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Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance -- United States, 1997

Laura Kann, Ph.D. (1) Steven A. Kinchen (1) Barbara I. Williams, Ph.D. (2) James G. Ross, M.S. (3) Richard Lowry, M.D., M.S. (1) Carl V. Hill, M.P.H. (1) Jo Anne Grunbaum, Ed.D. (1) Pamela S. Blumson, M.S.N. (1) Janet L. Collins, Ph.D. (1) Lloyd J. Kolbe, Ph.D. (1) State and Local YRBSS Coordinators

1 Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for

Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC 2 Westat Incorporated, Rockville, Maryland 3 Macro International, Calverton, Maryland


Abstract

Problem/Condition: Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of mortality and morbidity among youth and adults, often are established during youth, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated.

Reporting Period: February-May 1997.

Description of the System: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults -- behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including human immunodeficiency virus {HIV} infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. The YRBSS includes a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as state, territorial, and local school-based surveys conducted by education and health agencies. This report summarizes results from the national survey, 33 state surveys, 3 territorial surveys, and 17 local surveys conducted among high school students from February through May 1997.

Results and Interpretation: In the United States, 73% of all deaths among youth and young adults 10-24 years of age result from only four causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the national 1997 YRBSS demonstrate that many high school students engage in behaviors that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes -- 19.3% had rarely or never worn a seat belt; during the 30 days preceding the survey, 36.6% had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol; 18.3% had carried a weapon during the 30 days preceding the survey; 50.8% had drunk alcohol during the 30 days preceding the survey; 26.2% had used marijuana during the 30 days preceding the survey; and 7.7% had attempted suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey. Substantial morbidity among school-age youth, young adults, and their children also result from unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV infection. YRBSS results indicate that in 1997, 48.4% of high school students had ever had sexual intercourse; 43.2% of sexually active students had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse; and 2.1% had ever injected an illegal drug. Of all deaths and substantial morbidity among adults greater than or equal to 25 years of age, 67% result from two causes -- cardiovascular disease and cancer. Most of the risk behaviors associated with these causes of death are initiated during adolescence. In 1997, 36.4% of high school students had smoked cigarettes during the 30 days preceding the survey; 70.7% had not eaten five or more servings of fruits and vegetables during the day preceding the survey; and 72.6% had not attended physical education class daily.

Actions Taken: These YRBSS data are already being used by health and education officials to improve national, state, and local policies and programs to reduce risks associated with the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. YRBSS data also are being used to measure progress toward achieving 21 national health objectives and 1 of the 8 National Education Goals.


INTRODUCTION

In the United States, 73% of all deaths among youth and young adults 10-24 years of age result from only four causes -- motor vehicle crashes (30%), other unintentional injuries (10%), homicide (20%), and suicide (13%) (1). Substantial morbidity and social problems also result from the approximately 1 million pregnancies that occur each year among adolescents (2) as well as the estimated 3 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) that occur each year among the same age group (3). In the United States, 67% of all deaths and substantial morbidity among adults greater than or equal to 25 years of age result from two causes -- cardiovascular disease (43%) and cancer (24%) (1). Therefore, six categories of behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States -- behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and STDs (including human immunodeficiency virus {HIV} infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. These behaviors, which frequently are interrelated, often are established during youth and extend into adulthood.

To monitor the priority health-risk behaviors in each of these categories among youth and young adults, CDC developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) (4). The YRBSS includes national, state, territorial, and local school-based surveys of high school students. National surveys were conducted in 1990, 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997. * Comparable state and local surveys were first conducted in 1990, when 23 states and 9 large cities participated. In 1991, 26 states, 2 territories, and 11 large cities conducted surveys; in 1993, 40 states, 2 territories, and 14 large cities; in 1995, 40 states, 4 territories, and 17 large cities; and in 1997, 38 states, 4 territories, and 17 large cities conducted surveys. This report summarizes the results from the 1997 national school-based survey and trends from 1991 through 1997 in selected risk behaviors. Data from 33 state, 3 territorial, and 17 local school-based surveys conducted during 1997 also are included. Data from 1 territorial and 5 state surveys conducted during 1997 were not included in this report because of their low overall response rate.


METHODS

Sampling

The 1997 national school-based survey employed a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9-12. The first-stage sampling frame contained 1,719 primary sampling units (PSUs), consisting of large counties or groups of smaller, adjacent counties. From the 1,719 PSUs, 54 were selected from 16 strata formed on the basis of the degree of urbanization and the relative percentage of black and Hispanic students in the PSU. The PSUs were selected with probability proportional to school enrollment size. At the second sampling stage, 191 schools were selected with probability proportional to school enrollment size. To enable separate analysis of data for black ** and Hispanic students, schools with substantial numbers of black and Hispanic students were sampled at higher rates than all other schools. The third stage of sampling consisted of randomly selecting one or two intact classes of a required subject (e.g., English or social studies) from grades 9-12 at each chosen school. All students in the selected classes were eligible to participate in the survey.

A weighting factor was applied to each student record to adjust for nonresponse and for the varying probabilities of selection, including those resulting from the oversampling of black and Hispanic students. Numbers of students in other racial/ethnic groups were too low for meaningful analysis in this report. The weights were scaled so that a) the weighted count of students was equal to the total sample size and b) the weighted proportions of students in each grade matched national population proportions. SUDAAN *** was used to compute 95% confidence intervals, which were used to determine differences between subgroups at the p less than 0.05 level (5). Differences between prevalence estimates were considered statistically significant if the 95% confidence intervals did not overlap. The national data are representative of students in grades 9-12 in public and private schools in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

The 1997 state, territorial, and local school-based surveys employed a two-stage cluster sample design to produce representative samples of students in grades 9-12 in their jurisdictions. In most states, territories, and cities, the first-stage sampling frame consisted of all public schools containing any of grades 9-12. Schools were selected with probability proportional to school enrollment size. At the second sampling stage, intact classes of a required subject or a required period (e.g., second period) were randomly selected. All students in the selected classes were eligible to participate in the survey. Some states, territories, and large cities modified these procedures to meet their individual needs. For example, either classes were selected as the first stage of sampling, or all schools -- rather than a sample of schools -- were selected to participate.

For the surveys from 24 states, 3 territories, and 15 large cities, each with an overall response rate of at least 60% and appropriate documentation, the data were weighted (Table_1). Weighted data from most of these states and cities can be generalized to all public-school students in grades 9-12 in the respective jurisdiction. For the surveys that did not have an overall response rate of at least 60% and appropriate documentation, the data were not weighted. The unweighted data from nine states and two large cities apply only to the students participating in the survey. The California survey excludes students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.

For the national survey, 16,262 questionnaires were completed in 151 schools. The school response rate was 79%, and the student response rate was 87%, resulting in an overall response rate of 69% (Table_1). For the state, territorial, and local surveys, sample sizes ranged from 334 to 6,964. School response rates ranged from 49% to 100%; student response rates ranged from 60% to 97%; and overall response rates ranged from 44% to 89%. In the national, state, territorial, and local surveys, students were evenly distributed across grades and between sexes.

Incidence rates for two variables were calculated to provide data for monitoring relevant year 2000 national health objectives (6). For weapon carrying, students who reported that they had carried a weapon 2-3 days during the 30 days preceding the survey were assigned a weapon-carrying frequency of 2.5; 4-5 days, 4.5; and greater than or equal to 6 days, 6.0. For physical fighting, students who reported having fought 2 or 3 times during the 12 months preceding the survey were assigned a fighting frequency of 2.5; 4-5 times, 4.5; 6-7 times, 6.5; 8-9 times, 8.5; 10-11 times, 10.5; and greater than or equal to 12 times, 12.0.

The findings in this report are subject to at least two limitations. First, these data apply only to youth who attend high school and, therefore, are not representative of all persons in this age group. Second, these data apply only to youth who were in school on the day of survey administration.

Data Collection

Survey procedures were designed to protect the students' privacy by allowing for anonymous and voluntary participation. The students completed the self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms during a regular class period, recording their responses directly on a computer-scannable booklet or answer sheet. The core questionnaire contained 84 multiple-choice questions. State, territorial, and local education agencies added or deleted items to meet individual needs. Local parental permission procedures were followed before survey administration.


RESULTS

Behaviors That Contribute to Unintentional Injuries

Seat Belt Use

Nationwide, 19.3% of students had rarely or never worn seat belts when riding in a car or truck driven by someone else (Table_2). Overall, male students (23.2%) were significantly more likely than female students (14.5%) to have rarely or never worn seat belts. White **** male students (22.0%) were significantly more likely than white female students (10.8%) to have rarely or never worn seat belts, and male students in grades 9 and 12 (25.9% and 24.5%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in the same grades (16.0% and 13.5%, respectively) to have rarely or never worn seat belts. Overall, black students (31.3%) were significantly more likely than white students (17.1%) to have rarely or never worn seat belts. Black female students (28.3%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and white female students (17.0% and 10.8%, respectively) to have rarely or never worn seat belts, and black male students (34.4%) were significantly more likely than white male students (22.0%) to have rarely or never worn seat belts. The prevalence rates across the state ***** surveys varied sixfold from 6.1% to 36.5% (median: 23.3%) (Table_3). Across the local surveys, the prevalence rates varied sixfold from 7.3% to 45.1% (median: 31.1%).

Motorcycle Helmet Use

Nationwide, 21.0% of students had ridden a motorcycle during the 12 months preceding the survey. Of these students, 36.2% rarely or never wore a motorcycle helmet (Table_2). Overall, Hispanic students (54.7%) were significantly more likely than white students (34.2%) to have rarely or never worn a motorcycle helmet. Prevalence rates of rarely or never wearing a motorcycle helmet varied across the state surveys threefold from 23.6% to 72.9% (median: 40.0%) (Table_3). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 30.2% to 73.1% (median: 42.0%).

Bicycle Helmet Use

Nationwide, 75.4% of students had ridden a bicycle during the 12 months preceding the survey. Of these students, 88.4% had rarely or never worn a bicycle helmet (Table_2). Overall, black students (95.8%) were significantly more likely than white students (87.1%) to have rarely or never worn a bicycle helmet. Black male students (96.1%) were significantly more likely than white male students (86.9%) to have rarely or never worn a bicycle helmet. The prevalence rates of rarely or never wearing a bicycle helmet ranged from 63.9% to 97.7% (median: 92.2%) across the state surveys and from 75.6% to 96.6% (median: 94.1%) across the local surveys (Table_3).

Riding with a Driver Who Had Been Drinking Alcohol

During the 30 days preceding the survey, more than one third (36.6%) of students nationwide had ridden one or more times with a driver who had been drinking alcohol (Table_2). Male students in grade 10 (35.6%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 10 (28.2%) to have ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol. Overall, Hispanic students (42.8%) were significantly more likely than black students (33.5%) to have ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol. Hispanic female students (40.6%) were significantly more likely than black female students (29.8%) to report this behavior. Female students in grade 12 (39.1%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 10 (28.2%) to have ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol. Male students in grade 11 (42.9%) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 9 (31.8%) to report this behavior. Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 19.4% to 52.5% (median: 36.0%) and across the local surveys from 20.7% to 43.1% (median: 32.1%) (Table_3).

Driving After Drinking Alcohol

During the 30 days preceding the survey, 16.9% of students nationwide had driven a vehicle one or more times after drinking alcohol (Table_2). Overall, male students (21.0%) were significantly more likely than female students (12.0%) to have driven after drinking alcohol. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic subgroups and for students in grades 10 and 11. Overall, white and Hispanic students (18.9% and 18.1%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (9.4%) to have driven after drinking alcohol. This significant difference was identified for both female and male students. Female students in grade 12 (18.8%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 9 and 10 (7.5% and 7.5%, respectively) to report this behavior. Male students in grades 11 and 12 (25.1% and 30.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 9 and 10 (11.7% and 14.8%, respectively) to have driven after drinking alcohol. Prevalence rates across the state surveys varied sevenfold from 4.6% to 33.2% (median: 15.1%) (Table_3). Prevalence rates across the local surveys varied nearly threefold from 4.6% to 13.7% (median: 8.5%).

Behaviors That Contribute to Intentional Injuries

Carrying a Weapon

Almost one fifth (18.3%) of students nationwide had carried a weapon (e.g., a gun, knife, or club) on greater than or equal to 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_4). Overall, male students (27.7%) were significantly more likely than female students (7.0%) to have carried a weapon. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic students (23.3%) were significantly more likely than white students (17.0%) to have carried a weapon. Black female students (14.7%) were significantly more likely than white female students (4.4%) to report this behavior. Female students in grade 9 (10.9%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 11 and 12 (5.7% and 5.3%, respectively) to have carried a weapon, and male students in grade 9 (33.2%) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 12 (23.3%) to have done so. State prevalence rates ranged from 14.1% to 27.5% (median: 20.3%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 14.2% to 31.8% (median: 20.7%) (Table_5).

Nationwide, 5.9% of students had carried a gun on greater than or equal to 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_4). Overall, male students (9.6%) were significantly more likely than female students (1.5%) to have carried a gun. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic and black students (10.1% and 9.2%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (4.4%) to have carried a gun. Black male and female students (16.3% and 2.5%, respectively) and Hispanic male students (16.9%) were significantly more likely than white male and female students (7.2% and 0.8%, respectively) to report this behavior. State prevalence rates ranged from 4.1% to 11.4% (median: 6.8%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 3.3% to 10.6% (median: 7.0%) (Table_5).

An estimated 74.2 separate incidents of weapon carrying had occurred per 100 students on greater than or equal to 1 days during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_4). Overall, the weapon-carrying incident rate was significantly higher for male students (115.5 per 100 students) than for female students (25.0 per 100 students). This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. The weapon-carrying incident rate was significantly higher for black and Hispanic female students (51.0 and 32.5 per 100 students, respectively) than for white female students (14.9 per 100 students). State incidence rates ranged from 47.8 per 100 students to 123.3 per 100 students (median: 82.1 per 100 students), and local incidence rates ranged from 53.1 per 100 students to 133.5 per 100 students (median: 77.6 per 100 students) (Table_5).

Physical Fighting

Among students nationwide, 36.6% had been in a physical fight one or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_6). Overall, male students (45.5%) were significantly more likely than female students (26.0%) to have been in a physical fight. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, black and Hispanic students (43.0% and 40.7%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (33.7%) to have been in a physical fight. Black and Hispanic female students (37.7% and 30.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white female students (21.4%) to report this behavior. Male and female students in grade 9 (56.0% and 32.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 11 and 12 (43.5% and 36.6%, respectively) and female students in grade 12 (18.9%) to have been in a physical fight. Male and female students in grade 10 (48.2% and 30.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than male and female students in grade 12 (36.6% and 18.9%, respectively) to report this behavior. Across the state surveys, the prevalence rates ranged from 27.6% to 50.4% (median: 33.3%) (Table_7). Across the local surveys, the prevalence rates ranged from 26.6% to 48.8% (median: 39.4%).

Nationwide, 3.5% of students had been treated by a doctor or nurse for injuries sustained in a physical fight during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_6). Overall, male students (4.6%) were significantly more likely than female students (2.2%) to have been injured in a physical fight. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and for students in grades 9, 11, and 12. Overall, black and Hispanic students (5.7% and 4.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (2.5%) to have been injured in a physical fight. Black female students (4.4%) were significantly more likely than white female students (1.2%) to have been injured in a physical fight, and black and Hispanic male students (7.1% and 6.2%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white male students (3.4%) to report this behavior. Across the state surveys, the prevalence rates of injurious physical fighting ranged from 2.4% to 8.9% (median: 3.6%) (Table_7). Across the local surveys, the prevalence rates ranged from 2.9% to 8.7% (median: 5.0%).

Nationwide, an estimated 115.1 incidents of physical fighting had occurred per 100 students on greater than or equal to 1 days during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_6). Overall, male students (153.1 per 100 students) were significantly more likely than female students (69.4 per 100 students) to have been in a physical fight. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Incidence rates were significantly higher for female students in grades 9 and 10 (103.1 and 81.6 per 100 students, respectively) than for female students in grade 12 (40.6 per 100 students). Incidence rates were significantly higher for male students in grade 9 (200.2 per 100 students) than for male students in grade 11 (126.1 per 100 students). State incidence rates ranged from 89.8 per 100 students to 213.0 per 100 students (median: 108.9 per 100 students), and local incidence rates ranged from 90.1 to 157.5 (median: 126.5) (Table_7).

School-Related Violence

Nationwide, 4.0% of students had missed greater than or equal to 1 days of school during the 30 days preceding the survey because they had felt unsafe at school or when traveling to or from school (Table_8). Overall, Hispanic and black students (7.2% and 6.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (2.4%) to have felt unsafe. Hispanic and black male (6.8% and 7.5%, respectively) and female (7.7% and 6.1%, respectively) students were significantly more likely than white male and female students (2.3% and 2.5%, respectively) to have missed school because they felt unsafe. Male and female students in grade 9 (5.2% and 5.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely than male and female students in grade 12 (2.3% and 3.0%, respectively) to have missed school for this reason. A nearly fivefold difference was observed in prevalence rates across the state surveys, which ranged from 2.7% to 13.1% (median: 4.8%) (Table_9). The prevalence rates across the local surveys ranged from 5.7% to 13.9% (median: 9.0%).

The prevalence of weapon carrying on school property on greater than or equal to 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey was 8.5% nationwide (Table_8). Overall, male students (12.5%) were significantly more likely than female students (3.7%) to have carried a weapon on school property. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and all grade subgroups. Black female students (7.8%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and white female students (4.3% and 2.1%, respectively) to have carried a weapon on school property. State prevalence rates varied nearly threefold from 5.4% to 15.2% (median: 8.5%), and local prevalence rates varied nearly threefold from 5.8% to 16.5% (median: 9.3%) (Table_9).

Nationwide, the prevalence of students who had been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property one or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey was 7.4%. Overall, male students (10.2%) were significantly more likely than female students (4.0%) to have been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic subgroups and students in grades 9, 11, and 12. Overall, black and Hispanic students (9.9% and 9.0%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (6.2%) to have been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property. Black and Hispanic male students (14.0% and 12.7%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white male students (8.2%) to have experienced this. Female students in grade 9 (6.1%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 11 and 12 (2.3% and 2.5%, respectively) to have been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property, and female students in grade 10 (5.2%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (2.5%) to have experienced this. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 5.2% to 9.6% (median: 7.5%) (Table_9). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 7.5% to 13.3% (median: 9.4%).

Nationwide, 14.8% of students had been in a physical fight on school property one or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_8). Overall, male students (20.0%) were significantly more likely than female students (8.6%) to have been in a physical fight on school property. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and all grade subgroups. Overall, black and Hispanic students (20.7% and 19.0%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (13.3%) to have been in a physical fight on school property. Black and Hispanic female students (17.0% and 12.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white female students (5.9%) to report this behavior. Female students in grades 9 and 10 (12.4% and 11.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (4.9%) to have been in a physical fight on school property, and female students in grade 9 (12.4%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 11 (6.2%) to report this behavior. Male students in grades 9 and 10 (29.3% and 21.6%, respectively) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 12 (13.1%) to have been in a physical fight on school property, and male students in grade 9 (29.3%) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 11 (17.8%) to report this behavior. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 11.3% to 33.6% (median: 13.5%) (Table_9). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 11.2% to 26.7% (median: 16.3%).

Approximately one third (32.9%) of students nationwide had had property (e.g., a car, clothing, or books) stolen or deliberately damaged on school property one or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_8). Overall, male students (36.1%) were significantly more likely than female students (29.0%) to have had property stolen or damaged on school property. This significant difference was identified for students in grade 10. Male students in grades 9 and 10 (39.8% and 39.7%, respectively) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 12 (30.0%) to have experienced this. State prevalence rates ranged from 25.3% to 50.2% (median: 31.7%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 23.6% to 41.4% (median: 33.7%) (Table_9).

Suicide Ideation and Attempts

Nationwide, 20.5% of students had seriously considered attempting suicide during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_10). Overall, female students (27.1%) were significantly more likely than male students (15.1%) to have considered attempting suicide. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic students (23.1%) were significantly more likely than black students (16.4%) to have considered attempting suicide. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Prevalence rates ranged from 16.3% to 29.7% (median: 22.9%) across the state surveys and from 15.5% to 23.2% (median: 18.3%) across the local surveys (Table_11).

More serious suicide ideation was observed among the 15.7% of students nationwide who, during the 12 months preceding the survey, had made a specific plan to attempt suicide (Table_10). Overall, female students (20.0%) were significantly more likely than male students (12.2%) to have made a suicide plan. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic subgroups and for students in grades 10 and 11. Overall, Hispanic students (19.6%) were significantly more likely than white and black students (14.3% and 12.5%, respectively) to have made a suicide plan. Hispanic female students (23.9%) were significantly more likely than black female students (16.0%) to have made a suicide plan. Hispanic male students (16.0%) were significantly more likely than white and black male students (11.0% and 8.8%, respectively) to report this behavior. Female students in grade 10 (24.2%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (15.3%) to have made a suicide plan. Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 14.0% to 28.6% (median: 17.6%) (Table_11). Prevalence rates across the local surveys ranged from 11.0% to 21.1% (median: 14.4%).

Nationwide, 7.7% of students had attempted suicide one or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_10). Overall, female students (11.6%) were significantly more likely than male students (4.5%) to have attempted suicide. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and students in grades 9-11. Overall, Hispanic students (10.7%) were significantly more likely than white students (6.3%) to have attempted suicide. Hispanic male students (7.2%) were significantly more likely than white male students (3.2%) to report this behavior. Female students in grades 9 and 10 (15.1% and 14.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (6.2%) to have attempted suicide. The percentage of students attempting suicide ranged from 7.8% to 22.0% (median: 9.1%) across the state surveys and from 7.5% to 12.6% (median: 10.2%) across the local surveys (Table_11).

Nationwide, 2.6% of students reported having made a suicide attempt during the 12 months preceding the survey that resulted in an injury, poisoning, or overdose that had been treated by a doctor or nurse (Table_10). Female students in grade 9 (5.0%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (2.0%) to have made a suicide attempt that required medical attention. The prevalence of injurious suicide attempts varied sixfold from 1.3% to 7.8% (median: 3.0%) across the state surveys and varied nearly twofold from 2.5% to 4.6% (median: 3.4%) across the local surveys (Table_11).

Tobacco Use

Cigarette Use

Nationwide, 70.2% of students had ever tried cigarette smoking (even one or two puffs) (Table_12). Hispanic male students (76.9%) were significantly more likely than white male students (70.4%) to have ever tried cigarette smoking. State prevalence rates ranged from 38.1% to 79.1% (median: 72.0%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 59.2% to 71.4% (median: 68.2%) (Table_13).

More than one third of students (36.4%) nationwide had smoked cigarettes on greater than or equal to 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current cigarette use) (Table_12). Black male students (28.2%) were significantly more likely than black female students (17.4%) to report current cigarette use. Overall, white students (39.7%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and black students (34.0% and 22.7%, respectively) to report current cigarette use, and Hispanic students (34.0%) were significantly more likely than black students (22.7%) to report this behavior. White female students (39.9%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and black female students (32.3% and 17.4%, respectively) to report current cigarette use, and Hispanic female students (32.3%) were significantly more likely than black female students (17.4%) to do so. White male students (39.6%) were significantly more likely than black male students (28.2%) to report current cigarette use. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates varied more than sevenfold from 6.3% to 47.0% (median: 36.5%) (Table_13). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 19.0% to 29.4% (median: 24.2%).

Nationwide, 16.7% of students had smoked cigarettes on greater than or equal to 20 of the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., frequent cigarette use) (Table_12). Black male students (10.1%) were significantly more likely than black female students (4.3%) to report frequent cigarette use. Overall, white students (19.9%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and black students (10.9% and 7.1%, respectively) to have done so. White female students (20.1%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and black female students (8.1% and 4.3%, respectively) to report frequent cigarette use, and white male students (19.8%) were significantly more likely than black male students (10.1%) to report this behavior. Female students in grade 12 (19.0%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 9 (11.6%) to report frequent cigarette use. State prevalence rates ranged from 0.3% to 27.6% (median: 19.1%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 5.8% to 13.7% (median: 7.9%) (Table_13).

Smokeless Tobacco Use

Nationwide, 9.3% of students had used smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco or snuff) on greater than or equal to 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_12). Overall, male students (15.8%) were significantly more likely than female students (1.5%) to have used smokeless tobacco. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and for all grade subgroups. Overall, white students (12.2%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and black students (5.1% and 2.2%, respectively) to have used smokeless tobacco. White male students (20.6%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and black male students (8.3% and 3.2%, respectively) to have used smokeless tobacco, and Hispanic male students (8.3%) were significantly more likely than black male students (3.2%) to report this behavior. State prevalence rates ranged from 0.5% to 22.5% (median: 7.9%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 0.9% to 4.6% (median: 2.4%) (Table_13).

Access to Cigarettes

Data about access to cigarettes are reported only for those students less than 18 years of age who reported current cigarette use. Nationwide, 29.8% of these students had purchased their cigarettes in a store or gas station during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_14). Male students in grade 9 (23.7%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 9 (10.8%) to have purchased cigarettes in a store or gas station. For both male and female students, the percentage of students who purchased cigarettes in a store or gas station significantly increased as grade level increased. State prevalence rates varied more than threefold from 10.5% to 36.6% (median: 22.6%), and local prevalence rates varied nearly threefold from 17.6% to 51.4% (median: 30.0%) (Table_15).

Nationwide, 66.7% of students who purchased cigarettes in a store or gas station had not been asked to show proof of age (Table_14). Male students in grade 9 who purchased cigarettes in a store or gas station (83.0%) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 11 and 12 (54.6% and 50.8%, respectively) not to have been asked to show proof of age. State prevalence rates ranged from 52.4% to 76.3% (median: 63.7%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 55.1% to 80.4% (median: 67.6%) (Table_15).

Alcohol and Other Drug Use

Alcohol Use

Nationwide, 79.1% of students had had at least one drink of alcohol during their lifetime (Table_16). Overall, Hispanic and white students (83.1% and 81.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (73.0%) to have had at least one drink of alcohol during their lifetime. Hispanic female students (82.1%) were significantly more likely than black female students (73.8%) to have had at least one drink of alcohol, and Hispanic and white male students (83.9% and 82.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black male students (72.2%) to report this behavior. Female students in grade 12 (82.3%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 9 (73.6%) to have had at least one drink of alcohol. Male students in grade 12 (85.3%) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 9 and 10 (70.5% and 77.9%, respectively) to have had at least one drink of alcohol, and male students in grade 11 (83.4%) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 9 (70.5%) to have done so. The prevalence of lifetime alcohol use across the state surveys ranged from 41.3% to 84.3% (median: 78.2%) (Table_17). The prevalence rates across the local surveys ranged from 59.2% to 78.2% (median: 72.5%).

Nationwide, half (50.8%) of all students had had at least one drink of alcohol on greater than or equal to 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current alcohol use) (Table_16). Male students in grade 11 (57.8%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 11 (47.8%) to report current alcohol use. Overall, white and Hispanic students (54.0% and 53.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (36.9%) to report current alcohol use. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Male students in grades 11 and 12 (57.8% and 60.2%, respectively) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 9 and 10 (44.7% and 48.7%, respectively) to report this behavior. State prevalence rates ranged from 24.3% to 61.1% (median: 50.5%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 27.5% to 48.7% (median: 40.0%) (Table_17).

One third (33.4%) of all students nationwide had had five or more drinks of alcohol on greater than or equal to 1 occasions during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., episodic heavy drinking) (Table_16). Overall, male students (37.3%) were significantly more likely than female students (28.6%) to report episodic heavy drinking. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic subgroups and for grade 11. Overall, white and Hispanic students (37.7% and 34.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (16.1%) to report episodic heavy drinking. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Male students in grades 11 and 12 (45.2% and 44.0%, respectively) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 9 and 10 (25.5% and 32.7%, respectively) to report this behavior. Prevalence rates across the state surveys varied more than fourfold from 10.7% to 45.2% (median: 31.2%) and across the local surveys from 12.6% to 27.1% (median: 19.8%) (Table_17).

Marijuana Use

Nationwide, 47.1% of students had used marijuana during their lifetime (Table_16). Overall, male students (50.7%) were significantly more likely than female students (42.9%) to have ever used marijuana. This significant difference was identified for black students and students in grade 11. Black male students (59.3%) were significantly more likely than white male students (48.3%) to have ever used marijuana. Male students in grades 11 and 12 (55.6% and 56.1%, respectively) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 9 (41.3%) to report this behavior. Lifetime marijuana use varied twofold from 24.8% to 51.9% (median: 45.3%) across the state surveys and ranged from 31.2% to 51.5% (median: 44.7%) across the local surveys (Table_17).

One fourth (26.2%) of all students had used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current marijuana use) (Table_16). Overall, male students (30.2%) were significantly more likely than female students (21.4%) to report current marijuana use. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic subgroups and for grade 11. Current marijuana use varied nearly threefold from 12.3% to 35.3% (median: 25.3%) across the state surveys and ranged from 15.7% to 29.3% (median: 23.6%) across the local surveys (Table_17).

Cocaine Use

Nationwide, 8.2% of students had used some form of cocaine (e.g., powder, "crack," ****** or "freebase" *******) during their lifetime (Table_18). Overall, Hispanic students (14.4%) were significantly more likely than white and black students (8.0% and 1.9%, respectively) to have ever used cocaine, and white students (8.0%) were significantly more likely than black students (1.9%) to have done so. Hispanic and white female students (12.5% and 7.5%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black female students (1.0%) to have ever used cocaine. Hispanic male students (16.1%) were significantly more likely than white and black male students (8.5% and 2.9%, respectively) to have ever used cocaine, and white male students (8.5%) were significantly more likely than black male students (2.9%) to have ever done so. Lifetime cocaine use ranged from 0.5% to 12.8% (median: 7.0%) across the state surveys and from 1.1% to 12.3% (median: 3.7%) across the local surveys (Table_19).

Nationwide, 3.3% of students had used some form of cocaine at least once during the 30 days preceding the survey (i.e., current cocaine use) (Table_18). Overall, male students (4.0%) were significantly more likely than female students (2.4%) to report current cocaine use. This significant difference was identified for students in grade 10. Overall, Hispanic students (6.2%) were significantly more likely than white and black students (3.1% and 0.7%, respectively) to report current cocaine use, and white students (3.1%) were significantly more likely than black students (0.7%) to do so. These significant differences were identified for male students. Among female students, Hispanic and white students (5.3% and 2.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (0.2%) to report current cocaine use. Current cocaine use ranged from 0.2% to 5.8% (median: 3.5%) across the state surveys and from 0.6% to 4.4% (median: 1.8%) across the local surveys (Table_19).

Nationwide, 4.7% of students had used "crack" or "freebase" forms of cocaine during their lifetime (Table_18). Overall, Hispanic students (8.0%) were significantly more likely than white and black students (4.5% and 1.2%, respectively) to have ever used "crack" or "freebase," and white students (4.5%) were significantly more likely than black students (1.2%) to have done so. These significant differences were identified for male students. Among female students, Hispanic and white students (7.7% and 4.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (0.9%) to have ever used "crack" or "freebase." Lifetime "crack" or "freebase" use ranged from 0.4% to 8.4% (median: 4.6%) across the state surveys and from 0.9% to 8.1% (median: 2.7%) across the local surveys (Table_19).

Steroid Use

Nationwide, 3.1% of students had used illegal steroids (i.e., without a doctor's prescription) during their lifetime (Table_20). Overall, male students (4.1%) were significantly more likely than female students (2.0%) to have ever used illegal steroids. This significant difference was identified for white and black students and students in grade 11. Overall, Hispanic and white students (3.4% and 3.1%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (1.5%) to have ever used illegal steroids. Among female students, Hispanic students (2.8%) were significantly more likely than black students (0.7%) to have ever used illegal steroids. Lifetime illegal steroid use ranged from 0.5% to 6.7% (median: 4.2%) across the state surveys and from 1.8% to 4.6% (median: 3.4%) across the local surveys (Table_21).

Injecting-Drug Use

Nationwide, 2.1% of students had injected illegal drugs during their lifetime ******** (Table_20). State prevalence rates ranged from 0.3% to 4.2% (median: 2.5%) across the state surveys and from 0.8% to 3.5% (median: 2.0%) across the local surveys (Table_21).

Other Illegal Drug Use

Nationwide, 17.0% of students had used other illegal drugs during their lifetime (e.g., LSD {lysergic acid diethylamide}, PCP {phencyclidine}, "ecstasy" {methylenedioxymethamphetamine}, mushrooms, "speed" {a stimulant, especially an amphetamine}, "ice" {methamphetamine}, or heroin) (Table_20). Overall, white and Hispanic students (19.1% and 17.5%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (3.4%) to have ever used other illegal drugs. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 0.9% to 26.4% (median: 16.4%) (Table_21). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 2.6% to 15.9% (median: 7.6%).

Inhalant Use

Nationwide, 16.0% of students had sniffed glue, breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans, or inhaled paint sprays to become intoxicated during their lifetime (i.e., inhalant use) (Table_20). Overall, male students (17.6%) were significantly more likely than female students (14.1%) to report inhalant use. This significant difference was identified for white students and students in grades 11 and 12. Overall, white and Hispanic students (18.0% and 17.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (6.6%) to report inhalant use. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. White male students (20.0%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic male students (17.7%) to report this behavior. Female students in grade 9 (19.9%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 11 and 12 (11.2% and 9.5%, respectively) to report this behavior. State prevalence rates varied nearly fourfold from 7.4% to 28.4% (median: 18.3%), and local prevalence rates varied nearly threefold from 6.2% to 17.7% (median: 12.1%) (Table_21).

Initiation of Risk Behaviors

Cigarette Smoking

Nationwide, one fourth (24.8%) of students had smoked a whole cigarette before 13 years of age (Table_22). Overall, male students (28.0%) were significantly more likely than female students (20.9%) to have smoked a whole cigarette before 13 years of age. This significant difference was identified for students in grade 11. Overall, white and Hispanic students (25.6% and 24.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (17.4%) to have smoked a whole cigarette before 13 years of age. White male students (28.5%) were significantly more likely than black male students (19.5%) to have done so. Female students in grades 9 and 10 (28.8% and 23.8%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 11 and 12 (17.1% and 14.6%, respectively) to have smoked a whole cigarette before 13 years of age. Male students in grade 10 (30.5%) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 12 (21.8%) to have done so. State prevalence rates varied threefold from 12.0% to 37.9% (median: 25.6%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 14.2% to 23.5% (median: 18.0%) (Table_23).

Alcohol Use

Nationwide, nearly one third (31.1%) of students had first drunk alcohol (more than a few sips) before 13 years of age (Table_22). Overall, male students (35.7%) were significantly more likely than female students (25.7%) to have drunk alcohol before 13 years of age. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups except for grade 9. Overall, Hispanic students (37.9%) were significantly more likely than white students (28.8%) to have drunk alcohol before 13 years of age. This significant difference was identified for male students. Female students in grade 9 (38.6%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 10-12 (27.5%, 23.3%, and 15.1%, respectively) to have drunk alcohol before 13 years of age, and female students in grades 10 and 11 (27.5% and 23.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (15.1%) to have done so. Male students in grade 9 (44.9%) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 11 and 12 (35.4% and 28.8%, respectively) to have drunk alcohol before 13 years of age. State prevalence rates varied more than twofold from 17.2% to 41.5% (median: 31.5%), and local prevalence rates ranged from 26.3% to 38.4% (median: 33.0%) (Table_23).

Marijuana Use

Approximately one in ten students (9.7%) nationwide had tried marijuana before 13 years of age (Table_22). Overall, male students (12.2%) were significantly more likely than female students (6.7%) to have tried marijuana before 13 years of age. This significant difference was identified for black and Hispanic students and students in grades 11 and 12. Overall, Hispanic students (13.2%) were significantly more likely than white students (7.5%) to have tried marijuana before 13 years of age. Among males, Hispanic and black students (17.2% and 15.6%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (9.0%) to have done so. Female students in grade 9 (10.6%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 11 and 12 (4.6% and 3.6%, respectively) to have tried marijuana before 13 years of age, and male students in grade 9 (18.9%) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 12 (7.6%) to have done so. State prevalence rates varied fourfold from 4.8% to 19.3% (median: 10.0%), and local prevalence rates varied more than twofold from 6.2% to 14.7% (median: 10.5%) (Table_23).

Cocaine Use

Nationwide, 1.1% of students had tried cocaine (including powder, "crack," or "freebase" forms of cocaine) before 13 years of age (Table_22). Overall, Hispanic students (1.4%) were significantly more likely than black students (0.4%) to have tried cocaine before 13 years of age. This significant difference was identified for female students. State prevalence rates varied more than threefold from 0.8% to 2.6% (median: 1.5%), and local prevalence rates varied more than sixfold from 0.4% to 2.7% (median: 1.3%) (Table_23).

Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drug Use on School Property

Nationwide, 14.6% of students had smoked cigarettes on school property on greater than or equal to 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_24). Black and Hispanic male students (12.4% and 15.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic female students (5.5% and 7.7%, respectively) to have smoked cigarettes on school property. Overall, white students (15.8%) were significantly more likely than black students (8.8%) to have smoked cigarettes on school property. White female students (14.9%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and black female students (7.7% and 5.5%, respectively) to have engaged in this behavior. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 0.7% to 25.3% (median: 17.0%) (Table_25). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 8.9% to 18.8% (median: 10.7%).

Smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco or snuff) use on school property on greater than or equal to 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey was reported by 5.1% of students nationwide (Table_24). Overall, male students (9.0%) were significantly more likely than female students (0.4%) to have used smokeless tobacco on school property. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and for all grade subgroups. Overall, white students (6.5%) were significantly more likely than black students (1.4%) to have used smokeless tobacco on school property. This significant difference was identified for male students. An eightfold variation was observed across the state surveys, with prevalence rates ranging from 1.9% to 15.2% (median: 5.0%) (Table_25). A nearly fivefold variation was observed across the local surveys, with prevalence rates ranging from 0.6% to 2.9% (median: 1.6%).

Nationwide, 5.6% of students had had at least one drink of alcohol on school property on greater than or equal to 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_24). Overall, male students (7.2%) were significantly more likely than female students (3.6%) to have drunk alcohol on school property. This significant difference was identified for white students and students in grade 12. Overall, Hispanic students (8.2%) were significantly more likely than white students (4.8%) to have drunk alcohol on school property. This significant difference was identified for female students. Female students in grade 9 (5.3%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (2.2%) to have engaged in this behavior. Prevalence rates across the state surveys varied more than fourfold from 2.9% to 12.9% (median: 6.2%), and prevalence rates across the local surveys varied more than twofold from 5.1% to 12.1% (median: 7.7%) (Table_25).

Nationwide, 7.0% of students had used marijuana on school property one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_24). Overall, male students (9.0%) were significantly more likely than female students (4.6%) to have used marijuana on school property. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic subgroups and students in grades 10 and 12. Overall, Hispanic students (10.4%) were significantly more likely than white students (5.8%) to have used marijuana on school property. Hispanic and black male students (14.1% and 13.0%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white male students (7.3%) to have used marijuana on school property. Female students in grade 9 (6.5%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (2.6%) to have done so. Prevalence rates across the state surveys varied threefold from 4.0% to 12.6% (median: 7.7%), and prevalence rates across the local surveys varied more than twofold from 5.9% to 13.6% (median: 9.6%) (Table_25).

Nearly one third (31.7%) of students had been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_24). Overall, male students (37.4%) were significantly more likely than female students (24.7%) to have been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic subgroups and students in grades 10-12. Overall, Hispanic students (41.1%) were significantly more likely than white and black students (31.0% and 25.4%, respectively) to have been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. White female students (24.5%) were significantly more likely than black female students (16.7%) to have been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property. Prevalence rates across the state surveys varied more than twofold from 15.2% to 42.2% (median: 30.1%), and prevalence rates across the local surveys varied more than twofold from 18.4% to 46.1% (median: 28.4%) (Table_25).

Sexual Behaviors That Contribute to Unintended Pregnancy and STDs, Including HIV Infection

Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, nearly half (48.4%) of all students had had sexual intercourse during their lifetime (Table_26). Black and Hispanic male students (80.3% and 57.7%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic female students (65.6% and 45.7%, respectively) to have had sexual intercourse. Overall, black students (72.7%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and white students (52.2% and 43.6%) to have had sexual intercourse, and Hispanic students (52.2%) were significantly more likely than white students (43.6%) to have done so. These significant differences were identified for male students. Black female students (65.6%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and white female students (45.7% and 44.0%, respectively) to have had sexual intercourse. Among male and female students, students in grade 12 were significantly more likely than students in grades 9 and 10 to have had sexual intercourse. Prevalence rates ranged from 37.2% to 69.5% (median: 47.8%) across the state surveys and from 40.0% to 74.2% (median: 56.5%) across the local surveys (Table_27).

The percentage of students nationwide who had initiated sexual intercourse before 13 years of age was 7.2% (Table_26). Overall, male students (9.4%) were significantly more likely than female students (4.5%) to have initiated sexual intercourse before 13 years of age. This significant difference was identified for black and Hispanic students and students in grades 9-11. Overall, black students (21.7%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and white students (7.7% and 4.0%, respectively) to have initiated sexual intercourse before 13 years of age, and Hispanic students (7.7%) were significantly more likely than white students (4.0%) to have done so. These significant differences were identified for male students. Black female students (11.0%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and white female students (3.4% and 3.2%, respectively) to have initiated sexual intercourse before 13 years of age. Female students in grade 9 (6.5%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (2.9%) to have initiated sexual intercourse before 13 years of age, and male students in grade 9 (14.7%) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 11 and 12 (8.2% and 6.0%, respectively) to have done so. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates varied sixfold from 3.8% to 22.6% (median: 7.1%) (Table_27). Across the local surveys, the prevalence rates varied more than fivefold from 4.6% to 24.0% (median: 14.3%).

The percentage of students nationwide who had had sexual intercourse during their lifetime with four or more sex partners was 16.0% (Table_26). Black and Hispanic male students and male students in grade 9 were significantly more likely than female students in the same race/ethnicity and grade subgroups to have had four or more sex partners during their lifetime. Overall, black students (38.5%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and white students (15.5% and 11.6%, respectively) to have had four or more sex partners. Black female students (25.4%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic students (12.1% and 10.2%, respectively) to have had four or more sex partners. Black male students (52.8%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and white male students (20.1% and 11.3%, respectively) to have had four or more sex partners, and Hispanic male students (20.1%) were significantly more likely than white male students (11.3%) to have done so. Female students in grades 11 and 12 (15.8% and 20.6%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 9 (7.9%) to have had four or more sex partners, and female students in grade 12 (20.6%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 10 (11.7%) to have done so. Prevalence rates across the state surveys varied more than threefold from 9.1% to 31.4% (median: 13.7%) (Table_27). Prevalence rates across the local surveys varied more than fourfold from 8.8% to 38.2% (median: 21.7%).

More than one third (34.8%) of students nationwide had had sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey (i.e., currently sexually active) (Table_26). Black male students (60.5%) were significantly more likely than black female students (47.3%) to be currently sexually active. Overall, black students (53.6%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and white students (35.4% and 32.0%, respectively) to be currently sexually active. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Female students in grades 10-12 (31.2%, 41.5%, and 49.5%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 9 (22.4%) to be currently sexually active, and female students in grade 12 (49.5%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 10 (31.2%) to be so. Male students in grade 12 (43.1%) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 9 and 10 (25.9% and 27.6%, respectively) to be currently sexually active. Prevalence rates across state surveys ranged from 21.4% to 52.1% (median: 33.0%) (Table_27). Prevalence rates across the local surveys ranged from 19.7% to 59.0% (median: 39.3%).

Among students who had had sexual intercourse during their lifetime, more than one fourth (27.8%) had been abstinent during the 3 months preceding the survey (i.e., currently abstinent) (Table_26). Overall, male students (31.5%) were significantly more likely than female students (23.4%) to report current abstinence. This significant difference was identified for white students and students in grade 11. Black female students (27.9%) were significantly more likely than white female students (20.2%) to report current abstinence, and Hispanic male students (35.2%) were significantly more likely than black male students (24.6%) to do so. Female students in grade 9 (33.3%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 11 and 12 (17.5% and 20.0%, respectively) to report current abstinence. Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 22.9% to 42.5% (median: 29.2%) and across the local surveys from 20.4% to 36.2% (median: 29.5%) (Table_27).

Condom Use

Nationwide, among currently sexually active students, 56.8% reported that either they or their partner had used a condom during last sexual intercourse (Table_28). Overall, male students (62.5%) were significantly more likely than female students (50.8%) to report condom use. This significant difference was identified for white and black students and students in grade 12. Overall, black students (64.0%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic students (55.8% and 48.3%, respectively) to report condom use. Black female students (58.9%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic female students (49.2% and 40.0%, respectively) to report condom use, and black male students (68.4%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic male students (54.7%) to do so. Female students in grades 9 and 11 (58.3% and 55.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (43.0%) to report condom use. Prevalence rates across the state surveys ranged from 30.4% to 68.1% (median: 57.2%) and across the local surveys from 50.1% to 73.5% (median: 64.0%) (Table_29).

Birth Control Pill Use

Nationwide, among currently sexually active students, 16.6% reported that either they or their partner had used birth control pills before last sexual intercourse (Table_28). Overall, female students (20.5%) were significantly more likely than male students (13.0%) to report birth control pill use. This significant difference was identified for students in grades 10 and 12. Overall, white students (20.6%) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic students (11.9% and 9.5%, respectively) to report birth control pill use. White female students (24.7%) were significantly more likely than black female students (14.7%) to report birth control pill use. White male students (16.7%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic male students (6.9%) to report birth control pill use. Among both male and female students, students in grade 12 were significantly more likely than students in grades 9 and 10 to report birth control pill use. Prevalence rates varied nearly sevenfold from 4.4% to 29.8% (median: 18.3%) across the state surveys and more than twofold from 6.5% to 14.9% (median: 9.1%) across the local surveys (Table_29).

Alcohol or Drug Use at Last Sexual Intercourse

Nationwide, among students who were currently sexually active, one fourth (24.7%) had used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse (Table_28). Overall, male students (30.5%) were significantly more likely than female students (18.5%) to report this behavior. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic subgroups and for grades 10-12. Overall, white students (26.0%) were significantly more likely than black students (18.1%) to have used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse. This significant difference was identified for male and female students. Prevalence rates ranged from 10.9% to 36.1% (median: 26.6%) across the state surveys and from 15.5% to 28.4% (median: 20.0%) across the local surveys (Table_29).

Pregnancy

Nationwide, 6.5% of students reported that they had been pregnant or had gotten someone else pregnant. Overall, female students (8.5%) were significantly more likely to have been pregnant than male students (4.7%) were to have gotten someone else pregnant. This significant difference was identified for white students and students in grade 12. Overall, black students (14.9%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and white students (7.1% and 4.5%, respectively) to have been pregnant or to have gotten someone else pregnant. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Hispanic male students (6.3%) were significantly more likely than white male students (3.0%) to have gotten someone else pregnant. Female students in grade 12 (11.1%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 9 (5.1%) to have been pregnant. Prevalence rates ranged from 3.5% to 12.1% (median: 5.7%) across the state surveys and from 4.6% to 19.5% (median: 10.2%) across the local surveys (Table_29).

HIV Education

Nationwide, 91.5% of students had been taught about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or HIV infection in school (Table_30). Overall, white students (93.3%) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic students (89.7% and 85.9%, respectively) to have received HIV education in school. White female students (92.8%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic female students (85.1%) to have received HIV education in school, and white male students (93.6%) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic male students (89.1% and 86.6%, respectively) to report this. Prevalence rates ranged from 79.9% to 96.5% (median: 91.6%) across the state surveys and from 82.7% to 93.8% (median: 88.6%) across the local surveys (Table_31).

Nationwide, 62.8% of students had talked about AIDS or HIV infection with parents or other adult family members (Table_30). Overall, female students (67.4%) were significantly more likely than male students (59.1%) to report having done so. This significant difference was identified for students in grades 11 and 12. Overall, black students (72.7%) were significantly more likely than white and Hispanic students (62.0% and 60.5%, respectively) to have talked with parents or other adult family members about AIDS or HIV infection. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 49.6% to 69.8% (median: 62.1%) (Table_31). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 53.1% to 75.7% (median: 66.2%).

Dietary Behaviors

Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables

Nationwide, 29.3% of students had eaten five or more servings of fruits and vegetables ********* during the day preceding the survey (Table_32). Overall, male students (32.1%) were significantly more likely than female students (25.7%) to report this behavior. This significant difference was identified for black students and students in grade 11. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 18.7% to 41.6% (median: 28.5%) (Table_33). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 20.4% to 34.1% (median: 28.8%).

Consumption of Foods Typically High in Fat Content

Nationwide, 62.3% of students had eaten two or fewer servings of foods typically high in fat content ********** during the day preceding the survey (Table_32). Overall, female students (70.6%) were significantly more likely than male students (55.5%) to have eaten two or fewer servings of such foods. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic and white students (63.8% and 62.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (54.9%) to have eaten two or fewer servings of foods typically high in fat content. White female students (73.0%) were significantly more likely than black female students (62.5%) to report this behavior, and Hispanic male students (60.0%) were significantly more likely than black male students (47.0%) to do so. Female students in grade 12 (77.1%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 9 (65.2%) to have eaten two or fewer servings of foods typically high in fat content. Male students in grade 12 (58.9%) were significantly more likely than male students in grade 10 (51.6%) to have eaten two or fewer servings of foods typically high in fat content. Male students in grade 11 (60.7%) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 9 and 10 (49.7% and 51.6%, respectively) to have done so. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 46.5% to 81.3% (median: 61.6%) (Table_33). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 48.6% to 72.3% (median: 59.8%).

Perceived Overweight

More than one fourth (27.3%) of students nationwide thought they were overweight (Table_32). Overall, female students (33.5%) were significantly more likely than male students (22.2%) to consider themselves overweight. This significant difference was identified for white and black students and students in grades 9, 10, and 12. Overall, Hispanic students (30.4%) were significantly more likely than black students (23.5%) to consider themselves overweight. Among male students, Hispanic and white students (27.4% and 21.9%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (14.8%) to consider themselves overweight. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 21.1% to 33.5% (median: 28.6%) (Table_33). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 21.2% to 30.3% (median: 24.1%).

Attempted Weight Control

Nationwide, 39.7% of students were trying to lose weight during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_34). Overall, female students (59.7%) were significantly more likely than male students (23.1%) to be trying to lose weight. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic students (45.7%) were significantly more likely than black students (35.7%) to be trying to lose weight. White and Hispanic female students (62.2% and 61.1%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black female students (50.7%) to be trying to lose weight, and Hispanic male students (32.7%) were significantly more likely than white and black male students (22.0% and 20.0%, respectively) to report this. Prevalence rates ranged from 31.1% to 51.0% (median: 42.4%) across the state surveys and from 33.0% to 46.1% (median: 38.0%) across the local surveys (Table_35).

The percentage of students nationwide who had taken laxatives or had vomited either to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days preceding the survey was 4.5% (Table_34). Overall, female students (7.5%) were significantly more likely than male students (2.1%) to have taken laxatives or to have vomited to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and for all grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic students (6.5%) were significantly more likely than white students (4.2%) to have taken laxatives or to have vomited to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight. Hispanic female students (10.4%) were significantly more likely than black female students (6.3%) to have taken laxatives or to have vomited to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight, and black male students (4.0%) were significantly more likely than white male students (1.6%) to have done so. Prevalence rates ranged from 3.1% to 9.8% (median: 6.1%) across the state surveys and from 3.6% to 8.3% (median: 5.2%) across the local surveys (Table_35).

Nationwide, 4.9% of students had taken diet pills either to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_34). Overall, female students (8.0%) were significantly more likely than male students (2.4%) to have taken diet pills to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight. This significant difference was identified for white and Hispanic students and all grade subgroups. Prevalence rates ranged from 2.8% to 9.5% (median: 7.1%) across the state surveys and from 2.2% to 7.0% (median: 4.6%) across the local surveys (Table_35).

Nearly one third (30.4%) of students had dieted either to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_34). Overall, female students (45.7%) were significantly more likely than male students (17.6%) to have dieted to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic and white students (33.4% and 30.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (25.0%) to have dieted to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight. White and Hispanic female students (47.9% and 46.3%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (33.8%) to have dieted to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight, and Hispanic male students (22.6%) were significantly more likely than white and black male students (16.6% and 15.6%, respectively) to have done so. Prevalence rates ranged from 21.1% to 44.0% (median: 31.1%) across the state surveys and from 22.3% to 35.8% (27.4%) across the local surveys (Table_35).

Approximately half (51.5%) of students had exercised either to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight during the 30 days preceding the survey (Table_34). Overall, female students (65.4%) were significantly more likely than male students (39.9%) to have exercised to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic and white students (55.5% and 52.2%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black students (43.5%) to have exercised to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight. White and Hispanic female students (69.7% and 64.5%, respectively) were significantly more likely than black female students (49.2%) to have exercised to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight, and Hispanic male students (47.9%) were significantly more likely than white and black male students (38.6% and 37.5%, respectively) to have done so. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 38.4% to 62.3% (median: 53.0%) (Table_35). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 42.4% to 54.9% (median: 48.5%).

Physical Activity

Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity

Nearly two thirds (63.8%) of students nationwide had participated in activities that made them sweat and breathe hard for at least 20 minutes on greater than or equal to 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey (i.e., vigorous physical activity) (Table_36). Overall, male students (72.3%) were significantly more likely than female students (53.5%) to have participated in vigorous physical activity. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, white students (66.8%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic and black students (60.4% and 53.9%, respectively) to have participated in vigorous physical activity, and Hispanic students (60.4%) were significantly more likely than black students (53.9%) to do so. Among both male and female students, white students were significantly more likely than black students to have participated in vigorous physical activity. Female students in grade 9 (66.1%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 10-12 (55.7%, 49.4%, and 43.6%, respectively) to have participated in vigorous physical activity, and female students in grade 10 (55.7%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (43.6%) to do so. Male students in grade 9 (78.7%) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 11 and 12 (68.9% and 68.4%, respectively) to have participated in vigorous physical activity. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 50.6% to 71.2% (median: 61.2%) (Table_37). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 42.6% to 67.4% (median: 52.3%).

One fifth (20.4%) of students nationwide had walked or bicycled for at least 30 minutes on greater than or equal to 5 of the 7 days preceding the survey (i.e., moderate physical activity) (Table_36). Overall, black and Hispanic students (28.3% and 26.7%, respectively) were significantly more likely than white students (16.8%) to have participated in moderate physical activity. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Among male and female students, students in grade 9 were significantly more likely than students in grades 11 and 12 to have participated in moderate physical activity, and students in grade 10 were significantly more likely than students in grade 12 to have done so. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 13.2% to 34.8% (median: 20.5%) (Table_37). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 24.2% to 44.2% (median: 32.5%).

Stretching Exercises

Nationwide, 51.3% of students had done stretching exercises (e.g., toe touching, knee bending, and leg stretching) on greater than or equal to 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey (Table_36). Black male students (54.0%) were significantly more likely than black female students (41.8%) to have participated in stretching exercises. White female students (53.4%) were significantly more likely than black female students (41.8%) to have participated in stretching exercises. Female students in grade 9 (59.8%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 11 and 12 (46.9% and 41.0%, respectively) to have participated in stretching exercises, and female students in grade 10 (54.6%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (41.0%) to have done so. Across the state surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 34.8% to 58.8% (median: 48.6%) (Table_37). Across the local surveys, prevalence rates ranged from 36.1% to 58.6% (median: 44.1%).

Strengthening Exercises

Approximately half (51.4%) of students nationwide had done strengthening exercises (e.g., push-ups, sit-ups, and weightlifting) on greater than or equal to 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey (Table_36). Overall, male students (58.1%) were significantly more likely than female students (43.2%) to have participated in strengthening exercises. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, Hispanic students (53.3%) were significantly more likely than black students (46.7%) to have participated in strengthening exercises. White female students (46.1%) were significantly more likely than black female students (34.8%) to have participated in strengthening exercises. Female students in grades 9 and 10 (52.0% and 44.5%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (34.3%) to report this behavior. Prevalence rates ranged from 31.2% to 60.3% (median: 46.8%) across the state surveys and from 33.7% to 52.5% (median: 44.0%) across the local surveys (Table_37).

Participation in Physical Education Class

Nationwide, 48.8% of students were enrolled in a physical education (PE) class (Table_38). Black male students (53.7%) were significantly more likely than black female students (39.4%) to be enrolled in a PE class. Among both male and female students, students in grade 9 were significantly more likely than students in grades 11 and 12 to be enrolled in a PE class. The percentage of students enrolled in a PE class varied nearly threefold from 31.3% to 91.9% (median: 50.0%) across the state surveys and more than threefold from 26.8% to 90.2% (median: 58.1%) across the local surveys (Table_39).

Nationwide, 27.4% of students attended PE class daily (Table_38). Overall, Hispanic students (38.4%) were significantly more likely than white students (23.8%) to attend PE class daily. This significant difference was identified for both male and female students. Female students in grades 9 and 10 (42.1% and 28.1%, respectively) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 11 and 12 (15.5% and 13.9%, respectively) to attend PE class daily, and male students in grade 9 (43.0%) were significantly more likely than male students in grades 11 and 12 (22.5% and 23.2%, respectively) to do so. The percentage of students who attended PE class daily varied more than eightfold from 7.3% to 62.2% (median: 28.0%) across the state surveys and varied more than twelvefold from 6.6% to 80.7% (median: 31.4%) across the local surveys (Table_39).

Nationwide, 73.9% of students enrolled in PE class reported exercising greater than or equal to 20 minutes during an average PE class. Overall, male students enrolled in PE class (78.5%) were significantly more likely than female students enrolled in PE class (67.5%) to report exercising greater than or equal to 20 minutes during an average PE class. This significant difference was identified for students in grade 11. The percentage of students enrolled in PE class who reported exercising greater than or equal to 20 minutes during an average PE class ranged from 41.9% to 85.4% (median: 73.9%) across the state surveys and from 44.6% to 79.0% (median: 66.1%) across the local surveys (Table_39).

Participation on Sports Teams

Half (49.5%) of students nationwide had played on sports teams run by their school during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_38). Overall, male students (55.5%) were significantly more likely than female students (42.3%) to have played on sports teams run by their school. This significant difference was identified for black and Hispanic students and students in grades 10-12. Overall, white students (54.6%) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic students (44.3% and 40.2%, respectively) to have played on sports teams run by their school. This significant difference was identified for female students. Among male students, white and black students (58.7% and 56.4%, respectively) were significantly more likely than Hispanic students (46.9%) to have played on sports teams run by their school. Across the state surveys, the percentage of students who had played on sports teams run by their schools ranged from 27.2% to 60.3% (median: 46.4%) (Table_39). Across the local surveys, the percentage ranged from 31.4% to 42.2% (median: 38.0%).

Nationwide, 38.3% of students had played on sports teams run by organizations unaffiliated with their school during the 12 months preceding the survey (Table_38). Overall, male students (45.4%) were significantly more likely than female students (29.8%) to have played on sports teams run by organizations unaffiliated with their school. This significant difference was identified for all racial/ethnic and grade subgroups. Overall, white students (41.4%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic students (32.9%) to have played on sports teams run by organizations unaffiliated with their school. White female students (34.7%) were significantly more likely than black and Hispanic female students (25.1% and 24.0%, respectively) to have played on sports teams run by organizations unaffiliated with their school, and black male students (51.8%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic male students (40.5%) to have done so. Female students in grade 9 (36.8%) were significantly more likely than female students in grades 11 and 12 (26.4% and 21.9%, respectively) to have played on sports teams run by organizations unaffiliated with their school, and female students in grade 10 (34.7%) were significantly more likely than female students in grade 12 (21.9%) to have done so. The percentage of students who played on sports teams run by organizations unaffiliated with their school ranged from 30.1% to 61.4% (median: 37.9%) across the state surveys and from 26.4% to 38.7% (median: 33.1%) across the local surveys (Table_39).


DISCUSSION

Many high school students continue to practice behaviors that place them at risk for serious health problems. Some risk behaviors are more likely to be found among particular subgroups of students. For example, male students were more likely than female students to report

  • rarely or never wearing seat belts;

  • driving after drinking alcohol;

  • weapon carrying;

  • gun carrying;

  • participating and being injured in a physical fight;

  • weapon carrying on school property;

  • being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property;

  • being in a physical fight on school property;

  • having property stolen or deliberately damaged on school property;

  • smokeless tobacco use;

  • episodic heavy drinking;

  • lifetime and current marijuana use;

  • current cocaine use;

  • lifetime illegal steroid and inhalant use;

  • initiating cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use before 13 years of age;

  • smokeless tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use on school property;

  • being offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property;

  • not talking with parents or other adult family members about AIDS or HIV infection;

  • initiating sexual intercourse before 13 years of age;

  • their partner not using birth control pills;

  • alcohol or drug use at last sexual intercourse; and

  • eating more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content daily.

In contrast, female students were more likely than male students to report

  • suicide-related behaviors;

  • not using a condom;

  • not eating fruits and vegetables daily;

  • using laxatives or vomiting and taking diet pills either to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight;

  • not participating in vigorous physical activity;

  • not participating in strengthening exercises;

  • exercising for less than 20 minutes during PE class; and

  • not participating on sports teams.

White students were more likely than black or Hispanic students to report

  • driving after drinking alcohol;

  • current and frequent cigarette use;

  • initiating cigarette use before 13 years of age;

  • cigarette use on school property;

  • smokeless tobacco use;

  • smokeless tobacco use on school property;

  • lifetime and current alcohol use;

  • episodic heavy drinking;

  • lifetime and current cocaine use;

  • lifetime "crack," steroid, inhalant, and other illegal drug use;

  • not talking with parents or other adult family members about AIDS or HIV infection;

  • not using condoms;

  • alcohol or drug use at last sexual intercourse;

  • not participating in moderate physical activity; and

  • not attending PE class daily.

Black students were more likely than white or Hispanic students to report

  • rarely or never wearing seat belts or bicycle helmets;

  • gun carrying;

  • participating and being injured in a physical fight;

  • being in a physical fight on school property;

  • being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property;

  • feeling too unsafe to go to school;

  • not being taught about AIDS or HIV infection in school;

  • having had sexual intercourse during their lifetime;

  • being currently sexually active;

  • initiating sexual intercourse before 13 years of age;

  • having had four or more sex partners during their lifetime;

  • not using birth control pills;

  • ever being pregnant or getting someone else pregnant;

  • eating more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content daily;

  • not participating in vigorous physical activity;

  • not participating in strengthening exercises; and

  • not participating on school-sponsored sports teams.

Hispanic students were more likely than white or black students to report

  • rarely or never wearing motorcycle helmets;

  • riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol;

  • driving after drinking alcohol;

  • weapon and gun carrying;

  • being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property;

  • participating and being injured in a physical fight;

  • being in a physical fight on school property;

  • feeling too unsafe to go to school;

  • suicide-related behaviors;

  • current cigarette use;

  • lifetime and current alcohol use;

  • episodic heavy drinking;

  • lifetime and current cocaine use;

  • lifetime "crack," steroid, inhalant, and other illegal drug use;

  • initiating cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use before 13 years of age;

  • alcohol and marijuana use on school property;

  • being offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property;

  • not being taught about AIDS or HIV infection in school;

  • not talking with parents or other adult family members about AIDS or HIV infection;

  • having had sexual intercourse during their lifetime;

  • initiating sexual intercourse before 13 years of age;

  • not using condoms or birth control pills;

  • using laxatives or vomiting either to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight;

  • not participating in vigorous physical activity; and

  • not participating on sports teams.

Students in grades 9 and 10 were more likely than students in grades 11 and 12 to report

  • weapon carrying;

  • being threatened or injured with a weapon on school property;

  • participating in a physical fight;

  • being in a physical fight on school property;

  • having property stolen or deliberately damaged on school property;

  • feeling too unsafe to go to school;

  • suicide-related behaviors;

  • lifetime inhalant use;

  • initiating cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use before 13 years of age;

  • initiating sexual intercourse before 13 years of age;

  • not using birth control pills; and

  • eating more than two servings of foods typically high in fat content daily.

Students in grades 11 and 12 were more likely than students in grades 9 and 10 to report

  • driving after drinking alcohol;

  • lifetime and current alcohol use;

  • episodic heavy drinking;

  • lifetime marijuana use;

  • having had sexual intercourse during their lifetime;

  • having had four or more sex partners during their lifetime;

  • being currently sexually active;

  • ever being pregnant or getting someone else pregnant;

  • not participating in vigorous and moderate physical activity;

  • not participating in stretching and strengthening exercises;

  • not being enrolled in a PE class;

  • not attending PE class daily; and

  • not participating on nonschool-sponsored sports teams.

    These subgroup findings can assist in identifying the need

for education and services based on a higher prevalence of risk behaviors. However, the underlying causes (e.g., education levels, economic factors, or cultural influences) for subgroup differences (7) could not be addressed in this analysis.

Considerable variation occurs from state to state and from city to city for some priority health-risk behaviors. For example, across the state surveys, a fivefold variation or greater was identified for

  • rarely or never wearing seat belts;

  • driving after drinking alcohol;

  • feeling too unsafe to go to school;

  • injurious suicide attempts;

  • current and frequent cigarette use;

  • smokeless tobacco use;

  • lifetime and current cocaine use;

  • lifetime "crack," steroid, injecting-drug, and other drug use;

  • cigarette and smokeless tobacco use on school property;

  • initiating sexual intercourse before 13 years of age;

  • birth control pill use; and

  • attending PE class daily.

Across the local surveys, a similar level of variation was found for

  • rarely or never wearing seat belts;

  • smokeless tobacco use;

  • smokeless tobacco use on school property;

  • lifetime and current cocaine use;

  • lifetime "crack" and other illegal drug use;

  • cocaine use before 13 years of age;

  • initiating sexual intercourse before 13 years of age; and

  • attending PE class daily.

    These variations may occur, in part, because of differences

in state and local laws and policies, enforcement practices, access to illegal drugs, the availability of effective intervention programs, prevailing behavioral norms, and adult practices.

The YRBSS continues to be used at the national, state, and local levels to improve health-related polices and programs for youth. For example, YRBS data are used to monitor 21 national health objectives (6) and National Education Goal 7, which focuses on safe, disciplined, and drug-free schools (8). In Massachusetts, YRBS data are being used to identify high-risk youth and target programs appropriately. In Nevada, YRBS data are being used by state and local agencies and organizations to support the need for increased funding of health programs for youth. In Wisconsin, YRBS data are being used to support the implementation of a statewide pregnancy prevention initiative. In Philadelphia, YRBS data are being used as the framework for health education teacher-training programs, and YRBS data are being incorporated into math and English curricula. In San Diego, YRBS data are being used to encourage colleges and universities to become actively involved in reducing alcohol use among teenagers throughout their community. Continued support for the YRBSS is critical to the success of these and other public health and school health programs.

References

  1. National Center for Health Statistics. Report of final mortality statistics, 1995. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 1997. (Monthly vital statistics report; vol 45, no. 11, suppl 2).

  2. National Center for Health Statistics. Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates: estimates for the United States, 1980-92. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 1995. (Monthly vital statistics report; vol 43, no. 11{S}).

  3. CDC. National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention: Annual report, 1992. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, CDC, 1993.

  4. Kann L, Kolbe LJ, Collins JL, eds. Measuring the health behavior of adolescents: the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Public Health Rep 1993;108(suppl 1).

  5. Shah BV, Barnwell BG, Bieler GS. SUDAAN: software for the statistical analysis of correlated data; user's manual, release 7.0. Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute, 1996.

  6. Public Health Service. Healthy people 2000: national health promotion and disease prevention objectives--midcourse review and 1995 revisions. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1995.

  7. Lowry R, Kann L, Collins JL, Kolbe LJ. The effect of socioeconomic status on chronic disease risk behaviors among US adolescents. JAMA 1996;276:792-7.

  8. National Education Goals Panel. The national education goals report: building a nation of learners, 1995. Washington, DC: National Education Goals Panel, 1995.

* The school-based components of the YRBSS were implemented in 1990 and 1991 and biennially during odd-numbered years thereafter.

** In this report, black students refers to black, non-Hispanic students.

*** SUrvey DAta ANalysis, a computer software for the statistical analysis of correlated data; for additional information, contact Research Triangle Institute, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (Telephone: 919-541-6000).

**** In this report, white students refers to white, non-Hispanic students.

***** In this report, state refers to both states and U.S. territories.

****** Pellet-sized pieces of highly purified cocaine.

******** A process whereby cocaine is dissolved in ether or sodium hydroxide and the precipitate filtered off.

******** Students were classified as injecting-drug users only if they a) reported injecting-drug use not prescribed by a physician and b) answered "one or more" to any of the following questions:

"During your life, how many times have you used any form of cocaine, including powder, crack, or freebase?" "During your life, how many times have you used any other type of illegal drug, such as LSD, PCP, ecstasy, mushrooms, speed, ice, or heroin?" Or, "During your life, how many times have you taken steroid pills or shots without a doctor's prescription?"

********* Fruit, fruit juice, green salad, or cooked vegetables.

********** Hamburgers, hot dogs, or sausage; french fries or potato chips; and cookies, doughnuts, pie, or cake.



Table_1
Note: To print large tables and graphs users may have to change their printer settings to landscape and use a small font size.

TABLE 1. Size, response rates, and demographic characteristics of samples -- United States and selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
=======================================================================================================================================================================
                                            Response                   Sex (%)                Grade (%)                                  Race/Ethnicity
                                             rate (%)                                                                                          (%)
                        Sample    -----------------------------    --------------    -------------------------------      ---------------------------------------------
Site                     size      School    Student    Overall    Female   Male        9        10     11      12         White *      Black *  Hispanic   Other
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NATIONAL SURVEY         16,262       79         87        69        45.2    54.8      23.6      23.9   25.2    27.2         62.4         12.5       9.8      15.3

STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
 Alabama                3,787        90         86        78        50.1    49.9      30.4      25.3   22.7    19.8         66.1         30.4       0.8       2.7
 American Samoa +       1,038       100         89        89        55.9    44.1      30.3      25.1   22.9    21.6          7.8          4.5       1.6      86.1
 Arkansas               1,991        76         87        66        48.9    51.1      28.5      27.0   23.5    20.8         67.4         25.5       1.6       5.6
 Connecticut            1,690        75         82        62        49.8    50.2      29.6      25.9   23.3    21.0         77.7          6.4       8.0       7.9
 Guam+                    334        NA &       67        67        52.6    47.4      40.3      26.2   18.2    15.4          6.1          2.0       2.0      89.9
 Hawaii                 1,409       100         63        63        48.1    51.9      31.3      25.4   23.6    19.7         13.5          2.1       3.4      81.1
 Iowa                   1,521        78         91        71        48.9    51.1      26.2      25.8   24.4    22.8         92.2          2.2       1.3       4.3
 Kentucky               1,465        72         86        62        49.9    50.1      29.8      26.1   23.3    20.8         87.7          8.1       0.7       3.4
 Louisiana              3,897        97         81        79        49.7    50.3      32.0      25.8   22.1    19.4         52.8         39.0       1.8       6.4
 Maine                  1,837        86         97        83        48.6    51.4      27.9      25.6   24.1    22.3         91.6          1.6       0.9       5.9
 Massachusetts          3,982        88         79        70        49.2    50.8      28.7      26.1   23.8    21.2         72.9          6.8       8.8      11.5
 Michigan               3,933        85         74        63        49.8    50.2      29.9      26.2   23.1    20.7         74.3         15.0       2.5       8.2
 Mississippi            1,532        78         80        62        50.5    49.5      32.4      26.1   21.6    19.2         36.9         58.4       0.6       4.0
 Missouri               1,483        81         80        65        49.2    50.8      28.4      26.3   23.7    21.2         75.9         17.0       1.5       5.6
 Montana                2,457        72         83        60        48.5    51.5      27.9      26.1   23.9    22.1         84.8          0.6       2.1      12.5
 Nevada                 1,464        96         62        60        48.8    51.2      28.9      27.1   23.7    20.2         65.1          6.5      13.0      15.4
 New York               3,741        79         81        64        49.7    50.3      31.4      26.4   23.0    19.0         60.2         13.9      11.8      14.2
 Ohio                   2,188        87         85        74        49.2    50.8      29.6      25.9   23.2    21.3         73.3         18.6       2.7       5.4
 Rhode Island           1,528        72         83        60        50.2    49.8      30.0      26.1   23.1    20.5         73.4          4.3       9.1      13.2
 South Carolina         5,539        72         88        63        49.4    50.6      33.5      26.0   20.9    19.4         49.1         44.3       1.8       4.8
 South Dakota           1,604        84         80        67        49.2    50.8      28.1      25.9   24.1    21.8         93.1          0.6       0.8       5.5
 Utah                   1,388        96         74        71        49.0    51.0      26.4      26.3   23.0    23.5         87.9          1.4       4.5       6.2
 Vermont                8,636        87         82        71        48.4    51.6      28.3      25.7   23.8    22.1           NA           NA        NA        NA
 Virgin Islands +         824       100         76        76        50.3    49.7      39.7      19.4   23.5    17.5          0.7         86.1       6.5       6.7
 West Virginia          1,818        98         83        81        51.2    48.8      27.5      26.0   24.1    22.4         92.1          2.8       1.0       4.1
 Wisconsin              1,325        72         85        61        49.0    51.0      28.0      26.5   24.0    21.5         84.4          4.3       3.8       7.5
 Wyoming                2,081        83         81        67        49.0    51.0      26.9      26.2   23.9    22.7         85.1          1.3       6.6       7.0

Unweighted data
 California@            2,596        72         72        52        54.0    46.0      20.8      24.7   26.0    28.3         38.6          6.8      25.0      29.6
 Colorado               1,170        54         85        46        51.0    49.0      40.8      19.5   21.4    18.2         79.6          1.7       9.4       9.3
 Delaware               2,433        77         76        59        51.9    48.1      34.8      18.0   28.5    18.4         65.5         22.9       3.7       7.9
 Florida                2,555        80         73        58        50.6    49.4      40.1      31.4   19.4     9.0         67.0         13.6      11.5       7.9
 New Hampshire          1,600        52         87        45        52.8    47.2      33.6      24.5   24.0    17.8         92.6          1.1       1.3       5.0
 New Jersey             1,986        58         87        50        52.2    47.8      32.3      26.2   22.7    18.7         69.0         12.4       8.7       9.9
 North Carolina         2,340        72         81        58        54.1    45.9      40.0      21.5   20.9    17.5         55.0         35.3       2.5       7.2
 North Dakota           1,097        49         90        44        49.7    50.3      26.8      31.1   25.9    16.2         94.2          0.9       0.9       4.0
 Tennessee              1,418        67         82        55        52.9    47.1      29.9      27.1   26.1    16.8         72.0         21.3       1.5       5.2


LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
 Boston                 1,393        96         68        65        50.5    49.5      30.6      25.3   24.3    19.3         16.4         36.7      20.5      26.4
 Chicago                1,423        95         72        68        54.3    45.7      34.1      28.5   21.0    16.0          8.1         47.8      34.7       9.4
 Dallas                 1,583       100         70        70        51.0    49.0      38.7      24.3   19.3    17.7         11.4         51.4      33.1       4.1
 Detroit                2,113        98         70        69        53.5    46.5      36.9      25.4   20.4    17.0          3.4         85.0       3.3       8.3
 District of            1,356       100         70        70        49.1    50.9      18.9      33.5   22.3    23.9          1.8         83.2       7.6       7.4
   Columbia
 Ft. Lauderdale         1,628       100         80        80        49.5    50.5      32.1      26.6   22.3    19.0         39.8         31.3      18.6      10.3
 Houston                1,262        92         80        73        53.2    46.8      37.9      22.0   17.9    22.1          9.7         39.1      43.4       7.9
 Jersey City            1,095       100         85        85        52.5    47.5      36.1      24.3   20.3    18.8          4.0         42.0      32.0      22.0
 Los Angeles            1,761       100         77        77        53.3    46.7      29.7      29.4   19.0    21.7         10.0         10.7      61.9      17.3
 Miami                  2,029        81         82        66        48.9    51.1      32.6      27.0   20.5    17.6         10.5         25.7      55.6       8.3
 New Orleans            1,666        96         68        65        53.0    47.0      31.4      25.4   22.5    20.5          7.1         86.5       1.5       4.9
 New York City          2,014       100         78        78        50.5    49.5      37.5      27.8   21.9    12.6         27.7         24.2      25.9      22.1
 Philadelphia           1,729       100         78        78        50.5    49.5      38.7      25.9   20.0    15.3         23.9         53.8       8.1      14.1
 San Diego              2,445       100         75        75        49.6    50.4      29.1      27.5   24.3    18.9         31.7         16.4      25.8      26.0
 San Francisco          1,914       100         61        61        48.7    51.3      28.1      26.8   27.5    17.3          7.8         11.9      17.4      62.9

Unweighted data
 Baltimore                999        89         60        53        57.6    42.4      28.5      19.2   28.1    24.1          8.8         82.4       1.6       7.1
 Newark                 2,033       100         68        68        57.7    42.3      16.2      15.0   35.4    33.0          6.7         61.8      23.4       8.1
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Non-Hispanic.
+ U.S. territories are included as states.
& Not available.
@ Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
=======================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_2
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TABLE 2. Percentage of high school students who rarely, or never wore seat belts, * motorcycle helmets, + or bicycle helmets, & who rode with a driver
who had been drinking alcohol, @ and who drove after drinking alcohol, @ by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1997
===========================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                              Rarely or                               Rarely or                            Rarely or                                  Rode with a                               Drove after
                              never wore                              never wore                             never                                    driver who                                 drinking
                              seat belts                              motorcycle                             wore                                      had been                                   alcohol
                                                                       helmets                              bicycle                                    drinking
                                                                                                            helmets                                     alcohol
                ------------------------------------     ----------------------------------    --------------------------------------    ---------------------------------------    ---------------------------------------
Category           Female         Male       Total        Female         Male       Total       Female        Male           Total         Female          Male         Total        Female        Male          Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White **          10.8          22.0        17.1         29.5          36.6        34.2        87.3         86.9           87.1           34.5           38.9         36.9          14.0         22.8          18.9
                  (+/-3.5) ++   (+/-5.0)    (+/-4.2)     (+/-13.4)     (+/-7.9)    (+/-8.6)    (+/-5.6)     (+/-4.7)       (+/-4.8)       (+/-3.2)       (+/-3.4)     (+/-2.8)      (+/-3.7)     (+/-4.1)      (+/-3.7)

  Black **          28.3          34.4        31.3         51.4          41.8        44.7        95.4         96.1           95.8           29.8           37.3         33.5           4.8         14.3            9.
                  (+/-5.0)      (+/-7.0)    (+/-5.3)     (+/-12.6)    (+/-10.6)    (+/-7.9)    (+/-2.5)     (+/-2.0)       (+/-1.6)       (+/-4.4)       (+/-6.4)     (+/-4.3)      (+/-1.2)     (+/-3.5)      (+/-2.0)

  Hispanic          17.0          23.1        20.3         52.7          55.4        54.7        91.3         92.0           91.7           40.6           44.6         42.8          11.0         24.2          18.1
                  (+/-5.8)      (+/-7.7)    (+/-6.2)     (+/-16.6)    (+/-12.6)    (+/-9.9)    (+/-2.9)     (+/-4.5)       (+/-3.2)       (+/-4.5)       (+/-6.5)     (+/-4.0)      (+/-2.4)     (+/-5.5)      (+/-3.2)
Grade
   9                16.0          25.9        21.2         40.5          41.9        41.         86.5         87.3           86.9           34.9           31.8         33.3           7.5         11.7           9.7
                  (+/-3.9)      (+/-4.4)    (+/-3.7)     (+/-14.9)     (+/-7.5)    (+/-8.1)    (+/-8.3)     (+/-4.7)       (+/-6.1)       (+/-4.9)       (+/-3.7)     (+/-2.9)      (+/-4.0)     (+/-2.4)      (+/-2.0)

  10                13.5          19.1        16.6         26.5          36.3        33.3        87.2         86.2           86.6           28.2           35.6         32.3           7.5         14.8          11.5
                  (+/-3.6)      (+/-5.0)    (+/-4.1)     (+/-9.8)      (+/-7.2)    (+/-5.8)    (+/-4.1)     (+/-4.9)       (+/-3.9)       (+/-3.7)       (+/-3.4)     (+/-2.4)      (+/-2.5)     (+/-2.2)      (+/-1.5)

  11                15.1          23.1        19.5         31.2          36.9        35.0        90.7         90.4           90.5           35.1           42.9         39.4          13.6         25.1          19.9
                  (+/-4.4)      (+/-5.1)    (+/-4.3)     (+/-19.6)    (+/-12.3)   (+/-12.1)    (+/-2.9)     (+/-4.4)       (+/-3.7)       (+/-5.4)       (+/-5.2)     (+/-4.4)      (+/-4.6)     (+/-4.9)      (+/-4.2)

  12                13.5          24.5        19.7         29.7          37.7        34.9        89.4         89.8           89.6           39.1           41.7         40.5          18.8         30.4          25.3
                  (+/-2.9)      (+/-4.9)    (+/-3.7)     (+/-11.8)     (+/-8.7)    (+/-8.7)    (+/-5.8)     (+/-4.1)       (+/-4.6)       (+/-5.1)       (+/-6.2)     (+/-5.1)      (+/-5.6)     (+/-6.4)      (+/-5.9)

Total               14.5          23.2        19.3         31.7          38.3        36.2        88.3         88.4           88.4           34.5           38.3         36.6          12.0         21.0          16.9
                  (+/-2.9)      (+/-4.2)    (+/-3.4)     (+/-10.3)     (+/-6.7)    (+/-6.7)    (+/-4.8)     (+/-4.1)       (+/-4.3)       (+/-2.2)       (+/-2.5)     (+/-2.1)      (+/-2.5)     (+/-3.2)      (+/-2.8)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  When riding in a car or truck driven by someone else.
+  Among the 21.0% of students who rode motorcycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
&  Among the 75.4% of students who rode bicycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
@  One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** Non-Hispanic.
++ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===========================================================================================================================================================================================================================





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Table_3
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TABLE 3. Percentage of high school students who rarely or never wore seat belts, * motorcycle helmets, + or bicycle helmets, & who rode with a driver who
had been drinking alcohol, @ and who drove after drinking alcohol, @ by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
====================================================================================================================================================================================
                                     Rarely or                      Rarely or                      Rarely or                      Rode with a                    Drove after
                                     never wore                    never wore                      never wore                     driver who                      drinking
                                     seat belts                    motorcycle                       bicycle                        had been                        alcohol
                                                                     helmets                        helmets                        drinking
                                                                                                                                    alcohol
                            ---------------------------   ----------------------------    -----------------------------  ----------------------------   ----------------------------
Site                         Female      Male   Total      Female      Male    Total       Female       Male   Total      Female      Male    Total      Female      Male    Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                     18.4       30.8    24.9       29.3       38.1     35.9        93.0        92.1    92.4       38.7       41.5     40.3       13.4       21.1    17.3
  American Samoa **           36.1       34.8    35.5         NA ++      NA     38.5        83.1        87.3    85.2       37.8       43.8     40.5        4.5       13.9     8.6
  Arkansas                    21.0       36.7    29.0       27.8       48.0     42.0        94.2        95.6    95.0       39.3       43.4     41.4        9.6       24.7    17.3
  Connecticut                 20.0       27.0    23.6       54.7       46.8     49.3        86.8        87.5    87.2       38.4       38.2     38.3       10.6       18.6    14.6
  Guam **                     13.3       12.9    13.1         NA         NA      NA          NA         91.6    91.9       41.7       48.6     45.0        2.6       16.1     8.9
  Hawaii                      12.1       16.8    14.6       69.6       66.9     68.1        93.8        94.0    93.9       37.0       35.1     36.1        8.0       12.6    10.3
  Iowa                         7.7       17.2    12.6       75.2       71.2     72.9        93.1        92.9    93.0       38.7       42.0     40.4       15.6       24.7    20.2
  Kentucky                    15.5       31.2    23.5       33.9       49.2     45.3        95.2        95.5    95.4       30.2       41.5     35.9       10.1       21.1    15.8
  Louisiana                   16.8       30.0    23.5       34.8       51.6     46.3        97.0        96.0    96.4       44.5       46.6     45.7       13.4       23.1    18.2
  Maine                       14.7       29.7    22.3       30.3       36.7     34.5        84.3        85.3    84.7       32.1       35.5     34.0       10.3       21.2    15.8
  Massachusetts               23.1       35.1    29.2       18.9       26.2     23.9        85.7        86.4    86.1       35.0       35.8     35.4       10.9       17.5    14.2
  Michigan                    13.8       22.7    18.5       20.1       25.4     23.9        95.3        94.6    95.0       36.7       37.4     37.1       12.4       20.5    16.5
  Mississippi                 22.4       40.2    31.2         NA       52.0     48.3        97.3        96.7    97.0       38.5       44.2     41.3        8.8       21.8    15.1
  Missouri                    23.0       34.9    29.1         NA       46.0     39.9        92.1        92.9    92.5       40.3       39.2     39.8       16.7       23.4    20.2
  Montana                     25.9       37.9    32.0       52.4       49.3     50.2        87.0        88.1    87.5       46.2       47.1     46.6       22.2       30.9    26.7
  Nevada                      14.5       20.7    17.6       26.9       31.5     30.0        91.4        91.5    91.4       34.8       32.2     33.4       12.0       17.8    15.0
  New York                    20.3       26.2    23.3       18.3       26.3     23.6        87.4        88.2    87.9       26.0       31.5     28.8        4.5       11.6     8.1
  Ohio                        18.4       30.0    24.3       40.8       41.4     41.4        93.9        93.1    93.5       33.6       35.7     34.7       10.7       16.3    13.6
  Rhode Island                28.7       36.9    32.7       25.3       47.4     40.0        90.9        90.9    90.7       34.0       37.6     35.9       11.6       17.0    14.4
  South Carolina              18.3       32.0    25.3       52.6       59.7     57.1        96.3        94.5    95.3       34.6       41.0     37.9       11.8       21.4    16.6
  South Dakota                25.8       46.8    36.5       55.2       55.0     55.1        98.2        95.2    96.7       49.2       50.2     49.7       25.1       36.6    30.9
  Utah                        11.9       20.3    16.6       55.1       54.8     54.8        87.7        85.5    86.4       19.3       19.3     19.4        7.9        9.4     8.7
  Vermont                      8.0       16.5    12.5         NA         NA      NA         62.3        65.5    63.9       31.4       33.8     32.7       10.6       18.1    14.5
  Virgin Islands **            7.4       10.1     8.7         NA         NA      NA         96.5        98.0    97.4       25.8       26.9     26.3        2.4        6.8     4.6
  West Virginia               14.6       29.0    21.6       41.9       52.9     49.1        87.8        89.8    88.9       27.9       42.5     35.0        8.5       20.7    14.4
  Wisconsin                   18.7       34.0    26.6       26.5       37.3     33.6        92.3        92.8    92.6       35.6       36.5     36.0       12.7       18.7    15.8
  Wyoming                     23.5       41.9    32.9       47.7       45.1     46.3        91.0        89.9    90.3       39.7       42.2     40.9       17.9       25.3    21.6

Unweighted data
  California &&                4.1        8.6     6.1       17.8       30.3     26.4        78.6        78.1    78.3       29.5       30.3     29.8        6.0       14.3     9.8
  Colorado                    15.0       27.3    21.0       52.2       53.5     52.7        84.8        82.8    83.6       39.2       38.9     39.2       12.8       20.9    16.8
  Delaware                    15.9       28.6    22.2       28.7       43.5     37.8        90.0        89.6    89.7       33.4       34.4     34.0       14.2       17.4    15.7
  Florida                     14.0       20.8    17.4       26.9       36.7     33.2        95.7        93.3    94.4       33.2       35.6     34.4       10.8       18.6    14.6
  New Hampshire               19.2       27.5    23.1       24.4       33.9     29.7        82.5        77.8    80.2       29.7       31.1     30.4        9.9       16.5    13.0
  New Jersey                  18.7       24.9    21.7       24.4       28.6     26.8        88.4        89.9    89.1       27.6       30.7     29.0        6.8       12.8     9.8
  North Carolina               6.3       15.4    10.6       24.2       34.9     31.3        92.7        93.6    93.1       26.1       32.0     28.9        8.3       13.6    10.8
  North Dakota                 NA          NA     NA        64.8       53.0     56.8        98.3        97.1    97.7       54.5       50.5     52.5       32.2       34.2    33.2
  Tennessee                   22.3       28.8    25.3       35.0       34.0     34.3        93.4        92.8    93.0       35.0       35.9     35.3       12.0       18.8    15.2

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                      37.1       42.7    39.9         NA       45.8     42.0        90.8        91.6    91.2       26.0       32.0     29.0        4.4        9.9     7.1
  Chicago                     39.3       43.3    41.2         NA         NA     73.1        94.4        93.8    94.1       30.7       38.2     34.1        4.1       11.7     7.5
  Dallas                       9.0       15.8    12.4         NA       48.6     46.5        92.7        94.9    93.9       42.0       44.3     43.1        7.6       13.6    10.6
  Detroit                     26.6       36.2    31.1       27.4       40.3     35.2        97.2        96.1    96.6       36.8       45.1     40.6        5.6       11.9     8.5
  District of Columbia        26.6       36.5    31.9         NA       65.8     58.4        93.7        92.9    93.2       29.4       40.1     34.6        4.9       14.6     9.8
  Ft. Lauderdale              13.1       21.1    17.1         NA       36.9     34.8        94.7        96.0    95.4       30.2       31.3     30.7        6.6       15.6    11.1
  Houston                     10.6       18.3    14.2         NA         NA     41.4        88.3        88.9    88.7       35.1       44.9     39.7        6.4       22.0    13.7
  Jersey City                 40.8       45.4    43.1         NA         NA     56.4        95.0        93.4    94.2       28.6       32.6     30.5        4.5       10.8     7.5
  Los Angeles                  7.1       11.5     9.2         NA       50.6     46.7        90.8        89.6    90.2       35.3       38.0     36.7        6.2       12.7     9.3
  Miami                       16.4       26.5    21.5         NA       47.7     47.9        93.6        94.8    94.3       30.8       33.4     32.1        6.2       12.8     9.6
  New Orleans                 29.5       37.0    33.1         NA       30.3     32.0        95.9        92.4    94.1       35.2       40.5     37.8        6.9       15.2    10.8
  New York City               33.8       33.5    33.7         NA       40.4     39.9        90.0        91.5    90.7       21.6       23.8     22.7        2.9        6.4     4.7
  Philadelphia                43.7       46.6    45.1       37.8       46.4     43.0        94.5        95.9    95.3       26.3       29.8     28.1        3.4       12.3     7.8
  San Diego                    5.8        8.6     7.3       23.2       34.2     30.2        80.0        78.7    79.2       32.5       35.0     33.8        9.0       14.9    11.9
  San Francisco                6.2       10.5     8.5         NA         NA     31.2        76.6        74.9    75.6       20.1       21.2     20.7        3.8        5.4     4.6

Unweighted data
  Baltimore                   25.8       32.9    29.0         NA         NA     65.4        92.7        95.7    94.4       20.5       27.9     23.8        5.1        6.9     6.1
  Newark                      34.4       43.6    38.2         NA       49.3     39.8        94.9        93.4    94.1       26.2       35.6     30.2        3.8       12.0     7.3
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  When riding in a car or truck driven by someone else.
+  Among students who rode motorcycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
&  Among students who rode bicycles during the 12 months preceding the survey.
@  One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
++ Not available.
&& Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
====================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_4
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TABLE 4. Percentage of high school students who carried a weapon * or a gun + and the 30-day incidence of weapon carrying
per 100 students, & by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1997
==================================================================================================================================
                        Carried a weapon                      Carried a gun                        30-day incidence
                                                                                                  of weapon carrying
                                                                                                  (per 100 students)
              ----------------------------------     --------------------------------    -----------------------------------
Category       Female         Male       Total        Female      Male         Total       Female        Male        Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity

 White @         4.4          27.0        17.0          0.8        7.2          4.4         14.9        112.9        69.5
              (+/-1.2) **   (+/-4.2)    (+/-2.5)     (+/-0.4)   (+/-1.9)     (+/-1.0)     (+/-5.5)    (+/-32.0)    (+/-19.2)

 Black @        14.7          29.1        21.7          2.5       16.3          9.2         51.0        119.4        84.2
              (+/-4.2)      (+/-4.8)    (+/-3.9)     (+/-1.0)   (+/-3.6)     (+/-1.9)    (+/-21.9)    (+/-41.1)    (+/-30.0)

 Hispanic        9.6          35.0        23.3          2.1       16.9         10.1         32.5        144.5        92.9
              (+/-2.2)      (+/-4.5)    (+/-2.8)     (+/-1.1)   (+/-3.9)     (+/-2.3)    (+/-10.9)    (+/-52.6)    (+/-28.5)

Grade

  9             10.9          33.2        22.6          2.6        12.5         7.8         36.5        126.5        83.6
              (+/-2.5)      (+/-3.9)    (+/-2.6)     (+/-1.4)    (+/-2.6)    (+/-1.4)    (+/-13.0)    (+/-26.4)    (+/-17.5)

 10              6.3          26.6        17.4          1.1         9.9         5.9         20.4        106.6        67.5
              (+/-2.2)      (+/-4.4)    (+/-2.6)     (+/-0.6)    (+/-2.5)    (+/-1.3)     (+/-5.8)    (+/-17.7)    (+/-11.0)

 11              5.7          28.8        18.2          1.2         9.1         5.5         20.8        124.8        77.3
              (+/-1.9)      (+/-5.2)    (+/-3.3)     (+/-0.6)    (+/-2.7)    (+/-1.4)     (+/-7.6)    (+/-29.3)    (+/-17.3)

 12              5.3          23.3        15.4          0.9         7.6         4.6         22.3        105.9        69.1
              (+/-1.6)      (+/-5.3)    (+/-3.2)     (+/-1.0)    (+/-3.1)    (+/-1.8)     (+/-7.9)    (+/-30.9)    (+/-18.5)

Total            7.0          27.7        18.3          1.5         9.6         5.9         25.0        115.5        74.2
              (+/-1.1)      (+/-3.1)    (+/-1.8)     (+/-0.6)    (+/-1.6)    (+/-0.8)     (+/-4.6)    (+/-20.2)    (+/-11.7)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  Carried a weapon (e.g., a gun, knife, or club) on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
+  On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
&  Students who replied that they carried a weapon 0 or 1 days during the 30-day period were assigned a weapon-carrying frequency
   of 0 or 1, respectively; 2-3 days, 2.5; 4-5 days, 4.5; and >= 6 days, 6.0.
@  Non-Hispanic.
** Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===================================================================================================================================

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Table_5
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TABLE 5. Percentage of high school students who carried a weapon * or a gun + and the 30-day incidence of weapon carrying per 100
students, & by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
==================================================================================================================================
                                Carried a weapon                  Carrried a gun                   30-day incidence of weapon
                                                                                                   carrying (per 100 students)
                            --------------------------      ------------------------------     -----------------------------------
Site                        Female        Male   Total       Female        Male   Total         Female         Male   Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
 Alabama                      9.3         43.2    26.1         2.2         17.9    10.1          36.3         199.4   117.1
 American Samoa @            14.2         35.1    23.0         4.6         20.7    11.4          52.7         139.8    89.3
 Arkansas                    12.6         42.3    27.5         3.1         18.0    10.6          46.7         197.2   122.4
 Connecticut                  7.2         26.8    17.0         1.5          6.8     4.2          23.6         119.2    71.6
 Guam @                       6.3         34.7    19.6         1.8         11.5     6.4          18.3         109.1    60.7
 Hawaii                       6.1         21.5    14.1         1.3          6.8     4.1          16.7          77.2    47.8
 Iowa                         4.9         31.9    18.6         0.6         11.6     6.2          15.7         139.6    78.7
 Kentucky                     6.6         46.0    26.4         1.9         16.3     9.3          25.1         220.4   123.3
 Louisiana                    9.3         34.8    22.0         2.2         15.3     8.7          34.2         153.0    93.4
 Maine                        6.3         36.9    22.0         1.5         11.7     6.8          21.8         156.3    90.7
 Massachusetts                8.2         29.6    19.0         1.5          7.9     4.9          28.0         117.8    73.4
 Michigan                     6.5         31.3    18.9         1.5         12.3     7.0          23.2         125.7    74.7
 Mississippi                 11.1         35.8    23.3         1.1         19.8    10.3          36.8         165.7   100.4
 Missouri                     7.1         34.6    20.9         1.5         13.4     7.5          30.5         151.4    91.3
 Montana                      9.6         37.5    23.8         2.8         16.5     9.8          38.0         169.3   104.6
 Nevada                       9.8         30.6    20.4         3.2          9.4     6.3          34.5         127.9    82.2
 New York                     7.8         29.1    18.4         1.1          9.1     5.1          28.0         119.0    73.3
 Ohio                         6.2         28.9    17.7         2.0         11.5     6.8          23.8         128.7    76.9
 Rhode Island                 7.5         28.2    17.7         2.0          7.8     5.0          25.8         110.2    67.6
 South Carolina              11.7         37.4    24.6         2.6         17.4    10.1          42.4         164.5   103.3
 South Dakota                 3.6         35.5    19.5         1.2         19.2    10.2          12.6         160.4    86.5
 Utah                         6.4         34.3    20.8         2.2         14.9     8.9          22.6         136.7    81.9
 Vermont                       NA **        NA      NA          NA            NA     NA            NA            NA      NA
 Virgin Islands @             8.4         34.0    20.9         1.0          7.8     4.4          27.9         127.8    77.0
 West Virginia                7.5         44.8    25.5         1.5         17.9     9.4          26.2         201.8   110.9
 Wisconsin                    4.8         25.2    15.1         1.2          9.9     5.6          16.0          98.2    57.5
 Wyoming                      8.0         43.1    25.6         1.8         18.8    10.4          32.3         199.2   116.0

Unweighted data
 California ++               7.7          27.4    16.7         1.3          8.7     4.7          25.6         104.9    61.8
 Colorado                    8.0          32.8    20.1         2.0          9.3     5.6          28.2         144.4    85.3
 Delaware                    8.5          30.2    19.0         2.2         12.2     7.2          33.1         129.2    79.6
 Florida                     6.6          31.0    18.7         1.7          9.9     5.8          24.6         131.9    77.6
 New Hampshire               5.9          31.7    17.9         0.7          8.8     4.5          20.2         134.7    73.5
 New Jersey                  6.2          26.5    16.0         1.1          8.1     4.4          21.3         106.3    62.0
 North Carolina              8.0          37.4    21.4         NA            NA     NA           28.3         161.0    88.8
 North Dakota                 NA            NA     NA          NA            NA     NA            NA             NA      NA
 Tennessee                   8.6          41.2    23.9         1.5         15.0     7.8          32.6         193.1   107.6

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
 Boston                      12.7         34.0    23.3         3.0         11.7     7.4          53.2         143.6    97.9
 Chicago                     20.6         27.2    23.5         2.5         11.5     6.5          70.1         100.0    83.4
 Dallas                      11.6         30.8    21.1         1.8         17.4     9.6          41.7         117.6    79.4
 Detroit                     15.7         29.6    22.3         3.1         17.5     9.9          54.7         116.5    83.9
 District of Columbia        23.5         39.7    31.8         1.9         19.0    10.6          93.4         171.4   133.5
 Ft. Lauderdale               5.0         24.0    14.5         1.1          8.9     5.0          13.8          98.3    56.2
 Houston                      7.6         31.4    18.7         1.8         16.3     8.5          21.9         126.1    70.7
 Jersey City                 16.9         28.8    22.5         2.6          8.9     5.6          61.0         114.8    86.4
 Los Angeles                  7.8         27.6    17.0         1.4         11.1     6.0          23.3         101.6    59.5
 Miami                        9.0         26.3    17.7         2.7         11.5     7.2          32.2          95.6    64.3
 New Orleans                 15.9         26.1    20.7         3.9         17.2    10.1          56.9         101.2    77.6
 New York City               11.0         25.6    18.2         1.5          6.9     4.2          37.7         100.9    68.6
 Philadelphia                14.7         29.5    22.0         1.9         13.1     7.4          50.8         112.4    81.3
 San Diego                    7.8         28.4    18.2         2.0          8.5     5.3          26.4         104.8    66.0
 San Francisco                7.1         21.1    14.2         1.2          5.2     3.3          26.9          78.6    53.1

Unweighted data
 Baltimore                   17.2         30.1    22.8         2.6         12.7     7.0          69.3         118.7    91.2
 Newark                      14.1         27.4    19.7         1.6         13.9     6.8          50.0         110.2    75.5
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  Carried a weapon (e. g., a gun, knife, or club) on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
+  On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
&  Students who replied that they had carried a weapon 0 or 1 days during the 30-day period were assigned a weapon-carrying
   frequency of 0 or 1, respectively; 2-3 days, 2.5; 4-5 days, 4.5; and >= 6 days, 6.0.
@  U.S. territories are included as states.
** Not available.
++ Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
==================================================================================================================================






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Table_6
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TABLE 6. Percentage of high school students who were in a physical fight * or injured in a physical fight + and the 12-month
incidence of physical fighting per 100 students, & by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 1997
==========================================================================================================================================
                            In a physical fight            Injured in a physical fight         12-month incidence of physical
                                                                                                 fighting (per 100 students)
                  -----------------------------------    --------------------------------    -----------------------------------
Category           Female          Male        Total      Female       Male        Total      Female         Male        Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity

 White @            21.4           43.4        33.7         1.2         3.4         2.5         55.8        131.9         98.3
                  (+/-2.8) **    (+/-2.3)    (+/-2.5)    (+/-0.5)    (+/-0.8)    (+/-0.5)    (+/-16.1)    (+/-25.1)    (+/-19.3)

 Black @            37.7           48.7        43.0         4.4         7.1         5.7         93.3        174.8        132.9
                  (+/-4.9)       (+/-3.7)    (+/-3.8)    (+/-2.0)    (+/-2.8)    (+/-1.7)    (+/-27.6)    (+/-47.9)    (+/-35.5)

 Hispanic           30.3           49.5        40.7         2.0         6.2         4.3         77.8        185.8        136.3
                  (+/-4.4)       (+/-5.4)    (+/-3.3)    (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.6)    (+/-1.0)    (+/-17.4)    (+/-62.2)    (+/-34.8)

Grade

  9                 32.4           56.0        44.8         2.5         6.5         4.6        103.1        200.2        154.3
                  (+/-5.8)       (+/-4.7)    (+/-3.9)    (+/-1.6)    (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.2)    (+/-37.6)    (+/-48.0)    (+/-38.7)

 10                 30.4           48.2        40.2         3.2         4.6         4.0         81.6        172.4        131.3
                  (+/-4.4)       (+/-4.2)    (+/-3.7)    (+/-1.4)    (+/-1.7)    (+/-1.0)    (+/-19.8)    (+/-24.2)    (+/-17.8)

 11                 23.0           43.5        34.2         1.5         3.8         2.8         55.0        126.1         93.8
                  (+/-4.5)       (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.4)    (+/-0.9)    (+/-1.3)    (+/-0.9)    (+/-13.2)    (+/-23.4)    (+/-15.9)

 12                 18.9           36.6        28.8         1.6         3.8         2.8         40.6        122.7         86.8
                  (+/-3.6)       (+/-3.3)    (+/-2.7)    (+/-1.0)    (+/-1.0)    (+/-0.7)     (+/-6.3)    (+/-29.5)    (+/-17.4)

Total               26.0           45.5        36.6         2.2         4.6         3.5         69.4        153.1        115.1
                  (+/-2.5)       (+/-2.1)    (+/-2.0)    (+/-0.5)    (+/-0.9)    (+/-0.6)    (+/-13.2)    (+/-18.2)    (+/-14.8)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  One or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey.
+  Students who were injured seriously enough to be treated by a doctor or nurse.
&  Students who reported fighting 0 or 1 times during the 12-month period were assigned a fighting frequency of 0 or 1, respectively;
   2-3 times, 2.5; 4-5 times, 4.5; 6-7 times, 6.5; 8-9 times, 8.5; 10-11 times, 10.5; and >= 12 times, 12.0.
@  Non-Hispanic.
** Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
==========================================================================================================================================

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Table_7
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TABLE 7. Percentage of high school students who were in a physical fight * or injured in a physical fight + and the 12-month incidence of
physical fighting per 100 students, & by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
=========================================================================================================================================
                                   In a physical fight                     Injured in a                     12-month incidence
                                                                          physical fight                       of physical
                                                                                                             fighting (per 100
                                                                                                                students)
                           ------------------------------       ---------------------------------    ------------------------------------
Site                         Female          Male   Total         Female        Male   Total          Female          Male   Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
 Alabama                      23.4           42.7    33.0          1.5           4.4    2.9            60.6          139.7    99.5
 American Samoa @             41.0           63.0    50.4          5.2          13.5    8.9           140.0          309.8   213.0
 Arkansas                     27.0           45.2    36.2          1.7           5.3    3.5            76.0          155.0   116.3
 Connecticut                  23.9           43.5    33.8          2.2           5.6    3.9            72.2          141.7   107.5
 Guam @                       27.6           59.7    42.8          3.8           6.2    4.9            80.9          208.8   141.4
 Hawaii                       24.7           38.4    31.7          2.2           4.0    3.1            70.8          115.4    93.6
 Iowa                         19.8           41.6    31.0          1.7           3.4    2.5            59.5          129.9    95.5
 Kentucky                     22.8           41.8    32.5          1.0           4.1    2.6            67.0          130.5   100.9
 Louisiana                    31.3           44.7    38.0          2.5           6.1    4.3            83.9          151.4   117.8
 Maine                        24.4           40.1    32.5          2.4           4.7    3.7            76.3          142.8   110.0
 Massachusetts                26.5           44.0    35.5          3.2           5.3    4.3            82.3          152.3   118.4
 Michigan                     25.1           47.7    36.4          2.4           5.2    3.9            81.1          157.3   119.7
 Mississippi                  28.4           45.0    36.6          1.5           4.8    3.1            64.0          163.4   112.6
 Missouri                     23.7           42.2    33.1          2.5           6.3    4.4            71.2          136.6   104.7
 Montana                      22.5           41.3    32.2          1.7           4.1    2.9            70.4          130.3   101.5
 Nevada                       24.7           43.2    34.0          2.1           4.2    3.2            71.1          152.6   112.4
 New York                     24.9           43.6    34.2          2.1           5.6    3.9            70.9          145.0   108.1
 Ohio                         30.0           44.3    37.3          3.2           4.0    3.7            87.4          158.8   124.3
 Rhode Island                 28.3           42.2    35.2          2.8           8.7    5.8            86.0          153.3   119.0
 South Carolina               30.0           42.4    36.2          2.4           5.6    4.0            87.7          146.5   117.4
 South Dakota                 21.3           40.9    31.1          1.1           3.6    2.4            49.2          141.9    95.7
 Utah                         22.7           40.7    31.9          2.3           5.3    4.0            79.2          151.3   116.0
 Vermont                      18.9           35.8    27.6          1.7           4.9    3.3            54.1          127.1    91.8
 Virgin Islands @             26.1           38.6    32.3          1.8           6.8    4.3            68.1          120.2    94.0
 West Virginia                23.4           41.3    32.1          2.6           5.1    3.8            74.5          149.8   111.0
 Wisconsin                    25.1           42.2    34.0          2.7           4.1    3.5            72.0          146.9   110.7
 Wyoming                      24.0           43.8    34.0          1.9           5.3    3.6            73.1          144.9   109.7

Unweighted data
 California **                20.1           38.7    28.6          1.8           5.5    3.5            62.0          124.9    90.7
 Colorado                     27.4           44.6    36.0          2.9           5.3    4.0            80.2          141.9   110.2
 Delaware                     28.0           39.5    33.6          3.4           6.0    4.8            85.5          143.3   113.4
 Florida                      23.2           41.2    32.2          2.5           4.6    3.5            70.1          141.0   104.9
 New Hampshire                22.6           40.0    30.8          1.8           4.4    3.0            52.8          132.0    89.8
 New Jersey                   27.5           45.3    36.1          2.9           4.6    3.8            72.3          144.1   106.6
 North Carolina               25.8           41.5    33.1          1.9           4.9    3.4            67.6          136.9    99.7
 North Dakota                 23.1           41.3    32.2          2.2           3.3    2.8            63.1          140.6   101.8
 Tennessee                    25.8           40.5    32.7          1.6           5.2    3.3            65.2          149.0   104.5

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
 Boston                       29.1           43.1    36.2          5.5           7.7    6.7            95.1          177.4   135.5
 Chicago                      35.9           46.4    40.7          5.4           8.8    6.9            99.1          167.7   130.5
 Dallas                       34.2           46.2    40.0          3.8           6.3    5.0            97.6          175.3   135.7
 Detroit                      30.5           49.9    39.5          2.4           5.5    3.8            85.7          192.8   135.2
 District of Columbia         35.8           43.4    39.4          4.7           8.2    6.4           114.7          161.7   138.3
 Ft. Lauderdale               22.7           39.2    31.0          2.0           7.8    4.9            63.9          146.5   105.4
 Houston                      25.1           43.5    33.6          3.5           7.8    5.5            78.0          165.8   118.4
 Jersey City                  34.0           50.2    41.7          6.4           8.9    7.5           103.2          167.0   133.2
 Los Angeles                  28.2           46.6    36.7          3.5           6.4    4.8            80.5          160.2   117.2
 Miami                        26.7           45.4    36.0          2.4           6.5    4.5            79.9          152.8   116.2
 New Orleans                  43.5           54.9    48.8          6.9          10.6    8.7           123.2          189.0   153.4
 New York City                26.3           43.3    34.6          2.4           4.7    3.5            66.5          144.3   104.6
 Philadelphia                 38.9           52.7    45.7          5.1           8.7    6.9           116.3          200.2   157.5
 San Diego                    28.9           45.6    37.2          3.2           6.2    4.7            85.8          167.3   126.5
 San Francisco                19.1           33.7    26.6          1.9           3.9    2.9            52.5          126.6    90.1

Unweighted data
 Baltimore                    33.5           49.6    40.5          3.2           6.9    4.7            99.1          149.4   122.1
 Newark                       33.8           48.4    39.9          5.8           9.5    7.3            90.3          167.8   122.8
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  One or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey.
+  Students who were injured seriously enough to be treated by a doctor or nurse.
&  Students who reported fighting 0 or 1 times during the 12-month period were assigned a fighting frequency of 0 or 1, respectively;
   2-3 times, 2.5; 4-5 times, 4.5; 6-7 times, 6.5; 8-9 times, 8.5; 10-11 times, 10.5; and >= 12 times, 12.0.
@  U.S. territories are included as states.
** Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
=========================================================================================================================================

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Table_8
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TABLE 8. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in violence or in behaviors resulting from violence on school property, by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1997
===================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================
                             Felt too unsafe to go                         Carried a weapon on                         Threatened or injured                             In a physical                              Property stolen or
                                  to school *                               school property *+                         with a weapon on school                     fight on school property &                    deliberately damaged on
                                                                                                                              property &                                                                            school property &
                    --------------------------------------       -----------------------------------------     --------------------------------------       ----------------------------------------     ---------------------------------------
Category              Female          Male           Total         Female          Male           Total         Female          Male           Total         Female          Male           Total         Female          Male           Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity

  White @              2.5            2.3            2.4            2.1           12.3            7.8            3.7            8.2            6.2            5.9           19.1           13.3           28.6            35.7           32.6
                    (+/-0.8) **    (+/-0.7)       (+/-0.6)       (+/-0.7)       (+/-4.0)       (+/-2.3)       (+/-1.1)       (+/-1.7)       (+/-1.1)       (+/-1.1)       (+/-2.9)       (+/-1.7)       (+/-5.6)        (+/-3.4)       (+/-3.7)

  Black @              6.1            7.5            6.8            7.8           10.7            9.2            5.8           14.0            9.9           17.0           24.6           20.7           30.6            37.5           34.0
                    (+/-2.2)       (+/-2.1)       (+/-1.5)       (+/-1.9)       (+/-2.9)       (+/-1.9)       (+/-1.4)       (+/-3.3)       (+/-1.8)       (+/-4.3)       (+/-3.3)       (+/-2.4)       (+/-3.2)        (+/-3.9)       (+/-3.1)

  Hispanic             7.7            6.8            7.2            4.3           15.6           10.4            4.6           12.7            9.0           12.3           24.7           19.0           30.6            33.4           32.1
                    (+/-2.6)       (+/-2.1)       (+/-1.7)       (+/-1.5)       (+/-3.0)       (+/-1.9)       (+/-1.8)       (+/-1.9)       (+/-1.2)       (+/-2.7)       (+/-5.3)       (+/-2.9)       (+/-2.8)        (+/-4.9)       (+/-3.3)

Grade

   9                   5.8            5.2            5.5            5.4           14.5           10.2            6.1           13.7           10.1           12.4           29.3           21.3           33.7            39.8           36.9
                    (+/-1.5)       (+/-1.5)       (+/-1.0)       (+/-1.4)       (+/-3.7)       (+/-1.8)       (+/-1.6)       (+/-3.6)       (+/-2.0)       (+/-2.7)       (+/-5.3)       (+/-2.5)       (+/-4.5)        (+/-4.8)       (+/-2.6)

  10                   3.9            4.0            4.0            3.5           11.1            7.7            5.2           10.1            7.9           11.3           21.6           17.0           30.0            39.7           35.4
                    (+/-1.2)       (+/-1.3)       (+/-1.0)       (+/-1.3)       (+/-3.1)       (+/-1.9)       (+/-1.9)       (+/-3.1)       (+/-2.2)       (+/-3.9)       (+/-3.6)       (+/-3.3)       (+/-4.2)        (+/-4.4)       (+/-3.5)

  11                   3.2            5.0            4.2            3.1           14.6            9.4            2.3            9.0            5.9            6.2           17.8           12.5           27.5            36.2           32.3
                    (+/-1.3)       (+/-2.9)       (+/-1.7)       (+/-1.3)       (+/-4.9)       (+/-2.6)       (+/-0.8)       (+/-2.4)       (+/-1.4)       (+/-2.0)       (+/-2.4)       (+/-1.7)       (+/-6.7)        (+/-4.2)       (+/-4.9)

  12                   3.0            2.3            2.6            3.0           10.1            7.0            2.5            8.4            5.8            4.9           13.1            9.5           25.4            30.0           27.9
                    (+/-1.2)       (+/-0.8)       (+/-0.8)       (+/-1.3)       (+/-2.8)       (+/-1.8)       (+/-1.2)       (+/-2.3)       (+/-1.6)       (+/-2.2)       (+/-2.6)       (+/-1.4)       (+/-4.8)        (+/-3.8)       (+/-3.6)

Total                  3.9            4.1            4.0            3.7           12.5            8.5            4.0           10.2            7.4            8.6           20.0           14.8           29.0            36.1           32.9
                    (+/-0.7)       (+/-0.8)       (+/-0.6)       (+/-0.7)       (+/-2.9)       (+/-1.5)       (+/-0.6)       (+/-1.4)       (+/-0.9)       (+/-1.5)       (+/-2.0)       (+/-1.3)       (+/-3.7)        (+/-2.6)       (+/-2.6)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
+  Such as a gun, knife, or club.
&  One or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey.
@  Non-Hispanic.
** Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===================================================================================================================================================================================================================================================






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Table_9
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TABLE 9. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in violence or in behaviors resulting from violence on school property, by sex --
selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
=============================================================================================================================================================================================
                            Felt too unsafe to go              Carried a weapon               Threatened or injured              In a physical fight               Property stolen or
                                to school *                  on school property *+            with a weapon on school           on school property &              deliberately damaged
                                                                                                     property &                                                   on school property &
                         ---------------------------     -----------------------------     ------------------------------    --------------------------       -------------------------------
Site                      Female      Male   Total        Female       Male    Total        Female       Male    Total        Female       Male   Total        Female      Male    Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
 Alabama                    5.5        6.0     5.8         4.7         16.9     10.9         4.8          9.8     7.5           8.2        20.0    14.1         26.0       34.8    30.5
 American Samoa @           9.4       15.0    11.9         5.4         13.9      9.0         6.6         12.9     9.3          26.8        42.5    33.6         49.5       51.0    50.2
 Arkansas                   4.8        5.5     5.1         5.7         17.6     11.7         6.1         10.5     8.3           8.5        21.6    15.1         30.5       35.9    33.3
 Connecticut                2.9        3.0     3.0         3.4          9.5      6.5         4.5          7.5     6.1           8.5        17.6    13.2         24.8       34.3    29.6
 Guam @                    10.7       15.8    13.1         1.1         11.5      6.0         7.9         11.0     9.3          10.6        28.2    18.9         44.8       38.7    41.9
 Hawaii                     5.4        6.0     5.6         2.9          9.1      6.1         4.6          8.0     6.3           7.8        17.7    12.9         27.9       38.4    33.5
 Iowa                       2.4        3.0     2.7         2.5         14.3      8.6         4.2          9.7     7.0           6.3        20.3    13.5         31.0       45.2    38.3
 Kentucky                   3.3        5.0     4.3         3.7         26.5     15.2         3.8          9.6     6.8           5.9        18.6    12.5         27.6       33.2    30.4
 Louisiana                  5.5        6.5     6.1         3.6         10.7      7.2         5.4          9.4     7.6           9.7        18.4    14.1         27.6       34.6    31.2
 Maine                      3.7        5.1     4.4         3.4         19.1     11.3         5.4          9.3     7.5           6.6        21.3    14.1         27.3       33.5    30.7
 Massachusetts              3.9        5.2     4.6         4.0         11.9      8.1         4.4         10.1     7.5           8.1        17.3    12.9         23.5       31.3    27.5
 Michigan                   3.7        6.3     5.1         3.6         12.8      8.2         5.4         12.7     9.2           8.1        22.3    15.2         28.3       40.9    34.7
 Mississippi                5.6        6.4     6.0         5.1         14.6      9.8         5.8         12.5     9.1           9.3        22.8    16.0         32.6       40.0    36.2
 Missouri                   3.1        5.5     4.3         3.2         15.7      9.6         4.4         10.6     7.5           7.5        18.5    13.1         28.4       38.7    33.7
 Montana                    3.9        4.8     4.4         5.4         19.1     12.4         5.6          8.5     7.1           7.4        19.3    13.6         31.7       40.9    36.4
 Nevada                     5.6        5.7     5.7         4.6         15.3     10.1         6.1         10.8     8.5           9.2        21.0    15.2         29.3       34.5    32.0
 New York                   3.6        5.9     4.8         4.1         13.8      8.9         4.2          9.6     6.9           7.5        19.5    13.5         26.6       34.3    30.5
 Ohio                       5.3        3.3     4.3         3.1         13.1      8.1         5.2          8.5     7.0           8.1        17.2    12.8         28.4       33.9    31.5
 Rhode Island               5.2        6.2     5.8         4.0         11.1      7.5         5.5         10.9     8.2           8.6        18.8    13.6         21.2       29.4    25.3
 South Carolina             5.1        6.4     5.8         5.2         14.0      9.7         7.0         11.0     9.1           9.7        15.8    12.8         27.1       34.2    30.7
 South Dakota               3.0        3.1     3.0         1.8         15.0      8.5         3.0          7.5     5.2           5.3        17.3    11.3         28.3       33.4    30.8
 Utah                       4.2        4.4     4.6         3.2         18.1     11.2         3.7         10.5     7.5           7.0        20.6    13.9         33.8       36.1    35.2
 Vermont                    3.1        4.9     4.1         4.7         19.2     12.2         3.7         10.4     7.3           6.3        18.7    12.6         26.6       35.0    31.0
 Virgin Islands @           5.7        6.8     6.3         4.3         12.4      8.3         5.5         13.8     9.6           8.5        21.2    14.8         26.5       32.4    29.4
 West Virginia              5.6        5.8     5.7         2.7         19.4     10.8         6.1          9.6     7.8           8.1        18.4    13.1         26.3       34.3    30.2
 Wisconsin                  3.1        3.6     3.4         2.6          8.2      5.4         6.2          9.1     7.8           7.7        18.8    13.5           NA         NA      NA
 Wyoming                    3.4        5.2     4.3         3.6         22.4     13.1         3.8         10.7     7.3           7.4        20.5    14.0         31.3       35.7    33.5

Unweighted data
 California **              4.6        6.1     5.3         3.2         12.3      7.4         4.2         10.9     7.3           6.6        18.3    11.9         31.0       39.3    34.9
 Colorado                   2.7        2.8     2.7         3.9         19.3     11.4         6.2         11.2     8.7           8.6        20.9    14.9         32.2       35.8    34.2
 Delaware                   3.8        6.1     5.0         4.0         13.1      8.5         6.1          9.0     7.8           9.3        17.8    13.5         26.3       31.0    28.9
 Florida                    5.9        5.3     5.6         2.9         12.1      7.5         5.8         10.4     8.1           8.0        18.0    12.9         30.8       37.8    34.2
 New Hampshire              3.7        2.1     2.9         2.1         13.4      7.4         3.9          9.7     6.6           7.7        19.9    13.5         27.5       35.0    31.1
 New Jersey                 4.1        4.3     4.2         3.1         12.7      7.7         4.7          8.6     6.6          10.0        21.6    15.6         30.0       33.6    31.7
 North Carolina             5.2        5.5     5.4         3.3         13.2      8.0         6.1         10.3     8.1           8.4        19.2    13.3         29.1       37.5    32.9
 North Dakota                NA         NA      NA         1.8         14.9      8.4         3.7          7.5     5.6           5.0        19.7    12.4         35.6       39.2    37.4
 Tennessee                  4.4        4.7     4.5         4.2         19.2     11.2         5.9          8.4     7.1           9.1        19.7    14.1         28.8       32.9    30.8

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
 Boston                     6.2       10.8     8.6          6.8        15.8     11.4          6.7        12.6    10.0          11.5        18.3    15.0         21.9       25.0    23.6
 Chicago                   12.6       15.2    13.9         12.5        12.3     12.4          9.7        16.5    12.8          13.6        23.2    17.9         32.0       39.5    35.4
 Dallas                     6.8        7.7     7.2          7.5         8.5      8.1          6.0        11.7     8.9          13.3        23.5    18.3         37.0       46.1    41.4
 Detroit                   12.7       14.2    13.3          7.8        12.7     10.1          8.4        14.4    11.1          13.1        28.1    20.0         32.8       45.3    38.6
 District of Columbia       9.1       12.3    10.8         13.4        19.3     16.5          8.5        17.6    13.3          15.5        23.2    19.2         32.0       35.5    33.7
 Ft. Lauderdale             4.5        8.8     6.7          2.5         9.9      6.2          5.2        11.1     8.2           7.0        20.4    13.8         27.7       33.7    30.7
 Houston                    7.7       11.5     9.6          3.1        12.4      7.6          5.9        16.3    10.8          10.3        23.2    16.3         33.1       39.3    36.1
 Jersey City               10.0       14.0    12.1          9.7        15.2     12.3          5.8        16.1    10.7          15.1        25.0    19.7         22.9       30.8    26.6
 Los Angeles               11.0       10.1    10.6          2.9         9.1      5.8          4.9        12.7     8.6          10.5        22.7    16.2         30.8       38.5    34.4
 Miami                      9.3        8.6     9.0          3.6         8.9      6.4          4.9        11.5     8.3          11.2        20.3    15.7         35.2       37.4    36.4
 New Orleans               10.1       11.5    10.8          7.6         9.9      8.7         10.4        13.9    12.1          21.7        32.5    26.7         30.1       38.3    33.9
 New York City              5.5        9.7     7.6          5.6        13.2      9.3          5.1        10.1     7.5           6.8        16.4    11.5         22.6       29.7    26.1
 Philadelphia               7.5        8.5     8.1          7.9        12.5     10.1          6.8        11.8     9.4          15.2        26.1    20.5         26.6       35.3    31.0
 San Diego                  5.3        5.9     5.7          3.7        10.6      7.2          5.3        10.8     8.1           9.2        20.4    14.8         31.6       41.2    36.5
 San Francisco              5.0        8.0     6.6          3.6        11.8      7.8          4.1        12.5     8.5           5.2        16.9    11.2         24.8       29.1    27.0

Unweighted data
 Baltimore                  6.8        9.2     7.8          9.6        11.4     10.5          7.4         9.8     8.4          10.4        23.7    16.3         24.5       29.7    26.8
 Newark                     9.3       10.0     9.6          8.0        11.2      9.3          8.3        13.4    10.6          14.6        22.5    18.0         29.4       35.9    32.2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
*  On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
+  Such as a gun, knife, or club.
&  One or more times during the 12 months preceding the survey.
@  U.S. territories are included as states.
** Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
=============================================================================================================================================================================================






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Table_10
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TABLE 10. Percentage of high school students who reported having seriously considered attempting suicide and who
reported suicidal behavior, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1997
===========================================================================================================================================================
                        Seriously considered                                                                                 Suicide attempt required
                        attempting suicide *              Made a suicide plan *              Attempted suicide *+               medical attention *
                  --------------------------------   -------------------------------    -------------------------------   -------------------------------
Category           Female       Male        Total     Female       Male       Total      Female      Male        Total     Female       Male       Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity

  White &           26.1        14.4        19.5       18.5        11.0       14.3        10.3        3.2         6.3        2.6         1.5        2.0
                  (+/-3.7) @  (+/-2.2)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-2.2)   (+/-0.7)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-1.0)    (+/-0.6)   (+/-0.5)

  Black &           22.0        10.6        16.4       16.0         8.8       12.5         9.0        5.6         7.3        3.0         1.8        2.4
                  (+/-2.4)    (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-0.8)

  Hispanic          30.3        17.1        23.1       23.9        16.0       19.6        14.9        7.2        10.7        3.8         2.1        2.8
                  (+/-4.7)    (+/-3.0)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.9)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-1.0)

Grade

   9                28.9        16.1        22.2       19.9        13.0       16.3        15.1        6.3        10.5        5.0         3.2        4.1
                  (+/-6.0)    (+/-4.6)    (+/-5.0)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-2.2)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.1)

  10                30.0        14.5        21.5       24.2        11.0       16.9        14.3        3.8         8.5        3.7         1.4        2.4
                  (+/-4.6)    (+/-2.8)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-0.7)   (+/-0.9)

  11                26.2        16.6        21.0       21.0        13.5       16.9        11.3        4.4         7.6        2.8         2.6        2.7
                  (+/-3.8)    (+/-2.4)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-1.5)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-1.3)   (+/-1.0)

  12                23.6        13.5        17.9       15.3        11.2       13.0         6.2        3.7         4.8        2.0         1.0        1.4
                  (+/-3.8)    (+/-2.1)    (+/-2.2)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.1)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-1.3)   (+/-1.0)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-0.7)

Total               27.1        15.1        20.5       20.0        12.2       15.7        11.6        4.5         7.7        3.3         2.0        2.6
                  (+/-2.8)    (+/-1.7)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-0.8)    (+/-0.9)   (+/-1.0)    (+/-0.8)   (+/-0.5)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* During the 12 months preceding the survey.
+ One or more times.
& Non-Hispanic.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===========================================================================================================================================================

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Table_11
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TABLE 11. Percentage of high school students who reported having seriously considered attempting suicide and who
reported suicidal behavior, by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
================================================================================================================================
                           Seriously considered                                                       Suicide attempt required
                           attempting suicide *     Made a suicide plan *     Attempted suicide *+      medical attention *
                          ----------------------    ----------------------   ----------------------   ------------------------
Site                      Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                   23.6    14.3    19.0      17.8   12.2     15.1      9.8     6.4     8.1       2.8    3.1      2.9
  American Samoa &          34.7    22.5    29.3      33.1   22.9     28.6     25.7    17.0    22.0       9.4    5.6      7.8
  Arkansas                  27.3    17.4    22.2      21.8   13.5     17.6     14.3     5.7    10.0       3.7    1.3      2.5
  Connecticut               27.5    15.7    21.6      19.9   13.4     16.6     12.5     5.6     9.1       4.3    1.7      3.0
  Guam &                    35.7    23.1    29.7      29.6   20.2     25.2     20.9    17.9    19.5       4.3    4.7      4.5
  Hawaii                    35.4    19.4    26.9      26.6   14.1     20.1     17.1     6.3    11.5       5.9    2.3      4.0
  Iowa                      30.5    15.6    23.0      23.4   14.0     18.6     13.8     4.3     9.0       4.4    2.0      3.2
  Kentucky                  26.1    18.4    22.4      21.4   12.7     17.0      9.1     6.5     8.0       2.2    2.5      2.5
  Louisiana                 26.0    17.5    21.7      19.9   14.3     17.1     12.7     7.2    10.0       3.7    2.8      3.3
  Maine                     28.2    21.0    24.5      23.7   18.2     20.8     11.2     5.8     8.5       3.7    2.0      2.8
  Massachusetts             29.9    17.3    23.5      23.3   15.1     19.2     12.7     6.3     9.5       4.5    2.9      3.7
  Michigan                  28.0    19.4    23.8      19.9   17.3     18.6     11.7     9.0    10.4       3.2    3.1      3.1
  Mississippi               22.5    16.5    19.5      16.2   12.9     14.5      9.4     7.9     8.6       2.4    3.0      2.7
  Missouri                  27.1    17.5    22.2      19.0   12.3     15.6     11.1     7.0     9.1       3.5    2.5      3.0
  Montana                   30.9    17.3    23.9      23.0   14.7     18.7     11.5     5.5     8.4       2.8    1.9      2.4
  Nevada                    29.5    15.4    22.2      18.5   10.7     14.5     12.4     4.0     8.2       2.8    1.0      1.9
  New York                  25.3    14.3    19.8      18.6   11.1     14.8      9.6     5.8     7.8       3.3    2.2      2.8
  Ohio                      30.8    15.2    23.0      23.3   12.0     17.8     15.0     6.0    10.5       3.7    2.2      3.0
  Rhode Island              29.9    17.2    23.6      21.2   12.7     17.1     12.9     6.1     9.6       3.9    2.5      3.2
  South Carolina            26.6    16.1    21.3      19.0   12.4     15.7     13.2     7.3    10.3       4.2    3.0      3.6
  South Dakota              31.7    22.0    26.7      23.7   18.0     20.8     12.1     9.2    10.7       2.5    2.8      2.7
  Utah                      29.3    16.4    22.8      19.9   14.3     17.2     11.6     5.4     8.6       4.8    2.9      3.9
  Vermont                   28.8    18.3    23.5      21.6   14.2     17.8     10.1     6.7     8.4       3.3    3.1      3.2
  Virgin Islands &          22.2    10.3    16.3      18.2    9.8     14.0     12.2     6.0     9.3       1.6    1.1      1.3
  West Virginia             28.5    17.7    23.2      22.7   14.0     18.5     12.0     7.3     9.7       3.6    2.4      3.0
  Wisconsin                 28.2    20.2    24.1        NA @   NA       NA       NA      NA      NA       4.7    3.3      4.0
  Wyoming                   28.4    16.3    22.4      23.8   14.0     19.0     11.5     5.2     8.4       2.9    1.8      2.3

Unweighted Data
  California **             28.3    15.2    22.3      20.3   11.5     16.3     11.6     4.4     8.3       2.5    0.8      1.7
  Colorado                  29.6    18.6    24.2      23.6   13.9     18.9     15.1     6.0    10.8       4.6    2.3      3.5
  Delaware                  27.3    16.9    22.5      20.1   14.3     17.5     10.6     8.1     9.6       3.5    3.8      3.6
  Florida                   30.5    16.7    23.6      23.1   13.1     18.1     12.8     4.7     8.9       3.7    1.5      2.6
  New Hampshire             32.7    15.2    24.5      24.9   14.8     20.1     14.0     5.1     9.8       3.3    2.0      2.7
  New Jersey                24.8    14.4    19.8      18.3   11.2     14.9     10.2     5.4     7.9       2.8    2.2      2.5
  North Carolina            26.8    17.6    22.6      19.5   14.8     17.6     10.7     7.2     9.1       3.9    2.2      3.1
  North Dakota              30.1    19.7    24.9      26.1   15.6     20.8     11.6     5.6     8.6       4.2    2.1      3.1
  Tennessee                 26.8    15.8    21.6      20.9   12.7     17.0     12.7     6.4     9.8       3.8    2.7      3.3

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted Data
  Boston                    23.6    14.2    19.0      20.2   11.7     16.0     12.0     7.1     9.8       5.6    3.2      4.6
  Chicago                   20.4    14.3    17.7      17.3   11.1     14.5     13.5    10.2    12.1       4.3    4.0      4.2
  Dallas                    23.6    11.8    17.9      17.3    8.9     13.2     12.2     3.7     8.2       4.2    1.7      3.1
  Detroit                   21.9    12.3    17.4      15.9    9.4     12.8     13.0     8.6    10.9       4.1    3.3      3.7
  District of Columbia      22.4    12.3    17.6      17.0   10.5     13.9     11.8     8.3    10.2       3.6    4.1      3.8
  Ft. Lauderdale            26.7    14.2    20.4      19.2    8.9     14.0     11.6     5.7     8.7       3.2    1.9      2.5
  Houston                   24.1    15.6    20.1      21.4   14.5     18.1     14.9     7.2    11.5       5.0    3.4      4.4
  Jersey City               20.7    14.9    17.9      19.3   12.9     16.3     14.5     8.5    11.7       3.1    2.8      3.0
  Los Angeles               30.8    14.6    23.2      22.2   12.8     17.7     17.6     6.9    12.6       5.6    2.4      4.1
  Miami                     24.7    14.9    19.7      18.2   10.6     14.4     13.8     6.7    10.3       3.6    2.6      3.1
  New Orleans               18.3    12.2    15.5      14.2    9.9     12.2     11.9     8.3    10.2       4.9    3.5      4.3
  New York City             22.5    10.9    16.8      18.3    9.1     13.8     10.6     4.6     7.8       3.5    1.3      2.5
  Philadelphia              26.6    14.0    20.4      20.3   11.1     15.7     13.7     7.2    10.5       3.8    3.0      3.4
  San Diego                 29.3    16.0    22.7      26.9   15.3     21.1     13.9     4.9     9.5       3.9    2.2      3.0
  San Francisco             25.1    15.2    20.1      18.1   12.4     15.2     10.7     4.3     7.5       4.3    1.3      2.8

Unweighted Data
  Baltimore                 20.1    11.6    16.5      12.9    8.4     11.0      9.8     4.4     7.6       2.8    2.0      2.6
  Newark                    22.8    12.3    18.3      17.5    8.3     13.6     13.4     6.1    10.4       4.6    2.2      3.6
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * During the 12 months preceding the survey.
 + One or more times.
 & U.S. territiroies are included as states.
 @ Not available.
** Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
================================================================================================================================

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Table_12
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TABLE 12. Percentage of high school students who used tobacco, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth
Risk Behavior Survey, 1997
===========================================================================================================================================================
                     Lifetime cigarette use *            Current cigarette use +          Frequent cigarette use &           Smokeless tobacco use @
                  -------------------------------    -------------------------------   -------------------------------    -------------------------------
Category           Female       Male       Total      Female      Male        Total     Female       Male       Total      Female      Male       Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity

  White **           70.3       70.4       70.4        39.9       39.6        39.7       20.1        19.8       19.9         1.6       20.6        12.2
                  (+/-3.3) ++ (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-0.9)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-2.5)

  Black **          66.8        70.1       68.4        17.4       28.2        22.7        4.3        10.1        7.1         1.3        3.2         2.2
                  (+/-5.2)    (+/-4.7)   (+/-4.4)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-5.5)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-3.1)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-1.1)

  Hispanic          72.7        76.9       75.0        32.3       35.5        34.0        8.1        13.2       10.9         1.2        8.3         5.1
                  (+/-3.9)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-1.0)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-2.3)

Grade

   9                69.1        66.5       67.7        32.6       34.2        33.4       11.6        14.5       13.1         2.1       16.6         9.7
                  (+/-5.5)    (+/-5.9)   (+/-5.1)    (+/-4.9)   (+/-7.3)    (+/-5.1)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-6.3)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-5.1)    (+/-2.7)

  10                68.9        70.8       70.0        35.1       35.6        35.3       14.1        15.7       15.0         0.9       11.6         6.8
                  (+/-5.1)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-7.8)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-1.9)    (+/-0.6)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-1.7)

  11                67.1        70.2       68.8        31.7       40.7        36.6       17.7        19.9       18.9         2.1       16.5        10.0
                  (+/-4.5)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.1)    (+/-5.2)   (+/-4.7)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-4.5)    (+/-2.5)

  12                71.7        75.1       73.7        38.8       40.0        39.6       19.0        19.7       19.4         0.6       18.3        10.5
                  (+/-4.4)    (+/-4.6)   (+/-4.1)    (+/-6.8)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-4.9)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-3.1)    (+/-0.6)   (+/-6.2)    (+/-3.6)

Total               69.3        70.9       70.2        34.7       37.7        36.4       15.7        17.6       16.7         1.5       15.8         9.3
                  (+/-2.6)    (+/-1.9)   (+/-1.9)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-1.9)    (+/-0.7)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-2.2)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever tried cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs.
 + Smoked cigarettes on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Smoked cigarettes on >= 20 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Used chewing tobacco or snuff on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
** Non-Hispanic.
++ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===========================================================================================================================================================

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Table_13
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TABLE 13. Percentage of high school students who used tobacco, by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys,
1997
===============================================================================================================================
                          Lifetime cigarette use *  Current cigarette use +  Frequent cigarette use &  Smokeless tobacco use @
                          ------------------------  -----------------------  ------------------------  ------------------------
Site                       Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                    71.1   78.7     74.9     32.2    39.5    35.8      14.2   19.4     16.8      1.8    22.1    11.8
  American Samoa **          75.2   70.0     72.9     34.8    36.6    35.5      13.4   22.0     17.2      2.5     9.0     5.3
  Arkansas                   75.4   76.8     76.1     40.8    45.6    43.2      21.7   24.8     23.3      2.5    24.9    13.8
  Connecticut                67.4   67.5     67.5     36.5    34.0    35.2      18.8   16.9     17.9      1.3    10.0     5.7
  Guam **                    76.9   81.6     79.1     41.6    48.3    44.7      22.9   24.3     23.5      3.9     8.0     5.9
  Hawaii                     68.7   66.0     67.4     30.7    27.4    29.2      14.8   14.1     14.5      0.4     6.4     3.4
  Iowa                       63.3   70.4     66.9     35.4    39.6    37.5      16.6   19.3     18.0      2.8    22.4    12.8
  Kentucky                   76.3   78.1     77.3     45.3    48.4    47.0      24.8   30.0     27.6      2.3    28.6    15.6
  Louisiana                  76.4   80.5     78.5     34.6    38.2    36.4      16.5   19.4     18.0      1.8    18.3    10.1
  Maine                        NA++   NA       NA     40.8    37.7    39.2      21.5   22.7     22.1      2.2    13.3     7.9
  Massachusetts              70.1   68.1     69.1     35.8    33.0    34.4      18.3   18.5     18.4      1.4    10.3     6.0
  Michigan                   74.1   76.0     75.0     38.2    38.2    38.2      20.1   19.5     19.8      2.0    14.8     8.4
  Mississippi                67.1   75.9     71.4     25.4    37.6    31.3      10.5   17.2     13.8      0.6    13.3     6.8
  Missouri                   73.7   74.3     74.0     40.8    39.7    40.3      23.1   21.4     22.3      1.9    16.2     9.1
  Montana                    71.5   75.1     73.4     37.3    38.8    38.1      19.7   18.9     19.3      8.4    33.1    21.0
  Nevada                     69.8   67.4     68.6     30.3    28.3    29.4      14.4   14.5     14.5      2.2    16.3     9.5
  New York                   68.8   67.3     68.1     33.1    32.7    32.9      14.3   18.2     16.3      0.9     9.3     5.1
  Ohio                       67.8   70.5     69.2     32.0    36.9    34.5      16.4   19.7     18.2      1.7    18.9    10.4
  Rhode Island               68.7   69.4     69.1     35.4    35.3    35.4      18.7   19.8     19.3      1.6    10.4     6.1
  South Carolina             74.0   76.2     75.1     36.5    40.6    38.6      15.8   20.6     18.2      1.4    11.8     6.7
  South Dakota               72.7   76.7     74.8     43.6    44.3    44.0      24.0   24.7     24.3      6.3    28.8    17.7
  Utah                       37.7   45.4     41.6     15.0    17.4    16.4       6.1    8.4      7.3      2.9     9.9     6.5
  Vermont                    71.3   74.1     72.7     38.8    37.8    38.3      19.8   22.1     21.0      2.5    12.8     7.8
  Virgin Islands **          34.6   41.7     38.1      6.3     6.2     6.3       0.4    0.2      0.3      0.4     0.5     0.5
  West Virginia              73.7   77.2     75.4     41.3    42.4    41.9      23.4   24.8     24.1      1.3    31.0    15.8
  Wisconsin                    NA     NA       NA     31.7    39.8    36.0      15.7   22.7     19.5      3.2    19.0    11.4
  Wyoming                    70.6   77.6     74.1     36.7    38.1    37.4      20.2   20.3     20.3      9.7    34.7    22.5

Unweighted data
  California &&              62.1   67.4     64.5     24.8    28.6    26.6       6.5   10.9      8.5      1.3     7.5     4.2
  Colorado                   67.3   69.6     68.4     38.1    35.2    36.6      19.9   18.6     19.2      2.9    23.2    12.7
  Delaware                   74.1   73.6     73.9     34.0    36.1    35.0      18.7   19.2     18.9      1.7    11.9     6.7
  Florida                    69.2   70.9     70.1     34.4    32.8    33.6      15.1   16.3     15.7      2.2    15.8     8.8
  New Hampshire              70.9   67.1     69.1     42.5    36.3    39.6      23.8   18.8     21.5      2.0    12.9     7.2
  New Jersey                 70.6   69.4     70.1     38.8    36.7    37.9      19.2   19.4     19.3      1.5     9.7     5.4
  North Carolina               NA     NA       NA     34.1    37.6    35.8      14.8   19.4     16.9      1.6    14.3     7.4
  North Dakota                 NA     NA       NA     46.8    43.2    45.0      21.0   19.5     20.2       NA      NA      NA
  Tennessee                  72.2   76.5     74.1     38.0    39.6    38.6      20.6   22.3     21.3      3.0    27.0    14.2

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                     60.8   63.0     62.0     19.6    18.3    19.0       8.7    7.0      7.9      1.1     4.6     3.2
  Chicago                    68.1   73.3     70.5     26.2    27.4    26.8       5.5    9.8      7.6      1.5     4.5     2.9
  Dallas                     64.6   71.0     67.7     18.0    27.3    22.5       4.4    7.3      5.8      0.7     4.2     2.4
  Detroit                    68.0   69.2     68.5     19.8    24.3    21.8       4.3    9.9      6.9      0.7     2.5     1.5
  District of Columbia       67.6   68.7     68.2     21.3    24.3    22.7       5.4   11.6      8.4      1.4     5.1     3.2
  Ft. Lauderdale             62.2   61.2     61.7     24.7    25.3    25.0      10.2   11.4     10.8      0.8     8.3     4.6
  Houston                    66.9   74.3     70.3     22.2    37.3    29.1       3.2   12.6      7.5      2.1     7.3     4.5
  Jersey City                70.3   69.3     69.9     28.0    30.7    29.4      11.8   11.8     11.9      2.3     5.4     3.9
  Los Angeles                68.0   72.0     69.8     25.5    27.5    26.5       6.3    6.6      6.4      1.7     2.9     2.3
  Miami                      60.2   65.7     63.1     22.9    27.0    25.0       7.9   10.9      9.5      1.3     3.4     2.4
  New Orleans                62.5   69.8     65.9     18.1    27.7    22.6       4.2    9.6      6.7      2.0     4.4     3.2
  New York City              63.5   56.1     59.9     23.9    22.8    23.4       8.6   10.8      9.7      0.5     2.6     1.6
  Philadelphia               71.5   70.0     70.7     26.4    30.6    28.5      12.2   15.3     13.7      0.7     3.0     1.8
  San Diego                  69.2   72.2     70.8     23.0    25.5    24.2       6.5    8.7      7.6      1.6     3.4     2.5
  San Francisco              54.4   63.8     59.2     17.8    20.2    19.1       5.7    8.1      6.9      0.8     3.2     2.0

Unweighted data
  Baltimore                  60.1   63.2     61.5     16.1    23.0    19.2       6.0   10.3      8.1      0.5     3.6     2.0
  Newark                     71.8   70.8     71.4     23.7    25.4    24.4       7.1   11.7      9.1      0.3     1.5     0.9
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever tried cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs.
 + Smoked cigarettes on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Smoked cigarettes on >= 20 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Used chewing tobacco or snuff during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
++ Not available.
&& Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
===============================================================================================================================

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Table_14
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TABLE 14. Percentage of high school students <18 years of age who were current
cigarette smokers * and reported having purchased cigarettes + without being asked
to show proof of age, & by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk
Behavior Survey, 1997
===============================================================================================
                       Purchased cigarettes at a          Were not asked to show proof of age
                          store or gas station                when purchasing cigarettes
                   ----------------------------------     -----------------------------------
Category            Female         Male        Total       Female        Male         Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity

  White @            27.1          33.7        30.8         72.1         61.5          65.7
                   (+/-8.8) **   (+/-4.1)    (+/-5.4)     (+/-7.9)     (+/-6.1)      (+/-6.2)

  Black @            24.9          38.8        32.6         81.9         68.5          73.3
                   (+/-7.7)      (+/-9.2)    (+/-6.6)     (+/-8.7)     (+/-8.6)      (+/-7.6)

  Hispanic           16.8          30.3        24.1         59.8         69.1          66.2
                   (+/-6.4)      (+/-11.0)   (+/-6.7)    (+/-16.1)     (+/-10.2)     (+/-7.7)

Grade

   9                 10.8          23.7        17.8         82.4         83.0          82.8
                   (+/-6.9)      (+/-5.2)    (+/-5.3)     (+/-8.3)     (+/-9.0)      (+/-7.9)

  10                 21.2          29.5        25.7         77.4         69.1          72.1
                   (+/-5.3)      (+/-5.5)    (+/-4.9)     (+/-9.1)     (+/-8.0)      (+/-6.3)

  11                 33.7          38.8        36.7         69.2         54.6          59.8
                   (+/-9.3)      (+/-6.0)    (+/-4.8)    (+/-11.8)     (+/-10.6)     (+/-8.0)

  12                 44.9          42.1        43.5         59.7         50.8          54.9
                  (+/-13.1)      (+/-12.5)   (+/-9.7)    (+/-19.3)     (+/-14.2)    (+/-14.3)

Total                26.0          32.8        29.8         71.6         63.6          66.7
                   (+/-7.1)      (+/-4.6)    (+/-4.8)     (+/-6.2)     (+/-4.8)      (+/-4.8)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Smoked cigarettes on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + Purchased cigarettes at a store or gas station during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Among those who purchased cigarettes at a store or gas station during the 30 days
   preceding the survey.
 @ Non-Hispanic.
** Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===============================================================================================

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Table_15
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TABLE 15. Percentage of high school students <18 years of age who were current
cigarette smokers * and reported having purchased cigarettes + without being asked
to show proof of age, & by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
============================================================================================================
                           Purchased cigarettes at    Were not asked to show proof of age
                            a store or gas station        when purchasing cigarettes
                           -----------------------    -----------------------------------
Site                        Female    Male   Total          Female   Male    Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                     24.1    36.1    30.5            79.8   74.2     76.3
  American Samoa @            17.9    29.4    22.7            70.4   60.3     65.4
  Arkansas                    17.4    31.0    24.5            63.8   61.6     62.3
  Connecticut                 33.1    41.1    36.6            60.9   56.3     58.5
  Guam @                        NA**    NA    33.8              NA     NA       NA
  Hawaii                      18.2    31.5    24.9              NA     NA     65.0
  Iowa                         8.6    15.0    11.9              NA     NA     62.8
  Kentucky                    16.1    24.9    20.5              NA   55.1     56.0
  Louisiana                   22.8    37.5    30.2            77.9   61.4     68.3
  Maine                        9.8    19.2    14.7              NA     NA     61.0
  Massachusetts               21.3    30.1    25.5              NA     NA       NA
  Michigan                    23.4    33.8    28.4            67.3   63.6     64.6
  Mississippi                 16.4    26.5    22.0              NA   63.7     67.5
  Missouri                    19.9    27.4    23.4            63.5   61.1     62.3
  Montana                     10.1    18.0    14.0              NA   57.3     62.1
  Nevada                       8.2    17.2    12.4              NA     NA     52.4
  New York                    29.9    38.4    34.0            64.8   55.7     60.1
  Ohio                        25.5    31.0    28.2            72.0   62.6     66.8
  Rhode Island                27.6    30.4    29.0            61.2   59.8     60.4
  South Carolina                NA      NA      NA              NA     NA       NA
  South Dakota                 8.4    14.4    11.4              NA     NA     68.2
  Utah                          NA    15.9    10.5              NA     NA       NA
  Vermont                      7.9    15.5    11.6            62.9   59.1     60.3
  Virgin Islands @              NA      NA      NA              NA     NA       NA
  West Virginia               14.9    27.4    20.7            70.1   64.6     66.8
  Wisconsin                   15.2    23.6    19.8              NA     NA     67.9
  Wyoming                     11.6    20.3    15.9              NA   48.8     54.4

Unweighted data
  California ++               14.1    26.0    19.8              NA   64.6     64.7
  Colorado                    10.5    26.1    17.7              NA     NA     65.0
  Delaware                    20.7    30.8    25.7            62.1   59.4     60.8
  Florida                     13.5    21.1    17.2            60.8   56.7     58.2
  New Hampshire               19.4    26.9    22.5            71.2   63.0     66.8
  New Jersey                  27.6    33.6    30.4            62.1   59.4     61.0
  North Carolina              17.2    27.9    22.9            70.7   62.4     65.9
  North Dakota                 9.2    18.7    13.8              NA     NA       NA
  Tennessee                   19.0    28.6    23.6            71.8   59.7     65.5

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                      35.4    35.5    34.9              NA     NA       NA
  Chicago                     24.4    37.1    30.0            72.9   61.2     66.8
  Dallas                      15.7    31.2    24.6              NA     NA     69.2
  Detroit                     30.7    41.7    36.3            76.6   70.7     73.6
  District of Columbia        32.8    39.2    36.3              NA     NA     67.0
  Ft. Lauderdale              22.3    27.4    24.9              NA     NA     60.4
  Houston                     15.4    25.8    20.9              NA     NA     68.1
  Jersey City                 50.0    46.2    47.9            74.7   69.0     71.6
  Los Angeles                 14.7    20.5    17.6              NA     NA     63.2
  Miami                       24.4    28.8    26.7              NA   50.8     55.1
  New Orleans                 24.0    35.5    29.7            83.3   66.6     74.0
  New York City               44.3    51.3    47.7            69.5   64.0     67.1
  Philadelphia                47.8    44.6    46.2            69.0   68.2     68.7
  San Diego                   17.4    19.6    18.6              NA   61.7     58.2
  San Francisco               23.6    29.8    26.8              NA     NA     57.9

Unweighted data
  Baltimore                     NA      NA    30.0              NA     NA     72.1
  Newark                      49.3    54.0    51.4            87.0   70.8     80.4
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Smoked cigarettes on 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + Purchased cigarettes at a store or gas station during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Among those who purchased cigarettes in a store or gas station during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ U.S. territories are included as states.
** Not available.
++ Survey did not include student”s from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
============================================================================================================

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Table_16
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TABLE 16. Percentage of high school students who drank alcohol or used marijuana, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade --
United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1997
==============================================================================================================================================================================================
                        Lifetime alcohol use *             Current alcohol use +          Episodic heavy drinking &           Lifetime marijuana use @          Current marijuana use **
                   --------------------------------   -------------------------------   -------------------------------    -------------------------------   -------------------------------
Category            Female       Male       Total      Female       Male       Total     Female       Male       Total      Female      Male        Total     Female       Male       Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity

  White ++           79.9        82.4        81.3       51.6        56.0       54.0       32.9        41.6       37.7        41.9       48.3        45.4       21.2        28.0       25.0
                   (+/-2.9)&&  (+/-2.0)    (+/-2.1)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-3.0)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-3.1)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-4.4)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-3.1)

  Black ++           73.8        72.2        73.0       34.9        39.2       36.9       11.5        21.0       16.1        45.4       59.3        52.2       21.4        35.6       28.2
                   (+/-3.4)    (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-4.4)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-4.4)   (+/-3.3)

  Hispanic           82.1        83.9        83.1       50.7        56.7       53.9       28.8        40.0       34.9        43.2       54.7        49.5       23.3        33.1       28.6
                   (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.6)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-6.5)   (+/-3.8)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-6.1)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-5.5)   (+/-6.1)    (+/-4.9)   (+/-4.4)    (+/-4.9)   (+/-4.0)

Grade

   9                 73.6        70.5        72.0       43.7        44.7       44.2       25.8        25.5       25.7        36.1       41.3        38.8       20.1        26.8       23.6
                   (+/-5.0)    (+/-5.6)    (+/-4.9)   (+/-6.6)    (+/-7.4)   (+/-6.1)   (+/-4.9)    (+/-5.6)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-6.2)   (+/-5.5)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-5.3)   (+/-3.8)

  10                 76.9        77.9        77.4       45.3        48.7       47.2       26.3        32.7       29.9        43.3       48.1        45.9       20.9        28.5       25.0
                   (+/-5.7)    (+/-3.5)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-7.5)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-4.3)   (+/-7.2)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-6.0)   (+/-4.9)    (+/-4.7)   (+/-4.7)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.5)

  11                 80.1        83.4        81.9       47.8        57.8       53.2       28.2        45.2       37.5        43.8       55.6        50.3       22.9        34.7       29.3
                   (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.0)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-6.2)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.9)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-5.0)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-4.5)    (+/-4.4)   (+/-3.6)

  12                 82.3        85.3        84.0       53.7        60.2       57.3       33.6        44.0       39.3        47.7       56.1        52.4       21.9        30.3       26.6
                   (+/-3.4)    (+/-3.0)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-5.5)    (+/-5.6)   (+/-4.9)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-5.6)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-6.8)   (+/-5.9)    (+/-5.1)   (+/-5.1)    (+/-5.8)   (+/-4.1)

Total                78.4        79.7        79.1       47.8        53.3       50.8       28.6        37.3       33.4        42.9       50.7        47.1       21.4        30.2       26.2
                   (+/-2.2)    (+/-2.0)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.8)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.2)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever had at least one drink of alcohol.
 + Drank alcohol on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Drank five or more drinks of alcohol on at least one occasion on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Ever used marijuana.
** Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
++ Non-Hispanic.
&& Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
==============================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_17
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TABLE 17. Percentage of high school students who drank alcohol or used marijuana, by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk
Behavior Surveys, 1997
===========================================================================================================================================================
                          Lifetime alcohol use *    Current alcohol use +   Episodic heavy drinking &  Lifetime marijuana use @  Current marijuana use **
                          ----------------------    ----------------------  -------------------------  ------------------------  ------------------------
Site                      Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total    Female    Male   Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                   73.9    76.0    75.1      43.8   49.4     46.7     24.4    32.6    28.5      34.1   45.3     39.8     17.0    26.6    21.8
  American Samoa ++         50.9    57.9    53.9      27.1   34.3     30.1     16.4    23.9    19.6      17.3   35.2     25.1      8.7    20.7    13.9
  Arkansas                  77.9    80.6    79.3      45.8   54.3     50.1     26.3    39.7    33.1      42.0   50.4     46.3     23.6    31.5    27.6
  Connecticut               77.2    78.9    78.1      51.3   54.1     52.6     27.9    34.5    31.2      42.6   46.9     44.9     24.0    27.5    25.8
  Guam ++                   72.3    76.3    74.1      37.9   46.9     42.0     17.7    29.2    22.9      43.0   54.3     48.3     18.0    38.6    27.8
  Hawaii                    73.5    71.5    72.5      38.8   41.5     40.3     20.6    29.1    25.1      43.6   48.9     46.4     21.6    27.0    24.3
  Iowa                      79.2    80.5    79.9      48.6   55.7     52.1     32.0    42.9    37.5      30.3   38.4     34.5     13.7    21.2    17.5
  Kentucky                  76.6    79.9    78.4      44.5   53.8     49.3     30.4    43.4    37.1      44.0   51.9     48.1     23.3    33.5    28.6
  Louisiana                 84.2    82.6    83.5      53.2   56.7     54.9     27.4    37.9    32.7      37.7   49.9     43.8     19.8    29.4    24.6
  Maine                       NA&&    NA      NA      49.6   53.0     51.3     30.5    36.8    33.8      48.4   52.8     50.7     27.3    33.2    30.4
  Massachusetts             78.8    79.7    79.2      51.8   55.3     53.5     29.4    35.8    32.7      49.6   52.2     50.9     27.5    34.2    30.9
  Michigan                  81.4    82.3    81.9      48.7   52.2     50.5     29.2    35.7    32.4      44.8   51.4     48.1     24.1    32.2    28.2
  Mississippi               76.4    81.2    78.7      43.3   49.9     46.4     19.2    28.9    23.9      33.3   48.6     40.7     14.3    28.7    21.3
  Missouri                  81.4    75.2    78.3      53.0   49.8     51.4     37.4    38.2    37.9      46.7   45.9     46.3     26.9    29.4    28.2
  Montana                   84.6    83.9    84.3      57.5   60.4     59.0     40.4    47.6    44.1      41.8   48.3     45.1     23.2    30.3    26.9
  Nevada                    79.7    79.0    79.3      50.5   49.2     49.9     30.2    33.7    32.0      45.8   46.6     46.2     23.7    25.9    24.8
  New York                  75.5    77.9    76.7      45.4   50.9     48.2     24.3    33.5    28.9      37.9   44.3     41.1     18.0    27.7    22.9
  Ohio                      76.3    77.2    76.7      44.3   48.4     46.3     27.1    33.6    30.3      40.0   47.9     44.2     20.2    28.8    24.6
  Rhode Island              78.1    78.1    78.1      50.9   53.7     52.2     28.2    36.2    32.2      43.1   50.9     47.0     26.0    31.3    28.7
  South Carolina            76.0    74.5    75.2      44.1   46.5     45.3     20.8    28.8    24.8      39.8   49.7     44.7     21.5    31.4    26.5
  South Dakota              82.7    82.4    82.6      58.2   62.2     60.2     40.5    49.9    45.2      34.2   36.4     35.3     17.9    21.9    19.9
  Utah                      39.1    43.0    41.3      23.2   25.1     24.3     14.3    18.1    16.5      23.3   25.9     24.8     10.8    13.5    12.3
  Vermont                     NA      NA      NA      52.8   56.8     54.9     30.9    39.5    35.3        NA     NA       NA     31.3    39.0    35.3
  Virgin Islands ++         64.6    74.7    69.4      37.3   34.5     36.0      9.3    12.2    10.7      25.3   43.2     34.0      8.8    20.9    14.7
  West Virginia             79.8    82.8    81.2      44.6   58.9     51.5     31.8    46.0    38.7      43.7   52.0     47.7     24.0    33.3    28.5
  Wisconsin                   NA      NA      NA      46.3   54.7     50.5     26.1    35.9    31.0      31.2   39.6     35.5     17.4    24.3    20.9
  Wyoming                   78.0    83.4    80.7      51.9   58.1     55.0     37.0    44.0    40.6      39.6   45.7     42.8     19.4    27.1    23.4

Unweighted data
  California @@             74.6    76.5    75.4      45.5   49.0     47.0     24.5    31.3    27.5      43.1   51.0     46.6     22.7    30.2    26.1
  Colorado                  77.9    78.2    78.1      51.8   56.1     54.0     33.2    41.6    37.4      43.5   48.9     46.1     25.2    30.7    27.9
  Delaware                  79.0    75.6    77.4      46.9   46.6     46.7     24.5    29.8    27.0      47.8   50.7     49.1     25.6    32.0    28.7
  Florida                   79.7    77.5    78.6      49.2   51.9     50.6     26.2    32.3    29.2      42.8   48.4     45.5     21.2    27.3    24.2
  New Hampshire             82.0    80.7    81.4      54.2   54.7     54.5     30.5    41.0    35.5      50.9   53.1     51.9     30.3    33.9    32.0
  New Jersey                79.5    79.1    79.2      52.5   53.0     52.7     26.4    33.8    29.9      38.2   44.0     41.0     20.0    26.5    23.1
  North Carolina            72.9    75.8    74.3      39.6   46.1     42.7     18.1    28.2    22.9      38.2   48.6     43.0     20.9    29.7    24.9
  North Dakota                NA      NA      NA      62.5   59.7     61.1       NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA     19.8    19.9    19.8
  Tennessee                 76.1    73.7    74.8      43.4   47.1     45.0     24.3    33.4    28.6      43.9   48.5     45.9     23.8    31.8    27.5

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                    63.1    71.2    67.0      35.9   44.7     40.1     14.9    21.4    18.2      36.9   47.7     42.2     18.4    28.3    23.2
  Chicago                   72.2    70.3    71.2      36.5   37.3     36.9     16.6    24.1    19.9      40.8   49.6     44.7     20.6    27.1    23.6
  Dallas                    80.3    74.3    77.4      42.7   43.1     42.9     18.0    23.2    20.6      39.6   51.1     45.3     16.9    32.1    24.5
  Detroit                   72.2    69.9    71.2      35.4   34.6     35.0     12.4    18.1    14.9      44.5   52.7     48.2     21.2    29.3    24.8
  District of Columbia      71.8    70.0    70.8      36.5   38.9     37.7     14.0    22.5    18.3      47.6   55.7     51.5     25.6    33.5    29.3
  Ft. Lauderdale            73.3    74.3    73.8      41.6   46.4     44.0     18.4    26.8    22.6      36.2   43.0     39.6     15.6    22.4    19.0
  Houston                   76.0    77.8    76.8      42.1   48.5     44.9     19.3    29.6    24.0      32.2   53.1     41.8     12.4    32.8    21.8
  Jersey City               71.2    70.6    70.9      36.4   43.0     39.4     19.2    27.0    22.8      32.7   39.7     36.1     17.8    22.3    19.9
  Los Angeles               78.7    77.5    78.2      46.9   46.2     46.6     24.6    28.2    26.4      42.6   49.4     45.7     23.3    27.7    25.4
  Miami                     71.9    73.1    72.5      40.0   44.2     42.2     17.4    25.9    21.7      29.1   40.7     34.9     13.1    22.6    17.9
  New Orleans               77.2    73.8    75.6      49.6   47.6     48.7     15.9    22.1    18.8      40.4   53.9     46.7     22.6    34.6    28.1
  New York City             71.7    69.2    70.4      37.4   42.1     39.7     14.4    22.6    18.4      28.5   34.1     31.2     12.0    19.4    15.7
  Philadelphia              71.1    70.4    70.6      36.6   36.1     36.3     15.2    20.6    17.8      43.8   49.4     46.5     21.1    27.5    24.3
  San Diego                 75.0    77.2    76.1      45.5   48.8     47.1     23.9    30.2    27.1      46.3   52.9     49.6     23.0    29.7    26.4
  San Francisco             56.7    61.7    59.2      27.0   27.9     27.5     11.1    14.0    12.6      30.2   35.6     33.0     13.5    20.4    17.1

Unweighted data
  Baltimore                 73.5    72.4    73.2      35.1   43.2     38.7     15.0    20.6    17.5      42.9   57.3     49.2     19.3    31.7    24.7
  Newark                    73.3    77.2    74.9      39.9   47.1     42.9     16.1    25.0    19.8      37.4   48.4     42.1     17.7    27.2    21.7
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever had at least one drink of alcohol.
 + Drank alcohol on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Drank five or more drinks of alcohol on at least one occasion on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Ever used marijuana.
** Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
++ U.S. territories are included as states.
&& Not available.
@@ Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
===========================================================================================================================================================

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Table_18
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TABLE 18. Percentage of high school students who used cocaine, "crack," or
"freebase," by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 1997
==========================================================================================================================
                                                                                               Lifetime "crack" or
                        Lifetime cocaine use *              Current cocaine use +               "freebase" use &
                   --------------------------------    -------------------------------   -------------------------------
Category            Female        Male       Total      Female      Male       Total      Female       Male       Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity

  White @             7.5          8.5        8.0         2.3        3.7         3.1        4.3         4.7        4.5
                   (+/-1.7)**   (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-0.9)   (+/-0.7)    (+/-0.4)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-0.7)

  Black @             1.0          2.9        1.9         0.2        1.2         0.7        0.9         1.5        1.2
                   (+/-1.0)     (+/-1.3)   (+/-0.8)    (+/-0.2)   (+/-0.8)    (+/-0.3)   (+/-1.0)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-0.8)

  Hispanic           12.5         16.1       14.4         5.3        6.9         6.2        7.7         8.2        8.0
                   (+/-4.0)     (+/-3.1)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-2.3)

Grade

   9                  6.8          6.6        6.7         3.6        4.1         3.9        4.5         5.7        5.1
                   (+/-2.7)     (+/-2.8)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-2.1)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-1.9)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-2.0)

  10                  6.3          8.5        7.5         1.5        3.6         2.6        4.4         4.2        4.3
                   (+/-2.8)     (+/-1.3)   (+/-1.4)    (+/-0.8)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-0.6)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-1.1)

  11                  7.9         10.1        9.1         2.2        3.7         3.1        3.9         5.6        4.8
                   (+/-2.3)     (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-1.0)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.4)

  12                  7.6         10.5        9.2         2.2        4.5         3.5        4.0         5.2        4.7
                   (+/-1.7)     (+/-1.6)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-1.0)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-1.1)

Total                 7.2          9.1        8.2         2.4        4.0         3.3        4.2         5.2        4.7
                   (+/-1.5)     (+/-1.1)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-0.7)   (+/-0.8)    (+/-0.5)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-1.0)   (+/-0.8)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever tried any form of cocaine (e.g., powder, "crack," or "freebase").
 + Used cocaine one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Ever used "crack" or "freebase."
 @ Non-Hispanic.
** Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
==========================================================================================================================

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Table_19
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TABLE 19. Percentage of high school students who used cocaine, "crack," or "freebase," by sex --selected U.S. sites, Youth
Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
===================================================================================================================
                          Lifetime cocaine use *    Current cocaine use +    Lifetime "crack" or "freebase" use &
                          ----------------------    ----------------------   ------------------------------------
Site                      Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                    4.7     7.7     6.3       2.1    2.9      2.6      3.0     5.6     4.4
  American Samoa @           5.1     7.5     6.1       3.3    3.1      3.2      3.3     4.8     3.9
  Arkansas                   7.9     9.1     8.5       3.1    4.9      4.0      5.2     6.2     5.7
  Connecticut                4.3     6.4     5.3       1.9    3.3      2.6      3.0     3.9     3.4
  Guam @                     6.2     6.8     6.5       4.5    5.3      4.9      3.6     5.2     4.3
  Hawaii                     6.6     8.2     7.4       2.8    2.8      2.8      4.9     5.9     5.4
  Iowa                       5.0     8.3     6.7       1.7    5.2      3.5      3.9     4.2     4.1
  Kentucky                   6.3     9.8     8.3       3.2    5.2      4.4      3.9     6.7     5.6
  Louisiana                  4.5     6.9     5.7       1.5    3.3      2.5      2.9     4.2     3.6
  Maine                      7.0     9.7     8.5       2.8    3.6      3.2       NA**    NA      NA
  Massachusetts              5.9     7.9     7.0       2.0    3.8      3.0      3.1     4.3     3.7
  Michigan                   5.6     9.1     7.4       1.9    5.0      3.5      3.7     5.4     4.6
  Mississippi                2.9     5.5     4.1       0.6    3.4      2.0      1.3     4.0     2.6
  Missouri                   9.0     9.3     9.3       4.3    5.7      5.1      4.5     5.4     5.1
  Montana                    8.6    10.3     9.6       3.5    4.7      4.1      6.1     7.0     6.6
  Nevada                    14.2    11.6    12.8       5.3    5.8      5.5      8.7     6.9     7.8
  New York                   3.7     7.5     5.7       1.1    2.8      2.0      1.7     4.4     3.0
  Ohio                       4.6     8.0     6.4       2.2    4.2      3.2      3.4     5.9     4.6
  Rhode Island               4.3     9.9     7.0       2.4    5.3      3.8      2.9     6.8     4.8
  South Carolina             4.7     6.1     5.4       2.0    2.6      2.4      2.9     3.7     3.3
  South Dakota               8.5     9.5     9.0       3.1    5.6      4.3      6.3     6.5     6.4
  Utah                       4.3     5.5     5.1       2.5    3.5      3.2      3.5     5.0     4.5
  Vermont                    8.1    12.5    10.5       3.0    6.7      4.9       NA      NA      NA
  Virgin Islands @           0.2     0.7     0.5        NA    0.4      0.2      0.2     0.5     0.4
  West Virginia              7.8    11.3     9.5       2.6    5.4      3.9      5.3     7.3     6.2
  Wisconsin                  4.6     8.6     6.6       2.0    4.6      3.3      2.3     6.2     4.3
  Wyoming                    9.8    12.7    11.4       4.5    7.0      5.8      8.3     8.6     8.4

Unweighted data
  California ++             10.3    10.9    10.6       3.4    4.7      4.0      6.4     7.8     7.1
  Colorado                  13.8    10.7    12.3       4.1    5.4      4.7      8.7     6.0     7.4
  Delaware                   6.5     9.9     8.2       2.8    5.3      4.0      2.8     6.4     4.5
  Florida                    7.2     9.2     8.1       3.0    4.2      3.6      3.3     5.0     4.1
  New Hampshire              8.9    10.6     9.7       2.1    5.1      3.5      5.3     6.4     5.8
  New Jersey                 6.1     7.4     6.8       2.0    3.6      2.8      2.6     4.2     3.3
  North Carolina             4.9     8.3     6.5       2.0    4.0      3.0       NA      NA      NA
  North Dakota                NA      NA      NA       2.8    4.7      3.8       NA      NA      NA
  Tennessee                  5.6     8.4     6.9       1.9    4.6      3.1      4.1     5.2     4.6

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                     1.9     3.8     3.0       0.6    2.8      1.8      0.9     2.5     1.7
  Chicago                    3.4     7.2     5.1       2.1    4.6      3.2      2.6     3.5     3.0
  Dallas                     6.5     9.1     7.8       1.9    5.6      3.8      3.1     4.1     3.6
  Detroit                    0.8     2.1     1.4       0.6    2.2      1.3      0.6     2.3     1.4
  District of Columbia       1.3     5.6     3.5       0.6    4.6      2.6      0.6     4.7     2.7
  Ft. Lauderdale             6.3     6.5     6.4       2.3    3.2      2.8      1.7     3.8     2.7
  Houston                    6.3     9.8     7.8       2.0    4.6      3.1      3.1     4.8     3.9
  Jersey City                1.8     3.9     2.8       1.2    2.5      1.8      1.4     3.5     2.4
  Los Angeles               12.4    11.9    12.3       3.0    4.8      3.9      8.3     7.8     8.1
  Miami                      5.9    11.7     8.9       2.3    6.5      4.4      2.3     5.8     4.1
  New Orleans                2.5     5.1     3.7       1.1    2.6      1.8      1.6     2.4     2.0
  New York City              2.4     4.3     3.3       1.0    2.4      1.7      1.2     2.7     2.0
  Philadelphia               2.3     4.2     3.2       0.9    1.5      1.2      1.1     2.4     1.7
  San Diego                 10.5     9.3     9.9       4.1    4.0      4.0      5.9     5.0     5.4
  San Francisco              4.4     7.1     5.7       1.4    2.0      1.7      2.7     4.0     3.3

Unweighted data
  Baltimore                  1.8     2.2     2.0       0.4    1.2      0.9      1.2     1.7     1.5
  Newark                     0.4     2.0     1.1       0.1    1.2      0.6      0.3     1.6     0.9
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever tried any form of cocaine, including powder, "crack," and "freebase."
 + Used cocaine one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Ever used "crack" or "freebase."
 @ U.S. territories are included as states.
** Not available.
++ Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
===================================================================================================================

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Table_20
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TABLE 20. Percentage of high school students who used illegal steroids, * injected illegal drugs, + used other illegal drugs, &
and sniffed or inhaled intoxicating substances, @ by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 1997
================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                                           Sniffed or inhaled intoxicating
                     Lifetime illegal steroid use   Lifetime injected illegal drug use Lifetime use of other illegal drugs          substances
                   -------------------------------- ---------------------------------- ----------------------------------- -------------------------------
Category            Female       Male       Total      Female       Male       Total     Female       Male       Total      Female      Male        Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity

  White **            2.0         3.9         3.1        1.3         2.2        1.8       17.5        20.4       19.1        15.6       20.0        18.0
                   (+/-0.9)++  (+/-0.8)    (+/-0.5)   (+/-0.8)    (+/-0.5)   (+/-0.5)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-1.4)

  Black **            0.7         2.3         1.5        0.4         1.6        1.0        2.1         4.8        3.4         6.1        7.2         6.6
                   (+/-0.4)    (+/-0.9)    (+/-0.5)   (+/-0.5)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-0.7)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.3)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-1.4)

  Hispanic            2.8         3.9         3.4        1.3         2.9        2.2       14.5        20.0       17.5        17.0       17.7        17.4
                   (+/-1.4)    (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-1.0)   (+/-0.6)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-4.2)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-2.3)

Grade

   9                  3.9         4.7         4.3        2.5         3.3        3.0       12.4        13.9       13.2        19.9       18.2        19.0
                   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.4)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-1.8)   (+/-4.4)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-4.4)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-2.4)

  10                  1.7         4.1         3.0        2.2         2.7        2.5       15.1        17.2       16.2        16.1       16.9        16.5
                   (+/-1.0)    (+/-1.5)    (+/-0.8)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-1.3)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.1)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.2)

  11                  0.9         4.2         2.7        0.7         2.4        1.6       18.3        19.9       19.2        11.2       18.9        15.4
                   (+/-0.6)    (+/-1.5)    (+/-0.9)   (+/-0.7)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-0.7)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-2.5)

  12                  1.4         3.3         2.5        0.8         2.0        1.5       15.6        21.7       19.0         9.5       16.5        13.4
                   (+/-1.0)    (+/-1.5)    (+/-0.8)   (+/-0.4)    (+/-1.3)   (+/-0.8)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-2.4)

Total                 2.0         4.1         3.1        1.5         2.6        2.1       15.4        18.4       17.0        14.1       17.6        16.0
                   (+/-0.8)    (+/-0.7)    (+/-0.5)   (+/-0.8)    (+/-0.6)   (+/-0.5)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.2)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-1.3)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever used illegal steroids.
 + Ever injected illegal drugs. Respondents were classified as injecting-drug users only if they a) reported injecting-drug use not prescribed by a physician
   and b) answered "one or more" to any of these questions: "During your life, how many times have you used any form of cocaine including powder,
   crack, or freebase?" "During your life, how many times have you used any other type of illegal drug such as LSD, PCP, ecstasy, mushrooms, speed, ice,
   heroin, or pills without a doctor's prescription?" Or, "During your life, how many times have you taken steroid pills or shots without a doctor's
   prescription?"
 & Ever used any other type of illegal drug, (e.g., LSD {lysergic acid diethylamide}, PCP {phencyclidine}, "ecstasy" {methylenedioxymethamphetamine},
   mushrooms, "speed" {a stimulant, especially an amphetamine}, "ice" {methamphetamine}, or heroin).
 @ Ever sniffed glue or breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans or inhaled any paint sprays to become intoxicated.
** Non-Hispanic.
++ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_21
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TABLE 21. Percentage of high school students who used illegal steroids, * injected illegal drugs, + used other illegal drugs, &
and sniffed or inhaled intoxicating substances, @ by sex -- selected sites, United States, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
========================================================================================================================================
                                                                                Lifetime use of other      Sniffed or inhaled
                      Lifetime illegal steroid use  Lifetime injected drug use      illegal drugs        intoxicating substances
                      ----------------------------  --------------------------  ----------------------   -----------------------
Site                     Female    Male   Total      Female   Male    Total     Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                   2.8     6.8     4.9         1.9    5.0      3.5       12.3    15.3    13.9      17.8   20.9     19.4
  American Samoa **         4.3     5.4     4.8         1.8    2.4      2.1        4.3     8.5     6.2      15.8   18.6     17.1
  Arkansas                  4.3     6.1     5.2         1.6    2.6      2.1       13.9    17.4    15.6      21.2   19.8     20.4
  Connecticut               2.1     3.6     2.8         1.1    1.9      1.5       12.7    17.5    15.0      18.4   20.0     19.1
  Guam **                   3.6     4.3     3.9         1.3    2.9      2.1       16.1    18.5    17.2      17.8   18.5     18.2
  Hawaii                    1.4     2.8     2.1         0.4    1.1      0.8       13.6    15.5    14.5      16.0   15.7     15.7
  Iowa                      1.5     3.7     2.6         1.1    2.7      1.9       13.2    13.8    13.5      14.8   18.9     16.9
  Kentucky                  4.6     7.2     6.1         1.4    3.3      2.6       14.2    20.8    17.7      22.5   26.5     24.7
  Louisiana                 3.3     7.4     5.4         1.3    4.3      2.8       10.9    15.7    13.3      16.2   18.5     17.4
  Maine                     2.6     7.2     4.9         2.0    3.6      2.8       19.0    21.5    20.4      18.3   20.4     19.3
  Massachusetts             2.6     5.4     4.2         1.1    2.9      2.0         NA++    NA      NA      16.4   18.0     17.3
  Michigan                  3.6     6.7     5.4         1.9    3.8      2.9       17.7    21.5    19.7      19.5   23.4     21.6
  Mississippi               2.6     5.1     3.8         1.4    3.7      2.5        7.8     9.6     8.7      17.4   15.9     16.6
  Missouri                  2.9     4.9     3.9         1.9    3.7      2.8       16.3    18.0    17.3      16.8   17.9     17.4
  Montana                   2.8     5.6     4.2         1.8    3.8      2.8       19.9    20.5    20.3      21.1   20.6     20.8
  Nevada                    2.5     4.2     3.4         1.9    2.7      2.3       21.3    18.8    19.9      20.6   19.8     20.2
  New York                  1.6     3.6     2.7         0.9    2.3      1.6       11.0    16.6    13.8      15.0   18.7     16.9
  Ohio                      3.4     5.5     4.4         2.0    3.0      2.5       12.8    15.2    14.1      17.6   20.2     19.0
  Rhode Island              3.9     7.7     5.8         1.3    3.5      2.5       14.7    20.2    17.4      19.2   22.2     20.7
  South Carolina            3.2     5.3     4.3         1.2    2.4      1.9         NA      NA      NA      16.6   17.6     17.1
  South Dakota              2.5     4.5     3.5         2.0    4.2      3.1       13.6    16.1    14.8      18.6   17.1     17.8
  Utah                      3.2     4.6     4.2         1.9    3.7      3.0       11.2    13.3    12.4      16.3   17.0     17.0
  Vermont                   3.4     7.8     5.8         2.5    5.7      4.2       21.2    26.6    24.1      20.8   24.0     22.5
  Virgin Islands **          NA     1.0     0.5         0.2    0.4      0.3        0.4     1.3     0.9       9.0    5.8      7.4
  West Virginia             4.8     8.8     6.7         2.2    4.6      3.4       20.9    26.3    23.5      26.4   30.6     28.4
  Wisconsin                 2.4     4.7     3.7         1.2    2.2      1.7         NA      NA      NA      15.5   16.6     16.0
  Wyoming                   4.1     7.7     6.1         3.2    4.1      3.8       17.8    21.0    19.4      25.2   26.3     25.7

Unweighted data
  California &&             2.4     3.8     3.0         1.4    2.1      1.7       15.2    19.3    17.1      14.3   16.8     15.4
  Colorado                  3.9     4.9     4.5         2.4    3.5      3.0       25.3    24.9    25.1      20.1   20.2     20.1
  Delaware                  3.1     6.6     4.9         2.4    4.8      3.7       16.0    21.4    18.8      14.1   18.3     16.3
  Florida                   2.8     5.7     4.2         1.3    3.3      2.3       18.0    19.6    18.8      17.5   19.2     18.3
  New Hampshire             4.4     6.6     5.4         1.7    4.1      2.8       24.9    28.1    26.4      24.7   24.5     24.7
  New Jersey                1.5     4.3     2.9         0.3    2.5      1.4       12.6    17.6    15.0      17.6   20.9     19.2
  North Carolina            1.9     6.2     4.0         1.7    3.6      2.6         NA      NA      NA      16.9   18.4     17.7
  North Dakota              3.1     3.6     3.4         2.4    3.7      3.0        8.8    14.2    11.5        NA     NA       NA
  Tennessee                 5.2     7.5     6.3         1.9    4.5      3.1       11.9    18.4    15.0      20.8   23.3     21.9

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                    2.7     5.2     4.3         0.9    2.5      1.8         NA      NA      NA       6.0    7.5      7.0
  Chicago                   3.0     5.5     4.2         1.4    3.5      2.4        4.5    10.0     7.0      11.9   14.0     13.0
  Dallas                    2.3     2.5     2.5         1.0    1.6      1.3        5.5    11.0     8.2      17.5   15.8     16.7
  Detroit                   1.3     3.4     2.3         0.7    3.3      1.9        1.8     4.3     3.0       7.3    7.9      7.6
  District of Columbia      1.2     5.8     3.6         1.0    4.4      2.7        2.7     8.5     5.6      10.6   12.2     11.4
  Ft. Lauderdale            1.1     5.3     3.2         0.7    4.6      2.6       13.4    15.1    14.2      14.2   16.5     15.3
  Houston                   2.5     7.1     4.6         1.3    5.9      3.5        9.0    14.7    11.6      12.9   14.9     13.8
  Jersey City               2.3     4.3     3.3         1.9    3.0      2.4        4.3     6.6     5.4       6.7    8.9      7.7
  Los Angeles               3.8     3.0     3.4         1.6    2.9      2.2       15.6    16.1    15.9      18.0   17.2     17.7
  Miami                     1.9     5.3     3.6         0.7    3.2      2.0       12.5    13.9    13.2      12.4   11.8     12.1
  New Orleans               2.8     4.9     3.8         1.7    2.8      2.2        3.8     7.0     5.3      13.7   11.8     12.9
  New York City             1.8     3.1     2.4         0.7    2.0      1.3        6.4     8.9     7.7      11.3   13.2     12.2
  Philadelphia              2.8     4.0     3.4         0.3    2.1      1.2        6.3     8.8     7.5      10.0   11.6     10.8
  San Diego                 2.9     4.5     3.7         1.3    3.0      2.2       14.9    16.7    15.8      14.5   13.9     14.3
  San Francisco             2.2     3.6     2.9         1.1    1.4      1.3        8.3    10.9     9.7       8.7    7.9      8.3

Unweighted data
  Baltimore                 1.9     2.9     2.4         0.4    2.4      1.3        3.2     4.5     3.9       7.0    7.4      7.3
  Newark                    0.9     3.0     1.8         0.3    1.3      0.8        1.5     4.0     2.6       6.6    5.6      6.2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Ever used illegal steroids.
 + Ever injected illegal drugs. Respondents were classified as injecting-drug users only if they a) reported injecting-drug use not
   prescribed by a physician and b) answered "one or more" to any of these questions: "During your life, how many times have you
   used any form of cocaine including powder, crack, or freebase?", "During your life, how many times have you used any other type
   of illegal drug, such as LSD, PCP, ecstacy, mushrooms, speed, ice, or heroin?" Or, "During your life, how many times have you taken
   steroid pills or shots without a doctor's prescription?"
 & Ever used any other type of illegal drug, (e.g., LSD {lysergic acid diethylamide}, PCP {phencyclidine}, "exstasy"
   {methylenedioxymethamphetamine}, mushrooms, "speed" {a stimulant, especially an amphetamine}, "ice" {methamphetamine}, or
   heroin).
 @ Ever sniffed glue or breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans or inhaled any paint sprays to become intoxicated.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
++ Not available.
&& Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
========================================================================================================================================

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Table_22
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TABLE 22. Percentage of high school students who reported initiating drug-related behaviors before age 13, by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1997
==========================================================================================================================================================
                     Smoked a whole cigarette
                            before age 13            Drank alcohol before age 13 *      Tried marijuana before age 13     Tried cocaine before age 13 +
                  -------------------------------   -------------------------------    -------------------------------   -------------------------------
Category           Female      Male        Total     Female       Male       Total      Female      Male       Total      Female       Male       Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White &           22.0       28.5        25.6       23.7        32.9       28.8         5.6        9.0         7.5        0.7         1.1        0.9
                  (+/-3.4)@  (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-1.9)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-0.5)    (+/-0.8)   (+/-0.5)
  Black &           15.3       19.5        17.4       27.1        39.4       33.1         6.5       15.6        11.0        0.1         0.7        0.4
                  (+/-3.5)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-3.1)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-0.1)    (+/-0.5)   (+/-0.2)
  Hispanic          20.3       28.6        24.9       31.8        43.0       37.9         8.3       17.2        13.2        1.0         1.8        1.4
                  (+/-4.2)   (+/-5.6)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-5.7)    (+/-4.4)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-0.6)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-0.5)
Grade
   9                28.8       34.9        32.0       38.6        44.9       41.9        10.6       18.9        14.9        1.8         1.9        1.8
                  (+/-5.8)   (+/-8.6)    (+/-6.2)   (+/-4.5)    (+/-5.5)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-5.1)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.3)
  10                23.8       30.5        27.5       27.5        35.7       32.0         8.3       12.2        10.4        1.3         1.3        1.3
                  (+/-3.2)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-0.9)   (+/-1.0)
  11                17.1       26.3        22.2       23.3        35.4       29.9         4.6       11.3         8.3        0.3         1.7        1.0
                  (+/-2.3)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-1.9)   (+/-0.4)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-0.7)
  12                14.6       21.8        18.6       15.1        28.8       22.8         3.6        7.6         5.8        0.2         0.5        0.3
                  (+/-3.3)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-1.5)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-1.5)   (+/-0.2)    (+/-0.4)   (+/-0.3)
  Total             20.9       28.0        24.8       25.7        35.7       31.1         6.7       12.2         9.7        0.8         1.3        1.1
                  (+/-2.4)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-2.1)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.9)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-0.6)    (+/-0.6)   (+/-0.5)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Other than a few sips.
+ Including powder, "crack," or "freebase" forms of cocaine.
& Non-Hispanic.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
==========================================================================================================================================================

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Table_23
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TABLE 23. Percentage of high school students who reported initiating drug-related behaviors before age 13 by sex -- selected
U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
=============================================================================================================================
                            Smoked a whole            Drank alcohol           Tried marijuana             Tried cocaine
                        cigarette before age 1       before age 13 *           before age 13             before age 13 +
                        -----------------------   ----------------------   ----------------------    ----------------------
Site                    Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                 22.2    33.6    27.9      26.0   41.3     33.8      5.1    12.7     9.0       0.5    2.4      1.5
  American Samoa &        20.5    29.5    24.5      17.8   24.7     20.8      4.4     8.6     6.2       1.2    1.4      1.3
  Arkansas                25.7    33.6    29.7      29.5   44.6     37.2      6.6    13.5    10.1       0.9    1.7      1.3
  Connecticut             18.3    25.1    21.7      23.5   33.5     28.4      5.7     9.6     7.7       0.9    1.1      1.0
  Guam &                  37.3    38.5    37.9      23.3   34.5     28.4     12.4    27.1    19.3       1.3    1.4      1.3
  Hawaii                  23.4    27.8    25.6      27.0   36.0     31.7     12.5    16.3    14.4       0.7    1.6      1.2
  Iowa                    15.4    23.5    19.6      22.8   34.8     28.9      3.5     6.4     5.0       0.7    1.4      1.0
  Kentucky                28.9    35.8    32.5      22.6   37.5     30.4      6.8    11.3     9.3       0.1    1.1      0.8
  Louisiana               23.3    31.2    27.3      34.6   47.1     40.8      6.5    12.8     9.7       0.7    2.3      1.6
  Maine                   28.1    32.5    30.2      22.2   34.5     28.5      8.0    16.5    12.3       1.1    2.6      1.9
  Massachusetts           22.2    26.3    24.3      26.3   35.3     30.8      8.3    13.7    11.1       0.8    2.4      1.7
  Michigan                25.8    28.3    27.2      31.1   38.8     34.9      8.2    16.1    12.2       0.7    2.1      1.6
  Mississippi             17.8    28.8    23.1      26.6   46.1     36.2      3.9    13.9     8.8       0.6    1.8      1.2
  Missouri                23.1    31.4    27.4      28.4   38.4     33.6      6.9    12.4     9.8       1.3    2.5      1.9
  Montana                 21.6    30.4    26.1      31.6   45.9     38.8      6.6    12.6     9.7       0.9    2.5      1.7
  Nevada                  20.7    25.8    23.4      32.6   41.1     37.0      7.5    13.1    10.3       1.1    2.8      2.0
  New York                20.4    24.9    22.7      24.6   36.5     30.6      4.8     9.8     7.3       0.5    1.6      1.1
  Ohio                    19.4    24.8    22.1      25.2   35.6     30.5      6.9    10.9     8.9       1.2    2.6      1.9
  Rhode Island            22.1    26.7    24.4      30.8   36.7     33.7      7.8    14.0    10.9       0.4    1.9      1.2
  South Carolina          21.9    31.0    26.5      30.8   42.0     36.4      6.2    13.9    10.1       0.9    1.7      1.4
  South Dakota            21.8    29.3    25.6      25.6   36.9     31.3      3.8     7.5     5.7       0.4    1.6      1.0
  Utah                     9.2    15.8    12.6      14.0   19.9     17.2      4.3     6.9     5.8       1.1    2.5      2.0
  Vermont                 23.5    30.2    27.0      27.5   38.2     33.0      8.8    15.7    12.5        NA@    NA       NA
  Virgin Islands &        10.8    13.2    12.0      35.4   47.8     41.5      7.1    14.3    10.7       0.0    0.0      0.0
  West Virginia           26.4    37.2    31.7      26.8   41.7     34.1      6.7    15.6    11.0       0.8    2.9      1.8
  Wisconsin               18.8    29.1    24.1      22.8   34.1     28.7      5.0     9.6     7.5       0.5    1.7      1.1
  Wyoming                 25.9    32.1    29.1      32.9   47.9     40.5      6.6    13.8    10.3       1.5    3.6      2.6

Unweighted data
  California **           17.2    22.4    19.6      23.6   36.7     29.5      7.5    14.6    10.8       1.5    1.6      1.6
  Colorado                25.0    29.9    27.4      30.0   42.1     35.8     10.7    14.7    12.7       1.0    1.4      1.2
  Delaware                25.9    29.1    27.5      33.1   39.5     36.2      9.0    16.5    12.7       1.1    3.5      2.4
  Florida                 22.4    27.0    24.7      28.0   36.9     32.5      7.7    13.0    10.4       0.6    1.9      1.2
  New Hampshire           23.1    25.7    24.4      24.7   33.4     28.9      7.5    12.2     9.7       0.5    2.5      1.4
  New Jersey              19.3    25.1    22.2      24.7   34.5     29.4      4.2     9.0     6.5       0.2    1.4      0.8
  North Carolina          23.3    31.7    27.3      25.5   37.8     31.0      5.8    14.0     9.6       1.3    3.6      2.4
  North Dakota              NA      NA      NA      23.0   29.4     26.2      3.5     6.0     4.8       1.5    1.8      1.6
  Tennessee               22.5    35.8    28.7      23.5   34.7     28.7      6.3    14.7    10.3       1.5    1.7      1.6

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                  16.6    19.2    18.0      26.5   40.3     33.1      6.8    14.8    10.9       0.9    3.2      2.1
  Chicago                 16.5    24.3    20.2      29.6   41.6     35.0      7.1    19.0    12.5       1.0    2.8      1.8
  Dallas                  14.2    20.2    17.2      32.6   39.1     35.8      7.3    15.9    11.7       0.3    1.6      1.0
  Detroit                 15.7    20.7    18.0      28.6   37.9     33.0      8.9    21.5    14.7       0.5    1.2      0.8
  District of Columbia    14.0    20.4    17.1      26.4   38.6     32.5      7.6    19.4    13.4       1.0    4.3      2.7
  Ft. Lauderdale          17.5    19.2    18.3      29.0   35.6     32.3      5.3    10.9     8.1       0.8    2.3      1.5
  Houston                 15.2    25.6    20.0      33.8   40.8     37.0      5.5    16.3    10.5       1.0    1.4      1.2
  Jersey City             17.0    19.0    18.0      27.5   38.6     32.7      6.6    10.2     8.3       1.0    2.3      1.6
  Los Angeles             18.6    26.1    22.0      31.2   40.1     35.3      8.9    15.5    11.9       1.4    1.6      1.5
  Miami                   16.0    21.3    18.8      31.6   40.1     36.0      5.0    11.9     8.5       0.9    1.8      1.3
  New Orleans             12.8    20.0    16.2      35.0   42.5     38.4      7.3    16.2    11.5       1.5    1.9      1.7
  New York City           18.4    18.4    18.3      28.2   32.9     30.5      5.5     9.1     7.2       0.7    1.0      0.8
  Philadelphia            22.3    24.7    23.5      28.8   35.9     32.3      7.5    13.4    10.4       0.1    1.8      0.9
  San Diego               19.0    22.9    20.9      30.3   38.4     34.3     11.4    16.6    14.0       1.0    1.7      1.4
  San Francisco           15.6    18.9    17.3      23.0   33.9     28.6      6.9    10.2     8.6       1.0    1.6      1.3

Unweighted data
  Baltimore               16.1    17.3    16.8      27.2   35.6     30.9      7.4    14.2    10.5       0.5    1.4      1.1
  Newark                  12.3    16.5    14.2      20.3   34.7     26.3      2.9    10.9     6.2       0.3    0.4      0.4
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * More than a few sips.
 + Including powder, "crack" or "freebase" forms of cocaine.
 & U. S. territories are included as states.
 @ Not available.
** Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
=============================================================================================================================



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Table_24
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TABLE 24. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in drug-related behaviors on school property, by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1997
==============================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                                                                                 Offered, sold, or given
                          Cigarette use                    Smokeless tobacco use                 Alcohol use                        Marijuana use                   an illegal drug
                        on school property                  on school property +             on school property &               on school property @              on school property **
                  -------------------------------     -------------------------------   -------------------------------    -------------------------------   -------------------------------
Category           Female       Male       Total       Female       Male       Total     Female       Male       Total      Female      Male        Total     Female       Male       Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White ++          14.9        16.5       15.8          0.4        11.3        6.5        2.9         6.3        4.8         3.9        7.3         5.8       24.5        36.1       31.0
                  (+/-3.2)&&  (+/-2.4)   (+/-1.8)     (+/-0.3)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-1.7)   (+/-0.9)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-0.8)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-2.7)
  Black ++           5.5        12.4        8.8          0.4         2.5        1.4        4.0         7.3        5.6         5.4       13.0         9.1       16.7        34.6       25.4
                  (+/-2.0)    (+/-3.1)   (+/-2.0)     (+/-0.7)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-0.9)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-2.1)   (+/-1.4)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-2.1)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-4.6)   (+/-3.3)
  Hispanic           7.7        15.3       11.9          0.3         5.8        3.3        7.6         8.7        8.2         5.9       14.1        10.4       34.4        46.8       41.1
                  (+/-1.8)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-2.5)     (+/-0.2)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-1.6)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-1.9)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-5.3)   (+/-4.0)
Grade
   9                11.8        15.9       14.0          0.4         9.5        5.2        5.3         6.3        5.9         6.5        9.6         8.1       28.0        34.5       31.4
                  (+/-3.5)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-2.6)     (+/-0.5)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-1.8)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-5.3)    (+/-5.7)   (+/-4.6)
  10                13.2        15.5       14.4          0.1         5.7        3.2        3.2         5.6        4.6         4.2        8.2         6.4       25.3        40.0       33.4
                  (+/-3.3)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-2.0)     (+/-0.1)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-1.3)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.4)    (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-3.3)
  11                15.2        16.2       15.8          0.6         9.8        5.6        3.8         7.9        6.0         5.2       10.2         7.9       26.4        38.8       33.2
                  (+/-4.1)    (+/-3.1)   (+/-2.7)     (+/-0.7)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-2.8)
  12                11.6        16.1       14.1          0.1        10.6        6.0        2.2         8.8        5.9         2.6        8.2         5.7       19.6        36.4       29.0
                  (+/-2.3)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-2.3)     (+/-0.1)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-2.2)   (+/-0.9)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-0.9)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-3.5)
Total               13.0        15.9       14.6          0.4         9.0        5.1        3.6         7.2        5.6         4.6        9.0         7.0       24.7        37.4       31.7
                  (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.5)     (+/-0.2)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-1.4)   (+/-0.7)    (+/-1.3)   (+/-0.7)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.0)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.8)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + Used chewing tobacco or snuff on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Drank alcohol on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** During the 12 months preceding the survey.
++ Non-Hispanic.
&& Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
==============================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_25
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TABLE 25. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in drug-related behaviors on school property, by sex --
selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
========================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                                               Offered, sold, or given
                              Cigarette use         Smokeless tobacco use         Alcohol use              Marijuana use           an illegal drug
                           on school property *      on school property +     on school property &      on school property @    on school property **
                          ----------------------    ----------------------   ----------------------    ----------------------  -----------------------
Site                      Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                    9.4    16.4    12.9       0.5   13.9      7.1      4.7     8.0     6.4       2.1    8.0      5.0     22.8    35.8    29.3
  American Samoa ++         19.6    23.1    21.1       1.2    4.6      2.7     11.5    14.7    12.9       4.5   13.0      8.2     20.1    30.2    24.6
  Arkansas                  13.6    18.0    15.8       0.7   15.0      7.9      4.1     6.8     5.5       3.7   11.3      7.5     21.0    30.6    25.9
  Connecticut               20.0    18.4    19.3       0.7    6.2      3.4      5.9     8.4     7.1       5.5   10.2      7.9     25.6    32.5    29.0
  Guam ++                   14.4    21.5    17.7       2.7    7.1      4.8      4.3     4.5     4.4       8.2   15.8     11.8     35.1    45.3    40.0
  Hawaii                    15.9    16.0    16.0       0.4    3.4      1.9      7.9     9.0     8.5      10.2   14.8     12.6     35.2    47.2    41.4
  Iowa                      13.8    17.9    15.9       0.7   12.3      6.6      2.7     6.1     4.4       2.6    6.4      4.5     18.4    27.1    22.8
  Kentucky                  22.1    28.0    25.3       0.9   18.1      9.7      5.8     6.9     6.5       4.4   10.7      7.8     28.2    39.8    34.2
  Louisiana                 10.8    14.0    12.4       0.5   10.0      5.2      3.9     6.6     5.2       3.1    6.8      4.9     22.9    33.4    28.1
  Maine                     18.7    17.7    18.2       1.0    5.5      3.3      4.9     7.4     6.2       6.2   12.4      9.5     36.0    44.8    40.7
  Massachusetts             18.3    19.6    18.9       0.4    4.9      2.7      4.6     7.5     6.2       6.8   13.1     10.0     37.5    46.8    42.2
  Michigan                  17.3    17.4    17.3       1.1    7.2      4.3      6.1     8.1     7.2       5.7   12.0      8.9     29.6    42.6    36.2
  Mississippi                7.7    19.1    13.2       0.3   10.6      5.3      5.2     8.6     6.8       1.9    8.6      5.2     18.5    29.9    24.1
  Missouri                  15.8    19.0    17.5       0.6    9.7      5.2      3.8     6.7     5.3       5.3   11.5      8.5     20.4    30.9    25.8
  Montana                   13.3    17.2    15.3       3.2   22.9     13.3      6.7    10.1     8.4       7.0   10.6      8.9     31.1    37.8    34.6
  Nevada                    15.8    13.7    14.8       1.0   11.5      6.3      7.8     8.2     8.1       8.2   11.1      9.7     33.3    42.3    38.0
  New York                  16.7    18.4    17.6       0.2    4.9      2.5      4.8     7.6     6.2       5.1    9.8      7.5     21.9    32.8    27.4
  Ohio                      12.2    16.3    14.4       0.8   11.1      6.1      3.1     5.4     4.3       4.5    9.4      7.0     22.6    32.9    27.8
  Rhode Island              21.1    19.5    20.4       1.2    5.8      3.6      5.7     8.9     7.3       6.5   11.7      9.1     24.7    34.3    29.4
  South Carolina            13.8    19.0    16.5       0.7    6.3      3.6      3.8     7.6     5.7       3.4    9.6      6.6       NA      NA      NA
  South Dakota              18.9    20.2    19.5       1.7   15.8      8.9      5.0    11.0     8.0       2.4    7.7      5.1     25.9    34.1    30.1
  Utah                       5.5     7.1     6.5       1.2    6.8      4.3      4.1     6.4     5.3       3.4    5.8      4.7     24.8    29.2    27.3
  Vermont                   16.6    19.4    18.0       1.3    7.6      4.6      3.9     7.9     6.0       6.9   14.2     10.7     34.0    45.5    39.9
  Virgin Islands ++          0.7     0.7     0.7       0.0    0.0      0.0      2.2     3.5     2.9       2.4    5.7      4.0     10.9    19.7    15.2
  West Virginia             18.9    23.3    21.0       0.7   20.3     10.2      4.4     9.4     6.8       4.9   13.9      9.3     29.2    39.1    34.0
  Wisconsin                 12.9    20.4    16.9        NA&&   NA       NA      2.6     4.9     3.9       5.1    9.9      7.5     25.3    31.0    28.3
  Wyoming                   16.0    17.0    16.6       5.1   24.9     15.2      5.5     9.1     7.4       5.5   10.3      8.0     27.1    35.7    31.5

Unweighted data
  California @@              6.9    10.4     8.5       0.5    4.2      2.2      5.9     8.0     6.8       4.7   12.6      8.3     29.7    46.2    37.2
  Colorado                  19.2    16.4    17.9       1.5   12.2      6.7      5.2     9.0     7.0       6.6    9.9      8.2     26.5    34.6    30.4
  Delaware                  15.5    18.6    17.0       1.0    6.9      3.9      4.6     8.0     6.3       4.9   10.3      7.6     32.9    45.2    38.9
  Florida                   11.7    14.3    12.9       0.9    9.9      5.3      3.7     5.2     4.4       4.0    9.2      6.6     29.3    42.4    35.7
  New Hampshire             20.0    16.1    18.2       0.2    6.0      2.9      5.4     5.5     5.4       6.0    9.9      7.9     30.9    38.9    34.7
  New Jersey                18.5    20.2    19.4       0.6    4.9      2.7      2.7     7.1     4.8       3.3    8.1      5.6     21.6    34.4    27.7
  North Carolina            15.2    19.6    17.2       0.7    8.2      4.2      4.8     7.5     6.0       3.8   10.4      6.8     25.8    37.7    31.2
  North Dakota              17.6    16.2    16.9       2.6   12.9      7.8      5.7     8.0     6.9       7.2    8.2      7.7     26.5    30.5    28.5
  Tennessee                 11.4    19.2    15.0       2.0   17.4      9.2      3.4     6.1     4.6       1.8    8.7      5.0     23.3    33.5    28.1

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                    10.3     9.6    10.0       0.6    2.6      1.7      5.7     7.6     6.7       5.4   11.9      8.8     28.9    41.6    35.1
  Chicago                   11.6    13.9    12.6       1.0    3.2      2.0      6.1     8.2     7.0       6.9   12.8      9.6     23.1    34.8    28.4
  Dallas                     5.8    13.5     9.6       0.5    2.0      1.3      6.7     8.4     7.7       5.8   13.7      9.8     25.9    38.3    32.0
  Detroit                    7.6    13.7    10.4       0.4    2.2      1.2      6.8    10.0     8.3       6.9   14.6     10.5     19.6    33.3    26.0
  District of Columbia       8.8    16.5    12.6       1.0    3.8      2.4      7.4    16.6    12.1       9.2   18.3     13.6     20.4    29.2    24.8
  Ft. Lauderdale             9.9    11.8    10.9       0.4    5.2      2.8      4.2     8.3     6.2       2.8   30.1      9.0      5.9    26.4    33.6
  Houston                    6.3    13.6     9.6       1.3    4.8      2.9      4.4    12.3     8.0       3.3   12.3      7.4     23.6    35.9    29.3
  Jersey City               17.4    20.4    18.8       0.9    4.8      2.8      7.9    11.6     9.7       6.1   10.6      8.2     16.0    24.7    20.1
  Los Angeles                7.9     9.9     8.9       0.8    2.1      1.4      8.3     9.1     8.6       6.7   13.1      9.7     30.8    42.2    36.2
  Miami                     10.2    14.2    12.2       0.8    2.4      1.6      4.2     8.3     6.3       5.0   10.2      7.7     28.2    40.7    34.5
  New Orleans                6.7    15.3    10.7       1.7    2.6      2.1      4.6     8.8     6.6       6.8   14.5     10.4     19.5    31.8    25.2
  New York City             13.9    14.8    14.4       0.3    1.4      0.9      4.0     6.4     5.2       3.9   10.3      7.0     15.6    25.6    20.6
  Philadelphia              14.4    18.8    16.6       0.4    1.4      0.9      4.0     6.2     5.1       5.3   13.9      9.6     17.8    33.4    25.5
  San Diego                  7.5    11.8     9.6       0.9    2.1      1.5     11.2    10.6    11.0       8.0   11.7      9.8     39.8    52.3    46.1
  San Francisco              7.5    10.9     9.3       0.5    1.6      1.0      4.6     6.0     5.4       4.6    8.6      6.7     32.1    41.8    37.0

Unweighted data
  Baltimore                  6.3    14.5    10.1       0.4    2.9      1.6      9.6    15.0    12.1       6.9   15.2     10.5     16.6    27.6    21.5
  Newark                    10.2    13.4    11.5       0.3    1.1      0.6      5.3    11.7     8.0       5.4   12.8      8.5     13.1    25.9    18.4
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * On >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 + Used chewing tobacco or snuff on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 & Drank alcohol on >= 1 of the 30 days preceding the survey.
 @ Used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
** During the 12 months preceding the survey.
++ U.S. territories are included as states.
&& Not available.
@@ Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
========================================================================================================================================================

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Table_26
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TABLE 26. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in sexual behaviors, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade --
United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1997
============================================================================================================================================================================================
                          Ever had sexual              First sexual intercourse               Four or more sex
                            intercourse                        before age 13              partners during lifetime         Currently sexually active *          Currently abstinent +
                  -------------------------------   -------------------------------    -------------------------------   -------------------------------    ------------------------------
Category           Female      Male        Total     Female       Male       Total      Female      Male       Total      Female       Male       Total      Female      Male       Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White &           44.0       43.3        43.6        3.2         4.6        4.0        12.1       11.3        11.6       35.1        29.6       32.0        20.2       31.7       26.6
                  (+/-5.7)@  (+/-3.9)    (+/-4.2)   (+/-1.0)    (+/-1.0)   (+/-0.8)    (+/-1.9)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-1.5)   (+/-4.4)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-3.1)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-3.4)   (+/-2.4)
  Black &           65.6       80.3        72.7       11.0        33.3       21.7        25.4       52.8        38.5       47.3        60.5       53.6        27.9       24.6       26.1
                  (+/-4.4)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-4.6)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-5.9)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-4.2)   (+/-2.7)
  Hispanic          45.7       57.7        52.2        3.4        11.4        7.7        10.2       20.1        15.5       33.2        37.3       35.4        27.2       35.2       32.0
                  (+/-3.9)   (+/-6.3)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-1.4)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-1.4)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-5.6)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-5.5)   (+/-5.4)   (+/-4.1)
Grade
   9                34.0       41.8        38.0        6.5        14.7       10.8         7.9       16.2        12.2       22.4        25.9       24.2        33.3       37.5       35.7
                  (+/-4.0)   (+/-6.1)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-4.8)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-5.9)   (+/-6.3)   (+/-4.4)
  10                43.5       41.7        42.5        5.1         9.7        7.6        11.7       15.5        13.8       31.2        27.6       29.2        28.4       33.9       31.3
                  (+/-5.2)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-5.2)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-8.3)   (+/-6.4)   (+/-5.7)
  11                50.3       49.3        49.7        3.5         8.2        6.1        15.8       17.4        16.7       41.5        34.8       37.8        17.5       29.2       23.8
                  (+/-5.8)   (+/-5.5)    (+/-5.2)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-5.7)    (+/-4.9)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-4.9)   (+/-4.5)   (+/-3.7)
  12                61.9       60.1        60.9        2.9         6.0        4.7        20.6       20.6        20.6       49.5        43.1       46.0        20.0       28.2       24.5
                  (+/-7.4)   (+/-6.8)    (+/-6.5)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-1.4)    (+/-4.4)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-5.9)    (+/-5.4)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-4.7)   (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.1)
Total               47.7       48.9        48.4        4.5         9.4        7.2        14.1       17.6        16.0       36.5        33.4       34.8        23.4       31.5       27.8
                  (+/-3.7)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-3.1)   (+/-0.7)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-0.9)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.8)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey.
+ Among those who have ever had sexual intercourse, no sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey.
& Non-Hispanic.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
============================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_27
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TABLE 27. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in sexual behaviors, by sex -- selected U.S. sites,
Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
===========================================================================================================================================================
                             Ever had sexual       First sexual intercouse      Four or more sex
                               intercourse             before age 13        partners during lifetime  Currently sexually active *   Currently abstinent +
                          ----------------------   -----------------------  ------------------------  ---------------------------  ----------------------
Category                  Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total      Female    Male   Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                     NA&     NA      NA        NA     NA       NA       NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA          NA      NA      NA
  American Samoa @          25.8    52.1    37.2       2.3   15.7      8.1      3.2    19.4    10.2      13.6   31.7     21.4        47.5    38.1    41.9
  Arkansas                  57.5    61.9    59.7       5.9   18.7     12.4     19.2    29.7    24.5      45.4   43.5     44.4        20.9    29.3    25.3
  Connecticut               42.3    44.4    43.5       3.3    5.9      4.7     10.0    13.0    11.7      33.4   31.6     32.7        21.0    28.6    24.7
  Guam @                    44.7    54.7    49.4       8.4   13.2     10.6     10.1    15.8    12.8      29.1   27.5     28.4          NA      NA    42.5
  Hawaii                    44.8    35.8    40.3       4.9    9.1      7.0      8.2     9.7     9.1      32.6   19.3     25.8        27.3    45.9    35.7
  Iowa                      39.2    46.3    42.8       2.0    5.6      3.8     13.4    11.9    12.7      31.5   34.3     33.0        19.8    25.5    22.9
  Kentucky                  50.3    56.9    53.7       3.4   10.7      7.2     12.6    23.1    18.1      38.3   40.2     39.4        24.1    29.3    26.7
  Louisiana                   NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA       NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA          NA      NA      NA
  Maine                     50.1    52.9    51.6       4.3    9.2      6.8     11.9    13.2    12.5      38.3   34.0     36.2        23.6    35.7    29.8
  Massachusetts             42.4    46.8    44.7       4.2    9.8      7.1     10.6    14.8    12.7      31.8   30.0     31.0        25.2    35.7    30.6
  Michigan                  47.2    50.7    48.9       5.0   11.8      8.3     14.2    18.5    16.4      36.0   32.7     34.4        24.1    35.4    29.7
  Mississippi               64.5    74.9    69.5       8.5   34.7     21.2     19.7    44.1    31.4      49.2   55.1     52.1        23.6    26.1    24.9
  Missouri                  52.4    50.4    51.5       4.5   11.9      8.2     13.1    18.3    15.8      41.2   31.9     36.7        21.4    36.1    28.5
  Montana                   44.4    47.3    45.9       4.1    9.0      6.5     14.5    16.6    15.5      33.1   29.8     31.5        25.7    36.8    31.3
  Nevada                    46.7    47.6    47.1       3.9    9.1      6.5     12.6    18.0    15.3      35.6   31.5     33.5        23.9    33.7    29.1
  New York                  37.0    45.4    41.2       3.2   11.7      7.4      8.0    17.4    12.6      27.9   30.5     29.2        24.8    32.3    28.9
  Ohio                      47.4    49.9    48.7       4.7   14.2      9.4     13.0    20.1    16.6      35.3   32.9     34.2        25.6    33.9    29.7
  Rhode Island              42.2    43.1    42.7       3.8    7.5      5.7      9.8    14.2    12.1      33.8   27.9     31.1        19.9    35.1    27.2
  South Carolina            59.1    64.0    61.5       9.3   22.5     15.8     20.1    29.9    25.0      43.4   41.0     42.3        26.5    35.9    31.3
  South Dakota              43.1    39.4    41.2       3.9    6.1      5.0     14.5    12.9    13.7      30.3   26.9     28.6        29.7    32.0    30.8
  Utah                        NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA       NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA          NA      NA      NA
  Vermont                     NA      NA      NA       4.3    9.5      7.0      9.8    13.3    11.6      31.5   29.6     30.6        24.9    33.2    29.2
  Virgin Islands @          43.3    71.7    57.1       5.1   41.7     22.6     10.1    37.9    23.6      30.9   37.8     34.2        28.9    47.2    40.0
  West Virginia             53.1    58.0    55.5       3.6   11.4      7.4     15.1    19.1    17.0      40.1   40.7     40.4        24.6    29.8    27.3
  Wisconsin                 38.7    43.7    41.3       4.2    6.8      5.5     11.4    11.4    11.4      30.5   27.0     28.7        21.4    38.5    30.7
  Wyoming                   44.0    45.9    45.0       4.3    8.2      6.2     16.3    17.5    16.9      32.4   28.8     30.6        26.7    37.6    32.2

Unweighted data
  California **             40.6    47.1    43.5       3.4    7.9      5.4      9.3    15.1    11.9      31.7   29.8     30.8        21.1    33.3    27.0
  Colorado                  39.4    43.8    41.4       3.1    8.5      5.7     12.9    13.4    13.1      31.5   27.4     29.4        20.3    37.3    29.0
  Delaware                  54.8    56.0    55.4       8.4   14.1     11.1     18.7    21.7    20.1      42.5   37.5     40.3        22.9    32.7    27.3
  Florida                   45.0    51.5    48.2       3.8   13.2      8.4     12.5    19.2    15.7      34.8   32.9     33.9        23.6    36.7    30.3
  New Hampshire             47.9    47.8    47.8       4.4    7.9      6.0     12.6    11.1    11.9      35.9   31.2     33.7        25.1    34.4    29.4
  New Jersey                41.0    40.5    40.8       3.0    9.2      6.0      8.3    14.0    11.1      30.4   26.3     28.5        25.8    34.7    29.9
  North Carolina            56.9    62.6    59.6       8.0   19.6     13.0     17.9    27.5    22.3      43.0   43.5     43.4        24.6    30.5    27.2
  North Dakota                NA      NA      NA       2.7    5.2      3.9     10.3    11.0    10.7      32.1   27.9     30.0        24.2    28.6    26.3
  Tennessee                 51.9    54.9    53.4       5.8   15.2     10.2     17.2    22.7    19.7      39.6   37.0     38.4        23.4    32.6    28.0

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                    47.4    62.7    54.7       7.4   21.6     14.3     13.5    29.1    20.9      39.2   39.0     39.3        17.7    37.5    28.1
  Chicago                   47.5    61.9    53.9       6.7   20.6     12.8     10.8    31.3    19.9      35.0   40.9     37.7        26.2    33.5    29.7
  Dallas                    55.3    69.3    62.1       6.6   26.0     16.1     14.9    37.2    25.8      40.4   47.2     43.7        26.9    31.8    29.5
  Detroit                   57.4    78.0    66.9       9.1   36.2     21.4     14.9    43.1    27.7      41.4   51.9     46.2        27.6    33.3    30.6
  District of Columbia      62.0    79.8    70.7       9.5   33.7     21.3     25.9    51.3    38.2      48.8   57.5     53.1        21.2    27.8    24.6
  Ft. Lauderdale            44.0    56.9    50.4       3.9   17.2     10.4     10.2    26.5    18.2      32.4   35.9     34.1        26.3    36.5    32.0
  Houston                   46.8    64.5    54.8       6.5   22.1     13.6     13.0    32.3    21.7      31.2   45.1     37.4        33.0    29.3    31.0
  Jersey City               50.7    66.4    58.1       5.8   29.4     16.9     10.2    37.9    23.2      36.8   45.4     40.9        27.0    30.5    28.8
  Los Angeles               41.1    50.7    45.4       2.9   12.2      7.1      7.4    19.2    12.8      31.2   33.3     32.1        24.3    34.0    29.4
  Miami                     42.1    61.6    51.8       3.5   21.0     12.2      8.6    30.9    19.6      30.8   37.7     34.2        26.7    38.3    33.5
  New Orleans               50.4    75.2    61.6       6.8   35.2     19.6     11.4    44.8    26.3      37.4   53.8     44.7        25.9    28.1    27.1
  New York City             33.4    47.0    40.0       3.7   15.6      9.4      7.6    22.6    14.8      25.5   30.4     27.8        23.7    35.1    30.2
  Philadelphia              59.1    68.7    63.9       8.4   25.9     17.0     18.7    38.4    28.4      45.2   46.7     46.0        23.3    31.9    27.9
  San Diego                 43.4    46.0    44.7       5.1   10.1      7.6     12.2    17.9    15.1      33.1   29.3     31.2        23.8    35.9    29.9
  San Francisco               NA      NA      NA       2.5    6.6      4.6      6.3    11.2     8.8      21.7   17.6     19.7        24.0    46.8    36.2

Unweighted data
  Baltimore                 69.2    80.9    74.2      12.5   39.7     24.0     25.3    52.4    36.7      56.6   61.9     59.0        18.0    23.5    20.4
  Newark                    62.1    80.5    69.7       6.0   31.8     16.6     17.4    48.9    30.3      49.0   58.9     53.1        20.9    26.6    23.5
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey.
 + Among those who have ever had sexual intercourse, no sexual intercourse during the 3 months preceding the survey.
 & Not available.
 @ U.S. territories are included as states.
** Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
===========================================================================================================================================================

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Table_28
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TABLE 28. Percentage of high school students who reported using a condom during * or using birth control pills before sexual
intercourse; * using alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse; + and ever being pregnant or getting someone else pregnant,
by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1997
===========================================================================================================================================================
                                                        Birth control pill use                                              Have been pregnant or have
                       Condom use during last             before last sexual             Alcohol or drug use at last           gotten someone else
                         sexual intercourse                   intercourse                    sexual intercourse                      pregnant
                  -------------------------------   -------------------------------    --------------------------------   -------------------------------
Category           Female      Male        Total     Female       Male       Total       Female      Male        Total     Female       Male       Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White &           49.2       62.2        55.8       24.7        16.7       20.6         20.5       31.1        26.0        6.2         3.0        4.5
                  (+/-3.5)@  (+/-3.8)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-4.8)   (+/-3.7)     (+/-3.9)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-0.7)   (+/-0.8)
  Black &           58.9       68.4        64.0       14.7         9.4       11.9         13.4       22.2        18.1       15.9        13.7       14.9
                  (+/-5.0)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-2.7)     (+/-2.3)   (+/-4.9)    (+/-3.1)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-2.0)
  Hispanic          40.0       54.7        48.3       12.9         6.9        9.5         16.1       32.4        25.3        8.1         6.3        7.1
                  (+/-8.5)   (+/-8.2)    (+/-5.6)   (+/-8.0)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-3.7)     (+/-6.1)   (+/-7.9)    (+/-5.3)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.1)   (+/-1.9)
Grade
   9                58.3       59.2        58.8        8.0         7.6        7.8         27.3       37.9        33.2        5.1         3.3        4.2
                  (+/-8.5)   (+/-8.5)    (+/-5.6)   (+/-4.9)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-10.5)   (+/-8.4)    (+/-8.3)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.3)
  10                52.8       64.6        58.9       16.6         7.6       12.0         14.8       30.5        22.9        8.5         3.8        6.0
                  (+/-7.7)   (+/-7.7)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-3.0)     (+/-3.6)   (+/-5.4)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-1.5)   (+/-2.2)
  11                55.4       64.8        60.1       18.7        12.4       15.6         17.7       28.5        23.1        8.9         5.1        6.9
                  (+/-5.5)   (+/-7.0)    (+/-5.2)   (+/-6.0)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-3.1)     (+/-4.8)   (+/-5.2)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.8)
  12                43.0       61.2        52.4       29.7        19.0       24.0         17.6       28.4        23.2       11.1         6.0        8.4
                  (+/-5.4)   (+/-5.7)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-5.2)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-3.7)     (+/-4.2)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-1.9)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-1.9)   (+/-1.5)
Total               50.8       62.5        56.8       20.5        13.0       16.6         18.5       30.5        24.7        8.5         4.7        6.5
                  (+/-3.0)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-1.6)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-2.0)     (+/-3.0)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-0.7)   (+/-0.7)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* During/before last sexual intercourse, among currently sexually active students.
+ Among currently sexually active students.
& Non-Hispanic.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===========================================================================================================================================================


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Table_29
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TABLE 29. Percentage of high school students who reported using a condom during * or using birth control pills before sexual
intercourse; * using alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse; + and being pregnant or getting someone else pregnant, by
sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
======================================================================================================================================
                                                                                 Used alcohol or drugs   Have been pregnant or have
                          Condom use during last  Birth control pill use during    before last sexual        gotten someone else
                            sexual intercourse       last sexual intercourse          intercourse                 pregnant
                          ----------------------  -----------------------------  ----------------------  --------------------------
Site                      Female    Male   Total     Female   Male    Total      Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                     NA&     NA      NA        NA     NA       NA           NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA
  American Samoa @            NA    32.4    30.4        NA    3.5      4.4           NA    39.0    33.4       2.3    6.7      4.2
  Arkansas                  52.4    62.0    57.2      17.7   11.5     14.6         20.7    37.5    28.9      12.3    7.3      9.7
  Connecticut               50.1    64.7    57.3      21.2   16.0     18.5         23.1    31.1    27.2       6.6    3.9      5.3
  Guam @                      NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA           NA      NA      NA      10.8    8.5      9.7
  Hawaii                    35.5    50.1    41.0      21.5   16.2     19.3         14.9    35.7    22.7       8.7    3.0      5.7
  Iowa                      41.5    53.4    47.6      35.3   21.8     28.2         19.4    28.9    24.3       6.1    3.8      4.9
  Kentucky                  49.7    65.5    57.3      22.3   15.1     18.5         19.4    34.8    27.6       5.8    5.4      5.8
  Louisiana                   NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA           NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA
  Maine                     44.8    56.6    50.7      36.1   23.2     29.8         17.2    31.2    24.2       4.1    4.3      4.2
  Massachusetts             50.4    64.2    57.0      18.5   11.2     14.9         21.5    32.3    26.7       7.2    5.8      6.6
  Michigan                  54.7    62.0    58.2      26.0   18.4     22.3         26.3    40.1    32.8       7.2    4.5      5.8
  Mississippi               54.4    69.3    62.0      19.4    9.3     14.3         11.6    27.0    19.4      14.3    9.8     12.1
  Missouri                  52.9    65.8    58.2      26.8   12.2     20.7         21.5    32.6    26.5       6.5    4.1      5.2
  Montana                   43.9    53.6    48.6      27.6   15.2     21.6         24.2    37.2    30.4       5.3    5.1      5.2
  Nevada                    52.5    66.5    59.1      20.8    9.5     15.4         20.8    37.0    28.5       7.2    4.5      5.9
  New York                  62.2    73.3    68.1      17.2    9.5     13.1         21.5    34.2    28.0       5.1    5.3      5.2
  Ohio                      50.7    65.7    57.5      15.7   10.6     13.2         18.5    35.0    26.6       7.3    5.3      6.3
  Rhode Island              49.8    56.1    52.4      23.5   14.8     19.9         23.6    41.6    31.8       6.4    5.2      5.8
  South Carolina            53.1    67.3    59.8      18.0    9.1     13.8         16.6    31.3    23.6       9.3    5.2      7.2
  South Dakota              41.3    52.2    46.4      23.1   17.7     20.5         31.4    41.4    36.1       3.5    3.5      3.5
  Utah                        NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA           NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA
  Vermont                   54.1    60.5    57.2      29.6   22.7     26.1         23.5    35.3    29.2       3.8    4.0      3.9
  Virgin Islands @          49.7    69.2    59.9       7.1    2.8      4.8          6.0    15.3    10.9       5.9    5.3      5.6
  West Virginia             54.6    63.6    58.9      28.1   12.3     20.4         19.0    36.3    27.4       6.0    4.4      5.2
  Wisconsin                 54.5    61.2    57.7      22.7   23.9     23.3         20.4    31.7    25.8       5.5    4.1      4.8
  Wyoming                   42.7    57.8    49.5      26.1   16.4     21.5         27.5    39.9    33.3       7.4    4.0      5.7

Unweighted data
  California **             50.1    63.2    55.8      19.7   11.4     16.1         16.1    31.7    22.9       8.1    6.1      7.2
  Colorado                  55.5    62.2    58.5      16.5   16.4     16.5         27.2    35.8    31.0       6.1    2.3      4.3
  Delaware                  48.0    60.4    53.3      23.0   11.7     18.0         18.6    32.7    24.7      10.1    7.5      8.9
  Florida                   48.1    59.2    53.2      19.5   12.6     16.2         17.8    26.6    22.0       6.0    4.4      5.4
  New Hampshire             45.2    63.2    52.9      31.6   21.6     27.3         20.1    27.2    23.1       6.3    3.9      5.2
  New Jersey                55.4    64.6    59.3      12.4    9.4     11.2         19.2    27.5    22.9       5.7    4.1      4.9
  North Carolina            53.8    68.5    60.6      19.4   13.0     16.4         15.1    23.7    19.1       8.5    7.7      8.2
  North Dakota              47.6    46.2    46.9      22.9   17.4     20.3         27.8    42.5    34.6        NA     NA       NA
  Tennessee                 44.7    67.0    54.6      20.7    7.2     14.6         16.7    28.1    21.8       9.9    5.8      8.0

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                    56.4    72.7    64.0      12.1    5.2      8.9         11.8    23.0    17.2      12.8   10.0     11.5
  Chicago                   58.4    75.9    67.0      10.0    6.8      8.7         12.3    26.0    19.1      11.0    9.3     10.2
  Dallas                    53.1    68.4    60.8      10.0    6.4      8.2          9.8    20.6    15.5      11.0    8.2      9.7
  Detroit                   66.9    80.0    73.5      12.3    6.2      9.2         13.5    27.6    20.5      14.7   10.9     12.9
  District of Columbia      63.1    72.4    67.9      10.9    4.9      7.7         14.0    26.8    20.5      18.0   16.2     17.2
  Ft. Lauderdale            56.2    71.9    64.3      13.5   10.8     12.1         14.6    26.6    20.8       6.4    5.5      5.9
  Houston                   48.6    74.3    62.5      14.9    9.0     11.7          7.1    30.6    20.0       9.2   11.0     10.0
  Jersey City               51.5    65.9    59.1       7.8    7.3      7.5         15.6    24.4    20.1      10.8   11.0     10.9
  Los Angeles               49.6    59.6    54.4       6.2   12.1      9.1         18.4    32.3    25.0       7.9    5.5      6.8
  Miami                     51.6    70.7    61.8       8.9    6.9      7.8         14.5    27.5    21.7       7.7    6.3      7.2
  New Orleans               57.1    79.0    68.8      11.8    8.0      9.8         12.8    23.0    18.3      13.3   10.4     12.0
  New York City             66.4    78.4    72.7       6.2    6.7      6.5         14.6    26.9    21.1       5.9    5.4      5.7
  Philadelphia              61.7    79.3    70.5      15.4    6.7     11.2          9.4    24.0    16.7      12.0    9.1     10.6
  San Diego                 45.8    55.0    50.1      14.1   12.0     13.1         20.6    37.7    28.4       6.3    5.2      5.9
  San Francisco             50.3    66.0    57.1      16.1    8.4     12.6         12.6    20.2    16.4       5.1    4.1      4.6

Unweighted data
  Baltimore                 52.9    69.4    60.2      21.1    7.2     14.9          9.1    27.3    17.5      21.4   16.5     19.5
  Newark                    60.9    74.0    66.7       8.3    5.4      6.9         10.6    25.5    17.3      20.0   13.6     17.4
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * During/before last sexual intercourse, among currently sexually active students.
 + Among currently sexually active students.
 & Not available.
 @ U.S. territories are included as states.
** Survey did not include students from Los Angeles Unified School District.
======================================================================================================================================

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Table_30
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TABLE 30. Percentage of high school students who reported having been taught about
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
in school and percentage who reported talking about HIV/AIDS with parents or other
adult family members, by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk
Behavior Survey, 1997
=========================================================================================
                      Taught about HIV/AIDS            Talked about HIV/AIDS with
                            in school             parents or other adult family members
                 -------------------------------  -------------------------------------
Category          Female       Male       Total      Female      Male        Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White *          92.8        93.6       93.3        66.1       58.8        62.0
                 (+/-1.8)+   (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.7)
  Black *          90.4        89.1       89.7        75.3       70.0        72.7
                 (+/-1.7)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-3.1)   (+/-5.1)    (+/-3.2)
  Hispanic         85.1        86.6       85.9        64.7       57.0        60.5
                 (+/-4.0)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-3.0)
Grade
   9               89.6        89.9       89.8        65.2       57.4        61.1
                 (+/-1.7)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-5.5)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-3.6)
  10               91.5        91.6       91.6        64.4       60.2        62.1
                 (+/-3.2)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-2.0)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.8)
  11               92.8        92.1       92.4        67.8       57.5        62.2
                 (+/-2.1)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-4.1)    (+/-3.4)
  12               91.4        92.7       92.2        71.7       60.9        65.6
                 (+/-2.6)    (+/-2.2)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-3.2)
Total              91.3        91.6       91.5        67.4       59.1        62.8
                 (+/-1.6)    (+/-1.2)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-2.5)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Non-Hispanic.
+ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
=========================================================================================

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Table_31
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TABLE 31. Percentage of high school students who reported being taught about
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
in school and percentage who reported talking about HIV/AIDS with parents or other
adult family members, by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
================================================================================================
                                                         Talked about HIV/AIDS infection with
              Taught about HIV/AIDS infection in school  parents or other adult family members
              -----------------------------------------  -------------------------------------
Site                    Female    Male   Total                  Female    Male   Total
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                 79.9    79.9    79.9                    67.1    57.4    62.2
  American Samoa *        86.0    80.2    83.5                    55.3    42.4    49.6
  Arkansas                90.2    84.6    87.4                    69.6    59.5    64.4
  Connecticut             96.0    97.1    96.5                    65.6    56.3    60.9
  Guam *                  85.6    80.7    83.3                    59.1    41.6    50.8
  Hawaii                  94.5    94.1    94.3                    55.9    48.2    51.8
  Iowa                    92.6    92.2    92.4                    61.8    50.6    56.1
  Kentucky                89.8    86.1    87.7                    68.2    59.9    64.0
  Louisiana               86.5    81.8    84.0                    64.8    54.7    59.7
  Maine                   95.0    91.0    93.0                    69.4    55.7    62.3
  Massachusetts           94.2    91.7    92.9                    61.1    52.8    56.8
  Michigan                87.0    88.9    87.9                    64.4    55.9    60.1
  Mississippi             87.2    84.8    86.0                    68.4    60.7    64.7
  Missouri                90.1    88.1    89.1                    62.9    52.5    57.6
  Montana                 93.4    93.0    93.2                    66.1    58.0    62.0
  Nevada                  92.0    90.0    91.0                    69.0    61.6    65.2
  New York                93.8    90.6    92.2                    68.1    59.1    63.6
  Ohio                    87.6    87.6    87.6                    61.8    55.2    58.5
  Rhode Island            96.3    93.9    95.0                    66.2    50.8    58.4
  South Carolina          90.8    89.9    90.3                    70.2    60.6    65.4
  South Dakota            93.9    91.8    92.8                    61.6    45.9    53.6
  Utah                    91.8    90.3    90.9                    64.9    57.3    60.9
  Vermont                 92.5    90.4    91.4                    64.9    55.4    60.1
  Virgin Islands *        95.5    90.2    92.9                    69.2    58.5    63.9
  West Virginia           91.5    92.3    91.9                    70.5    56.0    63.5
  Wisconsin               91.7    89.7    90.6                    58.7    48.8    53.8
  Wyoming                 93.9    90.9    92.4                    66.8    57.6    62.1

Unweighted data
  California +            91.3    92.2    91.8                    64.2    56.5    60.6
  Colorado                88.4    88.4    88.2                    68.6    59.3    64.0
  Delaware                95.4    91.1    93.1                    69.1    59.7    64.8
  Florida                 93.3    90.2    91.7                    73.3    63.3    68.4
  New Hampshire           95.0    93.8    94.4                    68.3    61.2    65.0
  New Jersey              96.1    95.7    95.8                    68.3    56.5    62.6
  North Carolina          93.2    92.5    92.9                    74.4    64.4    69.8
  North Dakota            91.9    88.1    90.0                    58.0    44.4    51.2
  Tennessee               90.7    89.0    89.9                    70.2    58.7    64.8

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                  86.7    83.4    84.9                    59.0    51.7    55.2
  Chicago                 88.0    82.7    85.6                    73.6    57.3    66.2
  Dallas                  89.2    88.1    88.6                    68.8    60.2    64.6
  Detroit                 85.1    80.5    82.9                    74.3    68.1    71.5
  District of Columbia    92.8    88.8    90.5                    77.4    68.6    72.6
  Ft. Lauderdale          92.5    89.3    90.9                    73.2    63.8    68.5
  Houston                 85.0    80.3    82.7                    68.3    59.4    64.1
  Jersey City             89.6    86.0    87.9                    68.8    62.9    66.0
  Los Angeles             83.4    87.5    85.3                    63.5    53.5    58.8
  Miami                   89.2    86.5    87.8                    72.3    67.3    69.7
  New Orleans             90.4    84.1    87.4                    74.3    64.7    69.8
  New York City           92.1    86.6    89.3                    64.6    59.6    62.1
  Philadelphia            92.4    91.1    91.8                    73.2    63.8    68.5
  San Diego               94.0    93.7    93.8                    65.6    61.1    63.3
  San Francisco           93.2    90.5    91.8                    55.2    51.1    53.1

Unweighted data
  Baltimore               91.8    91.4    91.7                    78.7    71.5    75.7
  Newark                  93.3    89.1    91.5                    78.3    69.9    74.7
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Territories are included as states.
+ Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
================================================================================================

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Table_32
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TABLE 32. Percentage of high school students who had eaten five or more servings of
fruits and vegetables, *+ percentage who had eaten no more than two servings of foods
typically high in fat content, *& and percentage who thought they were overweight, by
sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1997
=========================================================================================================================
                                                           Ate no more than two
                                                             servings of foods
                    Ate five or more servings of           typically high in fat               Thought they were
                       fruits and vegetables                      content                          overweight
                  --------------------------------    -------------------------------   -------------------------------
Category           Female        Male       Total      Female      Male       Total      Female       Male       Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White @           25.7          31.0      28.8        73.0       54.9        62.9       33.6        21.9       27.0
                  (+/-4.9)**   (+/-2.7)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-2.2)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-2.2)   (+/-2.0)
  Black @           23.7         31.9       27.7        62.5       47.0        54.9       31.8        14.8       23.5
                  (+/-3.5)     (+/-3.3)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-4.1)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-2.4)
  Hispanic          24.6         30.3       27.7        68.3       60.0        63.8       34.0        27.4       30.4
                  (+/-4.8)     (+/-4.7)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-4.8)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-3.5)
Grade
   9                27.9         34.5       31.3        65.2       49.7        57.0       31.2        23.4       27.1
                  (+/-4.8)     (+/-4.7)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-4.6)   (+/-6.3)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-2.2)
  10                29.3         33.6       31.7        69.4       51.6        59.6       31.9        21.2       26.0
                  (+/-4.2)     (+/-2.5)   (+/-2.3)    (+/-4.7)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-5.2)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-3.7)
  11                22.8         30.9       27.2        70.1       60.7        65.0       31.9        25.0       28.1
                  (+/-3.8)     (+/-3.3)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-4.9)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-3.3)
  12                23.3         30.1       27.2        77.1       58.9        66.9       38.3        19.8       27.9
                  (+/-5.8)     (+/-4.7)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-4.2)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-5.7)    (+/-2.3)   (+/-2.6)
Total               25.7         32.1       29.3        70.6       55.5        62.3       33.5        22.2       27.3
                  (+/-3.5)     (+/-2.3)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-1.9)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-1.5)   (+/-1.5)
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Students who replied they had eaten a particular type of food zero, one, or two times were
   assigned a frequency of 0, 1.0, or 2.0, respectively; students who replied they had eaten a
   particular food three or more times were assigned a frequency of 3.0. The number of
   servings of fruits and vegetables ranged from zero through 12. The number of servings of
   foods typically high in fat content ranged from zero through nine.
 + Had eaten >= 5 servings of fruit, fruit juice, green salad, or cooked vegetables during the day
   preceding the survey.
 & Had eaten <= 2 servings of hamburgers, hot dogs, sausage, french fries, potato chips, cookies,
   doughnuts, pie, or cake during the day preceding the survey.
 @ Non-Hispanic.
** Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
=========================================================================================================================

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Table_33
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TABLE 33. Percentage of high school students who had eaten five or more servings of
fruits and vegetables, *+ percentage who had eaten no more than two servings of foods
typically high in fat content, *& and percentage who thought they were overweight, by
sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
===============================================================================================================
                                                      Ate no more than two
                      Ate five or more servings of  servings of foods typically    Thought they were
                         fruits and vegetables        high in fat content              overweight
                      ----------------------------  ---------------------------  ----------------------
Site                      Female     Male   Total    Female   Male    Total      Female    Male   Total
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                   16.7     21.2    19.0      63.4   47.2     55.4        30.8    21.0    26.1
  American Samoa @          35.4     49.7    41.6      46.8   46.3     46.5        33.8    18.9    27.2
  Arkansas                  16.6     23.0    19.9      63.8   45.5     54.4        36.4    22.6    29.4
  Connecticut               29.9     36.6    33.5      75.9   57.7     66.8        33.1    24.2    28.6
  Guam @                    33.7     34.7    34.2      69.5   51.3     60.9        31.5    27.8    29.8
  Hawaii                    27.8     37.4    32.8      69.7   59.6     64.5        40.7    27.2    33.5
  Iowa                      26.7     31.6    29.2      71.0   48.9     59.7        39.2    23.7    31.3
  Kentucky                  17.3     25.9    21.7      63.6   41.7     52.5        38.0    26.3    32.0
  Louisiana                 15.5     22.0    18.7      60.4   45.2     52.9        31.2    20.6    25.9
  Maine                     30.8     34.1    32.4      77.8   52.5     64.8        36.7    23.8    30.1
  Massachusetts               NA**     NA      NA      75.6   56.5     65.9        36.1    21.5    28.7
  Michigan                  23.5     28.2    25.8      72.8   50.7     61.8        39.1    22.0    30.4
  Mississippi               18.0     24.3    21.1      55.2   46.3     50.9        31.1    19.3    25.3
  Missouri                  21.3     28.7    25.0      64.5   45.9     55.1        35.1    20.8    28.0
  Montana                   24.6     29.4    27.0      74.1   53.7     63.8        39.5    17.5    28.2
  Nevada                    23.5     27.3    25.4      75.4   60.2     67.6        31.7    21.8    26.6
  New York                  27.5     35.4    31.5      74.8   61.0     68.0        34.8    21.3    28.0
  Ohio                      21.6     27.0    24.4      69.0   50.2     59.5        35.2    20.4    27.8
  Rhode Island              28.9     34.8    31.9      76.6   56.6     66.6        36.4    22.1    29.2
  South Carolina            16.6     23.1    19.9      60.8   47.9     54.3        30.0    19.2    24.5
  South Dakota              17.0     23.7    20.4      65.8   48.5     57.0        38.1    24.9    31.4
  Utah                      27.8     35.4    31.6      74.7   57.9     65.9        33.6    15.1    24.2
  Vermont                   36.7     42.2    39.5        NA     NA       NA        38.9    22.1    30.2
  Virgin Islands @          24.3     33.7    28.8      80.2   82.5     81.3        25.1    17.0    21.1
  West Virginia             21.6     27.5    24.5      71.3   46.3     59.2        40.8    24.3    32.8
  Wisconsin                   NA       NA      NA        NA     NA       NA        35.4    26.9    31.1
  Wyoming                   22.1     29.3    25.8      74.3   49.0     61.5        35.3    20.3    27.6

Unweighted data
  California ++             30.1     35.4    32.5      78.2   63.9     71.6        37.1    22.3    30.3
  Colorado                  28.5     35.9    32.3      71.2   52.0     61.8        28.7    17.2    23.0
  Delaware                  24.9     31.9    28.2      65.5   50.3     58.1        33.8    24.2    29.4
  Florida                   26.5     31.8    29.1      73.3   54.4     64.1        31.7    22.5    27.1
  New Hampshire             26.0     39.3    32.3      80.4   56.2     69.0        37.6    21.9    30.2
  New Jersey                29.4     32.9    31.2      74.9   55.5     65.7        32.6    18.6    25.9
  North Carolina  NA          NA       NA      NA        NA     NA       NA          NA    33.0    20.0
  North Dakota  NA            NA       NA      NA        NA     NA       NA          NA      NA      NA
  Tennessee                 19.1     25.2    21.9      64.5   47.0     56.3        36.7    20.8    29.3

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                      NA       NA      NA      69.7   60.5     65.1        28.5    17.3    23.0
  Chicago                   28.0     33.2    30.5      52.3   44.0     48.6        28.8    18.4    24.1
  Dallas                    17.9     22.8    20.4      60.7   52.3     56.6        33.5    17.8    25.9
  Detroit                   24.2     30.7    27.2      57.0   44.8     51.3        27.5    17.0    22.7
  District of Columbia      26.8     32.6    29.8      64.1   49.9     57.0        27.0    20.4    23.8
  Ft. Lauderdale            27.9     33.5    30.7      68.7   58.2     63.4        28.9    20.7    24.8
  Houston                   21.9     31.8    26.5      67.4   52.1     60.2        30.5    22.2    26.6
  Jersey City               23.6     23.0    23.3      62.3   56.9     59.8        26.2    18.2    22.4
  Los Angeles               27.0     34.6    30.5      73.3   61.5     67.8        34.9    24.5    30.0
  Miami                     25.5     33.3    29.5      70.1   55.3     62.7        30.3    22.6    26.4
  New Orleans               21.7     27.3    24.3      56.6   45.6     51.5        27.5    16.3    22.2
  New York City             29.2     35.7    32.5      74.1   62.8     68.5        32.8    21.0    27.0
  Philadelphia              19.3     28.0    23.6      65.4   52.4     58.9        27.6    14.6    21.2
  San Diego                 27.8     32.8    30.3      68.4   56.6     62.5        34.6    21.9    28.2
  San Francisco             29.7     38.5    34.1      77.2   67.5     72.3        37.3    23.4    30.3

Unweighted data
  Baltimore                 22.6     27.7    24.6      58.1   44.4     52.3        29.7    16.6    24.1
  Newark                    25.0     32.7    28.1      60.4   47.7     55.1        27.9    15.4    22.7
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Students who replied they had eaten a particular type of food zero, one, or two times were assigned a
   frequency of 0, 1.0, or 2.0, respectively; students who replied they had eaten a particular food three or
   more times were assigned a frequency of 3.0. The number of servings of fruits and vegetables ranged
   from zero through 12. The number of servings of food typically high in fat content ranged from zero
   through nine.
 + Had eaten >= 5 servings of fruit, fruit juice, green salad, and cooked vegetables during the day preceding
   the survey.
 & Had eaten <= 2 servings of hamburgers, hot dogs, sausage, french fries, potato chips, cookies, doughnuts,
   pie, or cake during the day preceding the survey.
 @ U.S. territories are included as states.
** Not available.
++ Survey did not include students from Los Angeles Unified School District.
===============================================================================================================

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Table_34
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TABLE 34. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in behaviors associated with weight control, * by sex,
race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1997
===============================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                       Took laxatives or vomited           Took diet pills to lose
                          Were attempting                 to lose weight or                  weight or to control            Dieted to lose weight or           Exercised to lose weight
                            weight loss                 to control weight gain                    weight gain                 to control weight gain            or to control weight gain
                  -------------------------------   -------------------------------    --------------------------------   -------------------------------    -------------------------------
Category           Female      Male        Total     Female       Male       Total      Female       Male        Total     Female       Male       Total      Female      Male       Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White +           62.2       22.0        39.6        7.5         1.6        4.2         8.5         1.9         4.8       47.9        16.6       30.4        69.7       38.6        52.2
                  (+/-2.2)&  (+/-1.5)    (+/-2.5)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-0.6)   (+/-0.7)    (+/-2.0)    (+/-0.6)    (+/-1.0)   (+/-1.5)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.9)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-2.6)
  Black +           50.7       20.0        35.7        6.3         4.0        5.2         5.0         3.6         4.3       33.8        15.6       25.0        49.2       37.5        43.5
                  (+/-4.2)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-1.6)    (+/-1.9)    (+/-1.5)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-2.9)    (+/-2.0)
  Hispanic          61.1       32.7        45.7       10.4         3.2        6.5         9.6         4.1         6.6       46.3        22.6       33.4        64.5       47.9        55.5
                  (+/-4.3)   (+/-4.5)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-1.6)    (+/-1.3)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-3.0)    (+/-1.6)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-3.1)   (+/-3.1)    (+/-4.4)   (+/-4.7)    (+/-3.9)
Grade
   9                60.5       23.0        40.8        8.3         2.2        5.1         8.2         2.5         5.2       45.6        17.9       31.0        67.1       40.5        53.1
                  (+/-3.6)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-2.4)    (+/-1.5)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-1.9)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-2.5)
  10                59.5       21.2        38.4        8.8         1.9        5.0         7.5         2.2         4.6       47.3        16.7       30.5        67.2       40.2        52.3
                  (+/-5.6)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.0)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-1.5)    (+/-0.9)    (+/-0.9)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-3.6)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-4.1)    (+/-3.4)
  11                58.5       23.5        39.4        7.0         2.4        4.5         7.7         1.9         4.5       43.5        17.0       29.0        64.3       38.8        50.4
                  (+/-3.9)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.1)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-2.2)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-4.9)   (+/-2.2)    (+/-2.7)
  12                60.3       24.5        40.2        6.0         1.6        3.5         8.3         2.8         5.2       46.4        18.7       30.8        63.4       40.2        50.3
                  (+/-4.3)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-1.7)    (+/-0.9)   (+/-0.9)    (+/-3.2)    (+/-1.3)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-4.6)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-3.5)
Total               59.7       23.1        39.7        7.5         2.1        4.5         8.0         2.4         4.9       45.7        17.6       30.4        65.4       39.9        51.5
                  (+/-1.8)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-1.7)   (+/-1.1)    (+/-0.6)   (+/-0.6)    (+/-1.5)    (+/-0.6)    (+/-0.8)   (+/-1.4)    (+/-1.4)   (+/-1.2)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-1.8)    (+/-1.7)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* During the 30 days preceding the survey.
+ Non-Hispanic.
& Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===============================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_35
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TABLE 35. Percentage of high school students who reported engaging in behaviors associated with weight control, * by
sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
===========================================================================================================================================================
                                                  Took laxatives or vomited  Took diet pills to lose
                             Were attempting          to lose weight or       weight or to control    Dieted to lose weight or  Exercised to lose weight
                               weight loss         to control weight gain         weight gain          to control weight gain   or to control weight gain
                          ----------------------  -------------------------  -----------------------  ------------------------  -------------------------
Site                      Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                   55.8    22.8    39.4       9.5    3.6      6.6     12.6     4.0     8.5      47.3   14.4     31.0     60.1    34.7    47.5
  American Samoa +          60.3    39.3    51.0      11.8    7.3      9.8      8.5     5.7     7.3      52.9   33.0     44.0     64.1    59.9    62.3
  Arkansas                  58.1    25.8    41.6      10.5    2.7      6.5     15.0     3.7     9.2      45.4   14.7     29.7     62.1    36.7    49.1
  Connecticut               61.2    24.9    43.0       9.3    0.7      5.0      9.2     1.5     5.3      48.3   16.8     32.4     69.2    41.5    55.2
  Guam +                    54.9    31.9    44.0      13.9    4.8      9.6      8.2     3.5     6.0      51.0   28.2     40.3     55.7    50.9    53.4
  Hawaii                    60.2    31.0    45.1       7.0    2.1      4.4      6.1     1.8     3.8      45.8   22.0     33.4     66.3    52.2    59.0
  Iowa                      68.0    24.9    45.9       8.5    1.7      5.0     12.0     2.6     7.2      50.7   15.5     32.7     72.0    37.2    54.2
  Kentucky                  62.4    26.4    44.2      10.3    2.8      6.5     14.8     3.3     9.0      52.7   15.3     33.8     67.9    40.7    54.1
  Louisiana                 54.5    24.0    39.2       9.4    4.1      6.8     12.0     5.1     8.6      43.0   16.2     29.6     59.2    39.4    49.3
  Maine                     65.7    27.6    46.3       9.5    4.3      6.8      9.2     5.2     7.2      49.6   14.9     32.0     70.3    39.0    54.3
  Massachusetts             62.5    23.2    42.6       8.4    4.5      6.5      9.0     3.5     6.3      47.1   14.0     30.3     66.3    37.7    51.9
  Michigan                  63.1    26.6    44.8       8.8    3.3      6.1     10.2     2.6     6.5      47.0   17.0     32.2     68.9    42.5    55.7
  Mississippi               53.4    21.9    38.0       6.9    3.0      5.0      9.7     3.1     6.5      40.3   15.0     27.9     52.5    37.6    45.3
  Missouri                  59.0    25.9    42.4       8.6    3.2      5.9     11.6     3.3     7.4      44.0   18.2     30.9     64.9    41.6    53.2
  Montana                   65.0    19.5    41.7      10.5    3.3      6.9     11.5     3.6     7.4      45.7   14.2     29.6     70.7    36.6    53.2
  Nevada                    57.4    25.0    40.8       8.3    1.5      4.8      9.8     2.7     6.2      42.1   20.6     31.1     68.5    46.9    57.6
  New York                  57.1    24.5    40.7       8.1    2.5      5.3      7.7     2.7     5.2      45.2   17.9     31.5     65.9    41.3    53.5
  Ohio                      60.2    22.9    41.3       9.5    3.0      6.3      9.1     2.1     5.6      46.7   15.6     31.1     66.2    40.2    53.1
  Rhode Island              61.5    25.0    43.2       8.8    3.3      6.1      7.5     2.7     5.1      48.5   16.2     32.4     67.5    39.5    53.5
  South Carolina            54.2    23.2    38.5       8.5    3.8      6.1      9.9     4.8     7.4      40.5   14.1     27.2     56.9    36.7    46.7
  South Dakota              66.0    26.3    46.0      10.1    1.6      5.8     11.3     3.4     7.3      46.0   14.8     30.2     68.2    35.5    51.7
  Utah                      62.7    16.3    39.0      10.7    2.6      6.6     12.3     2.0     7.1      43.2   11.0     26.8     74.7    31.8    52.8
  Vermont                   60.3    22.6    40.8       9.5    3.5      6.4      7.9     3.5     5.7      42.9   13.1     27.7     64.8    34.2    49.1
  Virgin Islands +          39.9    22.1    31.1       2.7    3.6      3.1      3.7     2.0     2.8      26.5   15.5     21.1     40.0    36.7    38.4
  West Virginia             66.0    26.6    46.8       9.4    2.7      6.1     13.3     3.4     8.5      52.6   16.6     35.0     69.2    39.0    54.6
  Wisconsin                 59.8    27.1    43.1       5.6    3.1      4.3      8.9     2.8     5.8      44.6   17.6     30.9     67.1    37.6    52.0
  Wyoming                   61.2    23.4    42.0       9.1    4.2      6.6     14.6     4.5     9.5      47.1   17.0     31.9     68.7    38.9    53.6

Unweighted data
  California &              62.6    24.3    45.0       7.5    2.4      5.2      8.1     2.5     5.5      46.6   17.2     33.1     66.5    41.7    55.1
  Colorado                  57.9    18.8    38.8       9.5    1.6      5.6     10.8     1.8     6.3      41.8   13.4     28.0     70.2    34.7    52.8
  Delaware                  55.0    27.5    41.8       8.0    4.8      6.7     10.2     5.8     8.1      40.3   18.0     29.7     57.2    36.3    47.2
  Florida                   56.9    23.4    40.4       7.9    3.2      5.6      9.1     3.6     6.4      44.7   16.5     30.9     62.6    38.8    50.9
  New Hampshire             65.1    25.0    46.2      10.3    1.7      6.3     12.0     1.6     7.1      51.0   13.5     33.3     72.5    37.9    56.2
  New Jersey                61.3    21.6    42.3       7.6    1.5      4.7      7.7     2.3     5.1      47.7   14.3     31.7     65.0    38.8    52.5
  North Carolina            58.1    23.9    42.3       7.9    4.2      6.2     10.7     6.1     8.6      42.0   16.5     30.4     62.3    37.2    50.7
  North Dakota              62.4    25.0    43.6       9.2    2.0      5.6     13.1     2.9     8.0      45.3    9.4     27.3     69.8    31.3    50.6
  Tennessee                 60.7    26.9    44.7      10.1    2.6      6.5     13.0     2.3     7.9      50.7   16.5     34.6     62.4    40.6    52.2

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                    49.2    25.1    37.7       7.4    9.2      8.3      7.8     5.8     7.0      36.3   17.8     27.4     50.6    36.6    43.7
  Chicago                   47.9    30.5    40.1       6.3    6.5      6.4      4.6     6.5     5.5      30.6   20.8     26.2     49.2    47.6    48.5
  Dallas                    54.8    26.8    41.0       7.0    3.3      5.2      6.5     1.6     4.1      39.5   17.2     28.6     57.9    45.4    51.8
  Detroit                   49.4    20.5    35.9       5.2    4.2      4.7      4.7     4.0     4.3      37.6   16.7     27.9     54.0    42.9    48.9
  District of Columbia      46.7    23.3    35.1       4.4    4.3      4.5      4.3     5.6     5.1      31.9   18.2     25.1     50.1    43.0    46.7
  Ft. Lauderdale            53.7    22.5    38.0       6.1    5.3      5.7      8.9     4.9     6.9      42.5   17.0     29.7     59.3    38.3    48.8
  Houston                   53.3    29.8    42.4       7.2    5.9      6.6      6.4     5.4     5.9      42.9   19.5     32.0     62.4    46.2    54.9
  Jersey City               44.0    20.8    33.0       6.1    4.5      5.4      5.1     2.2     3.7      36.5   14.2     26.0     45.0    39.3    42.4
  Los Angeles               58.0    32.5    46.1       6.5    2.8      4.8      7.5     2.8     5.3      48.4   21.5     35.8     61.1    47.8    54.8
  Miami                     52.7    28.2    40.2       7.7    3.3      5.5      5.5     3.7     4.6      42.1   22.6     32.2     57.9    43.4    50.5
  New Orleans               44.5    21.7    34.0       7.4    6.4      6.9      6.2     5.4     5.8      32.6   16.8     25.3     48.0    39.6    44.1
  New York City             53.6    25.8    40.0       6.5    2.8      4.7      4.9     2.7     3.8      39.0   17.3     28.4     59.5    44.3    52.1
  Philadelphia              49.8    21.2    35.6       6.2    2.7      4.5      5.1     1.0     3.0      35.9   16.5     26.3     53.7    37.8    45.8
  San Diego                 54.8    27.3    41.0       7.8    3.0      5.4      7.7     4.5     6.1      42.2   17.4     29.7     64.6    44.6    54.5
  San Francisco             56.2    26.8    41.3       5.5    2.7      4.1      4.8     3.3     4.0      38.0   16.1     26.9     54.2    40.3    47.1

Unweighted data
  Baltimore                 45.5    21.1    35.0       3.7    3.6      3.6      2.6     1.7     2.2      28.5   13.8     22.3     46.8    37.0    42.8
  Newark                    43.4    18.5    33.0       5.1    2.5      4.0      4.5     2.2     3.6      31.5   14.8     24.6     47.3    35.4    42.5
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* During the 30 days preceding the survey.
+ U.S. territories are included as states.
& Survey did not include students from Los Angeles Unified School District.
===========================================================================================================================================================

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Table_36
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TABLE 36. Percentage of high school students who participated in vigorous physical activity, * moderate physical activity, +
stretching exercises, & and strengthening exercises, @ by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior
Survey, 1997
===========================================================================================================================================================
                     Participated in vigorous           Participated in moderate         Participated in stretching              Participated
                         physical activity                 physical activity                     exercises                  in strengthening exercises
                  -------------------------------    -------------------------------   -------------------------------    -------------------------------
Category           Female       Male       Total      Female      Male        Total     Female       Male       Total      Female      Male       Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White **          58.4        73.4       66.8        15.7       17.8        16.8       53.4        51.5       52.4        46.1       57.8        52.7
                  (+/-5.7)++  (+/-2.6)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-2.8)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-2.4)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-3.1)    (+/-3.0)
  Black **          41.3        67.1       53.9        27.2       29.4        28.3       41.8        54.0       47.8        34.8       59.2        46.7
                  (+/-4.1)    (+/-3.3)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-4.5)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-5.4)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-3.0)
  Hispanic          49.9        69.2       60.4        24.8       28.4        26.7       49.9        54.1       52.2        43.2       61.7        53.3
                  (+/-4.9)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-3.1)    (+/-4.2)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-2.1)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-4.6)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-3.6)    (+/-3.4)
Grade
   9                66.1        78.7       72.7        27.6       28.6        28.1       59.8        57.1       58.4        52.0       63.1        57.8
                  (+/-4.8)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-3.0)    (+/-5.0)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-5.0)    (+/-5.8)   (+/-4.5)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-4.2)    (+/-3.5)
  10                55.7        74.3       65.9        20.8       23.7        22.3       54.6        55.0       54.9        44.5       56.7        51.2
                  (+/-3.2)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-2.7)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-2.9)   (+/-4.4)    (+/-6.3)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-4.7)   (+/-5.4)    (+/-4.1)
  11                49.4        68.9       60.0        17.0       17.8        17.4       46.9        47.9       47.5        42.9       58.6        51.5
                  (+/-5.0)    (+/-3.8)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-4.0)   (+/-3.7)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-4.1)    (+/-4.3)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-5.2)   (+/-4.0)    (+/-4.3)
  12                43.6        68.4       57.5        14.2       15.3        14.8       41.0        48.9       45.5        34.3       55.0        46.0
                  (+/-7.7)    (+/-2.6)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-3.0)   (+/-2.4)    (+/-1.8)   (+/-6.3)    (+/-5.2)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-5.2)   (+/-6.1)    (+/-4.1)
Total               53.5        72.3       63.8        19.7       20.9        20.4       50.4        52.0       51.3        43.2       58.1        51.4
                  (+/-3.8)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-2.1)    (+/-2.0)   (+/-3.1)    (+/-3.5)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.7)   (+/-2.8)    (+/-2.4)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Activities that caused sweating and hard breathing for at least 20 minutes on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 + Walked or bicycled for at least 30 minutes on >= 5 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 & Such as toe touching, knee bending, or leg stretching on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 @ Such as push-ups, sit-ups, or weightlifting on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
** Non-Hispanic.
++ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===========================================================================================================================================================

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Table_37
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TABLE 37. Percentage of high school students who participated in vigorous physical activity, * moderate physical activity, +
stretching exercises, & and strengthening exercises, @ by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys,
1997
===================================================================================================================================
                         Participated in vigorous  Participated in modera          Participated              Participated
                            physical activity         physical activity      in stretching exercises  in strengthening exercises
                         ------------------------  ------------------------  -----------------------  --------------------------
Site                      Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                   45.8    64.4    55.1      14.8   15.1     15.0     43.6    46.4    44.9      35.1   51.4     43.1
  American Samoa **         55.7    73.1    63.4      33.9   35.9     34.8     42.7    55.4    48.3      33.9   57.8     44.3
  Arkansas                  46.7    69.9    58.5      19.8   19.7     19.8     41.5    46.8    44.2      32.6   53.9     43.5
  Connecticut               56.2    76.2    66.3      18.9   23.3     21.1     48.1    49.1    48.6      42.9   50.6     46.7
  Guam **                   44.8    70.1    56.9      28.2   22.2     25.4     45.8    48.4    47.1      32.2   53.8     42.6
  Hawaii                    48.1    72.6    60.8      26.3   26.6     26.6     44.7    55.1    50.0      35.1   59.6     47.8
  Iowa                      57.1    76.1    66.8      16.7   16.1     16.4     54.3    54.4    54.3      45.5   59.6     52.6
  Kentucky                  48.5    71.0    59.7      17.4   18.7     18.1     41.8    46.8    44.2      33.7   50.8     42.2
  Louisiana                 49.0    68.9    59.0      20.9   22.4     21.7     46.2    51.4    48.8      36.1   55.4     45.7
  Maine                     59.3    64.5    61.9      15.6   19.7     17.7     53.2    49.6    51.3      48.3   53.1     50.7
  Massachusetts             52.7    68.8    60.8      22.8   25.6     24.2       NA++    NA      NA      39.7   51.4     45.5
  Michigan                  51.0    67.0    59.0      20.9   19.7     20.5     50.5    49.8    50.2      47.7   56.1     51.9
  Mississippi               40.4    65.8    53.0      20.8   27.1     23.9     30.6    47.0    38.7      26.8   52.7     39.6
  Missouri                  49.1    73.3    61.4      19.4   20.9     20.1     47.7    53.4    50.5      43.9   56.8     50.5
  Montana                   59.7    71.2    65.6      16.9   19.6     18.3     58.7    52.7    55.6      51.9   59.3     55.7
  Nevada                    58.1    73.6    66.0      24.4   25.8     25.2     53.7    58.9    56.4      47.8   64.9     56.7
  New York                  57.1    74.6    65.8      23.6   26.7     25.2     52.1    52.7    52.4      46.0   57.9     52.0
  Ohio                      49.5    68.2    59.1      18.9   21.0     19.9     50.3    52.6    51.6      46.0   58.5     52.3
  Rhode Island              51.9    71.9    61.7      24.6   23.6     24.1     45.1    43.6    44.4      41.2   52.9     47.0
  South Carolina            41.9    63.5    52.8      16.1   15.9     16.0     41.3    43.4    42.4      33.6   50.1     41.9
  South Dakota              54.8    64.6    59.7      11.4   15.0     13.2     47.0    47.9    47.5      43.7   50.9     47.3
  Utah                      64.1    78.4    71.2      16.8   19.3     17.9     56.3    50.9    53.6      47.0   59.2     53.1
  Vermont                   57.8    65.1    61.5      17.0   21.4     19.3       NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA
  Virgin Islands **         41.1    60.3    50.6      38.0   31.1     34.6     31.4    38.2    34.8      18.4   44.2     31.2
  West Virginia             53.5    74.6    63.7      20.2   21.0     20.6     48.3    46.0    47.2      39.0   55.2     46.9
  Wisconsin                 57.4    67.5    62.4        NA     NA       NA       NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA
  Wyoming                   57.4    68.9    63.2      18.6   20.7     19.7     54.4    50.8    52.6      48.1   57.2     52.7

Unweighted data
  California &&             57.9    73.8    65.2      24.6   27.6     26.0     51.7    53.3    52.4      44.0   58.8     50.8
  Colorado                  63.8    73.2    68.5      27.3   23.7     25.5     60.1    57.5    58.8      55.8   65.0     60.3
  Delaware                  48.7    63.4    55.7      20.3   17.9     19.2     43.4    46.2    44.8      37.2   47.9     42.2
  Florida                   51.4    71.2    61.1      19.0   23.2     21.1     46.8    49.6    48.1      36.8   56.1     46.3
  New Hampshire             58.0    73.6    65.4      20.0   22.5     21.1     48.3    48.3    48.3      40.9   53.4     46.8
  New Jersey                59.0    76.4    67.3      24.7   25.8     25.2     60.0    57.4    58.6      49.6   61.1     55.0
  North Carolina            46.8    65.6    55.3        NA     NA       NA     43.8    48.5    45.8      36.0   54.2     44.2
  North Dakota              50.9    69.9    60.4      16.4   15.8     16.1     49.3    50.6    50.0      38.9   53.8     46.4
  Tennessee                 48.8    70.7    59.1      16.8   20.8     18.6     44.8    51.3    47.9      36.8   55.3     45.5

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                    29.3    56.8    42.6      30.2   27.0     28.7       NA      NA      NA      24.1   43.9     33.7
  Chicago                   49.6    65.4    56.7      36.1   33.3     34.8     45.7    54.2    49.5      38.2   60.4     48.2
  Dallas                    42.2    69.5    55.6      24.2   28.8     26.5     41.8    49.5    45.6      32.6   55.7     44.0
  Detroit                   39.4    64.4    50.9      29.9   27.6     29.0     40.0    45.4    42.5      34.3   59.4     45.8
  District of Columbia      38.1    62.3    50.2      36.0   35.1     35.4     35.3    49.0    42.0      31.6   53.0     42.3
  Ft. Lauderdale            44.1    68.2    56.2      24.0   26.0     25.0     42.1    45.1    43.6      36.2   55.3     45.8
  Houston                   53.0    68.6    60.2      23.2   27.0     25.0     46.7    46.2    46.5      40.1   56.7     47.8
  Jersey City               37.8    57.5    47.0      47.1   41.2     44.2     40.5    47.3    43.8      33.4   51.2     41.8
  Los Angeles               53.0    69.7    60.8      33.1   36.3     34.6     51.6    56.6    53.9      42.5   63.7     52.3
  Miami                     39.0    63.2    51.2      22.0   26.3     24.2     38.3    45.8    42.0      32.7   55.4     44.1
  New Orleans               37.1    59.9    47.7      33.8   31.0     32.5     37.6    41.0    39.2      28.4   48.3     37.5
  New York City             53.5    73.4    63.2      32.9   34.3     33.6     51.6    53.5    52.5      41.7   60.5     50.9
  Philadelphia              38.0    71.4    54.4      37.2   35.7     36.4     40.9    47.9    44.3      34.0   54.1     43.8
  San Diego                 60.5    74.2    67.4      26.6   30.6     28.6     57.1    60.0    58.6      44.5   60.6     52.5
  San Francisco             41.7    62.6    52.3      26.1   30.9     28.5     43.3    47.7    45.5      30.0   48.4     39.4

Unweighted data
  Baltimore                 32.2    65.3    46.2      39.5   34.1     37.2     29.6    44.6    36.1      24.6   53.8     37.0
  Newark                    34.5    65.7    47.4      40.3   37.1     39.0     35.4    45.4    39.6      28.8   53.1     38.8
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Activities that caused sweating and hard breathing for at least 20 minutes on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 + Walked or bicycled for at least 30 minutes on >= 5 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 & Such as toe touching, knee bending, or leg stretching on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
 @ Such as push-ups, sit-ups, or weightlifting on >= 3 of the 7 days preceding the survey.
** U.S. territories are included as states.
++ Not available.
&& Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles United School District.
===================================================================================================================================

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Table_38
Note: To print large tables and graphs users may have to change their printer settings to landscape and use a small font size.

TABLE 38. Percentage of high school students who were enrolled in a physical education (PE) class, attended PE class daily,
spent at least 20 minutes exercising in an average PE class, * played on sports teams run by the school, + and played on sports
teams unaffiliated with the school, + by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade -- United States, Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1997
===========================================================================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                      Exercised >= 20 minutes in           Played on sports teams             Played on sports teams
                          Enrolled in PE class                   Attended PE class daily                   an average PE class                run by the school            unaffiliated with the school
                   ------------------------------------     ----------------------------------     ---------------------------------   -------------------------------    -------------------------------
Category            Female        Male          Total       Female         Male         Total        Female       Male        Total     Female       Male       Total      Female      Male       Total
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Race/Ethnicity
  White &            46.7         51.8          49.5         21.3          25.8         23.8          66.7        79.4        74.1       49.4        58.7       54.6        34.7       46.6        41.4
                  (+/-16.2)@   (+/-14.8)     (+/-15.0)     (+/-6.9)      (+/-7.6)     (+/-6.8)      (+/-8.1)    (+/-5.4)    (+/-6.8)   (+/-6.6)    (+/-4.1)   (+/-4.6)    (+/-4.9)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-3.7)
  Black &            39.4         53.7          46.3         28.2          37.1         32.5          67.3        73.9        71.0       32.9        56.4       44.3        25.1       51.8        38.0
                   (+/-6.0)     (+/-6.6)      (+/-5.7)     (+/-5.4)      (+/-6.7)     (+/-5.8)      (+/-6.8)    (+/-5.5)    (+/-4.6)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-3.2)   (+/-2.5)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-3.8)    (+/-2.9)
  Hispanic           50.3         52.6          51.6         37.3          39.3         38.4          67.7        78.6        73.8       32.3        46.9       40.2        24.0       40.5        32.9
                   (+/-6.2)     (+/-6.0)      (+/-5.3)     (+/-5.9)      (+/-4.8)     (+/-3.9)     (+/-10.0)    (+/-3.8)    (+/-5.4)   (+/-3.9)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-2.6)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-3.4)    (+/-2.8)
Grade
   9                 68.7         69.6          69.2         42.1          43.0         42.6          68.7        78.5        73.9       48.5        57.2       53.1        36.8       51.3        44.4
                   (+/-8.5)     (+/-6.9)      (+/-6.9)    (+/-11.2)     (+/-10.7)    (+/-10.5)      (+/-6.9)    (+/-4.3)    (+/-4.9)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-6.1)   (+/-4.5)    (+/-3.7)   (+/-4.4)    (+/-3.1)
  10                 50.1         56.0          53.3         28.1          32.8         30.6          65.8        77.5        72.6       45.0        58.0       52.2        34.7       47.3        41.7
                  (+/-14.2)    (+/-12.0)     (+/-12.7)     (+/-7.2)      (+/-6.9)     (+/-6.4)      (+/-9.0)    (+/-5.8)    (+/-7.3)   (+/-5.6)    (+/-6.4)   (+/-5.5)    (+/-5.3)   (+/-4.3)    (+/-3.9)
  11                 34.2         43.5          39.3         15.5          22.5         19.3          62.5        78.3        72.1       40.7        54.0       48.0        26.4       41.6        34.7
                  (+/-12.2)    (+/-12.8)     (+/-11.8)     (+/-4.0)      (+/-5.8)     (+/-3.8)      (+/-9.6)    (+/-3.8)    (+/-4.9)   (+/-5.8)    (+/-4.2)   (+/-3.3)    (+/-4.7)   (+/-5.5)    (+/-4.0)
  12                 28.4         42.3          36.1         13.9          23.2         19.1          73.3        80.1        77.7       35.7        53.4       45.5        21.9       42.6        33.5
                  (+/-12.4)    (+/-15.2)     (+/-13.6)     (+/-5.5)      (+/-7.3)     (+/-5.7)      (+/-6.9)    (+/-4.4)    (+/-5.1)   (+/-8.2)    (+/-5.5)   (+/-6.1)    (+/-5.9)   (+/-4.8)    (+/-4.9)
Total                44.9         52.0          48.8         24.6          29.8         27.4          67.5        78.5        73.9       42.3        55.5       49.5        29.8       45.4        38.3
                  (+/-11.2)    (+/-11.2)     (+/-10.9)     (+/-5.4)      (+/-6.5)     (+/-5.6)      (+/-6.3)    (+/-3.2)    (+/-4.6)   (+/-4.4)    (+/-3.4)   (+/-3.5)    (+/-3.9)   (+/-3.2)    (+/-3.0)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Among students enrolled in PE class.
+ During the 12 months preceding the survey.
& Non-Hispanic.
@ Ninety-five percent confidence interval.
===========================================================================================================================================================================================================

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Table_39
Note: To print large tables and graphs users may have to change their printer settings to landscape and use a small font size.

TABLE 39. Percentage of high school students who were enrolled in a physical education (PE) class, attended PE class daily,
spent at least 20 minutes exercising in an average PE class, * played on sports teams run by the school, + and played on sports
teams unaffiliated with the school, + by sex -- selected U.S. sites, Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, 1997
========================================================================================================================================================
                                                                                                                                Played on sports teams
                                                                            Exercised >= 20 minutes    Played on sports teams        unaffiliated
                           Enrolled in PE class    Attended PE class daily  in an average PE class       run by the school         with the school
                          ----------------------   -----------------------  -----------------------    ----------------------   ----------------------
Site                      Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total    Female   Male    Total   Female    Male   Total
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
STATE SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Alabama                   42.7    58.0    50.3      37.1   48.1     42.4     62.0    75.7    69.7      34.5   50.2     42.3     29.1    39.6    34.3
  American Samoa &          50.7    56.2    53.1      27.8   28.4     28.0     59.5    67.7    63.3      48.1   67.4     56.6     56.4    67.9    61.4
  Arkansas                  33.7    41.5    37.7      26.5   31.1     28.8     71.4    80.0    76.3      31.3   48.6     40.1     28.2    41.8    35.1
  Connecticut               68.9    71.3    70.1      12.5   17.6     15.2     65.8    74.7    70.4      47.3   57.6     52.4     29.2    46.5    38.0
  Guam &                    50.5    49.3    50.0      41.7   39.7     40.8       NA@     NA    66.4      23.7   31.1     27.2     30.9    41.6    35.9
  Hawaii                    34.7    45.7    40.4       8.7   14.5     11.6     76.1    82.4    79.7      32.9   47.8     40.6     32.6    45.8    39.6
  Iowa                      76.6    79.4    78.0       8.8    9.5      9.1     62.4    70.6    66.6      53.6   66.8     60.3     30.7    45.7    38.3
  Kentucky                  25.5    36.9    31.3      16.9   27.4     22.3     68.4    84.0    77.4      33.3   46.7     40.0     25.2    45.3    35.1
  Louisiana                 56.2    66.0    61.1      43.3   49.6     46.4     61.2    75.0    68.5      32.4   50.7     41.6     26.8    42.7    34.8
  Maine                     45.4    49.2    47.3       7.8    6.7      7.3     81.1    82.2    81.7      52.0   55.9     54.1     31.8    44.8    38.4
  Massachusetts             71.1    73.7    72.5      12.6   12.6     12.6       NA      NA      NA      42.2   54.0     48.2     28.2    48.2    38.3
  Michigan                  29.3    44.6    37.2      23.3   35.2     29.2     69.8    83.1    77.7      45.3   55.5     50.6     30.3    44.2    37.4
  Mississippi               30.6    47.7    39.1      21.2   34.1     27.6     55.9    70.7    64.8      30.3   53.0     41.5     25.4    44.5    34.8
  Missouri                  38.6    53.6    46.2      25.9   31.4     28.7     66.5    77.5    73.0      38.3   52.1     45.3     30.2    46.3    38.2
  Montana                   50.5    56.4    53.6      31.5   33.7     32.7     77.3    78.9    78.2      51.3   56.9     54.0     34.8    50.8    42.9
  Nevada                    52.2    62.1    57.3      30.3   43.1     36.9     71.0    79.9    75.9      37.6   53.0     45.4     28.2    41.7    35.2
  New York                  91.3    92.5    91.9      19.4   20.5     20.0     62.1    70.3    66.2      42.2   53.2     47.7     29.2    47.1    38.2
  Ohio                      37.5    44.0    40.9      28.8   31.2     30.1     65.6    73.7    69.9      45.5   55.4     50.6     34.0    48.2    41.3
  Rhode Island              92.0    89.6    90.8      12.5   14.5     13.4     62.5    70.1    66.3      37.6   51.8     44.7     32.7    47.2    39.9
  South Carolina            33.7    46.7    40.3      12.5   16.1     14.3     63.1    72.3    68.4      30.7   45.2     38.0     25.2    43.0    34.2
  South Dakota              32.4    31.9    32.2      11.7   13.2     12.5     76.2    79.8    78.0      48.3   56.5     52.4     40.6    47.4    44.0
  Utah                      46.2    59.5    53.0      26.6   33.8     30.2     73.1    87.2    81.3      35.9   47.4     41.8     41.3    56.3    49.1
  Vermont                   46.4    51.0    48.8      20.7   21.8     21.3     75.7    76.4    75.9      52.0   58.6     55.4     33.0    44.9    39.1
  Virgin Islands &          56.7    60.5    58.6      50.3   50.7     50.5     63.6    77.7    70.8      21.9   33.1     27.4     18.8    41.7    30.1
  West Virginia             29.6    41.6    35.4      22.8   30.5     26.5     70.4    75.7    73.5      34.3   49.6     41.8     27.7    49.2    38.1
  Wisconsin                 63.7    68.9    66.3      48.6   45.1     46.7     74.5    75.8    75.2        NA     NA       NA       NA      NA      NA
  Wyoming                   49.1    57.5    53.3      26.5   32.0     29.2     75.5    80.6    78.1      44.8   54.7     49.9     38.4    47.2    43.0

Unweighted data
  California **             51.9    57.4    54.4      35.2   41.6     38.1     71.7    83.4    77.4      37.0   51.5     43.6     25.7    42.1    33.2
  Colorado                  34.8    46.7    40.6      24.8   34.9     29.7     85.0    86.3    85.4      49.2   54.7     51.8     37.3    46.9    42.0
  Delaware                  34.6    40.0    37.2      26.6   29.6     27.9     71.2    76.9    73.9      43.8   51.3     47.4     31.2    44.7    37.7
  Florida                   27.9    43.4    35.5      19.1   29.9     24.4     69.3    79.2    75.3      37.1   45.8     41.3     30.2    42.3    36.1
  New Hampshire             33.3    41.1    36.9      21.8   26.4     23.9     78.6    80.0    79.3      44.6   52.7     48.4     28.9    46.0    37.0
  New Jersey                87.3    86.1    86.7      63.5   60.9     62.2     58.2    67.0    62.3      51.8   56.5     54.0     28.9    44.6    36.3
  North Carolina              NA      NA      NA        NA     NA       NA     35.5    50.2    41.9        NA     NA       NA       NA      NA      NA
  North Dakota              56.1    60.2    58.1      40.8   45.2     43.0     75.0    75.2    75.1      51.3   59.5     55.4     32.5    42.6    37.5
  Tennessee                 34.0    41.6    37.5      23.9   29.1     26.2     63.0    78.7    71.2      33.5   47.6     40.0     27.6    43.1    34.8

LOCAL SURVEYS

Weighted data
  Boston                    62.4    63.0    62.8       4.8    8.3      6.6       NA      NA      NA      31.5   46.7     38.9     21.4    43.3    32.1
  Chicago                   90.9    89.6    90.2      83.4   77.5     80.7     55.6    68.4    61.2      33.2   50.7     41.0     28.0    52.1    38.7
  Dallas                    42.2    49.5    45.7      17.5   20.3     18.8     56.3    77.2    67.2      33.5   49.3     41.2     20.7    44.5    32.3
  Detroit                   30.5    46.4    37.7      23.8   34.9     28.7     54.6    66.7    61.5      29.5   43.6     36.0     25.1    44.5    34.1
  District of Columbia      67.9    65.3    66.6      29.1   26.8     27.8     54.1    63.9    58.7      27.3   45.2     36.4     21.6    49.6    35.6
  Ft. Lauderdale            25.4    43.4    34.4      17.9   29.9     23.9     65.3    78.1    73.4      33.5   45.0     39.3     25.4    47.2    36.4
  Houston                   65.8    69.6    67.6      26.1   29.2     27.5     60.0    70.5    65.2      33.9   42.6     38.0     26.4    41.4    33.5
  Jersey City               52.5    52.2    52.3      39.6   38.4     39.0     67.3    73.2    70.1      33.1   48.0     40.1     18.7    38.9    28.2
  Los Angeles               59.3    64.5    61.8      50.9   51.8     51.4     72.1    85.5    78.6      29.8   40.3     34.8     24.2    43.1    33.1
  Miami                     34.8    45.8    40.3      15.6   22.8     19.2     57.4    74.1    67.0      23.3   39.6     31.4     19.9    42.1    31.0
  New Orleans               56.3    60.0    58.1      38.8   38.0     38.4     36.0    53.8    44.6      31.5   48.1     39.2     25.4    45.6    34.8
  New York City             82.8    86.1    84.4      42.5   46.3     44.4     69.5    71.2    70.3      25.9   37.1     31.4     19.8    44.7    32.0
  Philadelphia              51.3    63.5    57.2      26.7   36.4     31.4     51.4    69.3    61.1      27.4   39.9     33.5     21.1    53.1    36.8
  San Diego                 61.2    68.3    64.8      37.7   44.1     40.8     75.2    82.7    79.0      35.4   48.9     42.2     28.2    45.1    36.8
  San Francisco             48.6    54.9    51.9      36.0   40.5     38.2     58.4    70.3    64.8      26.6   39.0     33.1     19.8    32.4    26.4

Unweighted data
  Baltimore                 20.9    35.3    26.8      17.9   26.1     21.3     64.7    71.2    68.3      27.0   43.2     34.0     15.3    47.6    29.0
  Newark                    79.2    78.0    78.7      52.8   50.1     51.7     47.2    60.8    52.7      33.7   47.3     39.4     21.0    44.9    30.9
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * Among students enrolled in PE class.
 + During the 12 months preceding the survey.
 & U.S. territories are included as states.
 @ Not available.
** Survey did not include students from the Los Angeles Unified School District.
========================================================================================================================================================

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