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Cigarette Smoking Among Adults -- United States, 1992, and Changes in the Definition of Current Cigarette Smoking

Use of tobacco in the United States is monitored continually by CDC to evaluate efforts to control and prevent the use of this substance. The prevalence of cigarette smoking among U.S. adults decreased from 1965 to 1990 (from 42.4% to 25.5%) and remained stable from 1990 to 1991 (from 25.5% to 25.6%) (1). To determine the prevalence of smoking among adults during 1992, the National Health Interview Survey-Cancer Control and Epidemiology Supplements (NHIS-CCES) collected self-reported information on cigarette smoking from a random sample of civilian, noninstitutionalized adults aged greater than or equal to 18 years. For 1992, the definition used to assess self-reported smoking prevalence was changed to more accurately assess some-day (i.e., intermittent) smoking because of a recognized higher prevalence of intermittent smoking (2). This report presents the prevalence estimates for 1992, compares findings with 1991, and assesses the impact of changes in the definition of current smoker on these estimates.

The overall response rate for the 1992 NHIS-CCES (n=24,040) was 86.5%. For 1992, two nationally representative random samples from the NHIS-CCES were used to assess the new definition of current smoking status that included intermittent smoking. The Cancer Control Supplement (CCS) (n=12,035) asked, "Have you smoked at least 100 cigarettes in your entire life?" and "Do you smoke cigarettes now?" Persons who said they did not smoke now were asked, "Do you now smoke cigarettes not at all or some days?" Current smokers were defined as those who had smoked 100 cigarettes and smoked now; persons who said they did not smoke now but subsequently stated they smoked on some days were also classified as current smokers. The Cancer Epidemiology Supplement (CES) (n=12,005) asked, "Have you smoked at least 100 cigarettes in your entire life?" and "Do you now smoke cigarettes every day, some days or not at all?" Current smokers were defined as those who had smoked 100 cigarettes and now smoked either every day or some days. Data were adjusted for nonresponse and weighted to provide national estimates. Confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using standard errors generated by the Software for Survey Data Analysis (SUDAAN) (3).

Because the first two questions were the same for the 1991 NHIS-Health Promotion and Disease Prevention supplement and the 1992 CCS, these findings were compared directly. The overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults (25.6%) was the same in 1991 and 1992 (Table_1). The 1992 estimates that incorporated some-day smoking (CCS and CES) also were compared with 1991 and 1992 estimates based on the original definition. Estimates for both sets of definitions that incorporated an assessment of some-day smoking in 1992 were similar (CCS=26.7% and CES=26.3%) (Table_1). Because of the comparability of methods (i.e., assessing some-day smoking), results were combined to provide an overall prevalence estimate for 1992. Based on the inclusion of intermittent smoking, the prevalence of smoking increased by 0.9% (from 25.6% to 26.5%) (Table_1).

In 1992, an estimated 48 million (26.5% {95% CI=plus or minus 0.5%}) adults in the United States were current smokers, reflecting prevalences of daily smoking of 22.1% (95% CI=plus or minus 0.5%) and some-day smoking of 4.4% (95% CI=plus or minus 0.2%). Smoking prevalence was highest among persons aged 25-44 years (30.8% {95% CI=plus or minus 0.8%}). Smoking prevalence was highest among American Indians/Alaskan Natives (39.4% {95% CI=plus or minus 6.0%}) and lowest among Asians/Pacific Islanders (15.2% {95% CI= plus or minus 3.6%}), declined with increasing levels of education, and was highest among persons who lived below the poverty level * (34.9% {95% CI=plus or minus 1.5%}). Approximately 25 million men (28.6% {95% CI=plus or minus 0.8%}) and 23 million women (24.6% {95% CI=plus or minus 0.7%}) were current smokers (Table_2). For most demographic groups, smoking prevalence was higher among men than women.

Using the original definition of current smoking, smoking prevalence was the same in 1991 and 1992 overall, for both men and women, for all racial/ethnic groups, for all educational levels, and for persons with incomes above the poverty level (Table_1). Smoking prevalence was significantly higher in 1992 (37.0% {95% CI= plus or minus 2.1%}) than in 1991 (33.1% {95% CI=plus or minus 1.5%}) among persons living below the poverty level. However, among persons with incomes below the poverty level, there were substantial differences in smoking prevalence as measured by the two question formats that included some-day smokers. As a result, the combined prevalence estimate for 1992 was not significantly different from the 1991 estimate. Reported by: Surveillance Program, National Cancer Institute. National Institutes of Health. Epidemiology Br, Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; Div of Health Interview Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, CDC.

Editorial Note

Editorial Note: The findings in this report indicate that the estimated prevalence of smoking in 1992 was the same as in 1991 overall and for most demographic groups. In addition, these findings indicate that including some-day smoking in the definition of current smoking will increase the prevalence estimate by approximately 1.0%. The definition used in the 1992 CES will become the standard for CDC efforts to measure smoking prevalence in the United States. The inclusion of intermittent smoking improves both the accuracy and precision of the definition of current smoking and facilitates efforts to monitor changes in current smoking status.

Based on use of the original definition of current smoker, which did not assess some-day smoking, the prevalence of smoking in 1992 was significantly higher than in 1991 among persons living below the poverty level. This finding was attributable to a substantial increase in the prevalence of smoking among women who live below the poverty level and to a smaller increase among men. The impact of changes in the question format that incorporated an assessment of some-day smoking substantially altered the prevalence estimates for persons living below the poverty level. Specifically, in the CCS survey -- which used a two-part question to assess some-day smoking -- smoking prevalence increased among persons living below the poverty level. In comparison, in the CES survey -- which used a single question to assess some-day smoking -- there was no change in smoking prevalence.

For the first time since 1983, smoking prevalence among persons aged 18-24 years did not decrease. Factors that may have contributed to the stabilization include the steady growth in market share of discount cigarettes (4) and the $4.6 billion in advertising and promotional expenditures by tobacco companies during 1991 -- a 16% increase in expenditures when compared with 1990 (5,6). Efforts to address smoking among young persons have included the 1994 Surgeon General's report (6) and a companion report for adolescents. In addition, CDC has published school guidelines for incorporating tobacco-use prevention and tobacco-cessation strategies (7).

The findings in this report are subject to at least two limitations. First, the prevalence estimate for 1992 was based on information collected from January through July 1992. In comparison, a different survey that collected data for the entire year indicated that smoking prevalence among adults declined in the second half of the year (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, unpublished data, 1992), a finding consistent with a 3% per capita decrease in consumption of cigarettes in 1992 (8). Second, differences in prevalence among racial/ethnic groups may be influenced by differences in educational levels and socioeconomic status, as well as by social and cultural phenomena that require further explanation.

Acceleration of the decline in smoking prevalence will require intensified efforts to discourage the use of tobacco by helping smokers break the addiction to nicotine, persuading children to never initiate smoking, and enacting public policies that discourage smoking. Examples of such policies include increasing taxes on tobacco products, enforcing minors'-access laws, restricting smoking in public places, and restricting tobacco advertising and promotion. In January 1994, for the first time, all 50 states and the District of Columbia were receiving public funds for tobacco-control activities: 49 states and the District of Columbia were receiving federal funds, and California was receiving state funds.

References

  1. NCHS. Health, United States, 1992. Hyattsville, Maryland: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC, 1993.

  2. Evans NJ, Gilpin E, Pierce JP, et al. Occasional smoking among adults: evidence from the California Tobacco Survey. Tobacco Control 1992;1:169-75.

  3. Shah BV. Software for Survey Data Analysis (SUDAAN) version 5.50 {Software documentation}. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: Research Triangle Institute, 1991.

  4. Maxwell JC Jr. The Maxwell consumer report: 1992 year-end and fourth-quarter sales estimates for the cigarette industry. Richmond, Virginia: Butcher and Singer, February 10, 1993; publication no. WFBS-6983.

  5. US Federal Trade Commission. Federal Trade Commission report to Congress for 1991: pursuant to the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act. Washington, DC: US Federal Trade Commission, 1994.

  6. US Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among young people: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 1994.

  7. CDC. Guidelines for school health programs to prevent tobacco use and addiction. MMWR 1994;43(no. RR-2).

  8. US Department of Agriculture. Tobacco situation and outlook report. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Commodity Economics Division, April 1994; publication no. TBS-226.

    • Poverty statistics are based on definitions originated by the Social Security Administration in 1964, subsequently modified by federal interagency committees in 1969 and 1980, and prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget as the standard to be used by federal agencies for statistical purposes.

+------------------------------------------------------------------- -----+ |             | | Erratum: Vol. 43, No. 19 | |             | | SOURCE: MMWR 43(43);801-803 DATE: Nov 04, 1994 | |             | | In the report "Cigarette Smoking Among Adults -- United States, | | 1992, and Changes in the Definition of Current Cigarette Smoking," | | the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the 1992 prevalence | | estimates published on pages 343 and 345 were incorrect. The | | following tables contain the corrected CIs and replace Table_E1 | | (page 343) and Table_E2 (page 345). In addition, the correct CI | | for daily smoking (page 342, fourth paragraph, second line) is plus | | or minus 0.7%, and the correct CI for some-day smoking (page 344, | | first paragraph, first line) is plus or minus 0.3%. The change in | | CIs affects one conclusion (page 344, second paragraph, fourth | | line, and page 344, fourth paragraph, second line): the increase in | | smoking among persons living below the poverty level is not | | statistically significant. | |             | +------------------------------------------------------------------- -----+
Table_1
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TABLE 1. Percentage of adults aged >=18 years who were current cigarette smokers *, by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, level
of education, and socioeconomic status -- United States, National Health Interview Survey, 1991 and 1992 +
========================================================================================================================================================
                                 1991               1992                 1992                 1992                  1992
                               Original            Original             Interim              Revised             Combination
                               (HPDP &)             (CCS @)              (CCS)               (CES **)             (CCS/CES)
                              (n=43,154)          (n=11,875)           (n=11,865)           (n=11,881)            (n=23,746)
                           -----------------    ---------------      ---------------      ---------------       ---------------
Characteristic              %    (95% CI ++)     %    (95% CI)        %    (95% CI)        %    (95% CI)         %    (95% CI)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sex
  Men                      28.1  (+/-0.6%)      28.0  (+/-1.1%)      29.3  (+/-1.1%)      28.0  (+/-1.1%)       28.6  (+/-0.8%)
  Women                    23.5  (+/-0.5%)      23.5  (+/-0.9%)      24.3  (+/-1.0%)      24.8  (+/-0.9%)       24.6  (+/-0.7%)

Age group (yrs)
  18-24                    22.9  (+/-1.2%)      24.4  (+/-2.2%)      25.8  (+/-2.3%)      27.1  (+/-2.3%)       26.4  (+/-1.6%)
  25-44                    30.4  (+/-0.6%)      29.7  (+/-1.1%)      30.9  (+/-1.1%)      30.6  (+/-1.1%)       30.8  (+/-0.8%)
  45-64                    26.8  (+/-0.8%)      27.3  (+/-1.4%)      28.2  (+/-1.4%)      26.4  (+/-1.4%)       27.3  (+/-1.0%)
  >=65                     13.3  (+/-0.7%)      13.3  (+/-1.3%)      13.7  (+/-1.3%)      14.2  (+/-1.3%)       14.0  (+/-0.9%)

Race/Ethnicity &&
  White                    26.0  (+/-0.4%)      26.2  (+/-0.8%)      27.1  (+/-0.8%)      27.3  (+/-0.8%)       27.2  (+/-0.6%)
  Black                    29.4  (+/-1.3%)      27.0  (+/-2.3%)      28.4  (+/-2.4%)      27.3  (+/-2.3%)       27.8  (+/-1.7%)
  Hispanic                 20.1  (+/-1.5%)      20.4  (+/-2.7%)      22.5  (+/-2.9%)      18.7  (+/-2.4%)       20.7  (+/-1.9%)
  American Indian/
    Alaskan Native @@      31.9  (+/-3.7%)      36.5  (+/-7.6%)      36.5  (+/-7.6%)      41.9  (+/-8.8%)       39.4  (+/-6.0%)
  Asian/Pacific
    Islander               15.9  (+/-3.1%)      16.9  (+/-5.7%)      17.9  (+/-5.8%)      12.2  (+/-4.1%)      15.2   (+/-3.6%)

Education level (yrs)
    <12                    32.0  (+/-0.9%)      32.2  (+/-1.6%)      33.4  (+/-1.6%)      30.3  (+/-1.6%)      31.8   (+/-1.1%)
     12                    29.9  (+/-0.6%)      29.8  (+/-1.2%)      30.6  (+/-1.2%)      31.4  (+/-1.3%)      31.0   (+/-0.9%)
  13-15                    23.4  (+/-0.9%)      23.8  (+/-1.6%)      24.8  (+/-1.6%)      23.3  (+/-1.5%)      24.1   (+/-1.1%)
   >=16                    13.6  (+/-0.7%)      13.4  (+/-1.3%)      14.5  (+/-1.3%)      16.5  (+/-1.4%)      15.5   (+/-1.0%)


Socioeconomic status ***
  At/Above poverty level   24.7  (+/-0.4%)      24.2  (+/-0.8%)      25.2  (+/-0.8%)      25.7  (+/-0.8%)      25.4   (+/-0.6%)
  Below poverty level      33.1  (+/-1.5%)      37.0  (+/-2.1%)      38.4  (+/-2.1%)      31.4  (+/-2.0%)      34.9   (+/-1.5%)
  Unknown                  26.0  (+/-1.3%)      26.2  (+/-2.1%)      27.0  (+/-2.2%)      26.7  (+/-2.2%)      26.9   (+/-1.6%)

Total                      25.6  (+/-0.4%)      25.6  (+/-0.7%)      26.7  (+/-0.8%)      26.3  (+/-0.7%)      26.5   (+/-0.5%)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  * Persons who reported having smoked at least 100 cigarettes and who were currently smoking based on one of the following definitions: "Original"
    definition: Smoke now; "Interim" definition: Smoke now, or do not smoke now but on further questioning reported smoking some days; "Revised"
    definition: Smoke everyday or some days now; "Combination" definition: Combined prevalence using the interim and revised prevalence estimates.
  + Excludes 578 respondents in 1991 and 285 respondents in 1992 with unknown smoking status.
  & Health Promotion and Disease Prevention supplement.
  @ Cancer Control Supplement.
 ** Cancer Epidemiology Supplement.
 ++ Confidence interval.
 && Excludes 317 respondents in 1991 and 252 respondents in 1992 in unknown, multiple, and other race categories.
 @@ Estimates should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of respondents.
*** Poverty statistics are based on definitions originated by the Social Security Administration in 1964, subsequently modified by federal interagency
    committees in 1969 and 1980, and prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget as the standard to be used by federal agencies for statistical
    purposes.
========================================================================================================================================================

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Table_2
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TABLE 2. Percentage of men and women aged >=18 years who were current cigarette smokers *, by race/ethnicity, level of
education, age group, and socioeconomic status -- United States, National Health Interview Survey, 1991 and 1992 +
=======================================================================================================================================================
                                                      Men                                                           Women
                             ---------------------------------------------------------     -------------------------------------------------------
                                   1991               1992                  1992                 1991               1992                1992
                                 Original           Original              Combined             Original           Original            Combined
                                 (HPDP &)            (CCS @)            (CCS/CES **)            (HPDP)              (CCS)            (CCS/CES)
                                (n=18,050)          (n=5,000)            (n=10,061)           (n=25,104)          (n=6,875)          (n=13,685)
                             ----------------    ----------------     ----------------     ---------------     ---------------     ---------------
Characteristic                %   (95% CI ++)      %    (95 %CI)        %    (95% CI)       %    (95% CI)       %    (95% CI)       %    (95% CI)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity &&
  White                      27.5  (+/-0.7%)     27.9  (+/- 1.2%)     28.6  (+/- 0.9%)     24.6  (+/-0.6%)     24.6  (+/-1.0%)     25.9  (+/-0.8%)
  Black                      35.5  (+/-2.1%)     32.2  (+/- 3.6%)     32.3  (+/- 2.8%)     24.5  (+/-1.5%)     22.9  (+/-2.8%)     24.1  (+/-2.0%)
  Hispanic                   25.2  (+/-2.7%)     22.2  (+/- 3.9%)     23.6  (+/- 2.9%)     15.5  (+/-1.7%)     18.6  (+/-3.3%)     18.0  (+/-2.3%)
  American Indian/
    Alaskan Native @@        27.5  (+/-4.9%)     36.2  (+/-13.3%)     39.0  (+/-10.4%)     36.7  (+/-5.8%)     36.7  (+/-8.5%)     39.8  (+/-6.8%)
  Asian\Pacific Islander     24.1  (+/-4.8%)     30.8  (+/-10.4%)     26.3  (+/- 6.4%)      7.1  (+/-2.9%)      3.2  (+/-2.2%)      4.0  (+/-2.0%)

Education level (yrs)
    <12                      37.4  (+/-1.4%)     37.8  (+/-2.4%)      36.9  (+/- 1.8%)     27.4  (+/-1.2%)     27.4  (+/-1.9%)     27.5  (+/-1.4%)
     12                      33.5  (+/-1.0%)     33.8  (+/-1.9%)      34.4  (+/- 1.3%)     27.1  (+/-0.8%)     26.6  (+/-1.6%)     28.2  (+/-1.1%)
  13-15                      25.1  (+/-1.3%)     24.8  (+/-2.5%)      25.2  (+/- 1.7%)     22.0  (+/-1.0%)     22.9  (+/-2.0%)     23.1  (+/-1.4%)
     16                      14.5  (+/-1.0%)     13.8  (+/-2.0%)      16.2  (+/- 1.4%)     12.5  (+/-1.0%)     13.0  (+/-1.8%)     14.6  (+/-1.4%)

Age group (yrs)
  18-24                      23.5  (+/-1.7%)     26.0  (+/-3.5%)      28.0  (+/- 2.5%)     22.4  (+/-1.6%)     22.9  (+/-2.6%)     24.9  (+/-2.0%)
  25-44                      32.9  (+/-0.9%)     31.3  (+/-1.7%)      32.8  (+/- 1.2%)     28.0  (+/-0.8%)     28.0  (+/-1.4%)     28.8  (+/-1.1%)
  45-64                      29.3  (+/-1.1%)     30.1  (+/-2.1%)      28.6  (+/- 1.5%)     24.6  (+/-1.0%)     24.7  (+/-1.9%)     26.1  (+/-1.3%)
   >=65                      15.1  (+/-1.2%)     15.8  (+/-2.3%)      16.1  (+/- 1.6%)     12.0  (+/-0.7%)     11.6  (+/-1.6%)     12.4  (+/-1.1%)

Socioeconomic status ***
  At/Above poverty level     26.8  (+/-0.7%)     26.2  (+/-1.2%)      27.1  (+/- 0.9%)     22.7  (+/-0.6%)     22.3  (+/-1.1%)     23.8  (+/-0.8%)
  Below poverty level        39.3  (+/-2.3%)     42.5  (+/-3.4%)      39.7  (+/- 2.6%)     29.3  (+/-1.7%)     33.5  (+/-2.4%)     31.7  (+/-1.7%)
  Unknown                    31.0  (+/-2.3%)     33.1  (+/-3.6%)      33.8  (+/- 2.7%)     22.4  (+/-1.5%)     21.3  (+/-2.5%)     22.1  (+/-1.8%)

Total                        28.1  (+/-0.6%)     28.0  (+/-1.1%)      28.6  (+/- 0.8%)     23.5  (+/-0.5%)     23.5  (+/-0.9%)     24.6  (+/-0.7%)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  * Persons who reported having smoked at least 100 cigarettes and who were currently smoking based one of the following definitions: "Original"
    definition: Smoke now; "Interim" definition: Smoke now, or do not smoke now but on further questioning reported smoking some days; "Revised"
    definition: Smoke every day or some days now; "Combination" definition: combined prevalence using the interim and revised prevalence estimates.
  + Excludes 578 respondents in 1991 and 285 respondents in 1992 with unknown smoking status.
  & Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Supplement.
  @ Cancer Control Supplement.
 ** Cancer Epidemiology Supplement.
 ++ Confidence interval.
 && Excludes 317 respondents in 1991 and 252 respondents in 1992 with unknown, multiple, and other race categories.
 @@ Estimates should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of cases.
*** Poverty statistics are based on definitions developed by the Social Security Administration in 1964, subsequently modified by federal interagency
    committees in 1969 and 1980, and prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget as the standard to be used by federal agencies for statistical
    purposes.
=======================================================================================================================================================

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Table_E1
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TABLE 1. Percentage of adults aged >=18 years who were current cigarette smokers * , by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, level of
education, and socioeconomic status -- United States, National Health Interview Survey, 1991 and 1992 +
=================================================================================================================================
                               1991                  1992                1992               1992                1992
                             Original              Original            Interim             Revised           Combination
                             (HPDP &)              (CCS @)              (CCS)              (CES **)           (CCS/CES)
                            (n=43,154)            (n=11,875)          (n=11,865)          (n=11,881)          (n=23,746)
                          ---------------       --------------      --------------      --------------      --------------
Characteristic             %   (95% CI ++)       %   (95% CI)        %   (95% CI)        %   (95% CI)        %   (95% CI)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sex
  Men                     28.1   (+/-0.8)       28.0 (+/- 1.4)      29.3 (+/- 1.5)      28.0 (+/- 1.4)      28.6  (+/-1.0)
  Women                   23.5   (+/-0.6)       23.5 (+/- 1.2)      24.3 (+/- 1.2)      24.8 (+/- 1.3)      24.6  (+/-0.9)

Age group (yrs)
  18-24                   22.9   (+/-1.4)       24.4 (+/- 3.0)      25.8 (+/- 3.1)      27.1 (+/- 2.8)       26.4 (+/-2.2)
  25-44                   30.4   (+/-0.7)       29.7 (+/- 1.4)      30.9 (+/- 1.4)      30.6 (+/- 1.5)       30.8 (+/-1.0)
  45-64                   26.8   (+/-0.9)       27.3 (+/- 1.8)      28.2 (+/- 1.8)      26.4 (+/- 1.8)       27.3 (+/-1.3)
   >=65                   13.3   (+/-0.8)       13.3 (+/- 1.6)      13.7 (+/- 1.6)      14.2 (+/- 1.6)       14.0 (+/-1.2)

Race/Ethnicity &&
  White                   26.0   (+/-0.6)       26.2 (+/- 1.1)      27.1 (+/- 1.1)      27.3 (+/- 1.1)      27.2  (+/-0.8)
  Black                   29.4   (+/-1.6)       27.0 (+/- 3.1)      28.4 (+/- 3.1)      27.3 (+/- 2.7)      27.8  (+/-2.0)
  Hispanic                20.1   (+/-1.7)       20.4 (+/- 3.0)      22.5 (+/- 3.1)      18.7 (+/- 2.6)      20.7  (+/-2.0)
  American Indian/
    Alaskan Native @@     31.9   (+/-7.0)       36.5 (+/-12.2)      36.5 (+/-12.2)      41.9 (+/-10.9)      39.4  (+/-8.3)
  Asian/Pacific
    Islander              15.9   (+/-3.2)       16.9 (+/- 5.9)      17.9 (+/- 5.9)      12.2 (+/- 4.5)      15.2  (+/-3.9)

Education level (yrs)
    <12                   32.0   (+/-1.2)       32.2 (+/- 2.1)      33.4 (+/- 2.2)      30.3 (+/- 2.1)      31.8  (+/-1.5)
     12                   29.9   (+/-0.8)       29.8 (+/- 1.6)      30.6 (+/- 1.6)      31.4 (+/- 1.7)      31.0  (+/-1.2)
  13-15                   23.4   (+/-1.0)       23.8 (+/- 1.8)      24.8 (+/- 1.9)      23.3 (+/- 1.9)      24.1  (+/-1.3)
   >=16                   13.6   (+/-0.8)       13.4 (+/- 1.5)      14.5 (+/- 1.5)      16.5 (+/- 1.7)      15.5  (+/-1.2)

Socioeconomic status ***
  At/Above poverty level  24.7   (+/-0.5)       24.2 (+/- 1.0)      25.2 (+/- 1.0)      25.7 (+/- 1.0)       25.4 (+/-0.7)
  Below poverty level     33.1   (+/-1.9)       37.0 (+/- 3.3)      38.4 (+/- 3.3)      31.4 (+/- 3.2)       34.9 (+/-2.6)
  Unknown                 26.0   (+/-1.7)       26.2 (+/- 3.0)      27.0 (+/- 3.0)      26.7 (+/- 3.2)       26.9 (+/-2.3)

Total                     25.6   (+/-0.5)       25.6 (+/- 0.9)      26.7 (+/- 0.9)      26.3 (+/- 1.0)      26.5  (+/-0.7)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  * Persons who reported having smoked at least 100 cigarettes and who were currently smoking based on one of the following
    definitions: "Original" definition: Smoke now; "Interim" definition: Smoke now, or do not smoke now but on further
    questioning reported smoking some days; "Revised" definition: Smoke every day or some days now; "Combination" definition:
    Combined prevalence using the interim and revised prevalence estimates.
  + Excludes 578 respondents in 1991 and 285 respondents in 1992 with unknown smoking status.
  & Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Supplement.
  @ Cancer Control Supplement.
 ** Cancer Epidemiology Supplement.
 ++ Confidence interval.
 && Excludes 317 respondents in 1991 and 252 respondents in 1992 in unknown, multiple, and other race categories.
 @@ Estimates should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of respondents.
*** Poverty statistics are based on definitions originated by the Social Security Administration in 1964, subsequently modified
    by federal interagency committees in 1969 and 1980, and prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget as the standard to
    be used by federal agencies for statistical purposes.
=================================================================================================================================

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Table_E2
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TABLE 2. Percentage of men and women aged >=18 years who were current cigarette smokers * , by race/ethnicity, level of education, age group, and
socioeconomic status -- United States, National Health Interview Survey, 1991 and 1992 +
====================================================================================================================================================
                                                     Men                                                    Women
                           ------------------------------------------------------     -------------------------------------------------
                                1991                1992              1992                1991              1992             1992
                              Original             Original          Combined           Original          Original         Combined
                               (HPDP &)            (CCS @)         (CCS/CES **)          (HPDP)             (CCS)          (CCS/CES)
                             (n=18,050)           (n=5,000)         (n=10,061)          (n=25,104)        (n=6,875)        (n=13,685)
                           --------------       --------------    ---------------     -------------     --------------   --------------
Characteristic              %   (95% CI ++)      %   (95% CI)      %   (95% CI)        %   (95% CI)      %   (95% CI)     %   (95% CI)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity &&
  White                    27.5  (+/-0.9)       27.9 (+/- 1.7)    28.6  (+/- 1.2)     24.6 (+/- 0.7)    24.6 (+/- 1.4)   25.9 (+/- 1.1)
  Black                    35.5  (+/-2.7)       32.2 (+/- 4.7)    32.3  (+/- 3.5)     24.5 (+/- 1.9)    22.9 (+/- 3.3)   24.1 (+/- 2.2)
  Hispanic                 25.2  (+/-3.0)       22.2 (+/- 4.3)    23.6  (+/- 3.0)     15.5 (+/- 1.9)    18.6 (+/- 3.6)   18.0 (+/- 2.5)
  American Indian/
    Alaskan Native @@      27.5  (+/-8.4)       36.2 (+/-16.1)    39.0  (+/-12.6)     36.7 (+/-11.2)    36.7 (+/-17.6)   39.8 (+/-12.4)
  Asian\Pacific
    Islander               24.1  (+/-5.1)       30.8 (+/-10.7)    26.3  (+/- 6.8)      7.1 (+/- 3.0)     3.2 (+/- 2.5)    4.0 (+/- 2.3)

Education level (yrs)
    <12                    37.4  (+/-1.9)       37.8 (+/- 3.3)    36.9  (+/- 2.3)     27.4 (+/- 1.4)    27.4 (+/- 2.6)   27.5 (+/- 1.9)
     12                    33.5  (+/-1.3)       33.8 (+/- 2.5)    34.4  (+/- 1.8)     27.1 (+/- 1.0)    26.6 (+/- 2.0)   28.2 (+/- 1.5)
  13-15                    25.1  (+/-1.6)       24.8 (+/- 3.0)    25.2  (+/- 2.1)     22.0 (+/- 1.3)    22.9 (+/- 2.4)   23.1 (+/- 1.7)
   >=16                    14.5  (+/-1.2)       13.8 (+/- 2.2)    16.2  (+/- 1.6)     12.5 (+/- 1.1)    13.0 (+/- 2.1)   14.6 (+/- 1.6)

Age group (yrs)
  18-24                    23.5  (+/-2.2)       26.0 (+/- 4.4)    28.0  (+/- 3.1)     22.4 (+/- 1.9)    22.9 (+/- 3.8)   24.9 (+/- 2.8)
  25-44                    32.9  (+/-1.2)       31.3 (+/- 2.2)    32.8  (+/- 1.5)     28.0 (+/- 1.0)    28.0 (+/- 1.8)   28.8 (+/- 1.4)
  45-64                    29.3  (+/-1.5)       30.1 (+/- 2.6)    28.6  (+/- 1.9)     24.6 (+/- 1.2)    24.7 (+/- 2.4)   26.1 (+/- 1.8)
   >=65                    15.1  (+/-1.5)       15.8 (+/- 2.7)    16.1  (+/- 2.1)     12.0 (+/- 1.0)    11.6 (+/- 2.0)   12.4 (+/- 1.3)

Socioeconomic status ***
  At/Above poverty level   26.8  (+/-0.8)       26.2 (+/- 1.6)    27.1  (+/- 1.0)     22.7 (+/- 0.7)    22.3 (+/- 1.3)   23.8 (+/- 1.0)
  Below poverty level      39.3  (+/-3.1)       42.5 (+/- 5.4)    39.7  (+/- 3.9)     29.3 (+/- 2.2)    33.5 (+/- 3.6)   31.7 (+/- 2.9)
  Unknown                  31.0  (+/-3.0)       33.1 (+/- 5.1)    33.8  (+/- 3.7)     22.4 (+/- 2.0)    21.3 (+/- 3.4)   22.1 (+/- 2.5)

Total                      28.1  (+/-0.8)       28.0 (+/- 1.4)    28.6  (+/- 1.0)     23.5 (+/- 0.6)    23.5 (+/- 1.2)   24.6 (+/- 0.9)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  * Persons who reported having smoked at least 100 cigarettes and who were currently smoking based on one of the following definitions: "Original"
    definition: Smoke now; "Interim" definition: Smoke now, or do not smoke now but on further questioning reported smoking some days; "Revised"
    definition: Smoke every day or some days now; "Combination" definition: combined prevalence using the interim and revised prevalence estimates.
  + Excludes 578 respondents in 1991 and 285 respondents in 1992 with unknown smoking status.
  & Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Supplement.
  @ Cancer Control Supplement.
 ** Cancer Epidemiology Supplement.
 ++ Confidence interval.
 && Excludes 317 respondents in 1991 and 252 respondents in 1992 in unknown, multiple, and other race categories.
 @@ Estimates should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of respondents.
*** Poverty statistics are based on definitions originated by the Social Security Administration in 1964, subsequently modified by federal
    interagency committees in 1969 and 1980, and prescribed by the Office of Management and Budget as the standard to be used by federal agencies
    for statistical purposes.
====================================================================================================================================================

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