---------------------     ---------------------  -----------------------------------
Site                  Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                 8.7    44.8    26.8      NA @     NA      NA       32.0   204.8   118.3
American Samoa **      15.9    47.8    33.0       5.1    28.0    17.4      49.0   204.5   132.4
Georgia                12.9    43.0    27.7       3.7    18.0    10.7      51.8   195.7   122.5
Hawaii                  6.1    29.9    18.4       1.7    10.2     6.1      22.6   107.4    66.4
Idaho                   9.3    44.6    25.9       3.1    22.6    12.3      36.2   197.4   112.0
Illinois               11.5    33.4    22.4       2.7    16.0     9.3      42.4   140.1    91.2
Louisiana ++           12.1    46.9    28.9       4.2    23.5    13.5      49.7   218.2   130.9
Massachusetts           8.0    32.3    20.3       1.4    11.1     6.3      30.8   129.9    81.2
Mississippi            11.8    45.1    28.1       3.3    20.8    11.9      47.7   212.4   128.6
Montana                 7.4    42.6    25.6       2.6    21.2    12.3      27.0   186.9   109.5
Nebraska                5.3    36.1    20.8       1.9    17.4     9.7      18.0   155.0    87.0
Nevada                  9.8    38.6    24.4       1.8    15.5     8.8      38.5   159.7    99.9
New Hampshire           7.0    32.8    20.0       1.3    10.2     5.8      27.0   144.0    85.9
New York ++             8.7    37.0    23.0       1.1    13.6     7.4      32.6   160.5    97.3
North Carolina         10.0    44.3    26.8       2.3    20.1    11.0      41.8   198.8   119.1
Ohio                    9.0    34.3    21.8       1.5    15.3     8.5      32.8   141.6    88.1
South Carolina         11.4    43.9    27.7       2.3    19.9    11.1      45.6   200.0   123.2
South Dakota            4.8    38.1    21.6       1.8    20.6    11.3      16.8   170.9    94.3
Tennessee              10.5    52.6    31.8       2.0    18.2    10.2      43.6   251.2   148.7
Utah                    6.7    37.0    22.0       2.3    19.3    11.0      22.3   157.7    90.8
Vermont                 5.8    40.1    23.5       NA      NA      NA       21.1   169.1    97.4
Virgin Islands **       9.2    24.4    16.2       3.1    13.3     7.7      35.9    98.9    65.4
West Virginia           9.1    48.2    28.7       2.0    22.9    12.5      32.3   223.2   128.1
Wisconsin               5.3    32.1    18.9       1.6    15.5     8.7      20.0   135.6    78.4

Unweighted data
Arkansas               11.1    53.0    32.2       2.8    26.3    14.7      38.7   246.7   143.4
Delaware               11.5    37.0    24.0       2.9    15.6     9.2      41.0   151.7    95.5
Kentucky                7.9    46.8    26.1       2.1    16.3     8.7      28.3   224.2   120.1
Maine                   6.6    36.9    21.2       1.7    13.6     7.5      24.2   162.3    90.9
New Jersey             11.1    35.4    22.7       1.6    11.4     6.3      39.6   138.4    86.9
New Mexico             10.8    44.0    27.6       3.4    21.6    12.6      39.6   195.1   118.5
Oregon                  NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA
Wyoming                 8.1    43.8    26.5       2.1    19.5    11.1      29.6   195.3   114.8

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                 17.8    36.9    27.5       4.1    15.7    10.0      71.9   153.3   113.1
Chicago                17.9    27.6    22.7       3.6    15.0     9.2      66.2    95.0    80.6
Dallas                 13.9    37.3    25.0       6.1    22.7    14.0      49.9   156.1   100.1
Dist. of Columbia      27.4    40.9    33.5       6.0    23.1    13.7     109.7   171.5   137.6
Fort Lauderdale         9.9    31.9    20.9       3.0    12.5     7.8      38.6   128.8    83.9
Jersey City            24.6    46.1    35.3       3.0    20.6    11.6      83.5   184.9   133.4
Miami                  14.5    32.6    23.7       5.0    16.3    10.9      54.6   131.1    93.5
San Diego               9.5    32.6    21.0       2.1    13.5     7.7      29.6   129.2    78.9
Seattle                12.6    31.5    22.1       3.6    15.4     9.6      46.9   133.2    90.3

Unweighted data
New Orleans            15.6    27.7    20.6       4.4    18.3    10.1      54.1    99.1    72.7
New York City          16.4    34.7    25.1       2.0    13.6     7.5      60.3   143.1    99.7
Philadelphia           23.1    39.0    30.6       4.8    19.2    11.6      91.4   169.3   128.3
San Francisco          11.9    26.9    19.1       3.0    10.7     6.6      42.5   110.7    75.2
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Such as a gun, knife, or club on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Students who replied that they carried a weapon 2 or 3 days were assigned a weapon-carrying frequency of 2.5; 4 or 5 days, 4.5;
   and >= 6 days, 6.0.
 @ Not available.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
++ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
=====================================================================================================================================

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Table_6
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TABLE 6. Percentage of high school students who were in a physical fight * or injured in a physical fight *+ and the 12-month
incidence of physical fighting per 100 students, & by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 1993
===================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                                       12-Month incidence
                                   In a physical fight                  Injured in a physical fight                   of physical fighting
                            ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       -----------------------------------
Category                     Female        Male        Total          Female      Male          Total           Female       Male         Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/ Ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic          29.5         50.0         40.3            2.2          4.2          3.2            88.0        161.8        126.3
                            (+/-2.7) @   (+/-2.3)     (+/-2.2)       (+/-0.9)     (+/-1.3)     (+/-1.0)       (+/-16.7)    (+/-27.4)    (+/-17.4)
  Black, non-Hispanic          41.8         57.5         49.5            4.3          8.5          6.4           124.8        202.8        163.2
                            (+/-4.0)     (+/-5.0)     (+/-3.6)       (+/-1.8)     (+/-2.6)     (+/-1.8)       (+/-37.5)    (+/-44.5)    (+/-38.1)
  Hispanic                     34.1         52.2         43.2            3.7          6.5          5.1           110.2        189.7        150.2
                            (+/-4.3)     (+/-4.2)     (+/-3.1)       (+/-1.1)     (+/-1.8)     (+/-1.1)       (+/-36.7)    (+/-63.3)    (+/-47.9)

Grade
   9th                         41.3         58.9         50.4            3.6          4.7          4.1           130.8        208.8        170.9
                            (+/-4.2)     (+/-2.9)     (+/-3.0)       (+/-1.8)     (+/-1.2)     (+/-1.0)       (+/-34.7)    (+/-25.5)    (+/-25.5)
  10th                         31.9         52.0         42.2            2.5          5.3          4.0            94.0        175.6        136.2
                            (+/-3.1)     (+/-3.4)     (+/-2.9)       (+/-0.9)     (+/-2.0)     (+/-1.1)       (+/-20.1)    (+/-35.6)    (+/-22.4)
  11th                         28.0         51.8         40.5            2.6          5.3          4.0            84.0        177.3        132.6
                            (+/-2.4)     (+/-5.0)     (+/-3.0)       (+/-1.2)     (+/-2.0)     (+/-1.4)       (+/-17.8)    (+/-41.0)    (+/-23.4)
  12th                         26.5         42.7         34.8            2.1          5.3          3.7            76.0        119.8         98.1
                            (+/-3.8)     (+/-3.2)     (+/-3.1)       (+/-1.0)     (+/-2.2)     (+/-1.3)       (+/-21.2)    (+/-29.9)    (+/-20.5)

Total                          31.7         51.2         41.8            2.7          5.2          4.0            96.9        173.2        136.8
                            (+/-2.3)     (+/-2.1)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-0.8)     (+/-1.1)     (+/-0.9)       (+/-17.2)    (+/-25.3)    (+/-18.3)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* One or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey.
+ Students who were injured seriously enough to be treated by a doctor or nurse.
& Students who reported fighting two or three times were assigned a fighting frequency of 2.5; four or five times, 4.5; six or seven times,
  6.5; eight or nine times, 8.5; 10 or 11 times, 10.5; and >= 12 times, 12.0.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===================================================================================================================================================

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Table_7
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TABLE 7. Percentage of high school students who were in a physical fight * or injured in a physical fight *+ and the
12-month incidence of physical fighting per 100 students, & by sex -- selected sites, United States, Youth Risk
Behavior Surveys, 1993
=======================================================================================================================================
                                                                           12- Month incidence
                       In a physical fight   Injured in a physical fight  of physical fighting
                      ---------------------  ---------------------------  ---------------------
Site                  Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                25.1    45.1    35.0       2.5     5.3     4.0      71.8   144.2   107.9
American Samoa @       50.5    69.3    60.8       5.9    17.5    12.2     174.8   334.5   261.8
Georgia                36.9    45.0    40.8       2.6     5.2     3.9     110.7   143.8   126.7
Hawaii                 31.4    42.2    37.0       2.7     5.8     4.3      95.4   148.0   122.7
Idaho                  32.5    48.0    39.7       2.8     6.1     4.3     114.6   175.1   142.8
Illinois               33.5    52.0    42.7       3.3     6.7     5.0     108.3   190.2   149.2
Louisiana **           35.5    54.2    44.6       2.5     7.8     5.1      97.5   189.2   142.5
Massachusetts          31.7    51.2    41.6       3.2     5.3     4.3     101.2   184.1   143.1
Mississippi            31.6    47.4    39.3       2.5     3.7     3.1      80.2   152.6   115.7
Montana                32.9    50.3    41.9       2.4     3.8     3.1     102.7   164.2   134.6
Nebraska               23.6    45.3    34.5       1.6     5.2     3.4      74.2   163.5   119.3
Nevada                 34.1    50.2    42.1       2.6     5.6     4.1     102.3   167.0   134.6
New Hampshire          29.2    44.7    36.9       3.6     5.7     4.7      90.9   152.3   122.0
New York **            32.6    51.4    42.0       3.1     6.7     4.9     106.1   178.8   143.0
North Carolina         29.2    46.5    37.8       2.1     5.1     3.7      86.7   169.2   128.1
Ohio                   36.1    52.2    44.4       3.2     6.6     5.0     106.5   182.9   145.8
South Carolina         28.7    45.1    36.9       2.2     5.9     4.1      83.1   153.4   118.2
South Dakota           29.3    49.9    39.8       1.1     6.6     4.0     106.0   194.3   151.0
Tennessee              30.3    49.1    39.9       2.0     5.2     3.7      80.9   161.8   122.7
Utah                   29.2    43.1    36.3       2.2     5.4     3.8     104.2   166.1   136.7
Vermont                32.0    51.0    41.8       2.6     6.8     4.8     107.8   176.5   143.5
Virgin Islands @       18.8    42.7    29.8       2.5     8.4     5.3      58.9   134.2    93.3
West Virginia          33.4    49.9    41.7       3.0     5.6     4.4     107.1   173.7   140.8
Wisconsin              31.3    47.4    39.4       2.2     7.0     4.7     103.1   184.7   144.2

Unweighted data
Arkansas               32.7    56.8    44.9       2.6     7.5     5.1     101.4   223.3   163.1
Delaware               33.7    51.1    42.3       4.7     9.3     7.0     103.3   176.0   139.5
Kentucky               30.1    44.4    36.9       0.2     4.7     2.4      88.1   148.3   116.6
Maine                  31.8    48.0    39.6       2.7     6.5     4.6      99.8   190.2   143.2
New Jersey             31.3    50.5    40.4       3.2     7.3     5.2     100.9   180.2   138.5
New Mexico             33.6    51.3    42.6       2.9     6.7     4.8     104.8   203.6   154.8
Oregon                 30.7    47.7    38.9       2.5     7.5     4.9     103.4   175.5   138.5
Wyoming                31.9    47.7    40.1       2.4     5.4     4.0      98.7   176.6   139.1

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                 37.5    48.7    43.0       6.1     9.4     7.8     124.4   197.8   160.8
Chicago                35.9    52.1    43.7       4.2     9.0     6.6     103.0   188.6   144.7
Dallas                 35.0    51.1    42.8       3.2     5.8     4.5     105.2   192.5   147.1
Dist. of Columbia      41.5    50.6    45.6       7.8     8.6     8.2     119.7   164.6   139.9
Fort Lauderdale        26.5    50.4    38.5       2.0     8.3     5.2      80.4   185.0   132.7
Jersey City            38.3    55.9    46.9       7.6    10.7     9.3     116.7   195.8   155.6
Miami                  29.0    48.3    38.7       4.1     7.4     5.7      99.2   174.7   137.1
San Diego              32.2    47.7    39.8       3.4     6.7     5.0      98.5   196.7   146.8
Seattle                29.1    45.8    37.5      NA ++    NA      NA       97.7   160.8   129.9

Unweighted data
New Orleans            41.4    51.7    45.6       7.1     7.9     7.4     124.6   146.7   133.6
New York City          35.0    51.4    42.9       3.3     8.8     5.9     109.2   192.3   149.6
Philadelphia           46.6    56.6    51.4       6.4     9.6     7.9     140.2   230.8   183.0
San Francisco          29.5    41.4    35.2       4.3     6.2     5.3      94.7   151.0   121.9
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * One or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 + Students who were injured seriously enough to be treated by a doctor or nurse.
 & Students who reported fighting two or three times were assigned a fighting frequency of 2.5; four or five times, 4.5; six or seven
   times, 6.5; eight or nine times, 8.5; 10 or 11 times, 10.5; and >= 12 times, 12.0.
 @ U.S. territories are included as states.
** Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
++ Not available.
=======================================================================================================================================

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Table_8
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TABLE 8. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in violence-related behaviors on school property, by
sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                                         Threatened or                                                                   Property stolen
                                                                                                                        injured with a                                                                   or deliberately
                                      Felt too unsafe                         Carried a weapon                         weapon on school                       In a physical fight                       damaged on school
                                     to go to school *                      on school property *+                         property &                          on school property &                          property &
                            ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------
Category                     Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/ Ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic           3.1          2.9          3.0            3.4         17.7         10.9            4.4          8.1          6.3            6.8         22.5         15.0           27.7         35.9         32.0
                            (+/-0.9) @   (+/-0.8)     (+/-0.7)       (+/-1.3)     (+/-2.2)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-0.9)     (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.1)       (+/-1.7)     (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.3)       (+/-2.4)     (+/-2.4)     (+/-2.2)
  Black, non-Hispanic           7.3          7.0          7.1           11.9         18.2         15.0            9.8         12.6         11.2           15.5         28.6         22.0           31.8         39.2         35.5
                            (+/-1.9)     (+/-2.2)     (+/-1.6)       (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.9)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-2.7)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-3.8)     (+/-3.5)     (+/-2.7)       (+/-2.9)     (+/-3.4)     (+/-2.0)
  Hispanic                      9.8         10.4         10.1            6.6         20.2         13.3            6.4         10.7          8.6           11.7         24.1         17.9           27.6         36.7         32.2
                            (+/-2.0)     (+/-2.6)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-1.2)     (+/-3.9)     (+/-2.1)       (+/-2.2)     (+/-2.6)     (+/-1.6)       (+/-2.5)     (+/-5.3)     (+/-3.4)       (+/-4.0)     (+/-5.8)     (+/-4.2)

Grade
   9th                          6.4          5.8          6.1            5.6         19.1         12.6            8.1         10.6          9.4           12.7         33.2         23.1           33.0         41.3         37.2
                            (+/-1.5)     (+/-1.3)     (+/-0.9)       (+/-2.1)     (+/-1.7)     (+/-1.4)       (+/-2.3)     (+/-2.2)     (+/-1.8)       (+/-2.2)     (+/-5.1)     (+/-3.0)       (+/-3.8)     (+/-4.0)     (+/-2.5)
  10th                          5.4          5.1          5.2            5.6         17.0         11.5            5.4          9.1          7.3            8.8         25.0         17.2           27.6         37.5         32.8
                            (+/-2.0)     (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.4)       (+/-2.2)     (+/-3.3)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-1.2)     (+/-1.9)     (+/-1.2)       (+/-2.3)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.1)       (+/-3.6)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.8)
  11th                          3.5          3.2          3.3            5.0         18.2         11.9            4.8          9.5          7.3            7.0         20.0         13.8           27.9         36.4         32.3
                            (+/-1.4)     (+/-1.1)     (+/-0.9)       (+/-2.2)     (+/-3.9)     (+/-2.8)       (+/-1.5)     (+/-2.4)     (+/-1.3)       (+/-2.3)     (+/-4.0)     (+/-2.5)       (+/-3.1)     (+/-3.5)     (+/-2.4)
  12th                          2.7          3.3          3.0            4.1         17.2         10.8            3.3          7.6          5.5            6.1         16.5         11.4           24.2         33.2         28.9
                            (+/-1.5)     (+/-1.2)     (+/-1.0)       (+/-1.3)     (+/-2.9)     (+/-1.6)       (+/-1.3)     (+/-2.1)     (+/-1.2)       (+/-1.9)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-1.3)       (+/-4.1)     (+/-3.3)     (+/-2.5)

Total                           4.4          4.3          4.4            5.1         17.9         11.8            5.4          9.2          7.3            8.6         23.5         16.2           28.1         37.0         32.7
                            (+/-1.0)     (+/-0.8)     (+/-0.7)       (+/-1.3)     (+/-1.9)     (+/-1.4)       (+/-0.8)     (+/-1.3)     (+/-0.9)       (+/-1.4)     (+/-1.4)     (+/-1.2)       (+/-1.8)     (+/-1.9)     (+/-1.8)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
+ Such as a gun, knife, or club.
& One or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_9
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TABLE 9. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in violence-related behaviors on school property,
by sex -- selected sites, United States, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1993
=====================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                                                 Property stolen
                                                                              Threatened or                                      or deliberately
                         Felt too unsafe          Carried a weapon        injured with a weapon      In a physical fight              damaged
                        to go to school *       on school property *+     on school property &      on school property &      on school property &
                      ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------
Site                  Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                 NA @    NA      NA        4.4    21.7    13.1       NA      NA      NA        7.6    19.5    13.6       NA      NA      NA
American Samoa **      21.5    24.3    23.1       4.9    21.4    13.8       9.8    19.8    15.2      30.3    46.7    39.1      59.4    59.1    59.3
Georgia                 5.8     7.4     6.5       8.0    21.2    14.5       6.8    11.5     9.1      12.4    19.7    16.0      35.4    36.6    36.0
Hawaii                  6.1     6.9     6.5       2.8    12.7     7.9       3.5    11.1     7.4       7.3    20.3    14.0      26.1    31.1    28.7
Idaho                   4.8     5.8     5.3       5.8    23.3    14.0       5.3    11.7     8.4      10.4    24.6    17.1      30.0    37.7    33.7
Illinois                6.2     6.7     6.5       6.0    14.3    10.2       5.8    10.2     8.0      11.2    24.7    17.9      28.4    36.2    32.4
Louisiana ++            5.9     8.7     7.3       5.6    18.2    11.7       5.9    13.8     9.9      10.2    22.8    16.4      32.4    37.5    35.0
Massachusetts           4.9     5.7     5.3       4.7    15.4    10.1       6.4    11.6     9.0       8.4    22.2    15.4      24.4    30.7    27.7
Mississippi             6.7     6.2     6.4       4.7    22.5    13.5       6.5     9.9     8.2      12.4    21.9    17.0      36.3    40.3    38.3
Montana                 2.1     2.8     2.5       4.5    22.1    13.7       4.8     8.3     6.7       9.5    24.4    17.2      31.1    37.1    34.3
Nebraska                1.9     4.1     3.0       2.6    15.7     9.3       2.8     8.8     5.8       6.0    18.8    12.5      30.1    36.3    33.3
Nevada                  7.3     8.2     7.8       5.7    17.9    12.0       6.0    14.0    10.3      14.5    25.9    20.1      30.4    36.5    33.4
New Hampshire           4.8     3.0     3.9       4.7    18.1    11.5       5.7     7.8     6.8       9.1    19.7    14.5      27.5    31.4    29.4
New York ++             5.0     4.8     4.9       5.0    19.5    12.3       6.3    10.0     8.3       9.0    24.0    16.5      27.5    33.9    30.9
North Carolina          5.3     5.2     5.3       6.2    21.8    13.9       6.0    13.0     9.5       8.1    20.9    14.5      32.4    37.8    35.1
Ohio                    5.9     4.6     5.3       4.7    13.2     9.0       5.5    10.3     8.0      10.1    22.0    16.2      26.1    33.8    30.1
South Carolina          4.7     6.9     5.9       5.8    22.5    14.3       5.1    14.1     9.8       8.4    18.4    13.4      24.2    32.0    28.2
South Dakota            2.4     3.9     3.1       1.8    18.1    10.0       2.9     9.2     6.3       6.3    20.9    13.8      32.0    38.5    35.4
Tennessee               3.5     5.0     4.3       6.0    29.9    18.2       5.6    11.6     8.7       9.1    21.4    15.4      31.0    35.0    33.1
Utah                    6.2     5.9     6.2       3.5    18.8    11.3       5.1    10.8     8.1       8.1    20.9    14.7      28.9    35.5    32.3
Vermont                 3.1     4.6     3.9       NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA
Virgin Islands **       7.5     9.9     8.6       6.7    17.4    11.6       4.8    19.2    11.7       8.0    22.7    14.9      16.8    24.8    20.8
West Virginia           4.4     4.0     4.2       4.2    24.0    14.1       4.6    10.5     7.6      11.1    22.5    16.9      28.9    36.7    32.9
Wisconsin               3.6     7.4     5.6       2.9    14.8     9.0       4.2    11.2     7.9       8.2    23.8    16.1      27.5    34.2    31.0

Unweighted data
Arkansas                8.0     6.3     7.1       4.7    23.9    14.4       7.1    11.8     9.5      11.7    27.5    19.7      32.4    38.2    35.4
Delaware                6.3     7.2     6.8       5.2    18.6    11.8       6.0    13.4     9.8      11.4    21.3    16.3      27.0    37.1    32.0
Kentucky                3.4     4.5     4.0       3.6    23.6    13.1       4.6     9.2     6.8       7.9    19.0    13.2      23.6    30.8    27.1
Maine                   4.3     4.9     4.6       3.6    20.8    11.9       5.3    10.5     7.9       9.3    22.6    15.7      31.5    37.6    34.4
New Jersey              6.1     7.4     6.7       6.3    16.5    11.1       5.0    11.8     8.3       9.0    21.4    14.9      27.0    31.7    29.3
New Mexico              7.5     7.1     7.3       5.7    21.6    13.8       7.3    14.2    10.8      14.2    25.5    19.9      34.5    40.6    37.6
Oregon                  4.5     6.2     5.4       8.4    30.5    19.3       5.7    14.3    10.1      10.5    26.5    18.4      31.4    41.3    36.4
Wyoming                 3.2     4.0     3.6       4.6    24.4    14.8       5.7    11.3     8.6       9.6    22.7    16.3      28.7    34.8    31.8

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                 13.0    15.8    14.4      11.0    20.3    15.8       8.6    15.1    12.0      10.8    19.6    15.2      20.2    30.1    25.1
Chicago                14.9    19.7    17.5       9.7    10.1     9.9       7.6    16.8    12.2      13.0    23.9    18.3      29.9    35.4    32.8
Dallas                 10.4    10.6    10.5       6.7    14.9    10.6       7.5    12.5     9.9      13.1    26.9    19.8      35.8    41.0    38.3
Dist. of Columbia      10.0    11.8    10.8      16.0    16.5    16.3       9.8    13.2    11.3      13.6    23.5    18.0      23.7    26.8    25.1
Fort Lauderdale         5.2     8.4     6.8       4.7    12.0     8.4       5.9    11.8     8.9       7.7    22.4    15.1      26.9    41.2    34.1
Jersey City            13.4    20.0    16.7      17.5    27.5    22.5      12.9    19.6    16.3      14.2    31.1    22.5      33.8    29.5    31.8
Miami                   9.5     9.4     9.5       8.4    13.9    11.3       7.1    14.2    10.8      11.2    23.5    17.4      36.5    41.0    38.7
San Diego               6.7    11.2     9.1       5.1    17.1    11.1       4.6    14.9     9.8       9.3    22.1    15.6      30.3    39.2    34.8
Seattle                 8.7     9.5     9.2       7.0    19.2    13.2       7.8    17.2    12.7      10.5    22.2    16.4      29.6    36.0    32.8

Unweighted data
New Orleans            11.1    10.4    10.9       8.1     8.8     8.3       8.6    13.9    10.8      16.9    26.0    20.6      31.5    34.0    32.5
New York City           9.4    11.5    10.4       8.0    17.0    12.2       5.8    13.2     9.3       7.6    19.7    13.3      19.2    27.1    23.0
Philadelphia           11.7    11.6    11.7      12.5    21.0    16.6       8.9    12.9    10.8      14.9    24.3    19.4      25.9    29.9    27.9
San Francisco           8.4    10.6     9.5       NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA       25.2    33.4    29.2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + Such as a gun, knife, or club.
 & One or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey.
 @ Not available.
** U. S. territories are included as states.
++ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
=====================================================================================================================================================

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Table_10
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TABLE 10. Percentage of high school students who reported having thought seriously about attempting suicide and who
reported suicidal behavior, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993
===========================================================================================================================================================================================
                                    Thought seriously                                                                                                            Suicide attempt
                                about attempting suicide *                 Made a suicide plan *                     Attempted suicide *+                 required medical attention *
                            ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------
Category                     Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/ Ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic          29.7         19.1         24.2           22.8         15.7         19.1           11.3          4.4          7.7            3.6          1.4          2.4
                            (+/-1.8) &   (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.3)       (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.8)     (+/-1.3)       (+/-1.7)     (+/-1.0)     (+/-1.0)       (+/-0.9)     (+/-0.7)     (+/-0.6)
  Black, non-Hispanic          24.5         15.4         19.9           19.5         12.4         16.0           11.2          5.4          8.4            4.0          2.0          3.0
                            (+/-3.4)     (+/-4.8)     (+/-2.9)       (+/-3.5)     (+/-4.9)     (+/-3.0)       (+/-2.1)     (+/-2.4)     (+/-1.4)       (+/-1.1)     (+/-1.4)     (+/-0.9)
  Hispanic                     34.1         17.9         26.0           26.6         13.7         20.0           19.7          7.4         13.6            5.5          2.0          3.7
                            (+/-2.4)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-2.9)     (+/-2.9)     (+/-1.6)       (+/-3.4)     (+/-1.8)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.4)     (+/-0.9)

Grade
   9th                         30.9         17.7         24.2           25.0         13.5         19.2           14.4          5.8         10.1            3.5          2.1          2.8
                            (+/-4.1)     (+/-2.3)     (+/-2.2)       (+/-2.7)     (+/-2.0)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-2.8)     (+/-1.7)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.0)     (+/-0.8)
  10th                         31.6         18.0         24.7           23.2         15.0         19.0           13.1          5.9          9.4            5.1          1.3          3.2
                            (+/-3.8)     (+/-4.1)     (+/-3.0)       (+/-3.4)     (+/-2.9)     (+/-1.8)       (+/-2.6)     (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.3)       (+/-1.8)     (+/-1.1)     (+/-1.2)
  11th                         28.9         20.6         24.6           23.3         16.7         19.8           13.6          3.4          8.3            3.9          1.1          2.4
                            (+/-3.1)     (+/-3.3)     (+/-2.5)       (+/-3.1)     (+/-3.5)     (+/-3.0)       (+/-2.9)     (+/-0.9)     (+/-1.5)       (+/-1.4)     (+/-1.1)     (+/-0.9)
  12th                         27.3         18.3         22.7           20.1         15.5         17.7            9.1          4.5          6.7            2.9          1.5          2.2
                            (+/-2.8)     (+/-2.1)     (+/-2.1)       (+/-2.3)     (+/-2.0)     (+/-1.8)       (+/-2.4)     (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.6)       (+/-1.2)     (+/-0.9)     (+/-0.7)

Total                          29.6         18.8         24.1           22.9         15.3         19.0           12.5          5.0          8.6            3.8          1.6          2.7
                            (+/-1.4)     (+/-1.2)     (+/-1.0)       (+/-1.3)     (+/-1.5)     (+/-1.1)       (+/-1.4)     (+/-0.8)     (+/-0.8)       (+/-0.8)     (+/-0.6)     (+/-0.6)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* During the 12 months preceding the survey.
+ One or more times.
& Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===========================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_11
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TABLE 11. Percentage of high school students who reported having thought seriously about attempting suicide and who
reported suicidal behavior, by sex -- selected sites, United States, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1993
===============================================================================================================================
                        Thought seriously                                                              Suicide attempt
                    about attempting suicide *  Made a suicide plan *     Attempted suicide *+   required medical attention *
                    --------------------------  ---------------------     ---------------------  ----------------------------
Site                  Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                NA &     NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA
American Samoa @       33.9    24.7    28.9      32.8    26.0    29.1      29.8    23.4    26.3      10.9     8.2     9.4
Georgia                30.1    17.6    23.9      24.6    13.8    19.3      15.3     7.4    11.4       5.0     1.3     3.2
Hawaii                 36.4    19.9    27.8      27.5    15.7    21.4      17.9     7.6    12.6       4.7     3.0     3.8
Idaho                  34.8    21.4    28.5       NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA
Illinois               30.8    19.2    25.0      23.4    13.7    18.5      12.4     7.1     9.8       3.6     2.4     3.0
Louisiana **           29.9    18.4    24.2      25.3    16.1    20.8      15.1     8.6    12.0       4.5     2.8     3.7
Massachusetts          29.2    19.5    24.3      22.7    17.1    19.8      11.9     8.6    10.3       3.7     3.1     3.4
Mississippi            31.9    17.6    24.8      24.5    12.1    18.4      13.5     6.2     9.8       2.1     1.7     1.9
Montana                32.2    18.7    25.1      25.7    16.3    20.8      11.6     6.4     8.9       4.2     2.1     3.1
Nebraska               30.5    18.2    24.2      25.2    16.5    20.8      11.8     6.4     9.1       3.2     2.5     2.8
Nevada                 34.9    18.8    26.8      27.8    14.6    21.2      15.9     7.0    11.5       3.9     2.6     3.3
New Hampshire          34.0    18.5    26.1      27.1    15.1    21.0      14.3     6.0    10.1       3.8     1.8     2.8
New York **            35.0    19.2    27.1      26.8    18.2    22.5      13.3     7.7    10.5       3.2     2.2     2.7
North Carolina         30.5    17.7    24.2      23.5    15.0    19.4      12.6     5.9     9.4       4.1     2.1     3.2
Ohio                   35.6    20.9    28.1      26.2    16.5    21.2      15.0     6.3    10.6       4.2     1.3     2.8
South Carolina         27.7    16.8    22.2      22.6    15.7    19.2      12.2     8.6    10.5       3.4     2.9     3.2
South Dakota           35.7    23.0    29.3      25.8    18.5    22.1      12.8     9.9    11.5       1.9     3.2     2.7
Tennessee              32.4    16.9    24.5      22.9    14.2    18.5      12.4     4.8     8.6       4.0     1.2     2.7
Utah                   30.7    18.2    24.4      23.4    16.4    19.9      12.3     6.7     9.6       3.0     2.9     3.0
Vermont                29.7    16.7    23.0      21.1    12.5    16.7      11.7     5.6     8.6       2.4     1.5     2.0
Virgin Islands @       19.8     7.2    13.8      16.1     7.1    11.8      10.5     4.8     7.8       NA      NA      NA
West Virginia          34.2    19.2    26.6      24.1    16.6    20.3      14.5     7.5    10.9       5.2     2.4     3.8
Wisconsin              35.1    20.1    27.4      25.7    17.9    21.8      11.4     7.7     9.6       2.6     2.9     2.8

Unweighted data
Arkansas               28.6    17.0    22.7      21.6    14.3    17.9      12.8     7.0    10.0       3.8     2.3     3.1
Delaware               28.4    17.3    23.0      22.7    13.8    18.4      11.8     6.8     9.4       2.4     3.5     3.0
Kentucky               32.7    21.6    27.5      22.3    17.5    20.0      11.3     6.4     8.9       3.1     2.6     2.9
Maine                  32.9    22.6    27.9      25.9    19.7    22.8      13.0     8.4    10.9       4.4     3.5     3.9
New Jersey             27.6    16.9    22.4      22.2    13.6    18.0      11.3     6.3     8.9       3.2     1.9     2.6
New Mexico             34.3    20.8    27.4      25.3    17.9    21.5      17.4     8.6    12.9       5.8     3.4     4.6
Oregon                 32.0    20.5    26.3       NA      NA      NA       13.2     7.7    10.6       3.5     2 8     3.2
Wyoming                35.0    19.8    27.1      27.3    17.4    22.1      14.3     6.8    10.5       3.9     2.6     3.3

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                 30.0    17.5    23.7      22.0    17.3    19.7      15.5    11.0    13.5       4.0     4.5     4.3
Chicago                23.7    13.8    18.9      19.5    10.1    15.0      12.7     8.4    10.8       5.0     3.8     4.6
Dallas                 28.1    14.5    21.6      19.6    12.3    16.2      13.5     6.9    10.4       3.9     1.5     2.8
Dist. of Columbia      25.8    14.5    20.6      19.8    11.9    16.2      15.6     7.9    12.2       5.6     3.1     4.5
Fort Lauderdale        29.5    19.9    24.6      20.4    13.4    16.8      13.9     6.7    10.4       3.0     2.7     2.9
Jersey City            24.1    18.8    21.4      18.4    14.2    16.4      13.0     9.5    11.5       4.3     2.7     3.7
Miami                  31.3    20.3    25.6      25.6    14.4    19.8      15.2     8.9    12.1       3.2     4.0     3.6
San Diego              30.3    21.1    25.7      26.1    18.3    22.2      12.8     7.0     9.9       2.6     2.4     2.5
Seattle                24.6    13.6    19.1      20.6    10.9    15.8      12.1     7.3     9.8       4.3     3.3     3.9

Unweighted data
New Orleans            29.1    13.9    22.7      22.7    11.4    18.0      14.3     8.3    11.9       3.5     2.7     3.2
New York City          29.0    16.8    23.2      24.1    12.6    18.7      13.9     5.6    10.0       4.7     1.8     3.3
Philadelphia           25.4    16.1    20.9      21.8    11.9    17.1      15.6     8.6    12.3       5.4     4.0     4.7
San Francisco          29.2    16.1    23.0      22.5    13.3    18.1      12.8     5.5     9.6       3.0     1.4     2.3
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * During the 12 months preceding the survey.
 @ One or more times.
 & Not available.
 @ U.S. territories are included as states.
** Survey did not include students in the state's largest city.
===============================================================================================================================

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Table_12
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TABLE 12. Percentage of high school students who used tobacco, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States,
Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                         Lifetime                                 Current                                  Frequent                                  Regular                                Smokeless
                                      cigarette use *                          cigarette use +                          cigarette use &                          cigarette use @                          tobacco use **
                            ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------
Category                     Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/ Ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic          70.0         70.4         70.2           35.3         32.2         33.7           16.1         16.0         16.1           28.6         28.2         28.4            2.3         26.0         14.6
                            (+/-2.1) ++  (+/-1.7)     (+/-1.5)       (+/-2.6)     (+/-2.7)     (+/-2.2)       (+/-2.8)     (+/-2.2)     (+/-2.2)       (+/-3.4)     (+/-2.9)     (+/-2.6)       (+/-0.7)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-1.8)
  Black, non-Hispanic          66.7         67.6         67.1           14.4         16.3         15.4            4.3          5.0          4.6            9.1          9.4          9.2            0.6          4.7          2.6
                            (+/-3.7)     (+/-3.2)     (+/-2.4)       (+/-2.7)     (+/-4.1)     (+/-2.5)       (+/-1.8)     (+/-2.5)     (+/-1.6)       (+/-2.0)     (+/-3.2)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-0.4)     (+/-2.2)     (+/-1.2)
  Hispanic                     68.2         75.1         71.8           27.3         30.2         28.7            6.9          8.5          7.7           18.3         19.0         18.6            1.7          8.0          4.9
                            (+/-3.6)     (+/-3.6)     (+/-2.4)       (+/-4.4)     (+/-3.5)     (+/-3.2)       (+/-3.2)     (+/-2.3)     (+/-2.0)       (+/-3.9)     (+/-3.3)     (+/-2.9)       (+/-1.3)     (+/-2.3)     (+/-1.3)

Grade
   9th                         62.4         63.0         62.8           28.8         27.0         27.8            8.2          9.5          8.8           20.5         21.2         20.9            1.9         18.7         10.5
                            (+/-4.1)     (+/-4.4)     (+/-3.1)       (+/-4.7)     (+/-3.5)     (+/-2.3)       (+/-1.7)     (+/-2.3)     (+/-1.6)       (+/-3.0)     (+/-2.9)     (+/-2.2)       (+/-1.4)     (+/-4.0)     (+/-2.1)
  10th                         67.0         66.7         66.9           30.2         26.1         28.0           12.7         12.3         12.5           22.1         21.7         21.8            2.4         19.4         11.2
                            (+/-3.9)     (+/-3.2)     (+/-2.9)       (+/-4.1)     (+/-3.6)     (+/-3.3)       (+/-3.3)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.7)       (+/-4.8)     (+/-3.8)     (+/-3.7)       (+/-0.8)     (+/-3.8)     (+/-2.2)
  11th                         70.8         75.6         73.3           31.2         30.9         31.1           15.7         14.7         15.3           25.9         28.2         27.2            1.9         20.8         11.8
                            (+/-3.6)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-2.4)       (+/-4.0)     (+/-4.4)     (+/-3.2)       (+/-3.2)     (+/-3.5)     (+/-2.8)       (+/-4.3)     (+/-4.4)     (+/-3.9)       (+/-1.0)     (+/-4.1)     (+/-2.2)
  12th                         73.7         74.2         73.9           34.4         34.6         34.5           16.8         18.6         17.8           29.0         27.7         28.4            1.7         22.2         12.1
                            (+/-3.7)     (+/-2.4)     (+/-2.3)       (+/-5.5)     (+/-3.8)     (+/-3.8)       (+/-4.4)     (+/-3.4)     (+/-3.4)       (+/-4.5)     (+/-3.8)     (+/-3.4)       (+/-1.1)     (+/-3.4)     (+/-1.7)

Total                          68.7         70.1         69.5           31.2         29.8         30.5           13.5         14.0         13.8           24.5         24.9         24.7            2.0         20.4         11.5
                            (+/-1.8)     (+/-1.4)     (+/-1.3)       (+/-2.1)     (+/-2.3)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-2.1)     (+/-1.7)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-2.5)     (+/-2.2)     (+/-2.0)       (+/-0.6)     (+/-2.7)     (+/-1.6)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever tried cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs.
 + Smoked cigarettes on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Smoked cigarettes on >= 20 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Ever smoked at least one cigarette every day for 30 days.
** Used chewing tobacco or snuff during the 30 days preceding the survey.
++ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_13
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TABLE 13. Percentage of high school students who used tobacco, by sex -- selected sites, United States, Youth Risk
Behavior Surveys, 1993
=====================================================================================================================================================
                            Lifetime                   Current                   Frequent                  Regular                 Smokeless
                         cigarette use *           cigarette use +           cigarette use &           cigarette use @           tobacco use **
                      ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------
Site                  Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                NA ++    NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA       20.5    24.0    22.3       NA      NA      NA
American Samoa &&      63.9    71.1    67.7      37.1    40.4    38.8      10.5    16.6    13.7      25.6    27.4    26.6       2.6    18.8    11.4
Georgia                65.7    68.1    66.9      24.0    24.7    24.3      10.9    10.2    10.5      19.2    19.8    19.5       1.8    17.6     9.6
Hawaii                 66.9    64.3    65.5      29.9    26.8    28.2      12.5    14.0    13.3      27.6    24.2    25.8       1.1     8.9     5.2
Illinois               67.2    68.7    67.9      28.6    29.8    29.1      13.5    13.8    13.7      22.5    21.7    22.1       2.0    16.2     9.1
Idaho                  56.1    64.8    60.3      25.5    29.3    27.3      12.6    14.1    13.3      23.0    25.0    24.0       4.4    26.7    14.9
Louisiana @@           73.4    75.7    74.5      26.2    31.7    28.9      13.4    14.6    14.0      22.2    23.4    22.8       3.2    25.1    14.0
Massachusetts          66.8    68.8    67.8      29.2    31.1    30.2      15.2    15.8    15.5      25.3    25.3    25.3       1.5    17.0     9.4
Mississippi            75.3    76.7    75.9      23.7    31.6    27.6      11.3    15.9    13.6      18.2    24.4    21.3       0.7    24.2    12.3
Montana                66.4    72.6    69.7      29.9    31.5    30.7      12.2    13.2    12.7      23.1    23.3    23.2      10.4    36.5    24.0
Nebraska               63.2    70.9    67.1      32.1    35.2    33.7      12.9    16.8    14.9      22.7    26.5    24.6       2.9    26.5    14.9
Nevada                 68.1    68.5    68.2      32.3    27.6    29.9      14.7    13.3    14.0      28.1    24.0    26.0       3.1    19.0    11.1
New Hampshire          66.8    72.6    69.8      35.1    36.1    35.6      19.4    19.8    19.6      31.1    31.8    31.4       3.8    19.5    11.8
New York @@            73.8    71.9    72.8      36.4    33.1    34.8      19.2    18.3    18.8      30.3    28.7    29.5       1.9    19.4    10.8
North Carolina          NA      NA      NA       28.0    30.4    29.3      13.0    15.0    14.1       NA      NA      NA        1.7    20.5    11.1
Ohio                   66.0    71.0    68.6      29.0    30.4    29.7      12.3    16.1    14.3      22.9    26.0    24.5       1.7    22.5    12.4
South Carolina         70.8    73.4    72.2      25.2    28.1    26.7      11.5    14.1    12.8      21.5    24.4    23.0       1.3    20.4    11.0
South Dakota           66.2    74.8    70.6      33.9    39.2    36.7      17.5    18.0    18.0      27.5    28.6    28.2       7.7    37.9    23.2
Tennessee              72.3    77.3    74.9      32.7    37.8    35.3      17.1    21.7    19.4      28.5    35.9    32.2       1.3    33.8    17.9
Utah                   41.8    50.9    46.4      15.7    19.0    17.4       6.9     9.4     8.2      14.4    17.0    15.7       2.0    11.9     7.1
Vermont                69.8    69.0    69.4      34.3    32.8    33.5      17.4    17.4    17.4      24.5    22.9    23.7       NA      NA      NA
Virgin Islands &&       NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        3.1     3.0     3.1       1.0     2.5     1.8
West Virginia          76.6    77.0    76.8      38.0    39.7    38.9      20.4    19.4    19.9      31.1    33.6    32.4       2.4    40.3    21.6
Wisconsin              68.9    69.7    69.3      32.9    30.7    31.8      15.9    15.8    15.8      27.1    26.8    26.9       2.6    21.0    12.0

Unweighted data
Arkansas               65.2    69.0    67.2      28.2    34.2    31.3      12.7    15.5    14.2      20.9    26.2    23.7       2.4    26.2    14.5
Delaware               68.6    69.1    68.8      31.0    30.9    31.0      14.5    15.4    15.0      25.2    24.8    25.0       1.1    15.0     8.0
Kentucky               71.5    76.9    74.2      31.7    36.6    34.1      16.9    22.8    19.7      26.0    33.1    29.3       2.1    39.0    19.7
Maine                  70.4    73.9    72.1      32.0    33.1    32.6      15.9    20.9    18.3      28.4    34.2    31.3       2.3    18.8    10.3
New Jersey             65.4    67.2    66.3      27.1    27.5    27.3      12.4    12.2    12.3      23.0    22.0    22.5       0.8    13.3     6.8
New Mexico             74.7    74.6    74.7      33.2    32.3    32.6      13.0    14.4    13.7      24.1    25.5    24.8       3.0    24.1    13.8
Oregon                  NA      NA      NA       24.7    24.6    24.6      11.9    11.8    11.8       NA      NA      NA        5.6    25.5    15.5
Wyoming                68.4    71.8    70.1      34.4    30.2    32.2      16.6    14.9    15.7      29.1    25.5    27.3       5.7    32.6    19.7

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                 63.6    65.6    64.7      21.3    20.1    20.9       8.5     8.1     8.3      16.2    14.5    15.5       1.8     4.4     3.2
Chicago                65.0    64.6    64.7      18.3    20.5    19.4       4.8     6.3     5.7      12.1    12.1    12.3       0.8     3.0     2.0
Dallas                 60.1    68.9    64.3      13.2    21.7    17.3       4.1     5.4     4.7       9.5    13.3    11.3       0.8     5.9     3.3
Dist. of Columbia      61.9    62.8    62.3      14.8    19.2    16.7       2.1     4.1     3.0       7.2    10.5     8.7       0.6     2.7     1.6
Fort Lauderdale        62.7    60.1    61.3      20.8    20.8    20.7       8.8    10.1     9.4      17.1    17.9    17.5       1.1     8.9     5.0
Jersey City            63.0    68.6    65.6      25.5    26.5    25.9       4.5    11.5     8.0      15.9    18.7    17.4       1.2     5.0     3.1
Miami                  61.9    66.7    64.3      18.1    18.4    18.2       5.4     5.5     5.4      13.7    11.5    12.6       1.0     4.4     2.8
San Diego              64.9    65.8    65.4      20.8    22.5    21.7       4.8     8.1     6.4      13.3    17.0    15.1       0.7     7.9     4.3
Seattle                57.4    61.2    59.3       NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA       17.2    17.1    17.2       4.7    11.9     8.4

Unweighted data
New Orleans            64.9    65.5    65.1      10.7    16.1    12.9       2.8     4.0     3.3       6.8     7.9     7.2       1.1     2.0     1.5
New York City          69.2    70.3    69.7      17.6    16.1    16.9       5.0     5.3     5.1      12.9    12.4    12.6       0.3     3.0     1.6
Philadelphia           75.4    63.4    69.7      27.2    19.4    23.5      11.3     9.6    10.5      22.5    14.7    18.8       0.8     3.1     1.9
San Francisco          60.6    62.0    61.3      21.6    21.7    21.7       7.8     9.9     8.8      16.6    17.4    17.0       0.9     4.4     2.6
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever tried cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs.
 + Smoked cigarettes on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Smoked cigarettes on >= 20 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Ever smoked at least one cigarette every day for 30 days.
** Used chewing tobacco or snuff during the 30 days preceding the survey.
++ Not available.
&& U.S. territories are included as states.
@@ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
=====================================================================================================================================================

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Table_14
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TABLE 14. Percentage of high school students who drank alcohol or used marijuana, by sex, race/ ethnicity, and grade --
United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                                        Episodic heavy                              Lifetime                                 Current
                                  Lifetime alcohol use *                   Current alcohol use +                          drinking &                             marijuana use @                         marijuana use **
                            ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------
Category                     Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/ Ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic          82.4         81.0         81.7           48.6         51.1         49.9           29.3         35.6         32.6           29.3         36.0         32.7           14.7         19.7         17.3
                            (+/-1.9) ++  (+/-1.9)     (+/-1.6)       (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-2.5)       (+/-2.6)     (+/-2.5)     (+/-2.1)       (+/-4.3)     (+/-4.3)     (+/-4.0)       (+/-2.4)     (+/-3.8)     (+/-2.8)
  Black, non-Hispanic          78.1         82.0         80.0           37.1         48.2         42.5           13.3         25.1         19.1           26.3         41.1         33.6           13.0         24.3         18.6
                            (+/-4.6)     (+/-3.6)     (+/-3.0)       (+/-4.8)     (+/-4.0)     (+/-3.6)       (+/-2.3)     (+/-3.9)     (+/-2.9)       (+/-5.5)     (+/-5.7)     (+/-5.4)       (+/-3.4)     (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.6)
  Hispanic                     82.2         84.9         83.5           46.9         55.0         50.8           27.6         39.4         33.4           29.5         41.5         35.4           15.7         23.2         19.4
                            (+/-4.0)     (+/-4.2)     (+/-3.3)       (+/-5.9)     (+/-6.4)     (+/-5.5)       (+/-4.7)     (+/-4.7)     (+/-3.9)       (+/-5.6)     (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.3)       (+/-4.5)     (+/-4.5)     (+/-2.6)

Grade
   9th                         72.9         72.9         72.9           40.5         40.2         40.5           19.7         24.0         22.0           19.7         28.8         24.4            9.7         16.3         13.2
                            (+/-4.5)     (+/-3.2)     (+/-2.7)       (+/-5.5)     (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.5)       (+/-3.0)     (+/-3.2)     (+/-2.0)       (+/-3.6)     (+/-4.7)     (+/-3.4)       (+/-1.9)     (+/-3.6)     (+/-2.2)
  10th                         78.0         75.9         76.8           44.0         44.1         44.0           25.3         27.2         26.2           26.7         30.9         28.8           14.7         18.2         16.5
                            (+/-3.7)     (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.4)       (+/-4.4)     (+/-4.2)     (+/-3.9)       (+/-3.2)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-2.5)       (+/-4.2)     (+/-4.7)     (+/-3.9)       (+/-3.5)     (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.5)
  11th                         84.2         85.5         84.9           45.9         53.6         49.7           25.1         37.1         31.3           30.8         40.8         36.0           14.4         22.1         18.4
                            (+/-3.1)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-2.1)       (+/-4.0)     (+/-4.4)     (+/-3.4)       (+/-2.8)     (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.3)       (+/-5.9)     (+/-4.7)     (+/-4.8)       (+/-3.7)     (+/-4.2)     (+/-3.5)
  12th                         87.1         88.0         87.6           52.0         60.5         56.4           33.0         45.0         39.1           35.8         45.5         40.8           18.9         25.0         22.0
                            (+/-2.8)     (+/-3.4)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-3.3)     (+/-4.2)     (+/-2.6)       (+/-3.5)     (+/-4.5)     (+/-3.2)       (+/-4.6)     (+/-4.6)     (+/-3.9)       (+/-2.6)     (+/-3.9)     (+/-2.8)

Total                          80.9         80.9         80.9           45.9         50.1         48.0           26.0         33.7         30.0           28.6         36.8         32.8           14.6         20.6         17.7
                            (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.9)     (+/-1.4)       (+/-2.6)     (+/-2.4)     (+/-2.1)       (+/-2.1)     (+/-2.2)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-3.3)     (+/-3.4)     (+/-3.2)       (+/-2.0)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.4)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever had at least one drink of alcohol.
 + Drank alcohol on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Drank five or more drinks of alcohol on at least one occasion on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Ever used marijuana.
** Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
++ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_15
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TABLE 15. Percentage of high school students who drank alcohol or used marijuana, by sex -- selected sites, United States,
Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1993
=====================================================================================================================================================
                                                                              Episodic heavy              Lifetime                   Current
                      Lifetime alcohol use *    Current alcohol use +           drinking &             marijuana use @          marijuana use **
                      ----------------------    ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------
Site                  Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data

Alabama                73.4    77.9    75.7      40.9    47.0    43.9      20.9    30.0    25.4      19.3    26.5    22.9       7.9    12.8    10.4
American Samoa ++      48.6    53.5    51.2      30.5    34.8    32.8      18.3    27.4    23.3      11.4    29.3    21.0       6.7    19.7    13.6
Georgia                73.5    77.7    75.5      41.3    47.1    44.1      20.7    29.1    24.8      22.5    31.7    27.0      11.2    17.0    14.0
Hawaii                 73.9    71.7    72.8      38.7    38.1    38.4      20.9    24.3    22.7      30.6    36.4    33.6      15.4    17.9    16.7
Idaho                  66.4    70.3    68.3      43.0    44.3    43.6      29.5    32.8    31.1      23.4    29.0    26.0      11.5    14.7    13.0
Illinois               77.6    78.8    78.0      45.3    49.3    47.2      24.6    32.0    28.2      24.3    31.6    27.9      11.4    17.5    14.4
Louisiana &&           80.7    84.1    82.4      48.3    60.8    54.2      24.1    40.9    32.2      21.7    36.1    28.7       9.3    18.7    13.9
Massachusetts          75.1    77.4    76.3      45.5    49.2    47.4      23.1    31.8    27.5      29.1    37.9    33.6      16.4    23.5    20.1
Mississippi            76.1    80.1    78.2      41.7    52.2    47.0      18.6    34.9    26.6      15.5    26.2    20.8       5.4    12.3     8.8
Montana                82.7    83.6    83.2      54.1    57.2    55.7      39.4    43.4    41.4      24.3    29.1    26.8      11.0    16.0    13.6
Nebraska               76.8    80.8    78.8      49.9    53.8    51.9      31.5    39.8    35.7      15.2    23.3    19.3       6.6    12.1     9.4
Nevada                 77.7    77.0    77.3      49.4    49.0    49.2      29.2    34.4    31.8      35.4    36.2    35.9      19.2    19.6    19.4
New Hampshire          80.0    81.3    80.7      47.0    51.8    49.5      26.8    34.5    30.8      31.9    40.1    36.1      18.2    23.6    20.9
New York &&            83.4    82.4    82.9      51.7    53.3    52.5      28.3    35.1    31.8      33.1    37.1    35.1      16.7    21.5    19.2
North Carolina         NA @@    NA      NA       39.7    47.9    43.7      16.2    30.0    23.0      24.0    34.1    29.0      10.9    18.9    14.8
Ohio                   78.7    81.5    80.1      44.5    48.3    46.5      28.3    32.0    30.3      25.6    33.7    29.8      13.5    18.6    16.1
South Carolina         73.5    77.6    75.6      40.1    48.4    44.3      20.4    29.5    25.0      18.7    30.3    24.5       9.0    15.9    12.5
South Dakota           85.7    86.5    86.1      58.4    63.8    61.2      38.0    50.5    44.3      15.6    24.9    20.5       6.6    13.4    10.2
Tennessee              74.5    78.9    76.8      39.3    45.7    42.6      23.5    32.5    28.1      28.4    36.5    32.5      13.8    19.0    16.5
Utah                   44.8    46.5    45.7      25.4    26.5    26.0      15.3    18.1    16.7      14.0    18.4    16.3       5.7     9.0     7.4
Vermont                 NA      NA      NA       50.4    54.8    52.6      26.9    35.7    31.4       NA      NA      NA       16.6    21.7    19.2
Virgin Islands ++       NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        6.1    12.8     9.3       NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA
West Virginia          82.1    83.5    82.8      49.4    56.0    52.7      34.1    44.7    39.4      30.3    38.1    34.3      14.1    20.8    17.5
Wisconsin              80.0    78.9    79.4      47.5    48.7    48.1      26.0    31.9    29.0      20.5    25.1    22.8       8.6    13.8    11.2

Unweighted data
Arkansas               73.0    74.9    74.0      43.5    47.4    45.5      26.6    32.9    29.8      19.7    26.7    23.4       8.8    12.6    10.7
Delaware               78.4    77.3    77.8      48.4    50.1    49.2      25.4    29.7    27.6      27.6    40.0    33.7      15.1    24.7    19.9
Kentucky               71.9    81.2    76.4      42.7    53.1    47.7      27.3    40.6    33.7      26.0    38.5    32.0      11.0    19.0    14.9
Maine                   NA      NA      NA       49.1    49.9    49.6      24.8    32.7    28.7       NA      NA      NA       15.3    22.9    19.1
New Jersey             74.0    79.0    76.4      40.9    45.0    42.9      20.6    27.5    23.9      22.4    29.4    25.7      10.4    14.2    12.2
New Mexico             86.0    84.5    85.2      59.3    61.4    60.3      41.2    46.1    43.6      36.8    43.1    40.0      19.6    24.5    22.0
Oregon                 74.9    77.6    76.2      38.5    46.3    42.3      22.0    30.6    26.3      26.8    34.3    30.5      10.6    17.7    14.1
Wyoming                81.1    83.0    82.0      55.7    54.4    55.1      36.9    39.7    38.4      24.7    30.0    27.4      11.6    16.4    14.1

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                 63.9    71.1    67.4      35.6    44.9    40.1      15.1    25.6    20.3      26.7    35.0    30.7      14.1    21.7    17.8
Chicago                70.5    69.4    70.0      38.6    39.7    39.2      15.3    21.0    18.1      24.6    28.6    26.6      11.3    17.3    14.3
Dallas                 76.6    81.8    79.0      42.4    51.1    46.4      19.3    30.7    24.7      23.2    35.7    29.0       9.1    19.0    13.7
Dist. of Columbia      74.3    74.0    74.2      40.1    42.7    41.3      13.8    19.6    16.4      21.4    37.5    28.8      12.7    24.6    18.1
Fort Lauderdale        77.5    76.5    77.0      42.8    45.0    43.9      15.9    24.7    20.3      26.4    35.8    31.1      13.4    22.5    17.9
Jersey City            62.4    78.0    69.9      34.8    50.3    42.4      19.5    26.1    22.7      22.1    30.6    26.3      10.6    18.2    14.4
Miami                  75.4    75.6    75.5      36.0    37.7    36.8      11.0    17.6    14.3      19.3    31.3    25.3       9.7    18.2    14.0
San Diego              73.0    71.5    72.3      43.7    43.5    43.7      19.6    25.0    22.4      32.7    40.3    36.5      18.6    26.5    22.6
Seattle                 NA      NA      NA       43.6    48.7    46.1      16.4    22.4    19.4       NA      NA      NA       18.6    25.4    22.0

Unweighted data
New Orleans            76.6    79.3    77.6      43.1    48.9    45.4      13.3    23.3    17.4      25.1    37.2    30.0      10.7    19.6    14.3
New York City          69.5    76.0    72.6      31.4    45.3    37.9       9.2    19.6    14.1      19.3    28.7    23.8       8.1    15.6    11.8
Philadelphia           75.1    73.9    74.6      40.8    41.9    41.4      19.5    24.0    21.7      37.7    43.9    40.5      19.9    25.9    22.7
San Francisco          60.1    61.1    60.5      31.8    34.3    32.9      14.0    17.3    15.6      31.1    32.6    31.8      17.8    20.6    19.2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever had at least one drink of alcohol.
 + Drank alcohol on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Drank five or more drinks of alcohol on a least one occasion during >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Ever used marijuana.
** Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
++ U.S. territories are included as states.
&& Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
@@ Not available.
=====================================================================================================================================================

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Table_16
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TABLE 16. Percentage of high school students who used cocaine, crack or freebase, or illegal steroids, and percentage who
injected illegal drugs, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                                       Lifetime crack                            Lifetime illegal                        Lifetime injected-
                                  Lifetime cocaine use *                   Current cocaine use +                      or freebase use &                           steroid use @                             drug use **
                            ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------
Category                     Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/ Ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic           3.9          5.3          4.6            1.2          2.0          1.6            2.0          2.6          2.3            1.0          2.8          1.9            0.7          1.8          1.3
                            (+/-1.0) ++  (+/-1.2)     (+/-0.9)       (+/-0.4)     (+/-0.8)     (+/-0.6)       (+/-0.5)     (+/-1.0)     (+/-0.6)       (+/-0.8)     (+/-0.7)     (+/-0.5)       (+/-0.3)     (+/-0.7)     (+/-0.3)
  Black, non-Hispanic           1.2          1.9          1.6            0.5          1.5          1.0            0.6          1.6          1.1            0.8          4.0          2.4            0.4          1.4          0.9
                            (+/-0.6)     (+/-1.1)     (+/-0.5)       (+/-0.3)     (+/-1.0)     (+/-0.6)       (+/-0.4)     (+/-1.0)     (+/-0.6)       (+/-0.5)     (+/-1.6)     (+/-0.8)       (+/-0.5)     (+/-1.1)     (+/-0.6)
  Hispanic                     10.4         12.1         11.3            3.0          6.2          4.6            5.5          7.1          6.3            2.6          3.4          3.0            1.1          1.8          1.5
                            (+/-2.2)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-1.8)       (+/-1.7)     (+/-1.8)     (+/-1.5)       (+/-2.0)     (+/-2.0)     (+/-1.4)       (+/-1.4)     (+/-1.0)     (+/-0.8)       (+/-0.6)     (+/-0.8)     (+/-0.5)

Grade
   9th                          3.8          4.6          4.2            1.0          2.2          1.6            2.7          2.7          2.7            1.4          2.7          2.1            0.8          1.9          1.4
                            (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.5)     (+/-1.3)       (+/-1.1)     (+/-1.0)     (+/-0.8)       (+/-1.2)     (+/-1.2)     (+/-0.9)       (+/-0.9)     (+/-1.1)     (+/-0.6)       (+/-0.6)     (+/-0.9)     (+/-0.6)
  10th                          3.5          3.9          3.7            1.0          1.7          1.4            2.5          2.1          2.3            1.6          2.4          2.0            1.4          1.5          1.4
                            (+/-1.5)     (+/-1.1)     (+/-1.0)       (+/-0.5)     (+/-0.8)     (+/-0.5)       (+/-1.2)     (+/-1.0)     (+/-0.8)       (+/-1.3)     (+/-1.0)     (+/-1.0)       (+/-0.8)     (+/-0.8)     (+/-0.6)
  11th                          4.5          5.5          5.1            1.7          2.4          2.1            2.1          3.1          2.7            1.0          3.2          2.2            0.6          1.9          1.3
                            (+/-1.3)     (+/-1.8)     (+/-1.2)       (+/-0.8)     (+/-1.1)     (+/-0.8)       (+/-1.0)     (+/-1.3)     (+/-0.8)       (+/-0.9)     (+/-0.7)     (+/-0.6)       (+/-0.3)     (+/-1.1)     (+/-0.6)
  12th                          4.6          7.5          6.1            1.6          2.5          2.1            1.6          3.6          2.6            1.0          3.5          2.3            0.4          1.9          1.2
                            (+/-1.7)     (+/-1.9)     (+/-1.5)       (+/-0.7)     (+/-0.9)     (+/-0.6)       (+/-0.9)     (+/-1.4)     (+/-0.9)       (+/-0.7)     (+/-1.3)     (+/-0.8)       (+/-0.3)     (+/-0.9)     (+/-0.5)

Total                           4.2          5.5          4.9            1.4          2.3          1.9            2.2          3.0          2.6            1.2          3.1          2.2            0.8          1.9          1.4
                            (+/-0.9)     (+/-0.9)     (+/-0.8)       (+/-0.4)     (+/-0.6)     (+/-0.4)       (+/-0.6)     (+/-0.8)     (+/-0.5)       (+/-0.7)     (+/-0.5)     (+/-0.5)       (+/-0.2)     (+/-0.6)     (+/-0.3)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever tried any form of cocaine, including powder, crack, or freebase.
 + Used cocaine one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Ever used crack or freebase.
 @ Ever used illegal steroids.
** Ever injected illegal drugs. Respondents were classified as injecting- drug users only if they a) reported injecting-drug use not
   prescribed by a physician and b) answered "one or more" to any of these questions: "During your life, how many times have you
   used any form of cocaine including powder, crack, or freebase?"; "During your life, how many times have you used any other type
   of illegal drugs such as LSD, PCP, ecstacy, mushrooms, speed, ice, heroin, or pills without a doctor's prescription?"; or "During your
   life, how many times have you taken steroid pills or shots without a doctor's prescription?"
++ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_17
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TABLE 17. Percentage of high school students who used cocaine, crack or freebase, or illegal steroids, and percentage who
injected illegal drugs, by sex -- selected sites, United States, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1993
=====================================================================================================================================================
                                                                             Lifetime crack           Lifetime illegal         Lifetime injected-
                     Lifetime cocaine use *     Current cocaine use +       or freebase use &           steroid use @              drug use **
                     ----------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------
Site                  Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                 3.3     5.6     4.5       0.9     2.3     1.7      NA ++    NA      NA        2.6     6.3     4.5       1.3     2.8     2.1
American Samoa &&       3.2     4.5     3.9       1.7     2.4     2.1       2.2     3.3     2.7       3.4     6.4     5.0       1.7     4.0     3.0
Georgia                 2.5     3.8     3.2       1.3     1.8     1.6       1.6     2.8     2.2       1.4     3.8     2.6       1.2     3.2     2.2
Hawaii                  7.5     9.0     8.2       2.8     3.9     3.3       5.0     6.2     5.6       1.2     3.2     2.2       1.8     1.6     1.7
Idaho                   5.3     8.3     6.7       1.9     3.7     2.8       3.4     6.0     4.6       2.3     5.6     3.9       1.8     3.7     2.7
Illinois                2.9     6.4     4.7       1.0     3.8     2.4       2.0     4.3     3.2       1.3     5.0     3.1       0.6     2.9     1.8
Louisiana @@            3.4     7.0     5.2       1.6     4.5     3.1       2.8     6.6     4.7       2.3     8.3     5.4       1.4     4.5     2.9
Massachusetts           4.3     7.2     5.8       1.3     3.5     2.5       2.2     5.3     3.9       1.7     5.5     3.7       1.2     3.8     2.6
Mississippi             2.0     2.0     2.0       0.8     0.7     0.7       1.2     1.0     1.1       1.1     2.6     1.8       0.4     1.6     1.0
Montana                 4.7     5.3     5.1       1.7     2.6     2.2       3.2     3.6     3.4       2.9     5.0     4.1       1.8     3.4     2.6
Nebraska                2.3     4.6     3.5       0.7     2.8     1.8       1.4     3.5     2.4       1.0     4.8     3.0       0.8     3.1     2.0
Nevada                  8.1     7.9     8.1       3.5     3.9     3.7       4.3     4.7     4.5       1.8     3.5     2.7       0.6     2.2     1.4
New Hampshire           4.3     7.7     6.1       1.4     2.7     2.2       2.8     4.7     3.8       1.1     3.8     2.5       1.5     2.3     1.9
New York @@             4.2     6.4     5.4       1.3     3.2     2.4       2.3     3.8     3.2       2.3     5.9     4.3       1.4     3.4     2.4
North Carolina          3.5     5.3     4.4       1.2     2.9     2.1       2.3     4.4     3.4       1.4     5.7     3.6       1.2     3.9     2.6
Ohio                    2.4     4.7     3.6       0.5     2.5     1.6       1.6     3.1     2.4       1.0     4.1     2.6       0.8     2.5     1.7
South Carolina          3.6     5.7     4.7       1.4     2.8     2.2       2.8     4.1     3.4       1.7     6.2     4.0       1.5     3.5     2.5
South Dakota            3.1     7.3     5.2       1.4     4.6     3.0       2.3     5.9     4.1       2.1     6.5     4.4       1.7     5.6     3.8
Tennessee               4.0     6.2     5.1       1.1     2.8     2.0       2.3     3.1     2.8       2.1     4.8     3.5       1.1     2.1     1.6
Utah                    3.6     4.7     4.2       1.6     2.4     2.1       2.7     3.5     3.2       1.7     4.3     3.1       1.5     3.0     2.3
Vermont                 NA      NA      NA        1.3     2.7     2.0       NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        0.7     1.9     1.3
Virgin Islands &&       NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        1.5     3.3     2.4       0.4     1.4     1.0
West Virginia           3.9     6.4     5.1       0.9     3.0     2.0       2.7     4.2     3.4       1.9     6.5     4.2       1.2     3.5     2.4
Wisconsin               3.0     6.2     4.6       0.8     4.5     2.7       1.7     4.6     3.2       1.8     7.2     4.6       1.6     4.8     3.3

Unweighted data
Arkansas                4.8     4.8     4.8       2.2     2.7     2.4       3.2     3.2     3.2       2.0     4.7     3.4       1.2     2.3     1.8
Delaware                4.0     6.2     5.1       1.7     3.4     2.6       2.3     3.4     2.9       1.3     5.0     3.1       1.1     2.7     1.9
Kentucky                3.1     7.8     5.3       0.7     3.2     1.9       2.6     4.5     3.5       1.0     7.3     4.0       0.5     3.4     1.9
Maine                   NA      NA      NA        2.0     4.6     3.3       NA      NA      NA        3.3     6.8     5.1       1.4     2.8     2.1
New Jersey              3.2     5.8     4.4       1.2     2.6     1.9       1.8     3.7     2.7       0.7     3.8     2.2       0.5     2.1     1.3
New Mexico              8.6    10.8     9.7       3.6     5.2     4.4       4.8     5.5     5.2       1.8     5.8     3.9       3.0     2.7     2.9
Oregon                  5.7     8.9     7.4       1.9     4.6     3.4       3.8     5.7     4.8       2.5     4.1     3.5       2.4     4.0     3.2
Wyoming                 6.2     9.0     7.7       2.4     4.5     3.5       4.6     5.8     5.3       1.4     4.6     3.1       1.6     4.0     2.8

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                  2.1     5.6     3.8       0.9     3.0     1.9       1.1     2.5     1.8       2.4     5.4     3.8       0.8     3.0     1.9
Chicago                 2.4     5.4     4.0       0.9     2.9     2.0       1.3     3.1     2.3       1.8     4.5     3.2       0.5     2.3     1.5
Dallas                  3.7     6.6     5.1       0.9     2.5     1.7       1.7     2.9     2.3       1.3     2.8     2.0       0.5     1.7     1.1
Dist. of Columbia       1.1     2.5     1.8       0.7     1.8     1.2       0.8     1.7     1.3       1.0     3.9     2.4       1.0     2.0     1.5
Fort Lauderdale         2.7     4.3     3.5       1.1     2.7     1.9       1.3     2.4     1.8       0.9     4.5     2.7       1.0     2.3     1.7
Jersey City             3.0     2.1     2.5       1.2     0.9     1.2       1.9     1.0     1.5       1.3     4.1     2.8       0.7     1.4     1.2
Miami                   4.0     6.0     5.1       1.7     3.0     2.3       1.9     2.6     2.3       1.9     4.1     3.1       1.3     3.0     2.2
San Diego               8.3     9.3     8.8       3.6     5.0     4.3       4.5     5.4     5.0       2.6     4.3     3.4       1.2     3.8     2.6
Seattle                 NA      NA      NA        1.3     4.4     2.8       NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA

Unweighted data
New Orleans             1.1     2.6     1.7       0.7     1.3     0.9       0.9     0.8     0.8       0.9     2.5     1.6       0.5     0.5     0.5
New York City           1.1     1.8     1.4       0.0     0.9     0.4       0.2     1.4     0.7       1.3     4.5     2.8       0.6     1.1     0.8
Philadelphia            3.0     4.8     3.9       1.1     2.3     1.7       1.5     3.1     2.2       2.4     4.0     3.2       0.7     2.3     1.4
San Francisco           5.0     6.9     5.9       1.6     3.6     2.6       2.2     5.0     3.6       1.1     3.6     2.4       1.3     2.3     1.8
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever tried any form of cocaine, including powder, crack, or freebase.
 + Used cocaine one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Ever used crack or freebase.
 @ Ever used illegal steroids.
** Ever injected illegal drugs. Respondents were classified as injecting-drug users only if they a) reported injecting-drug use not
   prescribed by a physician and b) answered "one or more" to any of these questions: "During your life, how many times have you
   used any form of cocaine including powder, crack, or freebase?"; "During your life, how many times have you used any other type
   of illegal drug such as LSD, PCP, ecstacy, mushrooms, speed, ice, heroin, or pills without a doctor's prescription?"; or "During your
   life, how many times have you taken steroid pills or shots without a doctor's prescription?"
++ Not available.
&& U.S. territories are included as states.
@@ Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
=====================================================================================================================================================

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Table_18
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TABLE 18. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in drug-related behaviors on school property, by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                              Smokeless tobacco                                                                                                         Offered, sold, or
                                      Cigarette use                             use on school                            Alcohol use                             Marijuana use                        given an illegal drug
                                   on school property *                          property +                          on school property &                     on school property @                    on school property **
                            ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------
Category                     Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic          14.5         14.7         14.6            0.9         16.0          8.7            3.6          5.5          4.6            2.8          7.1          5.0           18.9         28.8         24.1
                            (+/-2.3)++   (+/-2.8)     (+/-2.4)       (+/-0.4)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-1.1)     (+/-1.0)     (+/-0.9)       (+/-0.9)     (+/-2.0)     (+/-1.4)       (+/-3.2)     (+/-3.6)     (+/-3.3)
  Black, non-Hispanic           4.5          7.3          5.9            0.1          2.8          1.4            5.1          8.7          6.9            4.5         10.1          7.3           14.8         20.3         17.5
                            (+/-1.7)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-0.1)     (+/-1.7)     (+/-0.9)       (+/-2.5)     (+/-2.2)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-2.6)     (+/-2.9)     (+/-2.4)       (+/-2.8)     (+/-4.4)     (+/-2.9)
  Hispanic                     11.6         10.6         11.1            0.2          4.4          2.3            6.2          7.3          6.8            4.9         10.0          7.5           26.8         41.5         34.1
                            (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.7)     (+/-2.4)       (+/-0.2)     (+/-1.8)     (+/-0.9)       (+/-1.7)     (+/-2.0)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-2.5)     (+/-2.7)     (+/-2.2)       (+/-4.0)     (+/-5.3)     (+/-3.1)

Grade
   9th                         11.3         11.4         11.3            0.2         10.8          5.6            4.8          5.5          5.2            2.8          5.9          4.4           18.4         24.6         21.8
                            (+/-2.0)     (+/-2.7)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-0.3)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-1.6)       (+/-1.2)     (+/-1.0)     (+/-0.7)       (+/-0.9)     (+/-1.4)     (+/-0.8)       (+/-2.9)     (+/-3.2)     (+/-2.4)
  10th                         11.8         12.8         12.3            1.0         11.3          6.3            4.7          4.8          4.7            3.6          9.2          6.5           19.2         27.9         23.7
                            (+/-4.0)     (+/-3.5)     (+/-3.1)       (+/-0.6)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-1.6)       (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.5)     (+/-0.8)       (+/-1.4)     (+/-2.9)     (+/-1.8)       (+/-3.7)     (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.6)
  11th                         14.9         12.9         13.9            1.1         12.9          7.3            3.9          6.3          5.2            4.0          8.7          6.5           21.7         32.9         27.5
                            (+/-3.3)     (+/-4.0)     (+/-3.2)       (+/-0.9)     (+/-4.0)     (+/-2.2)       (+/-1.8)     (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.6)       (+/-1.9)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-2.1)       (+/-4.2)     (+/-3.9)     (+/-3.2)
  12th                         13.3         16.5         15.0            0.7         14.5          7.7            3.5          7.5          5.5            2.7          7.3          5.1           17.5         28.2         23.0
                            (+/-3.1)     (+/-3.9)     (+/-3.3)       (+/-0.5)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-1.4)     (+/-1.8)     (+/-1.3)       (+/-1.0)     (+/-2.3)     (+/-1.5)       (+/-3.3)     (+/-4.5)     (+/-3.6)

Total                          12.9         13.5         13.2            0.8         12.5          6.8            4.2          6.2          5.2            3.3          7.8          5.6           19.1         28.5         24.0
                            (+/-1.8)     (+/-2.1)     (+/-1.8)       (+/-0.3)     (+/-2.4)     (+/-1.4)       (+/-1.1)     (+/-0.8)     (+/-0.8)       (+/-0.9)     (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.3)       (+/-2.6)     (+/-2.9)     (+/-2.6)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * On >= 1 day(s) during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + Used chewing tobacco or snuff during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Drank alcohol on >= 1 of the 30 days precding the survey.
 @ Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** During the 12 months preceding the survey.
++ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_19
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TABLE 19. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in drug-related behaviors on school property, by sex
-- selected sites, United States, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1993
=====================================================================================================================================================
                                                  Smokeless tobacco                                                          Offered, sold, or given
                          Cigarette use             use on school              Alcohol use             Marijuana use             an illegal drug
                      on school property *            property +          on school property &      on school property @      on school property **
                      ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------    ----------------------
Site                  Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                 7.4    13.1    10.4       1.7    17.0     9.5       3.5     7.3     5.4       1.0     3.3     2.2      13.8    22.5    18.2
American Samoa ++      19.4    20.4    19.9       2.0    14.0     8.5       8.9    11.8    10.5       1.7     9.6     6.0       9.9    17.7    14.3
Georgia                 8.0     8.4     8.2       0.8    11.6     6.1       5.1     7.8     6.4       2.9     3.0     3.0      16.6    25.9    21.2
Hawaii                 14.7    16.0    15.4       1.0     6.4     3.8       6.4     6.4     6.4       5.9     9.8     7.9      23.5    29.0    26.4
Idaho                  11.9    14.2    12.9       2.0    19.5    10.3       7.1     8.9     7.9       3.1     6.1     4.5      19.8    28.3    23.9
Illinois               10.5    12.6    11.5       0.7     8.8     4.8       4.1     5.9     5.0       2.4     6.4     4.4      14.1    23.0    18.5
Louisiana &&            6.4    12.1     9.2       0.8    15.9     8.2       4.0    11.1     7.5       1.8     7.1     4.5      17.8    26.8    22.1
Massachusetts          16.8    18.5    17.7       0.6     9.5     5.1       3.7     7.0     5.4       3.7     9.6     6.8      25.0    37.4    31.4
Mississippi             5.8    12.4     9.1       0.2    14.7     7.4       3.4     9.1     6.2       0.8     2.9     1.8      11.2    20.5    15.8
Montana                11.5    12.4    11.9       4.9    26.5    16.2       8.2     9.4     8.8       3.3     6.9     5.1      19.3    24.5    22.0
Nebraska               11.0    15.7    13.4       1.1    15.0     8.2       3.3     6.1     4.8       1.3     3.6     2.4       8.4    13.5    11.0
Nevada                 15.7    14.6    15.1       1.9    12.6     7.4       5.3     7.1     6.2       5.6     9.9     7.8      26.4    33.2    29.8
New Hampshire          16.1    18.4    17.3       0.8    10.4     5.7       3.0     5.2     4.1       4.0     7.3     5.7      22.5    28.7    25.7
New York &&            19.5    17.5    18.5       1.1    12.2     6.8       5.5     7.1     6.3       4.3     9.5     7.0      22.9    32.1    27.6
North Carolina         13.3    16.5    14.9       0.9    12.8     6.9       3.3     7.6     5.4       2.1     7.5     4.8      24.4    33.4    28.9
Ohio                   10.8    13.1    12.0       0.5    13.0     6.9       4.0     5.2     4.6       2.0     6.0     4.0      15.4    23.4    19.5
South Carolina         10.2    13.9    12.1       0.4    11.8     6.2       5.7     9.7     7.7       1.9     5.9     3.9      20.4    29.5    25.0
South Dakota           12.6    16.7    14.8       1.8    23.6    13.0       5.3    13.5     9.5       1.3     6.1     3.8      11.7    24.9    18.5
Tennessee              13.1    17.9    15.5       0.5    21.7    11.4       3.9     6.0     5.0       3.2     6.0     4.7      18.5    25.1    21.8
Utah                    7.7     9.7     8.7       1.2     7.7     4.6       4.5     6.3     5.5       1.9     4.3     3.2      15.2    22.8    19.1
Vermont                NA @@    NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA
Virgin Islands  ++      NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA       21.5    32.5    27.0
West Virginia          18.4    17.8    18.1       1.0    27.3    14.3       5.7     9.7     7.7       2.7     7.7     5.2      23.3    27.6    25.5
Wisconsin              13.4    13.6    13.5       1.2    12.9     7.2       3.7     7.0     5.4       1.4     6.0     3.7      15.3    23.7    19.6

Unweighted data
Arkansas                7.0    12.7    10.0       0.8    15.9     8.5       4.4     7.7     6.1       1.2     2.6     1.9      10.9    17.2    14.2
Delaware               15.3    15.6    15.5       0.6     9.1     4.8       4.5     5.8     5.2       4.0     9.4     6.7      18.7    30.5    24.6
Kentucky               16.7    23.0    19.8       0.7    27.3    13.4       3.1     8.5     5.7       2.2     4.2     3.1      14.4    24.7    19.4
Maine                  14.1    18.0    16.0       1.1    11.2     6.0       4.8     7.7     6.2       3.2     8.7     5.9      19.2    31.4    25.1
New Jersey             12.9    13.8    13.3       0.3     8.2     4.1       3.4     5.7     4.5       1.8     4.5     3.1      12.6    24.4    18.2
New Mexico             13.0    14.0    13.5       1.9    15.7     9.0      11.6    13.1    12.3       6.2    10.0     8.1      24.2    32.8    28.6
Oregon                 10.0    10.7    10.3       2.5    17.3     9.9       4.4     8.9     6.7       3.0     7.6     5.4      22.2    31.4    26.9
Wyoming                13.6    12.8    13.2       2.5    23.2    13.2       5.3     9.7     7.6       1.6     6.4     4.1      15.7    22.0    19.0

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                 12.1    10.4    11.2       0.4     2.3     1.3       4.1     7.6     5.9       3.9     9.2     6.5      18.1    25.3    21.7
Chicago                 7.5     9.2     8.4       0.0     2.0     1.1       6.0     6.9     6.5       3.4     7.8     5.6      13.8    19.3    16.5
Dallas                  4.9     8.0     6.5       0.3     3.7     1.9       7.5     8.9     8.2       2.4     7.1     4.6      16.2    26.9    21.2
Dist. of Columbia       3.1     7.4     5.1       0.1     2.1     1.0       5.3     9.4     7.2       4.1    13.7     8.4      13.3    18.6    15.7
Fort Lauderdale         8.8    11.1     9.9       0.5     4.8     2.6       2.7     7.1     4.9       3.2     8.9     6.0      18.5    30.4    24.5
Jersey City            17.1    16.9    17.0       1.0     1.0     1.0       8.4    16.1    12.2       3.5     6.9     5.3      10.7    19.7    15.2
Miami                  10.4     9.3     9.9       0.5     3.0     1.7       3.5     4.6     4.1       3.4     7.2     5.3      23.7    36.6    30.3
San Diego               7.0    10.4     8.7       0.4     4.3     2.3       6.1     9.2     7.7       6.3    12.1     9.3      31.4    42.0    36.7
Seattle                13.4    13.6    13.6       NA      NA      NA        6.0     8.5     7.3       5.8    12.3     9.0      22.5    33.5    28.0

Unweighted data
New Orleans             3.4     4.8     4.0       0.7     1.7     1.1       3.9     7.7     5.4       2.5     7.9     4.7       9.7    17.3    12.8
New York City           8.5    10.6     9.5       0.0     1.6     0.7       2.7     7.8     5.1       2.2     7.7     4.8      14.5    28.9    21.3
Philadelphia           16.3    11.7    14.1       0.4     1.0     0.7       3.9     7.2     5.5       6.0    11.0     8.3      15.4    22.9    18.9
San Francisco           NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * On >=1 day(s) during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + Used chewing tobacco or snuff during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Drank alcohol on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** During the 12 months preceding the survey.
++ U.S. territories are included as states.
&& Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
@@ Not available.
=====================================================================================================================================================

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Table_20
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TABLE 20. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in sexual behaviors, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade
-- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                              Four or more sex                                                                  Condom use during                      Birth control pill use
                                      Ever had sexual                          partners during                             Currently                               last sexual                           during last sexual
                                        intercourse                               lifetime                             sexually active *                          intercourse +                            intercourse  +
                            ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------
Category                     Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic          47.4         49.3         48.4           13.3         15.2         14.3           35.2         32.9         34.0           46.1         58.5         52.3           24.0         17.1         20.4
                            (+/-2.5) &   (+/-3.9)     (+/-2.8)       (+/-2.0)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.1)       (+/-1.6)     (+/-3.6)     (+/-2.1)       (+/-4.1)     (+/-5.4)     (+/-3.9)       (+/-3.6)     (+/-4.0)     (+/-3.1)
  Black, non-Hispanic          70.4         89.2         79.7           27.2         58.8         42.7           53.2         65.1         59.1           47.8         63.7         56.5           20.6         10.5         15.1
                            (+/-5.2)     (+/-2.4)     (+/-3.1)       (+/-3.7)     (+/-4.8)     (+/-3.7)       (+/-4.9)     (+/-5.2)     (+/-4.3)       (+/-5.8)     (+/-5.0)     (+/-4.0)       (+/-4.1)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-2.7)
  Hispanic                     48.3         63.5         56.0           11.0         26.3         18.6           37.9         40.7         39.4           36.9         55.1         46.1           15.3          9.8         12.4
                            (+/-5.0)     (+/-4.0)     (+/-4.1)       (+/-4.0)     (+/-3.6)     (+/-3.3)       (+/-5.1)     (+/-4.9)     (+/-3.7)       (+/-4.6)     (+/-6.6)     (+/-4.1)       (+/-5.4)     (+/-5.3)     (+/-4.1)

Grade
   9th                         31.6         43.5         37.7            6.2         15.4         10.9           22.5         26.8         24.8           59.2         63.1         61.6           11.1          7.5          9.0
                            (+/-4.6)     (+/-5.1)     (+/-4.2)       (+/-2.1)     (+/-2.7)     (+/-2.0)       (+/-4.0)     (+/-4.0)     (+/-3.3)       (+/-8.3)     (+/-8.1)     (+/-5.7)       (+/-3.1)     (+/-3.9)     (+/-2.7)
  10th                         44.9         47.4         46.1           12.8         18.9         15.9           30.7         29.6         30.1           45.8         63.3         54.7           17.4         10.0         13.7
                            (+/-4.6)     (+/-4.8)     (+/-3.6)       (+/-2.8)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.1)       (+/-3.5)     (+/-4.2)     (+/-3.1)       (+/-5.6)     (+/-7.2)     (+/-4.5)       (+/-3.1)     (+/-4.6)     (+/-2.7)
  11th                         55.1         59.5         57.5           16.3         23.1         19.9           40.9         39.1         40.0           46.1         64.8         55.3           22.2         11.7         16.8
                            (+/-3.5)     (+/-5.1)     (+/-3.4)       (+/-2.7)     (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.1)       (+/-3.7)     (+/-4.9)     (+/-3.5)       (+/-4.2)     (+/-5.0)     (+/-3.0)       (+/-4.2)     (+/-3.3)     (+/-3.0)
  12th                         66.3         70.2         68.3           23.2         30.7         27.0           53.2         52.7         53.0           41.2         51.5         46.5           29.0         22.7         25.8
                            (+/-5.5)     (+/-4.9)     (+/-4.6)       (+/-3.9)     (+/-4.2)     (+/-3.6)       (+/-4.1)     (+/-4.9)     (+/-3.9)       (+/-4.6)     (+/-5.3)     (+/-4.0)       (+/-4.9)     (+/-5.8)     (+/-4.4)

Total                          50.2         55.6         53.0           15.0         22.3         18.8           37.5         37.5         37.6           46.0         59.2         52.8           22.3         14.7         18.4
                            (+/-2.5)     (+/-3.5)     (+/-2.7)       (+/-1.9)     (+/-2.7)     (+/-2.0)       (+/-1.6)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.0)       (+/-2.8)     (+/-3.8)     (+/-2.7)       (+/-2.6)     (+/-2.7)     (+/-2.1)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey.
+ Among currently sexually active students.
& Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_21
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TABLE 21. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in sexual behaviors, by sex -- selected sites, United
States, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1993
=====================================================================================================================================================
                                                  Four or more sex                                    Condom use during      Birth control pill use
                         Ever had sexual              partners                  Currently                last sexual           during last sexual
                           intercourse             during lifetime          sexually active *           intercourse +             intercourse +
                      ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------    ----------------------
Site                  Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                NA &     NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA
American Samoa @       26.7    56.9    43.0       3.3    20.9    12.8      17.8    37.7    28.5      14.5    32.9    27.6       3.4     6.5     5.6
Georgia                62.1    70.9    66.3      23.0    37.6    30.1      48.2    51.4    49.7      50.3    59.9    55.1      19.9    13.3    16.6
Hawaii                 46.7    42.1    44.3      10.4    12.2    11.4      33.4    24.2    28.7      43.6    59.8    50.6      19.7     6.3    13.9
Idaho                   NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA
Illinois               49.9    59.7    54.7      13.5    25.3    19.3      38.0    42.0    40.0      48.0    67.3    57.8      23.4    10.4    16.7
Louisiana **            NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA
Massachusetts          46.0    51.4    48.7      10.6    18.5    14.5      34.2    32.6    33.4      46.7    57.4    51.8      22.4    13.5    18.1
Mississippi            66.0    71.9    69.0      18.8    37.7    28.1      51.9    48.9    50.4      50.2    61.7    55.7      24.2    14.4    19.6
Montana                48.4    53.5    51.0      14.8    20.8    17.9      34.5    32.8    33.7      41.5    61.5    51.5      25.4    15.7    20.6
Nebraska               41.9    51.8    47.0      12.3    17.8    15.1      31.1    32.7    31.9      52.1    66.7    59.6      18.8    16.4    17.6
Nevada                 54.1    62.7    58.4      18.6    27.4    23.0      39.5    39.8    39.7      45.3    55.1    50.3      24.5    13.9    19.1
New Hampshire          52.7    55.8    54.3      15.7    15.9    15.9      39.5    34.9    37.2      45.7    57.2    51.1      29.1    18.9    24.3
New York **             NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA
North Carolina          NA      NA      NA       18.6    28.8    23.5      43.6    43.7    43.6      44.4    57.5    50.6       NA      NA      NA
Ohio                   52.8    57.4    55.2      16.2    24.7    20.6      38.9    39.3    39.2      48.7    59.4    54.1      20.8    16.9    18.8
South Carolina         58.8    72.2    65.5      19.2    37.4    28.3      43.6    49.2    46.4      49.5    59.4    54.6      19.3    14.8    16.9
South Dakota           47.9    56.1    52.0      14.1    18.6    16.5      36.4    37.5    37.0      46.3    54.5    50.4      29.6    21.0    25.2
Tennessee              59.0    65.6    62.3      20.5    28.3    24.5      44.1    43.2    43.6      41.2    60.6    50.9      24.2    11.2    17.7
Utah                    NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA
Vermont                50.3    51.2    50.7      14.1    14.8    14.5      37.8    31.5    34.6      45.6    61.1    52.9      37.5    24.1    31.3
Virgin Islands @       44.6    80.1    61.0       6.7    42.8    23.2      31.8    37.9    34.5      49.6    54.1    52.0       3.0     6.6     4.8
West Virginia          59.4    66.7    63.1      16.7    27.8    22.4      46.3    44.8    45.6      43.5    57.2    50.3      25.1    15.9    20.5
Wisconsin              44.4    49.6    47.0      11.5    17.1    14.3      33.2    31.8    32.5      50.9    66.1    58.3      27.8    16.6    22.4

Unweighted data
Arkansas               51.5    60.2    55.9      17.7    28.8    23.3      38.5    39.5    39.0      46.1    66.9    56.8      21.2     9.2    15.1
Delaware               62.4    70.9    66.5      22.3    35.7    28.7      49.0    52.2    50.6      50.4    65.6    58.0      20.8    12.2    16.5
Kentucky               56.7    67.7    62.1      17.6    28.1    22.5      47.1    47.0    47.2      44.7    54.0    49.0      26.9    13.7    20.5
Maine                  51.2    56.9    54.0      14.6    19.3    16.9      39.0    37.6    38.4      43.0    57.6    49.9      36.0    22.1    29.5
New Jersey             47.9    61.1    54.2      13.8    26.7    19.9      37.3    39.4    38.3      47.4    63.8    55.4      14.9     8.2    11.6
New Mexico             51.0    59.9    55.5      12.6    24.3    18.5      38.5    39.9    39.1      40.8    59.8    50.5      16.7    10.5    13.5
Oregon                 43.1    49.0    45.9      13.9    18.1    15.9      31.5    29.9    30.8      49.1    59.3    53.8      24.8    18.8    21.9
Wyoming                46.2    53.0    49.7      14.1    21.2    17.8      32.6    35.8    34.2      47.7    61.7    55.2      22.4    12.9    17.4

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                 48.3    73.8    60.6      13.9    39.0    25.9      36.9    47.7    42.0      56.2    70.4    63.9      16.6     8.0    11.9
Chicago                52.3    73.0    62.1      12.5    42.7    26.7      38.5    54.2    45.7      51.6    73.7    63.9      14.4     9.7    11.8
Dallas                 56.2    75.1    65.0      15.2    45.2    29.3      39.2    52.2    45.2      52.4    67.0    60.2      12.9     8.6    10.7
Dist. of Columbia      73.3    86.3    79.2      31.1    62.8    45.3      57.6    65.6    61.2      58.4    72.3    65.0      14.0     7.9    11.2
Fort Lauderdale        49.8    62.9    56.3      10.1    28.2    19.2      38.8    41.8    40.3      51.1    73.6    62.6      15.1     4.2     9.5
Jersey City            53.8    72.0    62.8      10.3    43.1    26.4      43.1    49.8    46.4      52.8    61.8    57.4      13.1     4.8     8.6
Miami                  48.2    69.7    58.8      10.7    29.9    20.2      35.3    42.8    39.0      48.8    65.7    57.9       8.5     7.2     7.8
San Diego              40.2    50.6    45.4      12.8    19.9    16.3      31.4    32.7    32.1      39.5    55.8    47.4      21.1    16.5    18.8
Seattle                46.5    52.2    49.3      13.9    21.6    17.7      34.8    34.1    34.5      50.4    68.6    59.1      17.6    14.9    16.3

Unweighted data
New Orleans            57.4    78.3    65.7      15.0    56.0    31.4      43.7    61.3    50.7      45.3    65.9    55.2      22.0     8.2    15.4
New York City          50.2    70.4    59.5      11.9    35.0    22.4      36.8    45.3    40.7      53.8    70.1    62.2       NA      NA      NA
Philadelphia           64.5    78.6    71.2      21.4    53.4    36.6      50.1    59.5    54.6      47.7    68.6    58.4      18.3    11.8    15.0
San Francisco          37.7    41.9    39.6      11.2    18.9    14.8      29.6    27.3    28.5      54.2    66.7    59.8      11.9     9.8    10.9
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey.
 + Among currently sexually active students.
 & Not available.
 @ U.S. territories are included as states.
** Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
=====================================================================================================================================================

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Table_22
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TABLE 22. Percentage of high school students who thought they were overweight, were attempting weight loss, ate five or
more servings of fruits and vegetables, and ate no more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content during the
day preceding the survey, * by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993
===========================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                                                                             Ate no more than two
                                      Thought they                             Were attempting                                                            servings of foods typically
                                     were overweight                             weight loss                     Ate fruits and vegetables +                 high in fat content &
                            ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------
Category                     Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic          47.5         23.9         35.2           61.3         22.3         41.0           13.5         18.4         16.1           77.1         56.4         66.2
                            (+/-2.9) @   (+/-2.1)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-2.3)     (+/-2.5)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-1.8)     (+/-2.3)     (+/-1.5)       (+/-2.5)     (+/-3.3)     (+/-2.7)
  Black, non-Hispanic          32.2         20.8         26.6           44.0         19.9         32.0            7.2         11.0          9.1           63.2         54.5         58.9
                            (+/-3.3)     (+/-3.2)     (+/-2.4)       (+/-3.3)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-2.3)       (+/-1.9)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-3.2)     (+/-3.5)     (+/-2.3)
  Hispanic                     45.4         32.0         38.5           61.4         32.8         47.1            9.8         13.2         11.5           79.0         66.2         72.6
                            (+/-3.7)     (+/-4.2)     (+/-3.3)       (+/-3.2)     (+/-4.4)     (+/-2.4)       (+/-3.1)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-2.3)       (+/-4.6)     (+/-3.6)     (+/-3.6)

Grade
   9th                         42.8         24.0         33.3           56.0         26.4         40.9           15.5         20.8         18.3           74.6         56.8         65.4
                            (+/-4.3)     (+/-2.1)     (+/-2.5)       (+/-3.6)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-3.1)       (+/-2.4)     (+/-2.5)     (+/-2.0)       (+/-4.2)     (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.4)
  10th                         44.4         26.6         35.1           58.3         23.5         40.3           12.8         18.9         15.9           74.2         56.4         64.9
                            (+/-3.6)     (+/-3.3)     (+/-1.7)       (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-1.9)       (+/-3.2)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-1.6)       (+/-4.7)     (+/-4.7)     (+/-4.1)
  11th                         46.3         24.7         35.0           61.2         20.6         40.1           12.7         14.8         13.8           74.8         58.0         65.9
                            (+/-3.6)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-1.8)       (+/-3.7)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-2.1)       (+/-3.2)     (+/-3.8)     (+/-2.5)       (+/-3.7)     (+/-2.7)     (+/-2.2)
  12th                         45.8         22.5         33.9           59.1         22.3         40.3           11.3         15.7         13.5           78.5         58.7         68.5
                            (+/-5.1)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-3.0)       (+/-3.9)     (+/-3.2)     (+/-2.8)       (+/-1.8)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-2.2)       (+/-3.2)     (+/-4.6)     (+/-2.9)

Total                          44.8         24.4         34.3           58.7         23.1         40.3           13.0         17.6         15.4           75.6         57.6         66.2
                            (+/-2.4)     (+/-1.7)     (+/-1.4)       (+/-1.9)     (+/-2.1)     (+/-1.6)       (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.8)     (+/-1.2)       (+/-2.2)     (+/-2.7)     (+/-2.1)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Students who replied that they did not consume a particular type of food were assigned a frequency of 0; students who replied that
  they consumed a particular type of food "once only" were assigned a frequency of 1.0; and students who replied that they consumed
  a particular type of food "twice or more" were assigned a frequency of 2.0. The number of servings of fruits and vegetables ranged
  from 0 through 8. The number of servings of food typically high in fat content ranged from 0 through 6.
+ Fruit, fruit juice, green salad, and cooked vegetables.
& Hamburgers, hot dogs, or sausage; french fries or potato chips; and cookies, doughnuts, pie, or cake.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===========================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_23
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TABLE 23. Percentage of high school students who thought they were overweight, were attempting weight loss, ate five or
more servings of fruits and vegetables, and ate no more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content during the
day preceding the survey, * by sex -- selected sites, United States, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1993
=======================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                       Ate no more than two
                          Thought they             Were attempting                                  servings of foods typically
                         were overweight             weight loss       Ate fruits and vegetables +     high in fat content &
                      ---------------------     ---------------------  ---------------------------  ---------------------------
Site                  Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total        Female   Male   Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
Alabama                38.2    18.7    28.5      53.2    21.5    37.2       7.2    12.2     9.8         65.3    55.7    60.5
American Samoa @       32.9    18.2    24.9      58.4    33.7    44.9      18.0    22.6    20.6         61.2    64.0    62.6
Georgia                40.3    22.9    31.7      55.4    24.4    40.0      11.2    14.0    12.6         68.1    55.1    61.6
Hawaii                 50.6    31.9    40.8      62.7    27.5    44.4      16.9    25.4    21.3         75.8    67.3    71.4
Idaho                  46.9    21.1    34.7      61.7    22.9    43.2      11.6    17.1    14.2         77.4    60.8    69.6
Illinois               43.6    23.3    33.4      61.2    23.8    42.5       9.7    14.5    12.1         68.9    52.3    60.6
Louisiana **           37.8    22.6    30.4      52.1    24.2    38.3       5.3    10.1     7.6         67.7    56.1    62.1
Massachusetts          42.4    22.3    32.1      61.6    21.5    41.2      16.1    21.9    19.1         82.9    65.1    73.9
Mississippi            40.4    23.2    31.9      52.8    23.4    38.1       4.4    11.4     7.8         69.2    57.0    63.2
Montana                49.5    21.2    34.7      63.3    21.8    41.6      16.0    19.7    17.9         75.1    56.8    65.6
Nebraska               51.3    22.0    36.4      65.4    22.8    43.7      13.3    17.6    15.5         70.8    51.6    61.0
Nevada                 41.6    21.4    31.3      59.5    20.8    39.8      11.0    15.5    13.3         81.1    67.0    73.9
New Hampshire          49.0    23.6    36.1      64.5    21.9    43.0      19.9    22.8    21.4         83.9    67.4    75.6
New York **            46.4    24.4    35.4      65.4    26.2    45.5      14.3    19.0    16.7         77.6    62.7    70.2
North Carolina         43.7    22.9    33.4      55.2    24.1    39.8      NA ++    NA      NA           NA      NA      NA
Ohio                   46.2    21.9    33.8      64.0    22.1    42.5      11.4    19.5    15.5         74.4    52.4    63.2
South Carolina         38.1    20.9    29.4      52.3    21.5    36.6       6.4    11.6     9.0         66.7    54.9    60.7
South Dakota           54.1    25.3    39.4      69.7    24.1    46.5       9.2    19.5    14.4         72.5    48.3    60.2
Tennessee              44.5    27.8    36.0      60.5    25.0    42.4       8.4    13.9    11.2         67.7    49.5    58.4
Utah                   46.0    17.5    31.5      64.3    18.2    40.7      13.8    20.5    17.1         79.7    62.7    71.0
Vermont                45.0    24.4    34.4      61.4    23.9    42.1      17.5    22.2    19.9         82.0    60.6    70.9
Virgin Islands @       27.6    15.6    21.7      35.5    21.3    28.7      11.5    16.6    13.9         89.7    90.0    89.9
West Virginia          52.3    28.0    40.0      67.0    28.1    47.3      10.1    14.0    12.1         73.7    52.3    62.9
Wisconsin              49.5    22.2    35.5      63.8    24.3    43.6      13.2    19.7    16.5         72.9    51.4    62.1

Unweighted data
Arkansas               41.0    23.9    32.3      58.1    23.2    40.4       8.2    12.3    10.2         67.6    50.5    59.0
Delaware               42.7    22.4    32.7      58.4    23.2    40.9      14.4    15.5    14.9         70.1    51.5    60.9
Kentucky               47.4    28.4    38.4      59.6    29.7    45.4       9.6    14.8    12.2         70.5    52.5    62.0
Maine                  49.7    24.7    37.6      65.2    26.5    46.5      17.3    19.3    18.3         80.6    60.2    70.9
New Jersey             40.7    21.1    31.3      56.4    22.0    40.0      13.0    17.1    15.0         81.8    65.3    73.9
New Mexico             46.6    19.3    32.6      58.7    19.6    38.7       9.1    14.7    12.1         73.6    58.9    66.1
Oregon                 46.1    21.8    34.1      59.2    23.1    41.4       NA      NA      NA           NA      NA      NA
Wyoming                44.4    20.8    32.1      60.3    19.9    39.3      11.7    18.2    15.1         76.8    56.6    66.4

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                 36.2    18.6    27.5      47.8    24.6    36.4      12.8    14.6    13.7         76.9    68.1    72.6
Chicago                35.1    21.4    28.5      46.2    27.6    37.2      10.8    14.1    12.3         60.3    52.9    56.9
Dallas                 39.1    22.2    31.0      52.0    25.0    39.1       9.1    11.0    10.0         72.5    60.5    66.8
Dist. of Columbia      31.8    20.2    26.6      44.1    19.2    32.8      12.2    13.2    12.7         72.9    58.7    66.4
Fort Lauderdale        41.6    23.6    32.5      58.0    23.0    40.5      12.4    17.1    14.7         82.7    64.7    73.7
Jersey City            29.5    14.6    22.0      41.3    15.5    28.5       9.6    13.6    11.7         75.9    64.5    70.3
Miami                  33.6    22.0    27.7      48.1    23.1    35.3       9.7    15.0    12.4         72.9    64.7    68.8
San Diego              39.9    20.4    30.1      53.9    21.6    37.7      16.4    20.6    18.5         79.5    64.5    71.9
Seattle                 NA      NA      NA       50.7    18.3    34.4       NA      NA      NA           NA      NA      NA

Unweighted data
New Orleans            30.3    17.7    25.1      41.2    16.2    30.9       8.2    15.3    11.1         65.4    55.5    61.4
New York City          34.9    22.3    28.9      47.7    23.9    36.4      13.7    17.4    15.4         80.2    70.5    75.6
Philadelphia           31.3    16.6    24.3      43.7    17.1    31.1       9.3    12.4    10.8         70.9    58.5    65.1
San Francisco          40.9    21.3    31.7      51.2    21.2    37.0      18.1    24.7    21.2         79.8    73.8    77.0
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Students who replied that they did not consume a particular type of food were assigned a frequency of 0; students who replied that
   they consumed a particular type of food "once only" were assigned a frequency of 1.0; and students who replied that they consumed
   a particular type of food "twice or more" were assigned a frequency of 2.0. The number of servings of fruits and vegetables ranged
   from 0 through 8. The number of servings of foods typically high in fat content ranged from 0 through 6.
 + Fruit, fruit juice, green salad, and cooked vegetables.
 & Hamburgers, hot dogs, or sausage; french fries or potato chips; and doughnuts, pie, or cake.
 @ U.S. territories are included as states.
** Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
++ Not available.
=======================================================================================================================================

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Table_24
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TABLE 24. Percentage of high school students who participated in vigorous physical activity, * stretching exercises, + and
strengthening exercises, & and who were enrolled in physical education (PE) class and attended PE class daily, by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1993
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                     Participated in                                                                    Participated in
                                    vigorous physical                         Participated in                            strengthening
                                         activity                           stretching exercises                           exercises                             Enrolled in PE                          Attended PE daily
                            ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------       ----------------------------------
Category                     Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total          Female        Male        Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic          58.8         75.9         67.7           55.6         57.1         56.3           44.0         62.3         53.5           47.9         53.1         50.6           29.1         34.8         32.1
                            (+/-2.4) @   (+/-1.5)     (+/-1.5)       (+/-3.1)     (+/-3.4)     (+/-2.7)       (+/-4.2)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-3.2)       (+/-6.1)     (+/-7.1)     (+/-6.4)       (+/-5.4)     (+/-6.2)     (+/-5.5)
  Black, non-Hispanic          48.8         71.4         60.0           43.2         53.0         48.1           33.3         58.2         45.6           48.7         62.8         55.7           37.5         48.6         43.0
                            (+/-5.6)     (+/-5.1)     (+/-3.8)       (+/-6.1)     (+/-5.0)     (+/-5.0)       (+/-5.9)     (+/-4.1)     (+/-4.2)       (+/-8.2)     (+/-4.7)     (+/-5.8)       (+/-8.4)     (+/-5.8)     (+/-6.5)
  Hispanic                     50.0         68.8         59.4           46.8         54.9         50.8           41.4         57.7         49.6           50.8         57.0         53.9           36.7         42.9         39.7
                            (+/-5.0)     (+/-6.0)     (+/-5.1)       (+/-5.0)     (+/-5.9)     (+/-5.1)       (+/-3.8)     (+/-6.5)     (+/-4.6)       (+/-6.4)     (+/-5.8)     (+/-5.1)       (+/-4.9)     (+/-5.0)     (+/-3.9)

Grade
   9th                         67.5         81.2         74.5           65.9         62.9         64.3           52.2         69.1         60.9           75.9         78.7         77.2           52.7         52.7         52.7
                            (+/-4.2)     (+/-3.3)     (+/-2.9)       (+/-4.5)     (+/-4.2)     (+/-3.9)       (+/-5.3)     (+/-3.0)     (+/-3.5)       (+/-6.2)     (+/-5.6)     (+/-5.5)       (+/-7.2)     (+/-7.2)     (+/-6.4)
  10th                         61.1         77.2         69.5           57.8         56.9         57.4           45.6         63.7         55.0           54.8         59.5         57.3           35.9         43.6         40.1
                            (+/-4.3)     (+/-3.1)     (+/-2.7)       (+/-4.4)     (+/-4.9)     (+/-3.1)       (+/-6.3)     (+/-4.9)     (+/-4.7)       (+/-8.3)     (+/-8.5)     (+/-7.7)       (+/-6.9)     (+/-6.9)     (+/-6.0)
  11th                         52.7         71.4         62.5           48.4         53.3         50.9           37.5         58.5         48.5           38.1         43.5         40.9           20.9         26.7         23.8
                            (+/-3.6)     (+/-3.2)     (+/-2.7)       (+/-4.3)     (+/-4.4)     (+/-2.9)       (+/-5.3)     (+/-3.4)     (+/-3.6)       (+/-7.5)     (+/-9.5)     (+/-8.0)       (+/-5.2)     (+/-7.6)     (+/-5.9)
 12th                          45.4         69.8         57.8           41.1         52.6         46.9           34.3         54.7         44.6           29.5         41.5         35.6           17.1         28.4         22.8
                            (+/-4.2)     (+/-3.8)     (+/-2.8)       (+/-3.9)     (+/-4.7)     (+/-3.4)       (+/-3.5)     (+/-3.7)     (+/-2.7)       (+/-7.8)     (+/-8.2)     (+/-7.6)       (+/-5.7)     (+/-6.9)     (+/-5.9)

Total                          56.2         74.7         65.8           52.8         56.2         54.5           42.0         61.1         51.9           48.8         55.2         52.1           31.1         37.3         34.3
                            (+/-2.3)     (+/-1.6)     (+/-1.5)       (+/-2.8)     (+/-2.8)     (+/-2.5)       (+/-3.7)     (+/-2.6)     (+/-2.8)       (+/-5.4)     (+/-5.8)     (+/-5.4)       (+/-4.9)     (+/-5.4)     (+/-4.8)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Activities that caused sweating and hard breathing for at least 20 minutes on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
+ Such as toe touching,
& Such as push-ups, sit-ups, or weight lifting during >= 4 or the 7 days preceding the survey.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
====================================================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_25
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TABLE 25. Percentage of high school students who participated in vigorous physical activity, * stretching exercises, + and
strengthening exercises, & and who were enrolled in physical education (PE) class and attended PE daily, by sex -- selected
sites, United States, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1993
=====================================================================================================================================================
                         Participated in                                     Participated in
                        vigorous physical          Participated in            strengthening
                            activity            stretching exercises            exercises              Enrolled in PE           Attended PE daily
                      ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------     ---------------------
Site                  Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total     Female   Male   Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
WEIGHTED DATA

State surveys
Alabama                46.6    70.1    58.3      31.0    40.1    35.5      20.1    39.8    30.0      41.6    63.1    52.4      36.6    53.5    45.0
American Samoa  @      62.4    69.2    66.1      35.0    41.4    38.5      29.1    51.9    41.5      56.0    59.6    58.0      33.7    31.2    32.4
Georgia                45.8    73.6    59.5      27.4    39.4    33.3      20.2    44.9    32.4      30.8    50.8    40.7      25.0    42.7    33.7
Hawaii                 51.1    72.5    62.2      37.2    43.6    40.5      25.7    42.3    34.3      35.9    48.5    42.5      15.2    22.9    19.2
Idaho                  58.4    73.4    65.5      43.6    44.9    44.2      34.5    51.2    42.5      37.6    50.6    43.7      31.1    41.9    36.1
Illinois               67.0    79.6    73.3      48.5    46.0    47.2      37.9    49.3    43.6      74.4    77.7    76.0      69.0    69.7    69.4
Louisiana **           49.6    69.4    59.3      30.7    42.1    36.3      20.0    43.1    31.3      60.3    70.8    65.4      52.8    58.3    55.3
Massachusetts          57.3    71.4    64.5      36.9    37.9    37.4      27.7    42.7    35.3      79.3    81.0    80.2      10.6    12.7    11.7
Mississippi            46.4    66.1    56.2      24.4    30.8    27.5      19.6    36.8    28.2      13.8    29.5    21.6      11.4    24.6    17.9
Montana                60.2    74.7    67.8      43.6    44.2    43.9      34.8    48.7    42.1      50.9    56.0    53.5      34.6    41.8    38.3
Nebraska               60.7    76.1    68.6      47.6    49.8    48.8      33.6    49.5    41.7      45.0    52.1    48.6      28.2    35.9    32.1
Nevada                 61.3    75.2    68.3      45.4    40.8    43.1      33.5    49.2    41.5      49.1    58.0    53.7      44.3    52.5    48.5
New Hampshire          57.5    72.3    65.0      41.0    39.1    40.1      32.6    41.4    37.1      44.4    48.5    46.5      23.7    27.6    25.7
New York **            64.4    80.0    72.3      39.1    40.3    39.7      27.0    41.8    34.5      95.3    94.5    94.9       8.5    10.6     9.5
North Carolina         47.6    71.0    59.1      NA ++    NA      NA       22.8    43.0    32.8      40.6    54.6    47.5      30.0    40.1    35.0
Ohio                   49.8    73.2    61.7      38.6    44.7    41.7      28.0    48.3    38.4      41.5    43.7    42.7      36.5    37.5    37.0
South Carolina         46.9    66.1    56.5      32.1    37.8    34.9      25.1    39.9    32.6      34.2    44.8    39.7      29.5    34.6    32.0
South Dakota           54.0    73.1    63.7      36.8    38.7    37.7      27.4    44.8    36.2      27.7    38.1    33.0      19.3    26.7    22.9
Tennessee              49.3    69.8    59.7      32.6    39.3    36.0      24.6    45.0    34.9      27.0    35.1    31.1      24.9    31.2    28.1
Utah                   61.3    74.0    67.6      43.6    37.8    40.7      30.2    41.8    36.2      54.4    58.6    56.6      38.2    40.7    39.5
Vermont                60.2    76.6    68.6      40.0    42.2    41.1      28.0    43.3    35.9      49.9    56.7    53.4      34.3    40.1    37.3
Virgin Islands @       41.0    63.4    51.7      20.7    26.9    23.7      14.3    29.9    21.8      52.1    54.1    53.0      39.8    35.1    37.5
West Virginia          58.2    77.2    67.8      34.4    34.9    34.6      26.9    40.5    33.7      35.5    46.4    41.0      32.5    40.0    36.3
Wisconsin              58.3    70.0    64.3      39.0    38.5    38.7      26.2    39.8    33.2      63.9    71.4    67.7      27.9    34.0    31.0

Unweighted data
Arkansas               54.2    73.2    63.8      38.3    42.5    40.4      29.7    45.7    37.8      40.2    51.2    45.7      36.2    44.8    40.5
Delaware               50.0    73.5    61.6      30.4    32.8    31.6      23.2    38.1    30.6      39.0    49.7    44.3      32.4    39.2    35.7
Kentucky               50.5    77.8    63.5      27.2    33.8    30.4      19.3    38.2    28.3      17.6    30.8    23.9      14.0    25.2    19.3
Maine                  62.4    75.9    68.8      45.7    43.4    44.5      30.4    41.1    35.6      50.8    57.6    54.1      18.0    26.0    21.8
New Jersey             53.5    71.0    61.8      43.8    45.2    44.4      32.4    46.6    39.1      89.7    88.8    89.3      58.2    62.9    60.5
New Mexico             54.5    76.0    65.6      35.6    40.9    38.4      28.8    47.2    38.4      45.2    59.8    52.7      41.8    53.7    48.0
Oregon                 63.2    76.9    69.8      46.9    48.9    47.9      34.3    50.8    42.3       NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA
Wyoming                61.5    73.9    68.0      46.4    48.4    47.4      35.1    51.5    43.6      50.2    60.3    55.4      43.4    49.9    46.8

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
Boston                 42.6    58.3    50.2      22.8    26.8    24.8      20.4    33.0    26.3      62.5    62.7    62.7       9.7     9.8     9.8
Chicago                56.3    67.2    61.4      37.8    34.1    35.8      27.8    43.8    35.3      94.3    91.4    92.6      85.2    75.9    80.5
Dallas                 47.3    63.2    54.9      29.2    35.9    32.4      23.3    39.7    31.1      33.2    45.4    39.0      28.6    35.4    31.9
Dist. of Columbia      37.5    53.4    44.8      24.4    27.1    25.7      18.3    33.2    25.0      41.6    45.1    43.2      21.9    20.5    21.3
Fort Lauderdale        46.5    74.2    60.3      30.8    36.0    33.4      22.5    41.4    32.0      28.3    46.5    37.4      22.0    35.4    28.7
Jersey City            41.3    58.1    49.6      31.5    37.2    34.3      18.5    44.4    31.3      84.2    84.8    84.4      69.2    70.8    69.8
Miami                  48.3    65.5    57.0      34.5    39.5    37.0      24.1    39.4    31.8      39.4    46.0    42.8      31.1    35.8    33.5
San Diego              59.8    77.4    68.6      50.0    53.2    51.6      30.5    46.3    38.4      60.5    69.9    65.2      50.5    54.9    52.6
Seattle                58.0    70.6    64.4       NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA        NA      NA      NA

Unweighted data
New Orleans            41.2    63.5    50.3      27.6    33.2    29.8      21.5    37.7    28.1      56.3    59.7    57.6      51.2    51.7    51.3
New York City          57.6    80.8    68.5      36.4    45.0    40.3      25.4    47.3    35.6      82.2    83.1    82.5      52.1    56.3    54.1
Philadelphia           41.9    63.0    51.9      31.6    35.0    33.2      20.7    38.7    29.3      56.8    62.2    59.2      28.9    37.5    32.9
San Francisco          50.7    69.5    59.5      33.6    38.3    35.7      21.7    35.9    28.5      54.2    61.7    57.7      43.0    49.7    46.1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Activities that caused sweating and hard breathing for at least 20 minutes on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 + Such as toe touching, knee bending, or leg stretching during >= 4 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 & Such as push-ups, sit-ups, or weight lifting during >= 4 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 @ U.S. territories are included as states.
** Survey did not include students from the state's largest city.
++ Not available.
=====================================================================================================================================================

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Table_A
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APPENDIX

State and Local Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System Coordinators


Site                  Coordinator                     Affiliation

Alabama               Joyce Moore, Ed.D.              State Department of Education
American Samoa        Jeffery Chun                    Department of Education
Arkansas              Gary Parish, M.S.E.             Department of Education
Boston, MA            Nancy Strunk, M.S.              Boston Public Schools
Chicago, IL           Beverly Johnson Biehr, M.S.     Chicago Public Schools
Dallas, TX            Phyllis Simpson, Ph.D.          Dallas Independent School District
Delaware              Janet Arns, R.N., M.S.          State Department of Public Instruction
Dist. of Columbia     Johnnie Fairfax, Ph.D.          District of Columbia Public Schools
Ft. Lauderdale, FL    Diane Scalise, M.S.             The School Board of Broward County
Georgia               Rendel Stalvey, M.S.            State Board of Education
Hawaii                Ann Horiuchi                    Department of Education
Idaho                 Anne Williamson, M.H.E.         Department of Education
Illinois              Glenn Steinhausen, Ph.D.        State Board of Education
Jersey City, NJ       David Chioda, M.S.              Jersey City Board of Education
Kentucky              Holly Conner, M.A.              Department of Education
Louisiana             Dean Frost, M.Ed.               State Department of Education
Maine                 Joni Foster                     Department of Education
Massachusetts         Kevin Cranston, M.Div.          Department of Education
Miami, FL             Nadine Gay, M.S.W.              The School Board of Dade County
Mississippi           I. D. Thompson, M.A.            State Department of Education
Montana               Richard Chiotti                 Office of Public Instruction
Nebraska              Joanne Owens- Nausler Ph.D.     Department of Education
Nevada                Robbinette Bacon                Department of Education
New Hampshire         Joyce Johnson, R.N., M.A.       State Department of Education
New Jersey            Thomas Collins, Ph.D.           State Department of Education
New Mexico            Kristine Meurer, M.S.           State Department of Education
New Orleans, LA       Sydonia Taylor, M.A.            Orleans Parrish School Board
New York City, NY     Ellen Shelton, M.S.             New York City Board of Education
New York              Naomi Marsh, M.Ed.              State Education Department
North Carolina        James Bennett, Ed.D.            Department of Public Instruction
Ohio                  Joyce Brannan, Ph.D.            Department of Education
Oregon                Patricia Ruzicka, Ph.D.         Department of Education
Philadelphia, PA      Catherine Balsley, Ed.D.        The School District of Philadelphia
San Diego, CA         Jack Campana, M.A.              San Diego Unified School District
San Francisco, CA     Joyce Fetro, Ph.D.              San Francisco Unified School District
Seattle, WA           Pamela Hillard, M.P.A.          Seattle Public Schools
South Carolina        Joanne Fraser, Ed.D.            State Department of Education
South Dakota          Marianne Carr, M.S.             Department of Education
                                                        and Cultural Affairs
Tennessee             Elizabeth Word, M.A.            State Department of Education
Utah                  Laurie Lacy, M.S.               State Board of Education
Vermont               Nancy Emberly, M.A.T.           Department of Education
Virgin Islands        Suzanna Tye, Ph.D.              Department of Education
West Virginia         Lenore Zedosky, R.N., M.N.      Department of Education
Wisconsin             Lori Weiselberg, M.P.H.         Department of Public Instruction
Wyoming               Michael Smith                   Department of Education

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