The content, links, and pdfs are no longer maintained and might be outdated.
Compendium of Animal Rabies Vaccines, 1983 Prepared by: The National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians, Inc.
Part I: Recommendations for Immunization Procedures The purpose of these recommendations is to provide information on rabies vaccines to practicing veterinarians, public health officials, and others concerned with rabies control. This document will serve as the basis for animal rabies vaccination programs throughout the United States. Its adoption by cooperating organizations will result in standardization of procedures among jurisdictions, which is necessary for an effective national rabies control program. These recommendations are reviewed and revised as necessary before the beginning of each calendar year. All animal rabies vaccines licensed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and marketed in the United States are listed in Part II of the Compendium, and Part III describes the principles of rabies control.
1983 Green Bell
1984 Red Heart
1985 Blue Rosette
1986 Orange Fireplug 2. Rabies Certificate: Government agencies and veterinarians should use the NASPHV form #50, Rabies Vaccination Certificate, which can be obtained from vaccine manufacturers.
Part III: Principles of Rabies Control These guidelines have been prepared by the National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV) for use by government officials, practicing veterinarians, and others who may become involved in certain aspects of rabies control. The NASPHV plans to annually review and revise these recommendations as necessary. Standardized control procedures are needed to effectively deal with the public health aspects of rabies.
Animals Maintained in Exhibits and in Zoological Parks Captive animals not completely excluded from all contact with local vectors of rabies can become infected with rabies. Moreover, such animals may be incubating rabies when captured. Exhibit animals, especially those carnivores and omnivores having contact with the viewing public, should be quarantined for a minimum of 180 days. Since no rabies vaccine is licensed for use in wild animals, vaccination even with inactivated vaccine is not recommended. Pre-exposure rabies immunization of animal workers at such facilities is recommended and reduces the need for euthanasia of valuable animals for rabies testing after they have bitten a handler.
(2) Wild Animals Because of the existing risk of rabies among wild animals such as raccoons, skunks, and foxes, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA), the NASPHV, and the Conference of State and Territorial Epidemiologists strongly recommend the enactment of state laws prohibiting the interstate and intrastate importation, distribution, and relocation of wild animals. Further, these same organizations continue to recommend the enactment of laws prohibiting the distribution and/or ownership of wild animals as pets.
2. Stray Animal Control
Stray animals should be removed from the community, especially in rabies epizootic areas. Local health department and dog control officials can enforce the pick-up of strays more efficiently if owned animals are confined or leashed when not confined. Strays should be impounded for at least 3 days to give owners sufficient time to reclaim animals apprehended as strays. 3. Quarantine
(a) International: Present USDA regulations (CFR No. 71154)
governing the importation of wild and domesticated felines, canines, and other potential vectors of rabies are minimal for preventing the introduction of rabid animals into the United States. All dogs and cats imported from countries with endemic rabies should be vaccinated against rabies at least 30 days before entry into the United States. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) is responsible for these animals imported into the United States. CDC's requirements should be coordinated with interstate shipment requirements. The health authority of the state of destination should be notified within 72 hours of any animal conditionally admitted into its jurisdiction. The conditional admission of such animals into the United States must be subject to state and local laws governing rabies. Failures to comply with these requirements should be promptly reported to the director of CDC. (b) Interstate: Before interstate shipment, dogs and cats
should be vaccinated against rabies according to the Compendium's recommendations and preferably shall be vaccinated at least 30 days before shipment. While in shipment, they should be accompanied by a currently valid NASPHV Form #50, Rabies Vaccination Certificate. One copy of the certificate should be mailed to the appropriate public health veterinarian or state veterinarian of the state of destination. (c) Health Certificates: If a certificate is required for
dogs and cats in transit, it must not replace the NASPHV rabies vaccination certificate. 4. Adjunct Procedures
Methods or procedures that enhance rabies control include: (a) Licensure: Registration or licensure of all dogs and
cats may be used as a means of rabies control by controlling the stray animal population. Frequently, a fee is charged for such licensure and revenues collected are used to maintain a rabies or animal control program. Vaccination is usually recommended as a prerequisite to licensure. (b) Canvassing of Area: This includes house-to-house calls
by members of the animal control program to enforce vaccination and licensure requirements. (c) Citations: These are legal summonses issued to owners
for violations including the failure to vaccinate or license their animals. (d) Leash Laws: All communities should adopt leash laws
that can be incorporated in their animal control ordinances. 5. Post-Exposure Management
ANY DOMESTIC ANIMAL THAT IS BITTEN OR SCRATCHED BY A BAT OR BY A WILD, CARNIVOROUS MAMMAL THAT IS NOT AVAILABLE FOR TESTING SHOULD BE REGARDED AS HAVING BEEN EXPOSED TO A RABID ANIMAL. (a) When bitten by a rabid animal, unvaccinated dogs and
cats should be destroyed immediately. If the owner is unwilling to have this done, the unvaccinated animal should be placed in strict isolation for 6 months and vaccinated one month before being released. Dogs and cats that are currently vaccinated should be revaccinated immediately, leashed, and confined for 90 days. (b) Livestock: All species of livestock are susceptible to
rabies infection; cattle appear to be among the most susceptible of all domestic animal species. Livestock known to have been bitten by rabid animals should be destroyed (slaughtered) immediately. If the owner is unwilling to have this done, the animal should be kept under very close observation for 6 months. Regarding the management of livestock exposed to rabid animals, the following recommendations and considerations are suggested: (1) If slaughtered within 7 days of being bitten, tissues may be eaten without risk of infection, provided liberal portions of the exposed area are discarded. Federal meat inspectors will reject for slaughter any animal that has been exposed to rabies within 8 months.
(2) No tissues or secretions from a clinically rabid animal should be used for human or animal consumption. However, because pasteurization temperatures will inactivate rabies virus, the drinking of pasteurized milk or eating of completely cooked meat does not constitute a rabies exposure. C. CONTROL METHODS IN WILD ANIMALS
THE NASPHV COMPENDIUM COMMITTEE FOR 1983: Kenneth L. Crawford, DVM, MPH, Chairman, Melvin K. Abelseth, DVM, DVPH, PhD, John I. Freeman, DVM, MPH, Robert F. Goldsboro, DVM, MPH, Grayson B. Miller, Jr, MD, James M. Shuler, DVM, MPH, R. Keith Sikes, DVM, MPH CONSULTANTS TO THE COMMITTEE: Bernard LaSalle, DVM, Veterinary Biologics Staff, APHIS, USDA, William G. Winkler, DVM, MS, CDC, PHS, HHS, Dale E. Bordt, PhD, Vet. Biologics Section, Animal Health Institute, Lowell W. Hinchman, DVM, Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine ENDORSED BY: Conference of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, AVMA, Council on Public Health and Regulatory Veterinary Medicine
Disclaimer All MMWR HTML documents published before January 1993 are electronic conversions from ASCII text into HTML. This conversion may have resulted in character translation or format errors in the HTML version. Users should not rely on this HTML document, but are referred to the original MMWR paper copy for the official text, figures, and tables. An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402-9371; telephone: (202) 512-1800. Contact GPO for current prices.**Questions or messages regarding errors in formatting should be addressed to email@example.com.
Page converted: 08/05/98
This page last reviewed 5/2/01